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Encyclopedia > Water Margin
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Water Margin or Outlaws of the Marsh (Traditional Chinese: 水滸傳; Simplified Chinese: 水浒传; pinyin: Shuǐhǔ Zhuàn) is one of the Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese literature. Attributed to Shi Naian, whom some believe to be Luo Guanzhong, the novel details the trials and tribulations of 108 outlaws during the mid Song Dynasty. Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Guo Shiguang (郭世广) is a character in the epic Chinese novel, the Water Margin. ... Image File history File links Zhongwen. ... 漢字 / 汉字 Chinese character in Hanzi, Kanji, Hanja, Hán Tá»±. Red in Simplified Chinese. ... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... The Four Great Classical Novels (四大名著) of Chinese literature, not to be confused with the Four Books of Confucianism, in order of publication, are: Romance of the Three Kingdoms (三國演義) (1330) Water Margin (水滸傳) (also known as Outlaws of the Marsh) (1573?) Journey to the West (西遊記) (1590) Dream of the Red Chamber (紅樓夢)(1792... // [edit] Classical texts Main article: Chinese classic texts China has a wealth of classical literature, both poetry and prose, dating from the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770-256 BCE) and including the Classics attributed to Confucius. ... Shī Nàiān, (施耐庵) (1296? - 1370?) was one of the most famous classical Chinese authors. ... Luo Guanzhong (Traditional Chinese: 羅貫中, Wade Giles: Lo Kuan-chung) was a 14th century Chinese author attributed with writing Romance of the Three Kingdoms and editing Outlaws of the Marsh, two of the most revered adventure epics in Chinese literature. ... 108 is the natural number following 107 and preceding 109. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1279) Language(s) Middle Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou Dynasty 960  - Battle of Yamen; the end of Song rule 1279 Population  - Peak est. ...

Contents

Historical context and development

An illustration of the novel
An illustration of the novel

Water Margin is vaguely based upon the historical bandit Song Jiang and his thirty-six companions. The group was active in the Huai River region and eventually surrendered to government troops in 1119. They are recorded in the official history of Song (宋史), the name of Song Jiang appearing in the chapter of Emperor Huizhong, the activities of the gang in the chapter for Zhang Shuye (張叔夜). Folk stories about Song Jiang circulated during the Southern Song. The first text to name Song Jiang's thirty-six companions was the 12th century Guixin Zashi. Among the thirty-six are Lu Junyi, Guan Sheng, Ruan Xiaoer, Ruan Xiaowu, Ruan Xiaoqi, Liu Tang, Hua Rong and Wu Yong. Some of the characters to later become associated with Song Jiang also appeared around this time. They include Sun Li, Yang Zhi, Lin Chong, Lu Zhishen and Wu Song. Image File history File links Shuihu. ... Image File history File links Shuihu. ... Song Jiang (宋江) was the leader of a bandit group in the 12th century, during the Song Dynasty. ... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Nicknamed the Jade Unicorn, Lu Junyi was a character in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin, and hailed from Hebei Province. ... Nicknamed the Great Sword, the Water Margins Guan Sheng bore an uncanny resemblance to Guan Yu - simply because he was a direct descendent of the famous general of the Shu Kingdom. ... A member of the famous Ruan brothers in the Water Margin, Ruan Xiaoer was also known as the Ferocious Giant. ... A member of the famous Ruan brothers in the Water Margin, Ruan Xiaowu was also known as the Impetuous One. ... Ruan Xiaoqi, also known as the Devil Incarnate, was a member of the famous Ruan brothers in the Chinese classic Water Margin. ... One of the pioneering members of the Liangshan cause in the epic Chinese tale Water Margin, Liu Tang (刘唐), otherwise known as the Red-Haired Demon (赤发鬼), was strange in appearance yet resourceful in both combat and wit. ... Nicknamed the Little Li Guang, Hua Rong was one of the most pivotal and respected characters in the Water Margin. ... Wu Yong in 1675 Japanese painting Nicknamed The Resourceful Wizard (智多星), Wu Yong (Traditional Chinese: 呉用; Simplified Chinese: 吴用; pinyin: Wú Yòng) ranked third in seniority amongst the 108 heroes of Liangshan and was one of the 36 Heavenly Spirits. ... In the classical Chinese semi-fiction novel the Water Margin, Sun Li, nicknamed the Sickly Warrior, was one of the most talented captains to join the Liangshan heroes. ... Yang Zhi(楊志), nicknamed the Blue-Faced Beast (青面兽) (on account of a birthmark covering one side of his face), had incredible ability as a warrior was given much attention in the opening chapters of the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Lin Chong (林冲), nicknamed the Panther Head, (豹子头) is a semi-fictional character in the classic Chinese novel, the Water Margin. ... A tatooed Lu Zhishen pulling out a willow tree. ... Wu Song (武松) was a hero in the Water Margin, one of the four most famous classical works of Chinese literature. ...


A direct precursor of Water Margin was the Da Song Xuanhe Yishi (大宋宣和遺事, the old incidents in Xuanhe period of the great Song Dynasty), which appeared around the mid-13th century. The text was basically a written version of storytellers' tales, based loosely on historical events. It is divided into ten chapters, roughly covering the history of the Song Dynasty from the early 11th century to the establishment of the Southern Song regime in 1127. The fourth chapter covers the adventures of Song Jiang and his thirty-six companions, and their eventual defeat by Zhang Shuye (張叔夜). Some of the more well-known stories and characters of the Water Margin are clearly visible, including "Yang Zhi selling his sword", "Stealing the birthday present", "Song Jiang kills his slave girl", "Fighting Fang La" etc. It places Song Jiang and his bandits in the Taihang Mountains, and his band ran the gamut from fishermen to ex imperial drill instructors to inn-keepers etc. (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1279) Language(s) Middle Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou Dynasty 960  - Battle of Yamen; the end of Song rule 1279 Population  - Peak est. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Conrad III establishes the Hohenstaufen dynasty when he is crowned antiking to the Holy Roman Emperor, Lothair II. First coalition of the Norman princes against Roger II of Sicily. ... Fang La was a rebel in the Song Dynasty and nemesis of the 108 heroes of Liangshan in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ...


Stories about the bandits of Mount Liang became popular as subject for Yuan Dynasty drama. During this time the material on which the Water Margin was based evolved into what it is today. Song Jiang's bandits were expanded to number one hundred and eight, and though they came from different backgrounds, all eventually come to occupy Mount Liang. There is a theory that Water Margin became popular during the Yuan Dynasty due to resentment toward the Mongol rulers. Song Jiang's rebellion was safe to promote because it criticized the Song Dynasty on the surface, but it was also a call to oppose all corrupt governments. The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Yuan Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: Yuáncháo; Mongolian: Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus), lasting officially from 1271 to 1368, followed the Song Dynasty and preceded the Ming... Mount Liang (Chinese: 梁山, pinyin: liáng shān) is a mountain in southern Shandong province, China which rises to 197. ...


Authorship and early editions

There is considerable disagreement as to the author of Water Margin. Most consider the first seventy chapters to have been written by Shi Nai'an, while the last thirty chapters were written by Luo Guanzhong, also the author of Romance of the Three Kingdoms. Luo may have been the disciple of Shi Nai'an. It has also been suggested that Shi Nai'an did not exist but was merely a pseudonym for Luo Guanzhong himself. Clues from the text itself strongly suggest that the author was a native of Zhejiang province (as both Luo and Shi were) who had little knowledge of northern China. At a 2006 conference, the leading scholars of the work agreed that Shi and Luo were probably the same person, because the name Shi Nai'an written backwards spells "an nai shi", meaning "It is I again." Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1626x2530, 3310 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Water Margin ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1626x2530, 3310 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Water Margin ... Shī Nàiān, (施耐庵) (1296? - 1370?) was one of the most famous classical Chinese authors. ... Luo Guanzhong (Traditional Chinese: 羅貫中, Wade Giles: Lo Kuan-chung) was a 14th century Chinese author attributed with writing Romance of the Three Kingdoms and editing Outlaws of the Marsh, two of the most revered adventure epics in Chinese literature. ... An illustration of the book Romance of the Three Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ), written by Luó Guànzhōng in the 14th century, is a Chinese historical novel based upon events in the turbulent years near the end of the Han Dynasty, and the Three Kingdoms period (220... Zhejiang (also spelled Chehkiang or Chekiang) is an eastern coastal province of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


It is not clear how close the Luo's edition was to those that are known today. The earliest extant edition of Water Margin is a 100-chapter printed text dating from the mid-16th century. Another edition, with 120 chapters by Yang (楊定見), has been preserved from the Wanli era (1573–1620). Yet other editions were published since this era to the early Qing Dynasty, including a 70-chapter edition by Jin Shengtan. (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Wanli Emperor (September 4, 1563 - August 18, 1620) was emperor of China (Ming dynasty) between 1572 and 1620. ... The Qing Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching chao; Manchu: daicing gurun; Mongolian: Манж Чин), occasionally known as the Manchu Dynasty, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1644 to 1912. ... Jin Shengtan (金聖歎, pinyin: Jīn Shèngtàn) (1608-1661) was a Chinese editor, writer and critic, who has been called the champion of the bai hua (vernacular) Chinese literature. ...


Outline of Chapters

The opening episode is the release of the 108 spirits. The next chapter describes the rise of Gao Qiu, the main antagonist of the 108. Then follow the stories of different outlaws. At first the story may seem like separate stories, which, in a sense, they were. The connections were very vague between characters. But the story eventually comes together by Chapter 40 or so, during the exile and rescue of Song Jiang, who becomes the head of 108 outlaws. Once the main characters gather on the Mount Liang on the marsh, the story goes on with the conflicts with the Song dynasty, while Song Jiang keeps showing his loyalty to the emperor. After winning battles against the imperial forces, the outlaws are offered amnesty and invited by the emperor to become an official army, which Song Jiang willingly accepts. Gao Qiu, not being happy with them, sends them out to fight against the enemies of the dynasty, and finally we will see the tragic ending. Gao Qiu (高毬), nicknamed the High Ball, is a character in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ...


The following outline of chapters is based on a 100-chapter edition. Yang's 120-chapter edition includes other campaigns of the outlaws on behalf of Song dynasty, while Jing's 70-chapter edition omits the chapters on the outlaws' acceptance of amnesty and following campaigns.



1 Marshal Hong Releases the 108 Spirits


2 The rise of Gao Qiu Gao Qiu (高毬), nicknamed the High Ball, is a character in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ...


2–3 The story of Shi Jin Shi Jin(史進) is a character in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ...


3–7 The story of Lu Zhishen A tatooed Lu Zhishen pulling out a willow tree. ...


7–12 The story of Lin Chong Lin Chong (林冲), nicknamed the Panther Head, (豹子头) is a semi-fictional character in the classic Chinese novel, the Water Margin. ...


12–13 The story of Yang Zhi Yang Zhi(楊志), nicknamed the Blue-Faced Beast (青面兽) (on account of a birthmark covering one side of his face), had incredible ability as a warrior was given much attention in the opening chapters of the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ...


13–20 The robbing of the birthday gifts led by Chao Gai and the "original 7" Chao Gai (晁盖) is widely considered as the founding father of the Mount Liang cause in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ...


20–22 The story of Song Jiang Song Jiang (宋江) was the leader of a bandit group in the 12th century, during the Song Dynasty. ...


23–32 The story of Wu Song Wu Song (武松) was a hero in the Water Margin, one of the four most famous classical works of Chinese literature. ...


32–35 The story of Hua Rong Nicknamed the Little Li Guang, Hua Rong was one of the most pivotal and respected characters in the Water Margin. ...


36–43 The exile and rescue of Song Jiang Song Jiang (宋江) was the leader of a bandit group in the 12th century, during the Song Dynasty. ...


44–47 The story of Shi Xiu and Yang Xiong Nicknamed the Rash One, Shi Xiu appeared burly but was pretty dexterous, and was known to prefer his own brtual style of justice. ... Nicknamed the Pale-faced Warrior, Yang Xiong was one of the 36 Heavenly Chieftains amongst the 108 Liangshan bandits in the Water Margin. ...


47–50 The three assaults on the Zhu Family Village


51–52 The story of Lei Heng and Zhu Tong In the epic tale Water Margin, Lei Heng, alias Winged Tiger, is a constable. ... Nicknamed the Beautiful Whiskers (美髯公; because of his majestic beard), Zhu Tong (朱仝) went through a tumultous time before he eventually joined the Liangshan heroes in the Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ...


53–55 The outlaws attack Gaotangzhou; the search for Gongsun Sheng Gongsun Sheng, nicknamed Dragon in the Clouds, was a Taoist priest and one of the pioneering members of the Liangshan bandits in the epic tale Water Margin. ...


55–57 The first imperial assault on Liangshan Marsh(led by Huyuan Zhuo) Huyuan Zhuo (呼延灼 or Huyan Zhuo) is a greatly respected hero and one of the 36 Heavenly Spirits of Liangshan in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ...


57–59 The outlaws attack Qingzhou Qingzhou (青州) is the ancient capital of Shandong province, China. ...


59–60 The outlaws attack Mount Mangdang


60 The first assault on the Zeng Family Village; the death of Chao Gai


60–67 The story of Lu Junyi; the outlaws attack Damingfu; the second imperial assault on Liangshan Marsh(led by Guan Sheng) Nicknamed the Jade Unicorn, Lu Junyi was a character in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin, and hailed from Hebei Province. ... Nicknamed the Great Sword, the Water Margins Guan Sheng bore an uncanny resemblance to Guan Yu - simply because he was a direct descendent of the famous general of the Shu Kingdom. ...


67 The third imperial assault on Liangshan Marsh (led by Shan Ting-gui and Wei Ding-guo) The brother of Wei Ding-guo in the Water Margin, Shan Ting-gui was known as the Water General and donned a set of black armour on the battlefield. ... In the Water Margin, Wei Ding-guo the Fire General together with Shan Ting-gui were the fearsome commanders of the Lingzhou Prefecture. ...


68 The second assault on the Zeng Family Village


69–70 The outlaws attack Dongpingfu and Dongchangfu


71–74 The 108 heroes are fully assembled; the funny and lethal antics of Li Kui Li Kui (李逵) was a character in the Chinese folklore novel Water Margin. ...


75–78 The Emperor offers amnesty the first time; the fourth imperial assault on Liangshan Marsh Look up Amnesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


78–80 The fifth imperial assault on Liangshan Marsh(led by Gao Qiu) Gao Qiu (高毬), nicknamed the High Ball, is a character in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ...


81–82 The outlaws are granted amnesty


83–89 The outlaws attack the Liao Tatars The Liao Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Liáo Cháo), 907-1125, also known as the Khitan Empire, was an empire in northern China that ruled over the regions of Manchuria, Mongolia, and parts of northern China proper. ... Kültigin Monument where first mention of Tatar people is inscribed Tatars (Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар), sometimes spelled Tartar (more about the name), is a collective name applied to the Turkic speaking people of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. ...


90–99 The outlaws attack the southern rebels (Fang La) Fang La was a rebel in the Song Dynasty and nemesis of the 108 heroes of Liangshan in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ...


100 The tragic dissolution of the outlaws of the Marsh


The extended version adds the Liangshan Marsh bandits' expeditions against other noted rebel leaders, Tian Hu in Hebei and Wang Qing in Szechuan, prior to the campaign against Fang La. Tian Hu(田虎) was one of the southern rebels in the Chinese novel The Water Margin. ... Hebei (Chinese: 河北; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hopeh) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Water Margin or Outlaws of the Marsh (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: ShuǐhÇ” Zhuàn) is one of the Four Classical Novels of Chinese literature. ... Sichuan (Chinese: 四川; pinyin: Sìchuān; Wade-Giles: Ssu-ch`uan; non-standard transliteration: Szechwan) is a province in central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ...


Plot

Spoiler warning: Plot and/or ending details follow.

78-80 Gao Qiu's imperial assault (the fifth) on Liangshan Marsh Gao Qiu (高毬), nicknamed the High Ball, is a character in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ...

Marshal Gao Qiu is the commander-in-chief of the expedition against the Liangshan bandits. He summons Commander Liu Menglong, who is adept in naval warfare, and 10 commandants from the various provinces in the empire, to aid in the expedition. The Liangshan bandits, upon knowing this, prepare for battle by readying their weapons, horses, soldiers and rations. In addition, Lin Chong, Huyan Zhuo and Hua Rong are tasked with 2000 men each to make an initial challenge at the imperial force's castle. A few of Marshal Gao's generals are killed and he quickly withdraws his forces into the castle. This provides a great morale boost to the Liangshan bandits. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1633x2530, 3472 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Water Margin ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1633x2530, 3472 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Water Margin ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... Liu Menglong is a character in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Lin Chong (林冲), nicknamed the Panther Head, (豹子头) is a semi-fictional character in the classic Chinese novel, the Water Margin. ... Huyuan Zhuo (呼延灼 or Huyan Zhuo) is a greatly respected hero and one of the 36 Heavenly Spirits of Liangshan in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Nicknamed the Little Li Guang, Hua Rong was one of the most pivotal and respected characters in the Water Margin. ...


In order to conquer Liangshan, the imperial forces have to traverse the 800 li marsh. Commander Liu is in charge of the naval forces during this battle. However, the Ruan brothers of Liangshan manage to rout Commander Liu's forces when he is forced to split his boats in order to pass narrow creeks. Commander Liu is captured but released. Marshal Gao executes Commander Liu for the failure, and also due to him being redundant as all his men are killed or captured in the marsh. The three brothers of Water Margin fame: Ruan Xiaoer, Ruan Xiaowu and Ruan Xiaoqi. ...


The 10 commandants suggest that 100 paddleboats be built for another assault. This time, Gao Qiu leads the assault force by himself. However, the Liangshan bandits again win the battle by having their men diving under Marshal Gao's boats and making holes in them. Gao Qiu is captured and brought to the Liangshan stronghold.


81-82 The Outlaws are granted amnesty Look up Amnesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Lin Chong, upon hearing of Gao Qiu's capture, grabs his weapon and is ready to execute him. However, Song Jiang prevents him from doing so, saying Gao Qiu would make it easier for the Liangshan heroes to be granted amnesty. Marshal Gao Qiu and his assistant, Captain Li are kept at the Liangshan stronghold for several days, with good food and lodging. Finally Song Jiang meets with Gao Qiu and proposes to release him together with Captain Li, on the condition that he help with persuading the Song emperor (Huizhong) in granting the Liangshan bandits amnesty. Gao Qiu readily agrees to the condition to save his own life. Lin Chong (林冲), nicknamed the Panther Head, (豹子头) is a semi-fictional character in the classic Chinese novel, the Water Margin. ... Gao Qiu (高毬), nicknamed the High Ball, is a character in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Song Jiang (宋江) was the leader of a bandit group in the 12th century, during the Song Dynasty. ... Liangshan is a county-level city in Shandong province, China. ...


When Gao Qiu is about to leave Liangshan, Lin Chong gets wind of his impending departure from Yan Qing and rushes to the shore with Lu Zhishen, only to see Gao Qiu's boat rowing away in the distance. Lin Chong vomits blood and faints, and becomes bedridden. Nicknamed the Prodigal Son, Yan Qing epitomised elegance in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... A tatooed Lu Zhishen pulling out a willow tree. ...


Gao Qiu, upon returning, feigns illness to avoid punishment by the emperor for his failure in the expedition. The Imperial Tutor, Cai Jing, comes to visit him for a discussion. He suggests that Gao Qiu recommend the emperor to grant amnesty to the Liangshan bandits, so that they can order the bandits to go after Fang La in the south, who has declared himself an emperor. This would greatly weaken the forces of Song's men so that the treacherous officials can more easily deal with them. Cai Jing (蔡京, 1047-1126) was the Imperial Tutor during the reign of Emperor Huizong of the Song Dynasty. ... Fang La was a rebel in the Song Dynasty and nemesis of the 108 heroes of Liangshan in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ...


Song Jiang's men are finally granted amnesty, but some of the brothers decide to reject the offer of officialship and leave the Liangshan brotherhood. Lin Chong finally dies after his prolonged period in bed, regretting his failure to kill Gao Qiu.

Spoilers end here.

Translations

Water Margin has been translated into many languages. One of the first English translations was made by Pearl Buck. Titled All Men are Brothers and published in 1933, the book was well-received by the American public. However, it was also heavily criticized for its many errors and inaccuracies, including many mispronunciations. An often cited example in this edition was her mistranslation of Lu Zhishen's nickname "Flowery Monk" into "Priest Hwa". Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1630x2521, 3385 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Water Margin ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1630x2521, 3385 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Water Margin ... Pearl S. Buck (birth name Pearl Comfort Sydenstricker, Chinese name 賽珍珠) (June 26, 1892 - March 6, 1973) was a novelist. ... A tatooed Lu Zhishen pulling out a willow tree. ...


Of the later editions, Chinese-naturalized Jewish-American scholar Sydney Shapiro's Outlaws of the Marsh (1980) is considered one of the best. However, due to its being published during the Cultural Revolution, this edition received little attention at the time. Shapiro's translation is currently published by the Beijing Foreign Language Press, as a four-volume set. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Modern transformations

The Water Margin was a successful Japanese television adaptation of the story, which was sold to many other countries. Japanese television programs are mostly broadcast in Japan, although satellite and cable services outside Japan offer TV shows selected to fit local tastes. ...


The novel inspired the Japanese computer role-playing game series Gensou Suikoden, as well as an earlier military strategy game by Koei, called Bandit Kings of Ancient China. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Suikoden ) is a Japanese console role-playing game series created by Konami. ... Koeis Current Company Logo Koei Co. ... Bandit Kings of Ancient China is a turn-based strategy video game published by KOEI in the 1980s for the Nintendo Entertainment System, MS-DOS and the Macintosh. ...


Frank Chin's novel, Donald Duk, contains many references to the Water Margin. Song Jiang and Li Kui make several appearances in the protagonist's dreams. Frank Chin (趙健秀; pinyin: Zhào Jiànxiù) (born February 25, 1940) is a Chinese-American author and playwright. ... Song Jiang (宋江) was the leader of a bandit group in the 12th century, during the Song Dynasty. ... Li Kui (李逵) was a character in the Chinese folklore novel Water Margin. ...


A character named "The Black Whirlwhind" in the RPG Jade Empire is also obviously inspired by Li Kui. Jade Empire is an action RPG developed by Canadian developer BioWare. ... Li Kui (李逵) was a character in the Chinese folklore novel Water Margin. ...


Two characters in the popular Japanese novel series Saiunkoku Monogatari, Shi Seiran and Rou Ensei, have histories vaguely resembling those of Chai Jin and Yan Qing, and are nicknamed "Small Whirlwind" and "King of the Staff". Saiunkoku Monogatari (彩雲国物語; lit. ... Nicknamed the Small Whirlwind, Chai Jin was both a man of nobility and somewhat of an enigma in the Water Margin. ... Nicknamed the Prodigal Son, Yan Qing epitomised elegance in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ...


A Hong Kong comic series was also drawn by the popular Hong Kong comic artist, Li Zhiqing. Chinese name: 李志清 Alternate romanizations / spellings: Li Zhi Qing, Zhi Qing Li, Lee Chi Ching Pen Name: 清兒 Born in 1963 in Hong Kong. ...


A 1972 movie of the same name was produced by the Shaw Brothers (Singapore). Reviews: Kung Fu Cinema | Dragon's Den UK


A 1980s TV serial was also produced in Hong Kong by the studio TVB.


A 40 episode TV serial (水滸全傳) produced in Mainland China was released in 2004.


A Hong Kong movie starring Tony Leung was made in the mid-90's and it centred around Lin Chong, Lu Zhishen and Gao Qiu. Not to be confused with actor Tony Leung Ka-Fai Tony Leung Chiu Wai (梁朝偉; born June 27, 1962) is a Hong Kong movie and ex-television actor. ...


A co-op at Cornell University is named Watermargin. Its motto, All Men Are Brothers, is taken from the title of Pearl S. Buck's translation of the Chinese classic.


Index of the 108 heroes

Water Margin characters
Founding Father
Chao Gai
36 Heavenly Spirits
Song Jiang | Lu Junyi | Wu Yong | Gongsun Sheng | Guan Sheng | Lin Chong | Qin Ming | Huyuan Zhuo | Hua Rong | Chai Jin | Li Ying | Zhu Tong | Lu Zhishen | Wu Song | Dong Ping | Zhang Qing | Yang Zhi | Xu Ning | Suo Chao | Dai Zhong | Liu Tang | Li Kui | Shi Jin | Mu Hong | Lei Heng | Li Jun | Ruan Xiaoer | Zhang Heng | Ruan Xiaowu | Zhang Shun | Ruan Xiaoqi | Yang Xiong | Shi Xiu | Xie Zhen | Xie Bao | Yan Qing
72 Earthly Fiends

Zhu Wu | Huang Xin | Sun Li | Xuan Zan | Hao Si-wen | Han Tao | Peng Qi | Shan Ting-gui | Wei Ding-guo | Xiao Rang | Pei Xuan | Ou Peng | Deng Fei | Yan Shun | Yang Lin | Ling Zhen | Jiang Jing | Lu Fang | Guo Sheng | An Dao-quan | Huangfu Duan | Wang Ying | Hu San Niang | Bao Xu | Pan Rui | Kong Ming | Kong Liang | Xiang Chong | Li Gun | Jin Da-jian | Ma Lin | Tong Wei | Tong Meng | Meng Kang | Hou Jian | Chen Da | Yang Chun | Zheng Tian-shou | Tao Zong-wang | Song Qing | Yue He | Gong Wang | Ding De-sun | Mu Chun | Cao Zheng | Song Wan | Du Qian | Xue Yong | Shi En | Li Zhong | Zhou Tong | Tang Long | Du Xing | Zou Yuan | Zou Run | Zhu Gui | Zhu Fu | Cai Fu | Cai Qing | Li Li | Li Yun | Jiao Ting | Shi Yong | Sun Xin | Gu Dasao | Zhang Qing | Sun Er Niang | Wang Ding-liu | Yu Bao-si | Bai Sheng | Shi Qian | Duan Jing-zhu Chao Gai (晁盖) is widely considered as the founding father of the Mount Liang cause in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... The 36 Heavenly Spirits or 36 Heavenly Chieftains (天罡星三十六星) refer to the two divisions amongst the 108 Liangshan bandits in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin; the other division being the 72 Earthly Fiends or 72 Earthly Warriors. ... Song Jiang (宋江) was the leader of a bandit group in the 12th century, during the Song Dynasty. ... Nicknamed the Jade Unicorn, Lu Junyi was a character in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin, and hailed from Hebei Province. ... Wu Yong in 1675 Japanese painting Nicknamed The Resourceful Wizard (智多星), Wu Yong (Traditional Chinese: 呉用; Simplified Chinese: 吴用; pinyin: Wú Yòng) ranked third in seniority amongst the 108 heroes of Liangshan and was one of the 36 Heavenly Spirits. ... Gongsun Sheng, nicknamed Dragon in the Clouds, was a Taoist priest and one of the pioneering members of the Liangshan bandits in the epic tale Water Margin. ... Nicknamed the Great Sword, the Water Margins Guan Sheng bore an uncanny resemblance to Guan Yu - simply because he was a direct descendent of the famous general of the Shu Kingdom. ... Lin Chong (林冲), nicknamed the Panther Head, (豹子头) is a semi-fictional character in the classic Chinese novel, the Water Margin. ... Introduction Qin Ming (秦明) is a character in the Chinese literary classic Water Margin. ... Huyuan Zhuo (呼延灼 or Huyan Zhuo) is a greatly respected hero and one of the 36 Heavenly Spirits of Liangshan in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Nicknamed the Little Li Guang, Hua Rong was one of the most pivotal and respected characters in the Water Margin. ... Nicknamed the Small Whirlwind, Chai Jin was both a man of nobility and somewhat of an enigma in the Water Margin. ... Li Ying was one of the few rich squires who joined the Liangshan cause in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Nicknamed the Beautiful Whiskers (美髯公; because of his majestic beard), Zhu Tong (朱仝) went through a tumultous time before he eventually joined the Liangshan heroes in the Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... A tatooed Lu Zhishen pulling out a willow tree. ... Wu Song (武松) was a hero in the Water Margin, one of the four most famous classical works of Chinese literature. ... Nicknamed the General of Double Spears (双枪将), Dong Ping (董平) was one of the most feared and highly ranked warriors in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Nicknamed the Featherless Arrow (没羽箭), Zhang Qing (张清) was one of the last heroes to join the Liangshan bandits in the epic Chinese tale the Water Margin, and it was probably more than a co-incidence that he was probably the hardest to capture. ... Yang Zhi(楊志), nicknamed the Blue-Faced Beast (青面兽) (on account of a birthmark covering one side of his face), had incredible ability as a warrior was given much attention in the opening chapters of the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Xu Ning, nicknamed the Golden Lancer, was yet another former imperial military drill instructor who joined the Liangshan heroes in the Water Margin. ... Nicknamed the Thunderous Vanguard, Suo Chao epitomised the Liangshan cause perfectly: righteous, courageous and loyal. ... Nicknamed the Magic Messanger, Dai Zhong of the Water Margin was purportedly able to clear hundreds - once even one thousand - li in a day. ... One of the pioneering members of the Liangshan cause in the epic Chinese tale Water Margin, Liu Tang (刘唐), otherwise known as the Red-Haired Demon (赤发鬼), was strange in appearance yet resourceful in both combat and wit. ... Li Kui (李逵) was a character in the Chinese folklore novel Water Margin. ... Shi Jin(史進) is a character in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... In Chinese classic epic tale Water Margin, Mu Hong, nicknamed the Unrestrained, and Mu Chun, nicknamed the Slightly Restrained, are brothers. ... In the epic tale Water Margin, Lei Heng, alias Winged Tiger, is a constable. ... Nicknamed the Wild River Dragon, Li Jun in the Water Margin was a leader of another band of fishermen (the other being the Ruan brothers) living the ordinary life by the river until he responded to the Liangshan cause. ... A member of the famous Ruan brothers in the Water Margin, Ruan Xiaoer was also known as the Ferocious Giant. ... Zhang Heng is a character in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... A member of the famous Ruan brothers in the Water Margin, Ruan Xiaowu was also known as the Impetuous One. ... Nicknamed the White Streak in the waves(浪里白条), Zhang Shun(张顺), brother of Zhang Heng, was one of the 108 heroes of Liangshan in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Ruan Xiaoqi, also known as the Devil Incarnate, was a member of the famous Ruan brothers in the Chinese classic Water Margin. ... Nicknamed the Pale-faced Warrior, Yang Xiong was one of the 36 Heavenly Chieftains amongst the 108 Liangshan bandits in the Water Margin. ... Nicknamed the Rash One, Shi Xiu appeared burly but was pretty dexterous, and was known to prefer his own brtual style of justice. ... In the epic Chinese tale the Water Margin, Xie Zhen, together with his brother Xie Bao, were famous hunters before they joined Chao Gai and his Liangshan brothers. ... In the epic Chinese tale the Water Margin, Xie Bao, together with his brother Xie Zhen, were famous hunters before they joined Chao Gai and his Liangshan brothers. ... Nicknamed the Prodigal Son, Yan Qing epitomised elegance in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... The 72 Earthly Fiends or 72 Earthly Warriors (地煞星七十二星) refer to the two divisions amongst the 108 Liangshan bandits in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin; the other division being the 36 Heavenly Spirits or 36 Heavenly Chieftains. ... Nicknamed the Miraculous Strategist, Zhu Wu of the Water Margin was once a chieftan of Mount Shaohua together with the more militarily-inclined Chen Da and Yang Chun. ... Huang Xin, nicknamed the Tormentor of the Three Mountains, was one of the earliest imperial commanders to join the Liangshan bandits in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin; that he stood at the door of the elite 36 Heavenly Chieftains was testament to his status. ... In the classical Chinese semi-fiction novel the Water Margin, Sun Li, nicknamed the Sickly Warrior, was one of the most talented captains to join the Liangshan heroes. ... Xuan Zan is a character in the Water Margin. ... Hao Si-wen and Xuan Zan were Guan Shengs military aides in the epic Chinese tale, The Water Margin. ... Han Tao, nicknamed at times The Invincible General, at times The Ever Victorious General, was of the many vanguards of the Imperial Army eventually recruited by Song Jiang to join the latters Liangshan cause, in the epic Chinese story the Water Margin. ... Nicknamed The Eyes of Heaven, Peng Qi symbolised, in a way, the sort of thematic unity ever present in The Water Margin (see for example, Guan Sheng, Zhang Qing and their military aides]]. An able assistant to Huyuan Zhuo on the battlefield together with Han Tao, Peng brandished a unique... The brother of Wei Ding-guo in the Water Margin, Shan Ting-gui was known as the Water General and donned a set of black armour on the battlefield. ... In the Water Margin, Wei Ding-guo the Fire General together with Shan Ting-gui were the fearsome commanders of the Lingzhou Prefecture. ... Xiao Rang is best known as the scholarly expert calligrapher amongst the 108 Liangshan heroes in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Pei Xuan, nicknamed the Iron-faced Clerk, was yet another outlaw chieftain who joined Chao Gai and the Liangshan heroes in the Water Margin. ... Nicknamed the Golden Wings brushing the Clouds, Ou Peng was formerly an imperial soldier found in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin Having offended a superior officer, Ou was forced to flee and become a bandit. ... Nicknamed the Fiery-eyed Lion, Deng Fei was one of the 108 Liangshan heroes in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Yan Shun was one of the 72 Earthly Warriors amongst the 108 Liangshan heroes in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Nicknamed the Fiery Leopard, Yang Lin was one of the 108 Liangshan heroes in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Nicknamed the Heaven-shaking Thunder, Ling Zhen was one of the 108 heroes found in the Water Margin. ... Jiang Jing, nicknamed the Magic Mathematician, was a figure in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Nicknamed the Little Squire of Wen, Lu Fang fought using a halberd in the Water Margin. ... Nicknamed the Second Ren Gui in the Water Margin, Guo Sheng, like his friend Lu Fang, dressed like a squire and fought with a halberd. ... An Dao-quan was one of the two physicians amongst the 108 Liangshan heroes in the classic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Out of the 108 Liangshan heroes found in the Chinese tale the Water Margin, if An Dao-quan was the physician the bandits looked to in times of human diseases, Huangfu Duan was the physician they turned to when their steeds took ill! Not only that, Huangfus blue eyes... Wang Ying is a character in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Hu San Niang (扈三娘), nicknamed 10 Feet of Steel was one of the few female warriors amongst the 108 Liangshan bandits in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Nicknamed the God of Thunderous Death Bao Xu was probably one of the more violent heroes amongst the 108 Liangshan bandits found in the Water Margin. ... Nicknamed the Demon King who Roils the World, Pan Rui was the leader of the Mount Mangdang band of robbers found in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Nicknamed the Comet, Kong Ming was one of the 108 Liangshan heroes in the Water Margin. ... Nicknamed the Flaming Star, Kong Liang was one of the 108 Liangshan heroes in the Water Margin. ... Xiang Chong was one of the 108 Liangshan heroes in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Li Gun was one of the 108 Liangshan heroes in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Jin Da-jian is best known as the expert stone sculptor amongst the 108 Liangshan heroes in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Nicknamed the Flutist, Ma Lin was one of the 108 Liangshan bandits in the epic Chinese tale the Water Margin. ... Tong Wei, nicknamed the Cave Dragon, was one of the 108 Liangshan heroes in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Tong Meng, nicknamed the River-churning Clam, was one of the 108 Liangshan heroes in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Meng Kang was one of the 108 Liangshan bandits in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Hou Jian, nicknamed the Long-armed Ape, was one of the 108 Liangshan heroes in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Nicknamed the Cloud-leaping Tiger, Chen Da was one of the three bandit leaders of Mount Shaohua (together with Zhu Wu and Yang Chun) in the early chapters of the Water Margin. ... Nicknamed the White-spotted Snake, Yang Chun was one of the three bandit leaders of Mount Shaohua (together with Zhu Wu and Chen Da) in the early chapters of the Water Margin. ... Zheng Tian-shou was one of the 72 Earthly Warriors amongst the 108 Liangshan heroes in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Nicknamed the Nine-tailed Tortoise, Tao Zong-wang was one of the 108 Liangshan bandits in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Song Qing was the brother of Song Jiang in the Water Margin. ... Yue He is a character in the epic Chinese tale The Water Margin. ... Nicknamed the Flowery-necked Tiger, Gong Wang was a loyal servant to Zhang Qing in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Nicknamed the Red-spotted Tiger, Ding De-sun was a loyal servant to Zhang Qing in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Mu Chun is a character in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Cao Zheng was one of the 72 Earthly Warriors amongst the 108 Liangshan heroes in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Nicknamed the Guardian of the Clouds, Song Wan was one of the 108 Liangshan heroes in the epic Chinese tale the Water Margin. ... Nicknamed the One Who Scales the Heavens, Du Qian was one of the 108 Liangshan heroes in the epic Chinese tale the Water Margin. ... Xue Yong, nicknamed the Sick Tiger, is a character in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Shi En, nicknamed the Golden-eyed Tiger Cub, is a character in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Li Zhong was one of the 108 Liangshan heroes in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Zhou Tong, nicknamed the Little King, was one of the 108 Liangshan heroes in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Nicknamed the Spotted Neck, Tang Long was one of the 108 Liangshan heroes in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Du Xing, nicknamed the Demon Face, was one of the 108 Liangshan heroes in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Zou Yuan, nicknamed the Forest Dragon, was one of the 108 Liangshan heroes in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Zou Run, nicknamed the One-horned Dragon, was one of the 108 Liangshan heroes in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Zhu Gui was one of the 72 Earthly Warriors amongst the 108 Liangshan bandits in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Zhu Fu was one of the 72 Earthly Warriors amongst the 108 Liangshan bandits in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Cai Fu, nicknamed the Iron Arm, was one of the 108 Liangshan heroes in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Cai Qing, nicknamed the Single Blossom, is a character in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Li Li is a character in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Li Yun was one of the 108 Liangshan heroes in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Jiao Ting was one of the 108 Liangshan heroes found in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Nicknamed the Ugly Stone Warrior, Shi Yong was one of the 108 Liangshan bandits found in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Sun Xin, nicknamed the Junior General, was one of the 108 Liangshan heroes in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Gu Dasao was one of the rare female characters amongst the 108 Liangshan heroes in the Water Margin. ... Zhang Qing (张清)is a character in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Sun Er Niang was one of the rare female bandits amongst the 108 Liangshan heroes in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Wang Ding-liu, nicknamed The Lightning, is a character in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Yu Bao-si was one of the 108 Liangshan heroes in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Nicknamed the Daylight Rat, Bai Sheng was one of the 72 Earthly Warriors out of the 108 Liangshan bandits in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Shi Qian (时迁) is a character in the epic Chinese tale the Water Margin. ... Nicknamed the Golden-haired Dog, Duan Jingzhu of Zhuozhou prefecture was one of the 108 Liangshan bandits found in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ...

References

  • http://gb2.chinabroadcast.cn/1015/2002-9-24/[email protected] about three major editions (Chinese)
  • Yoshikawa Kojiro and Shimizu Shigeru (translators), 水滸伝 (Water Margin), Iwanami Shoten, 1998-10-16.

Iwanami Shoten Publishing Ltd (岩波書店) is a Japanese publishing company inTokyo. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ... October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years). ...

External links

  • http://www.china-on-site.com/pages/comic/comiccatalog3.php Water Margin English translation with manhua
  • Nicknames of the 108 heroes
  • Outlaws of the Marsh: A Somewhat Less Than Critical Commentary
  • A full text archive (Chinese)
  • A full text archive (Chinese)
  • Illustration artwork
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