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Encyclopedia > Water Buffalo
Wikipedia:How to read a taxobox
How to read a taxobox
Water Buffalo
A family of Water Buffalo bathing in a sinkhole, Taiwan
A family of Water Buffalo bathing
in a sinkhole, Taiwan
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Bovidae
Subfamily: Bovinae
Tribe: Bovini
Genus: Bubalus
Species: B. bubalis
Binomial name
Bubalus bubalis
(Linnaeus, 1758)

The Water Buffalo is a very large ungulate and a member of the bovine subfamily. The wild Arni still survives in the wild in India,Bhutan, Vietnam and Thailand. The domestication of the water buffalo is prominent in Asia, South America. They are feral in northern Australia. Wild-living populations also exist in much of South-east Asia. They may be descendants of wild Water Buffalo, formerly domesticated ferals or a mixture. In Asia, the population of wild water buffalo has become sparse, and it is feared that no pure-bred wild water buffalo exists. An infamous event at the University of Pennsylvania was the racially charged Water Buffalo Incident. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Water_buffalo_bathing. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Animalia redirects here. ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses Subclass Allotheria* Order Docodonta (extinct) Order Multituberculata (extinct) Order Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Order Triconodonta (extinct) Order Volaticotheria (extinct) Subclass Prototheria Order Monotremata Subclass Theria Infraclass Trituberculata (extinct) Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals are a class of vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in females for the nourishment of... Families Antilocapridae Bovidae Camelidae Cervidae Giraffidae Hippopotamidae Moschidae Suidae Tayassuidae Tragulidae Leptochoeridae † Chaeropotamidae † Dichobunidae † Cebochoeridae † Entelodontidae † Anoplotheriidae † Anthracotheriidae † Cainotheriidae † Agriochoeridae † Merycoidodontidae † Leptomerycidae † Protoceratidae † Xiphodontidae † Amphimerycidae † Helohyidae † Gelocidae † Merycodontidae † Dromomerycidae † Raoellidae † Choeropotamidae † Sanitheriidae † The even-toed ungulates form the mammal order Artiodactyla. ... Subfamilies Bovinae Cephalophinae Hippotraginae Antilopinae Caprinae A bovid is any of almost 140 species of cloven-hoofed mammals belonging to the family Bovidae. ... Tribes Bovini Boselaphini Strepsicerotini The biological subfamily Bovinae (or bovines) includes a diverse group of about 24 species of medium-sized to large ungulates, including domestic cattle, Bison, the Water Buffalo, the Yak, and the four-horned and spiral-horned antelopes. ... Species Bubalus arnee Bubalus depressicornis Bubalus quarlesi Bubalus mindorensis Bubalus is a genus of bovines, the English name of which is buffalo. ... In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal method of naming species. ... A painting of Carolus Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, and who wrote under the Latinized name Carolus Linnaeus (May 23, 1707 – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish scientist who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of taxonomy. ... 1758 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Llamas such as this, which have two toes, are artiodactylas -- even toed ungulates Ungulates (meaning roughly hoofed or hoofed animal) make up several orders of mammals, of which six to eight survive. ... Tribes Bovini Boselaphini Strepsicerotini The biological subfamily Bovinae (or bovines) includes a diverse group of about 24 species of medium-sized to large ungulates, including domestic cattle, Bison, the Water Buffalo, the Yak, and the four-horned and spiral-horned antelopes. ... Look up buffalo, Buffalo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... A feral horse (an American mustang) in Wyoming A feral animal or plant is one that has escaped from domestication and returned, partly or wholly, to its wild state. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


Buffaloes, apart from their use as draught (see also draught horse) and milch animals, are also used to pull bullock carts in developing world. Their dung is used as a fertilizer and as a fuel when dried. In Chonburi, Thailand, there are annual water buffalo races. A few have also found use as pack animals carrying loads even for special forces. A buffalo is one of several species of bovine. ... A draft horse or draught horse is a large, strong horse breed for heavy work rather than speed. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (British English fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... Fuel is any material that is capable of releasing energy when its chemical or physical structure is changed or converted. ... A pack animal is a beast of burden used by humans as means of transporting materials by attaching them so their weigh bears on the animals back; the term may be applied to either an individual animal or a species so employed. ...

Contents

Anatomy and morphology

Water buffalo bull
Water buffalo bull

Adult water buffalo range in size from 300 kg to 600 kg for the domestic bred. In the wild, water buffaloes can weigh up to 800 kg for females, and males, 1200 kg. They can stand as tall as 1.8m at the shoulder, and stretch up to 2.9m in body length. However, the wild buffalo subpspecies found in the Assam state of Northern india, where they inhabit monsoon forests along the foothills of the Himalaya, are notably larger. Here, the average weight of an adult buffalo is 900 kg, with the male considerably larger than the female. The average height at the shoulder for a male is about 1.7m, and may reach even 2 metres. These buffaloes, which are of the purest breed in India, are now confined to the forests of Kaziranga and Manas national parks, both of which are Unesco world heritage sites. They are classified as critically endangered, suffering mainly from genetic pollution caused by interbreeding with the domestic buffaloes. Interbreeding with domesticated buffaloes is the major cause of extinction of wild buffaloes. Buffaloes are believed to have originated in South Asia. Today, outside India, the true wild water buffaloes can only be found in Thailand in extremely low number of about 50 individuals, and in the Annamites range (also called Truong Son range) forests running along the border of VietNam - Laos -Cambodia. Populations found elsewhere in Asia are feral breeds, not true wild water buffalo. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 416 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (719 × 1036 pixel, file size: 102 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This picture was taken by Tom Olson of Turkey Creek Buffalo Ranch and is used with his permission. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 416 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (719 × 1036 pixel, file size: 102 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This picture was taken by Tom Olson of Turkey Creek Buffalo Ranch and is used with his permission. ... Assam   (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a part of Guwahati. ... Kaziranga National Park is situated on the south bank of the Brahmaputra river in Assam. ... Manas is the name of: A Kyrgyz epic poem (see Manas (epic); A commune in Drôme département, in France (see Manas, Drôme) Level of consciousness in Yogacara Buddhism, the manas-vijnana A river in the state of Assam in India. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ...


Taxonomic history

The classification of the water buffalo is uncertain. Some authorities list a single species, Bubalus bubalis with three subspecies, the river buffalo (B. bubalis bubalis) of South Asia, the Carabao or Swamp Buffalo (B. bubalis carabanesis) of the Philippines and Southeast Asia, and the Arni, or wild buffalo, (B. bubalis arnee). Others regard these as closely-related, but separate, species. The swamp buffalo is primarily found in the eastern half of Asia and has 48 chromosomes. The river buffalo is mostly found in western half of Asia, and has 50 chromosomes. Fertile offspring occur between the two. It does not readily hybridise with cattle which have 60 chromosomes. In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... In zoology, as in other branches of biology, subspecies is the rank immediately subordinate to a species. ... Binomial name Bubalus bubalis (Linnaeus, 1758) Trinomial name Bubalus bubalis carabanesis The carabao (Filipino: kalabaw; Malay: kerbau) or is a domesticated subspecies of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) found in the Philippines, Guam, and various parts of Southeast Asia. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle (often called cows in vernacular and contemporary usage, or kye as the Scots plural of cou) are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ...


Distribution

Asia

Water Buffalo ploughing rice fields in Java, Indonesia
Water Buffalo ploughing rice fields in Java, Indonesia

Asia is the native home of the water buffalo, with 95% of the world population of water buffalo, with about half of the total in India. Many Asian countries depend on the water buffalo as its primary bovine species. It is valuable for its meat and milk as well as the labour it performs. As of 1992 the Asian population was estimated at 141 million. The fat content of buffalo milk is the highest amongst farm animals and the butterfat is a major source of ghee in some Asian countries. Its success in Asia is evident by its extensive range. Both variants occur in Asia. River Buffalo are found in elevations of 2,800 m in Nepal, and Swamp Buffalo are found throughout the lowland tropics. Part of their success is due to their ability to thrive on poor foodstuffs and yet be valuable economically. Moreover they are much better suited to plough the muddy paddy fields as they are better adapted than common cattle (Bos taurus) to move in swamps. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 529 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 991 pixel, file size: 720 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Indonesia Water buffalo ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 529 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 991 pixel, file size: 720 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Indonesia Water buffalo ... Terrace of rice paddies in Yunnan Province, southern China. ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... Ghee in a jar Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on Ghee Ghee (Hindi घी from Sanskrit ghṛta घृत sprinkled ) is a type of clarified butter important in Indian cuisine. ... Paddy has these meanings:- A paddy field, a field for cultivating rice or other semi-aquatic crops. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ...

Water Buffalo in Thailand
Water Buffalo in Thailand

In the wild, very few pockets of buffalo exist. The Indian wild buffalo is found in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan and Thailand. This buffalo has the largest horns of any living animal. The average spread is about 1 m (3 ft 3 in), but one bull shot in 1955 had horns measuring 4.24 m (13 ft 11 in) from tip to tip along the outside curve across the forehead. Buffalo use their horns effectively to defend themselves against predators. Tigers are their only predators, which can kill a full-grown male weighing 1000-1200kg, but only an experienced tiger will take them on. When faced by a tiger, they form a line facing the predator and charge with noses out and horns laid back. Like its other family members, the tamaraw and the anoa, . It is generally found in swamplands and grass jungles and moves in herds. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3264x2176, 3572 KB) en: Bos bubalus, commonly known as water buffalo. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3264x2176, 3572 KB) en: Bos bubalus, commonly known as water buffalo. ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Binomial name Panthera tigris (Linnaeus, 1758) Tigers (Panthera tigris) are mammals of the Felidae family, one of four big cats that belong to the Panthera genus. ... Binomial name Bubalus mindorensis (Heude, 1888) The Tamaraw (Bubalus mindorensis; previously Anoa mindorensis), Tamarao or Mindoro Dwarf Buffalo is a bovine endemic to the island of Mindoro in the Philippines. ... Binomial name Bubalus quarlesi (Ouwens, 1910) Bubalus depressicornis (H. Smith, 1827) There are two species of anoa: the Mountain Anoa (Bubalus quarlesi) and the Lowland Anoa (Bubalus depressicornis). ...


Today, the estimated population of wild water buffaloes are about 4000, but, this number takes into account all wild population, including feral herds and hybrid buffaloes. In fact, it is possible that no true wild specimens exist anymore.


A smaller breed of Water buffalo, the Carabao, is the national animal of the Philippines. Binomial name Bubalus bubalis (Linnaeus, 1758) Trinomial name Bubalus bubalis carabanesis The carabao (Filipino: kalabaw; Malay: kerbau) or is a domesticated subspecies of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) found in the Philippines, Guam, and various parts of Southeast Asia. ...


Australia

Water buffalo bull

Introduced into the Northern Territory early in the 19th century as a beast of burden, it quickly escaped and is now feral. As a result of its feral status it may be hunted. Melville Island is a popular hunting location, where a steady population of up to 4,000 individuals exist. Buffaloes are also found in Arnhem Land and the Top End. Safari outfits run out of Darwin to Melville Island and other locations in the Top End often with the use of bush pilots. The government has unsuccessfully attempted several eradication programs. Their only natural predator in Australia is the Estuarine Crocodile - however the very largest specimens are probably too large to be taken. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Capital Darwin Government Const. ... A feral horse (an American mustang) in Wyoming A feral animal or plant is one that has escaped from domestication and returned, partly or wholly, to its wild state. ... Arnhem Land is an area of 97,000 km² in the north-eastern corner of the Northern Territory, Australia. ... Darwin is the capital city of the Australian Territory of the Northern Territory. ... The Top End is, Cape York Peninsula aside, the northernmost part of Australia. ... Bush flying is a term for air operations which are carried out in remote, inhospitable regions of the world. ...


The buffaloes live mainly in freshwater marshes and billabongs, and their range can be quite expansive during the Wet season. They have developed a different appearance from the Indonesian buffaloes from which they descend. Yellow Water Billabong, Kakadu National Park For other meanings, see Billabong (disambiguation) Billabong is an Australian English word used to refer to an oxbow lake, a still pool of water cut off from a waterway. ... A wet season or rainy season is a season in which the average rainfall in a region is significantly increased. ...


Europe and Middle East

Introduced into North Africa and the Near East by 600 AD, the water buffalo was brought to Europe with returning Crusaders in the Middle Ages, and herds can be found in Bulgaria, Romania and Italy. As in Asia, buffaloes of the Middle East and Europe live on coarse vegetation on the marginal land traditionally available to peasants. They are an economic asset by serving as a protein source, draft animal, and storage of family or household wealth. In some areas, they also provide occasional recreation at annual racing festivals. These buffalo are mostly River Buffaloes; due to genetic isolation have adopted a distinct appearance. Buffalo milk is used for the production of cheese: in Campania (Italy) it is used for the production of mozzarella. The population of the Earth rises to about 208 million people. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Categories: 1911 Britannica | Historical stubs | Feudalism ... Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... For other uses, see Campania (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


North America

There are very limited commercial herds in North America , for yogurt and cheese products.[1]

Water buffalo heifers in Arkansas, USA
Water buffalo heifers in Arkansas, USA

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 530 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This picture was taken by Tom Olson of Turkey Creek Buffalo Ranch and is used with his permission. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 530 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This picture was taken by Tom Olson of Turkey Creek Buffalo Ranch and is used with his permission. ... Official language(s) English Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Area  Ranked 29th  - Total 53,179 sq mi (137,002 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 261 miles (420 km)  - % water 2. ...

Importance to humans

Milk from both of these animals is used by many human populations, and is the traditional raw material for mozzarella cheese and curd due to its higher fat content. In Africa and other locations, water buffalo milk is used for yogurt, as in Vermont, USA. The chief dairy breed of Buffalo is the Murrah breed. Buffalo meat, sometimes called "Carabeef", is often passed off as beef in certain regions and is also a major source of export revenue for India which has the largest population of buffaloes in the world. However, in many Asian regions, buffalo meat is less preferred due to its toughness, however, recipes have evolved (Rendang for example) where the slow cooking process and spices not only make the meat palatable, but also preserves it; an important factor in hot climates where refrigeration is not always available. Water buffalo hide provides a tough and useful leather often used for shoes and motorcycle helmets. A glass of cows milk. ... Mozzarella is an Italian fresh cheese made from water buffalo or (more often outside of Italy) cows milk, the second used for most types of pizza or served with sliced tomatoes and basil in Insalata caprese. ... Curd is a dairy product obtained by curdling (coagulating) milk with rennet or an edible acidic substance such as lemon juice or vinegar and then draining off the liquid portion (called whey). ... Capital Montpelier Largest city Burlington Area  Ranked {{{AreaRank}}}  - Total {{{TotalAreaUS}}} sq mi ({{{TotalArea}}} km²)  - Width 80 miles (130 km)  - Length 160 miles (260 km)  - % water 3. ... The Murrah breed of buffalo (Bubalus bubalus) is the premier milking buffalo. ... This article is about the dish. ... Modern leather-working tools Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals, primarily cattlehide. ... Motorcyclists take a break from the road A motorcycle or motorbike is a single-track, two-wheeled motor vehicle powered by an engine. ... Pith helmet of Harry S. Truman A helmet is a form of protective clothing worn on the head and usually made of metal or some other hard substance, typically for protection from falling objects or high-speed collisions. ...


Nutrition

Milk Composition Analysis, per 100 grams

Constituents unit Cow Goat Sheep Buffalo
Water grm 87.8 88.9 83.0 81.1
Protein grm 3.2 3.1 5.4 4.5
Fat grm 3.9 3.5 6.0 8.0
Carbohydrate grm 4.8 4.4 5.1 4.9
Energy K cal 66 60 95 110
K J 275 253 396 463
Sugars (Lactose) grm 4.8 4.4 5.1 4.9
Fatty Acids:
Saturated grm 2.4 2.3 3.8 4.2
Mono-unsaturated grm 1.1 0.8 1.5 1.7
Polyunsaturated grm 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.2
Cholesterol mg 14 10 11 8
Calcium iu 120jgj 100 170 195

Source: McCane, Widdowson, Scherz, Kloos.[2]


In culture

  • American bison are often called buffalo; however, this is technically incorrect as they are not true buffalo. The bison group includes both the American bison and the European bison or wisent. They are a related group of wild bovines, more closely related to cattle, gaur, banteng, yaks, etc. The buffalo genus includes water buffaloes, tamarau and anoas in Asia, but not the African buffalo (or Cape buffalo) in Africa.
  • Legend has it that the Chinese philosophical sage Lao Tzu left China through the Han Gu Pass riding a water buffalo.
  • According to Hindu mythology, the god of death Yama, rides on a water buffalo.
  • The carabao variant is considered as a national symbol in the Philippines.
  • In 1995 the christian/child's music group VeggieTales released a song called, "Everybody's Got a Water Buffalo" It was one of the groups first major hits.

Species B. antiquus B. bison B. bonasus B. priscus Bison is a taxonomic genus containing six species of large even-toed ungulates within the subfamily Bovinae. ... Binomial name Bison bonasus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Wisent or European Bison (Bison bonasus) (IPA: ) is a bison species and the heaviest land animal in Europe. ... Tribes Bovini Boselaphini Strepsicerotini The biological subfamily Bovinae (or bovines) includes a diverse group of about 24 species of medium-sized to large ungulates, including domestic cattle, Bison, the Water Buffalo, the Yak, and the four-horned and spiral-horned antelopes. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle (often called cows in vernacular and contemporary usage, or kye as the Scots plural of cou) are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... Binomial name Bos gaurus H. Smith, 1827 The Gaur (IPA gauɹ) (Bos gaurus, previously Bibos gauris) is a large, dark-coated ox of the hilly areas of South Asia and Southeast Asia, which may be found wild or domesticated. ... Binomial name Bos javanicus dAlton, 1823 The Banteng (Bos javanicus) is an ox that is found in Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Borneo, Java, and Bali. ... Binomial name Bos grunniens Linnaeus, 1766 Subspecies Bos grunniens grunniens Bos grunniens mutus The yak (Bos grunniens) is a long-haired humped domestic bovine found in Tibet and throughout the Himalayan region of south central Asia, as well as in Mongolia. ... Binomial name Bubalus mindorensis (Heude, 1888) The Tamaraw (Bubalus mindorensis; previously Anoa mindorensis), Tamarao or Mindoro Dwarf Buffalo is a bovine endemic to the island of Mindoro in the Philippines. ... Binomial name Bubalus quarlesi (Ouwens, 1910) Bubalus depressicornis (H. Smith, 1827) There are two species of anoa: the Mountain Anoa (Bubalus quarlesi) and the Lowland Anoa (Bubalus depressicornis). ... Binomial name Syncerus caffer (Sparrman, 1779) Subspecies The African Buffalo or Cape Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a bovid from the family of the Bovidae. ... Yin Yang symbol and Ba gua paved in a clearing outside of Nanning City, Guangxi province, China. ... Lao Zi (also spelled Laozi, Lao Tzu, or Lao Tse) was a famous Chinese philosopher who is believed to have lived in approximately the 4th century BC, during the Hundred Schools of Thought and Warring States Periods. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... This article is about the deity Yama in Hinduism. ... Binomial name Bubalus bubalis (Linnaeus, 1758) Trinomial name Bubalus bubalis carabanesis The carabao (Filipino: kalabaw; Malay: kerbau) or is a domesticated subspecies of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) found in the Philippines, Guam, and various parts of Southeast Asia. ... National symbols are symbols of states, nations and countries in the world. ...

References

  • Clutton-Brock, J. 1999. A Natural History of Domesticated Mammals. Cambridge UK : Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521634954.
  • Guinness Book of Records, 2005
  • Huffman, B. 2006. The ultimate ungulate page. UltimateUngulate.com.
  • International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). 2006. Syncerus caffer, Bubalus bubalis, Bubalus quarlesi, Bubalus depressicornis Bubalus mindorensis.
  • Ligda, D.J. 1996. The Water Buffalo. Website. [3]
  • Massicot, P. 2004. Animal Info. Website Wild Asian (Water) Buffalo
  • Nowak, R.M. and Paradiso, J.L. 1983. Walker's Mammals of the World. Baltimore, Maryland, USA: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0801825253
  • Olson, T.J. 2006. Turkey Creek Water Buffalo Website [4] The best buffalo pictures!
  • Voelker, W. 1986. The Natural History of Living Mammals. Medford, New Jersey, USA: Plexus Publishing, Inc. ISBN 0937548081.

Suresh Joachim, minutes away from breaking the ironing world record at 55 hours and 5 minutes, at Shoppers World, Brampton. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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Bos bubalus

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...


 
 

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