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Encyclopedia > Water
Impact from a water drop causes an upward "rebound" jet surrounded by circular capillary waves.
Impact from a water drop causes an upward "rebound" jet surrounded by circular capillary waves.

Water is a common chemical substance that is essential to all known forms of life.[1] In typical usage, water refers only to its liquid form or state, but the substance also has a solid state, ice, and a gaseous state, water vapor. About 1,460 teratonnes (Tt) of water cover 71% of Earth's surface, mostly in oceans and other large water bodies, with 1.6% of water below ground in aquifers and 0.001% in the air as vapor, clouds (formed of solid and liquid water particles suspended in air), and precipitation.[2] Some of the Earth's water is a part of man-made and natural objects near the earth's surface such as water towers, and animal and plant bodies, manufactured products, and food stores. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 110 KB) Water Droplet File links The following pages link to this file: Water ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 110 KB) Water Droplet File links The following pages link to this file: Water ... A capillary wave is a wave travelling along a meniscus, whose dynamics are dominated by the effects of surface tension. ... Water and steam are two different forms of the same chemical substance A chemical substance is any material with a definite chemical composition, no matter where it comes from. ... For other uses, see Life (disambiguation). ... A liquid will usually assume the shape of its container A liquid is one of the main states of matter. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... Snowflakes by Wilson Bentley, 1902 Ice is the name given to any one of the 14 known solid phases of water. ... For other meanings see gas (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that multiple sections of steam be merged into this article or section. ... A tonne or metric ton (symbol t), sometimes referred to as a metric tonne, is a measurement of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt, or clay) from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using a water well. ... View of Jupiters active atmosphere, including the Great Red Spot. ... Vapor (US English) or vapour (British English) is the gaseous state of matter. ... Cumulus mediocris clouds, as seen from a plane window. ...


Saltwater oceans hold 97.0% of surface water, glaciers and polar ice caps 2.4%, and other land surface water such as rivers and lakes 0.6%. Water in these forms moves perpetually through the water cycle of evaporation and transpiration, precipitation, and runoff usually reaching the sea. Winds carry water vapor over land at the same rate as runoff into the sea, about 36 Tt per year. Over land, evaporation and transpiration contribute another 71 Tt per year to the precipitation of 107 Tt per year over land. Some water is trapped for periods in ice caps, glaciers, aquifers, or in lakes, for varying periods, sometimes providing fresh water for life on land. Clean, fresh water is essential to human and other life. In many parts of the world, it is in short supply. Many very important chemical substances, such as salts, sugars, acids, alkalis, some gases (especially oxygen), and many organic molecules dissolve in water. Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... Glacial and Glaciation redirect here. ... An ice cap is a dome-shaped ice mass that covers less than 50,000 km² of land area (usually covering a highland area). ... This bridge across the Danube River links Hungary with Slovakia. ... A man-made lake in Keukenhof, Netherlands A lake (from Latin lacus) is a body of water or other liquid of considerable size contained on a body of land. ... The movement of water around, over, and through the Earth is called the water cycle. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Transpiration is the evaporation of excess water from aerial parts and of plants, especially leaves but also stems, flowers and fruits. ... Run-off, composed of a mixture of water and soil along with any other organic or inorganic substances that may exist in the land, is the product of precipitation, snowmelt, over-irrigation, or other water coming in contact with the earth and carrying matter to streams, rivers, lakes, and other... For the three letter acronym, see SEA. For the ancient Jewish unit of volume, see Seah (unit). ... A tonne or metric ton (symbol t), sometimes referred to as a metric tonne, is a measurement of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) in the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... Magnification of grains of sugar, showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure. ... Acidity redirects here. ... In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qalyالقلوي, القالي ) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkali earth metal element. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... An organic compound is any of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon, with exception of carbides, carbonates and carbon oxides. ... A solvent is a liquid that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution. ...


Outside of our planet, a significant quantity is thought to exist underground on the planet Mars, on the moons Europa and Enceladus, and on the exoplanets known as HD 189733 b[3] and HD 209458 b.[4] Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... Apparent magnitude: 5. ... [5] Atmospheric characteristics Pressure trace, significant spatial variability [6], [7] Water vapour 91% [8] Carbon dioxide 3. ... Infrared Image of a possible extrasolar planet (lower left) in the Constellation Taurus, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope. ... HD 189733 b is a gas giant planet that is in very close orbit around the yellow dwarf star HD 189733 A. This planet was discovered in 2005 when astronomers observed the planet transiting across the face of the star. ... HD 209458 b is an extrasolar planet that orbits the Sun-like star HD 209458 in the constellation Pegasus, some 150 light-years from Earths solar system, with evidence of water vapor. ...

Water covers 71% the Earth's surface; the oceans contain 97.2% of Earth's water. The Antarctic ice sheet, which contains 90% of all fresh water on Earth, is visible at the bottom. Condensed atmospheric water can be seen as clouds, contributing to the earth's albedo.
Water covers 71% the Earth's surface; the oceans contain 97.2% of Earth's water. The Antarctic ice sheet, which contains 90% of all fresh water on Earth, is visible at the bottom. Condensed atmospheric water can be seen as clouds, contributing to the earth's albedo.

Contents

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3000x3002, 6358 KB) The Blue Marble: This photo is of Africa, Antarctica, and the Arabian Peninsula as taken en route to the Moon by Apollo 17s Harrison Schmitt on December 7, 1972. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3000x3002, 6358 KB) The Blue Marble: This photo is of Africa, Antarctica, and the Arabian Peninsula as taken en route to the Moon by Apollo 17s Harrison Schmitt on December 7, 1972. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... A satellite composite image of Antarctica The Antarctic ice sheet is the largest single mass of ice on Earth. ... Cumulus mediocris clouds, as seen from a plane window. ... Albedo is the ratio of reflected to incident electromagnetic radiation. ...

Chemical and physical properties

Water
The dimensions and geometric structure of a water molecule This space-filled model shows the molecular structure of water.

Water is the base of human life, and
an abundant compound on the earth's surface. This article describes water from a scientific and technical perspective. ... Image File history File links Water_molecule_dimensions. ... Image File history File links Water_molecule. ... A chemical compound is a chemical substance of two or more different chemically bonded chemical elements, with a fixed ratio determining the composition. ...

Information and properties
Systematic name water
Alternative names aqua, dihydrogen monoxide,
hydrogen hydroxide, (more)
Molecular formula H2O
Molar mass 18.0153 g/mol
Density and phase 0.998 g/cm³ (liquid at 20 °C)
0.92 g/cm³ (solid)
Melting point 0 °C (273.15 K) (32 °F)
Boiling point 100 °C (373.15 K) (212 °F)
Specific heat capacity 4.184 J/(g•K) (liquid at 20 °C)
Supplementary data page
Disclaimer and references
Main article: Water (molecule)

Water is the chemical substance with chemical formula H2O: one molecule of water has two hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to a single oxygen atom. Water is a tasteless, odourless liquid at ambient temperature and pressure, and appears colourless in small quantities, although it has its own intrinsic very light blue hue. Ice also appears colourless, and water vapour is essentially invisible as a gas.[5] Water is primarily a liquid under standard conditions, which is not predicted from its relationship to other analogous hydrides of the oxygen family in the periodic table which are gases, such as hydrogen sulfide. Also the elements surrounding oxygen in the periodic table, nitrogen, fluorine, phosphorus, sulfur and chlorine, all combine with hydrogen to produce gases under standard conditions. The reason that oxygen hydride (water) forms a liquid is that it is more electronegative than all of these elements (other than fluorine). Oxygen attracts electrons much more strongly than hydrogen, resulting in a net positive charge on the hydrogen atoms, and a net negative charge on the oxygen atom. The presence of a charge on each of these atoms gives each water molecule a net dipole moment. Electrical attraction between water molecules due to this dipole pulls individual molecules closer together, making it more difficult to separate the molecules and therefore raising the boiling point. This attraction is known as hydrogen bonding. Water can be described as a polar liquid that dissociates disproportionately into the hydronium ion (H3O+(aq)) and an associated hydroxide ion (OH-(aq)). Water is in dynamic equilibrium between the liquid, gas and solid states at standard temperature and pressure, and is the only pure substance found naturally on Earth to be so. IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... Dihydrogen monoxide (DHMO) and hydrogen hydroxide (HOH) are technically accurate but rarely-used names for water. ... A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... In physics, density is mass m per unit volume V. For the common case of a homogeneous substance, it is expressed as: where, in SI units: ρ (rho) is the density of the substance, measured in kg·m-3 m is the mass of the substance, measured in kg V is... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... The kelvin (symbol: K) is a unit increment of temperature and is one of the seven SI base units. ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German-Dutch physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... Specific heat capacity, also known simply as specific heat (Symbol: C or c) is the measure of the heat energy required to raise the temperature of a given amount of a substance by one degree. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on water. ... This article describes water from a scientific and technical perspective. ... Water and steam are two different forms of the same chemical substance A chemical substance is any material with a definite chemical composition, no matter where it comes from. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... In science, a molecule is a group of atoms in a definite arrangement held together by chemical bonds. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... Properties In chemistry and physics, an atom (Greek ἄτομος or átomos meaning indivisible) is the smallest particle still characterizing a chemical element. ... Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding characterized by the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between atoms, in order to produce a mutual attraction, which holds the resultant molecule together. ... A chemical bond is the physical process responsible for the attractive interactions between atoms and molecules, and that which confers stability to diatomic and polyatomic chemical compounds. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Temperature and air pressure can vary from one place to another on the Earth, and can also vary in the same place with time. ... The chalcogens (with the ch pronounced with a hard c as in chemistry) are the name for the periodic table group 16 (old-style: VIB or VIA) in the periodic table. ... For a diagram of the periodic table, see standard periodic table below. ... Hydrogen sulfide (hydrogen sulphide in British English), H2S, is a colorless, toxic, flammable gas that is responsible for the foul odor of rotten eggs and flatulence. ... For a diagram of the periodic table, see standard periodic table below. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, Symbol, Number fluorine, F, 9 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 2, p Appearance Yellowish brown gas Atomic mass 18. ... General Name, Symbol, Number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with electronegativity. ... This article is about the electromagnetic phenomenon. ... In chemistry, a hydrogen bond is a type of attractive intermolecular force that exists between two partial electric charges of opposite polarity. ... In chemistry, hydronium is the common name for the cation H3O+ derived from protonation of water. ... Hydroxide is a polyatomic ion consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: OH− It has a charge of −1. ... A dynamic equilibrium occurs when two reversible processes occur at the same rate. ... A liquid will usually assume the shape of its container A liquid is one of the main states of matter. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... Temperature and air pressure can vary from one place to another on the Earth, and can also vary in the same place with time. ...


Cohesion and adhesion

Water has a partial negative charge (σ-) near the oxygen atom due to the unshared pairs of electrons, and partial positive charges (σ+) near the hydrogen atoms. In water, this happens because the oxygen atom is more electronegative than the hydrogen atoms — that is, it has a stronger "pulling power" on the molecule's electrons, drawing them closer (along with their negative charge) and making the area around the oxygen atom more negative than the area around both of the hydrogen atoms. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with electronegativity. ... In physics, the electrostatic force is the force arising between static (that is, non-moving) electric charges. ... e- redirects here. ...


Adhesion

Dew drops adhering to a spider web
Dew drops adhering to a spider web

Water sticks to itself (cohesion) because it is polar. Water also has high adhesion properties because of its polar nature. On extremely clean/smooth glass the water may form a thin film because the molecular forces between glass and water molecules (adhesive forces) are stronger than the cohesive forces. In biological cells and organelles, water is in contact with membrane and protein surfaces that are hydrophilic; that is, surfaces that have a strong attraction to water. Irving Langmuir observed a strong repulsive force between hydrophilic surfaces. To dehydrate hydrophilic surfaces — to remove the strongly held layers of water of hydration — requires doing substantial work against these forces, called hydration forces. These forces are very large but decrease rapidly over a nanometer or less. Their importance in biology has been extensively studied by V. Adrian Parsegian of the National Institute of Health.[6] They are particularly important when cells are dehydrated by exposure to dry atmospheres or to extracellular freezing. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x808, 904 KB) Spider Web Covered with Dew Drops. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x808, 904 KB) Spider Web Covered with Dew Drops. ... Dew on a spider web Dew is water in the form of droplets that appears on thin, exposed objects in the morning or evening. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Mercury sticks together because of the cohesive forces. ... A commonly-used example of a polar compound is water (H2O). ... Dew drops adhering to a spider web Adhesion is the molecular attraction exerted between bodies in contact. ... Glass can be made transparent and flat, or into other shapes and colors as shown in this sphere from the Verrerie of Brehat in Brittany. ... Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. ... The adjective hydrophilic describes something that likes water (from Greek hydros = water; philos = friend). ... Irving Langmuir at home (c. ... The National Institutes of Health is an institution of the United States government which focuses on medical research. ...


Surface tension

Main article: Surface tension
This daisy is under the water level, which has risen gently and smoothly. Surface tension prevents the water from submerging the flower.
This daisy is under the water level, which has risen gently and smoothly. Surface tension prevents the water from submerging the flower.

Water has a high surface tension caused by the strong cohesion between water molecules. This can be seen when small quantities of water are put onto a non-soluble surface such as polythene; the water stays together as drops. Just as significantly, air trapped in surface disturbances forms bubbles, which sometimes last long enough to transfer gas molecules to the water. Another surface tension effect is capillary waves which are the surface ripples that form from around the impact of drops on water surfaces, and some times occur with strong subsurface currents flow to the water surface. The apparent elasticity caused by surface tension drives the waves. In physics, surface tension is an effect within the surface layer of a liquid that causes that layer to behave as an elastic sheet. ... Download high resolution version (1200x900, 61 KB)A daisy. ... Download high resolution version (1200x900, 61 KB)A daisy. ... Look up daisy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In physics, surface tension is an effect within the surface layer of a liquid that causes that layer to behave as an elastic sheet. ... Polyethylene or polyethene is one of the simplest and most inexpensive polymers. ... A capillary wave is a wave travelling along a meniscus, whose dynamics are dominated by the effects of surface tension. ...


Capillary action

Main article: Capillary action

Capillary action refers to the process of water moving up a narrow tube against the force of gravity. It occurs because water adheres to the sides of the tube, and then surface tension tends to straighten the surface making the surface rise, and more water is pulled up through cohesion. The process is repeated as the water flows up the tube until there is enough water that gravity can counteract the adhesive force. Capillary action, capillarity, or capillary motion is the ability of a substance (the standard reference is to a tube in plants but can be seen readily with porous paper) to draw a substance up against gravity. ... Capillary action, capillarity, or capillary motion is the ability of a substance (the standard reference is to a tube in plants but can be seen readily with porous paper) to draw a substance up against gravity. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ...


Solvation

High concentrations of dissolved lime make the water of Havasu Falls appear turquoise.
High concentrations of dissolved lime make the water of Havasu Falls appear turquoise.

Water is a very strong solvent, referred to as the universal solvent, dissolving many types of substances. Substances that will mix well and dissolve in water (e.g. salts) are known as "hydrophilic" (water-loving) substances, while those that do not mix well with water (e.g. fats and oils), are known as "hydrophobic" (water-fearing) substances. The ability of a substance to dissolve in water is determined by whether or not the substance can match or better the strong attractive forces that water molecules generate between other water molecules. If a substance has properties that do not allow it to overcome these strong intermolecular forces, the molecules are "pushed out" from amongst the water and do not dissolve. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (821x1231, 313 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Water Turquoise (color) User:Moondigger ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (821x1231, 313 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Water Turquoise (color) User:Moondigger ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Havasu Falls Havasu Falls (Havasupai Falls) are waterfalls located in Grand Canyon, Arizona. ... A solvent is a liquid that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution. ... A solvent is a liquid that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... The adjective hydrophilic describes something that likes water (from Greek hydros = water; philos = friend). ... Figure 1: Basic lipid structure. ... In chemistry, hydrophobic or lipophilic species, or hydrophobes, tend to be electrically neutral and nonpolar, and thus prefer other neutral and nonpolar solvents or molecular environments. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Precipitation is the formation of a solid in a solution during a chemical reaction. ...


Electrical conductivity

Pure water has a low electrical conductivity, but this increases significantly upon solvation of a small amount of ionic material water such as hydrogen chloride. Thus the risks of electrocution are much greater in water with the usual impurities not found in pure water. Any electrical properties observable in water are from the ions of mineral salts and carbon dioxide dissolved in it. Water does self-ionize where two water molecules become one hydroxide anion and one hydronium cation, but not enough to carry enough electric current to do any work or harm for most operations. In pure water, sensitive equipment can detect a very slight electrical conductivity of 0.055 µS/cm at 25°C. Water can also be electrolyzed into oxygen and hydrogen gases but in the absence of dissolved ions this is a very slow process since very little current is conducted. Electrical conductivity or specific conductivity is a measure of a materials ability to conduct an electric current. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , Flash point non-flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Sign warning of possible electric shock hazard An electric shock can occur upon contact of a human or animal body with any source of voltage high enough to cause sufficient current flow through the muscles or nerves. ... An electrostatic potential map of the nitrate ion (NO3−). Areas coloured red are lower in energy than areas colored yellow An ion is an atom or group of atoms which have lost or gained one or more electrons, making them negatively or positively charged. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms, and is in a gaseous state in the atmosphere of the Earth. ... The self-ionization of water is the chemical reaction in which two water molecules react to produce a hydronium (H3O+) and a hydroxide ion (OH-): The reaction is also known as the autoionization or autodissociation of water. ... Hydroxide is a polyatomic ion consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: OH− It has a charge of −1. ... In chemistry, hydronium is the common name for the cation H3O+ derived from protonation of water. ... Electric current is the flow (movement) of electric charge. ... Electrical conductivity or specific conductivity is a measure of a materials ability to conduct an electric current. ... The siemens (symbol: S) is the SI derived unit of electric conductance. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... This article is about the chemical process. ...


Deuterated compounds of water

Hydrogen has 3 isotopes, the first being the most common, or having 1 proton and 0 neutrons. More than 95% of water consists of this regular water. There is a second isotope having 1 proton and 1 neutron, called deuterium (short form "D"). This D2O is also known as heavy water and is used in nuclear reactors for storing nuclear wastes. The third isotope has 1 proton and 2 neutrons, called tritium. Tritium is radioactive, and therefore T2O does not exist in nature as creation of the rare molecule would result in almost instantaneous decomposition. D2O is stable; however, it is different from H2O in that D2O is heavier and denser, and it can block alpha and beta rays. D2O occurs naturally in water in very low concentrations. Consumption of pure isolated D2O may affect biochemical processes: ingestion of large amounts impairs kidney function and central nervous system operation. Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance in the oceans of Earth of approximately one atom in 6500 of hydrogen (~154 PPM). ... Heavy water is dideuterium oxide, or D2O or 2H2O. It is chemically the same as normal water, H2O, but the hydrogen atoms are of the heavy isotope deuterium, in which the nucleus contains a neutron in addition to the proton found in the nucleus of any hydrogen atom. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... Tritium (symbol T or 3H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... The kidneys are organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ...


Water, ice, and vapor

Heat capacity and heat of vaporization

Water has the second highest specific heat capacity of any known chemical compound, after ammonia, as well as a high heat of vaporization (40.65 kJ mol-1), both of which are a result of the extensive hydrogen bonding between its molecules. These two unusual properties allow water to moderate Earth's climate by buffering large fluctuations in temperature. The heat of vaporization is a physical property of substances. ... Specific heat capacity, also known simply as specific heat (Symbol: C or c) is the measure of the heat energy required to raise the temperature of a given amount of a substance by one degree. ... Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. ... The heat of vaporization is a physical property of substances. ... An example of a quadruple hydrogen bond between a self-assembled dimer complex reported by Meijer and coworkers. ...


Freezing point

A simple but environmentally important and unusual property of water is that its usual solid form, ice, floats on its liquid form. This solid state is not as dense as liquid water because of the geometry of the hydrogen bonds which are formed only at lower temperatures. For almost all other substances the solid form has a greater density than the liquid form. Fresh water at standard atmospheric pressure is most dense at 3.98 °C, and will sink by convection as it cools to that temperature, and if it becomes colder it will rise instead. This reversal will cause deep water to remain warmer than shallower freezing water, so that ice in a body of water will form first at the surface and progress downward, while the majority of the water underneath will hold a constant 4 °C. This effectively insulates a lake floor from the cold. The water will freeze at 0°C (32°F, 273 K), however, it can be supercooled in a fluid state down to its crystal homogeneous nucleation at almost 231 K (−42 °C)[7]. Ice also has a number of more exotic phases not commonly seen (go to the full article on Ice). Snowflakes by Wilson Bentley, 1902 Ice is the name given to any one of the 14 known solid phases of water. ... In physics, density is mass m per unit volume V. For the common case of a homogeneous substance, it is expressed as: where, in SI units: ρ (rho) is the density of the substance, measured in kg·m-3 m is the mass of the substance, measured in kg V is... Convection in the most general terms refers to the internal movement of currents within fluids (i. ... Supercooling is the process of chilling a liquid below its freezing point, without its becoming solid. ... Bubbles in a soft drink each nucleate independently, responding to a decrease in pressure. ... Snowflakes by Wilson Bentley, 1902 Ice is the name given to any one of the 14 known solid phases of water. ...


Triple point

Main article: Triple point

The triple point of water (the single combination of pressure and temperature at which pure liquid water, ice, and water vapor can coexist in a stable equilibrium) is used to define the kelvin, the SI unit of thermodynamic temperature. As a consequence, water's triple point temperature is an exact value rather than a measured quantity : 273.16 kelvins (0.01 °C) and a pressure of 611.73 pascals (approximately 0.0060373 atm). This is approximately the combination that exists with 100% relative humidity at sea level and the freezing point of water. In physics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance may coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium. ... In physics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance may coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium. ... The kelvin (symbol: K) is a unit increment of temperature and is one of the seven SI base units. ... Standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure. ...


Miscibility and condensation

Main article: Humidity

Water is miscible with many liquids, for example ethanol in all proportions, forming a single homogeneous liquid. On the other hand water and most oils are immiscible usually forming layers according to increasing density from the top. This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... The chemistry term miscible refers to the property of various liquids that allows them to be mixed together. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Synthetic motor oil An oil is any substance that is in a viscous liquid state (oily) at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer, and is both hydrophobic (immiscible with water, literally water fearing) and lipophilic (miscible with other oils, literally fat loving). This general definition includes compound classes with otherwise unrelated...

Red line shows saturation
Red line shows saturation

As a gas, water vapor is completely miscible with air. On the other hand the maximum water vapor pressure that is thermodynamically stable with the liquid (or solid) at a given temperature is relatively low compared with total atmospheric pressure. For example, if the vapor partial pressure[8] is 2% of atmospheric pressure and the air is cooled from 25 deg C, starting at about 22 C water will start to condense, defining the dew point, and creating fog or dew. The reverse process accounts for the fog burning off in the morning. If one raises the humidity at room temperature, say by running a hot shower or a bath, and the temperature stays about the same, the vapor soon reaches the pressure for phase change, and condenses out as steam. A gas in this context is referred to as saturated or 100% relative humidity, when the vapor pressure of water in the air is at the equilibrium with vapor pressure due to (liquid) water; water (or ice, if cool enough) will fail to lose mass through evaporation when exposed to saturated air. Because the amount of water vapor in air is small, relative humidity, the ratio of the partial pressure due to the water vapor to the saturated partial vapor pressure, is much more useful. Water vapor pressure above 100% relative humidity is called super-saturated and can occur if air is rapidly cooled, say by rising suddenly in an updraft. [9] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The chemistry term miscible refers to the property of various liquids that allows them to be mixed together. ... In a mixture of ideal gases, each gas has a partial pressure which is the pressure which the gas would have if it alone occupied the volume. ... Dew on a spider web The dew point or dewpoint of a given parcel of air is the temperature to which the parcel must be cooled, at constant barometric pressure, for the water vapor component to condense into water, called dew. ... Golden Gate Bridge in Fog Evening fog obscures Londons Tower Bridge from passers by. ... Dew on a spider web Dew is water in the form of droplets that appears on thin, exposed objects in the morning or evening. ...


Water on Earth

Origin and planetary effects

The Solar System along center row range of possible habitable zones of varying size stars.
The Solar System along center row range of possible habitable zones of varying size stars.

Much of the universe's water may be produced as a byproduct of star formation. When stars are born, their birth is accompanied by a strong outward wind of gas and dust. When this outflow of material eventually impacts the surrounding gas, the shock waves that are created compress and heat the gas. The water we observe is quickly produced in this warm dense gas. [10] Image File history File links Habitable_zone-en. ... Image File history File links Habitable_zone-en. ... Major features of the Solar System (not to scale; from left to right): Pluto, Neptune, Uranus, Saturn, Jupiter, the asteroid belt, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth and its Moon, and Mars. ... In astronomy a habitable zone (HZ) is a region of space where conditions are favorable for life, as it can be found on earth. ... Media:Example. ...


Solar distance and Earth gravity

The existence of liquid water, and to a lesser extent its gaseous and solid forms, on Earth is vital to the existence of life on Earth. The Earth is located in the habitable zone of the solar system; if it were slightly closer to or further from the Sun (about 5%, or 8 million kilometers or so), the conditions which allow the three forms to be present simultaneously would be far less likely to exist. [11] This article is about the tv programme Life on Earth. ... In astronomy a habitable zone (HZ) is a region of space where conditions are favorable for life, as it can be found on earth. ... Major features of the Solar System (not to scale; from left to right): Pluto, Neptune, Uranus, Saturn, Jupiter, the asteroid belt, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth and its Moon, and Mars. ... “Sol” redirects here. ...


Earth's mass allows gravity to hold an atmosphere. Water vapor and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere provide a greenhouse effect which helps maintain a relatively steady surface temperature. If Earth were smaller, a thinner atmosphere would cause temperature extremes preventing the accumulation of water except in polar ice caps (as on Mars). Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... Atmosphere is the general name for a layer of gases that may surround a material body of sufficient mass. ... A schematic representation of the exchanges of energy between outer space, the Earths atmosphere, and the Earth surface. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the solar system, named after the Roman god of war (the counterpart of the Greek Ares), on account of its blood red color as viewed in the night sky. ...


It has been proposed that life itself may maintain the conditions that have allowed its continued existence. The surface temperature of Earth has been relatively constant through geologic time despite varying levels of incoming solar radiation (insolation), indicating that a dynamic process governs Earth's temperature via a combination of greenhouse gases and surface or atmospheric albedo. This proposal is known as the Gaia hypothesis. The table and timeline of geologic periods presented here is in accordance with the dates and nomenclature proposed by the International Commission on Stratigraphy. ... TOA and surface insolation, annual mean Insolation is the incoming solar radiation that reaches a planet and its atmosphere or, by extension, any object exposed to solar rays, such as watts per square meter of Sun-facing cross section, across the entire electromagnetic spectrum; most of that power is in... Albedo is the ratio of reflected to incident electromagnetic radiation. ... Italic textBold textLink titleLink title. ...


The state of water also depends on a planet's gravity. If a planet is sufficiently massive, the water on it may be solid even at high temperatures, because of the high pressure caused by gravity. [1]


Tides

High tide (left) and low tide (right).
Main article: Tide

Tides are the cyclic rising and falling of Earth's ocean surface caused by the tidal forces of the Moon and the Sun acting on the oceans. Tides cause changes in the depth of the marine and estuarine water bodies and produce oscillating currents known as tidal streams. The changing tide produced at a given location is the result of the changing positions of the Moon and Sun relative to the Earth coupled with the effects of Earth rotation and the local bathymetry. The strip of seashore that is submerged at high tide and exposed at low tide, the intertidal zone, is an important ecological product of ocean tides. The bay of Fundy at high tide This picture was taken in about 1972 by me. ... The Bay of Fundy at low tide taken in 1972 File links The following pages link to this file: Tide Bay of Fundy Categories: GFDL images ... “Ebb tide” redirects here. ... “Ebb tide” redirects here. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 after breaking up under the influence of Jupiters tidal forces. ... Apparent magnitude: up to -12. ... “Sol” redirects here. ... Rio de la Plata estuary Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Estuaries An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. ... In the inertial frame of reference (upper part of the picture), the black object moves in a straight line. ... Bathymetry is the underwater equivalent to topography. ... A rock, seen at low tide, exhibiting typical intertidal zonation. ...


Water cycle

The biosphere can be roughly divided into oceans, land, and atmosphere. Water moves perpetually through each of these regions in the water cycle consisting of following transfer processes: A false-color composite of global oceanic and terrestrial photoautotroph abundance, from September 1997 to August 2000. ... The movement of water around, over, and through the Earth is called the water cycle. ...

  • evaporation from oceans and other water bodies into the air and transpiration from land plants and animals into air.
  • precipitation, from water vapor condensing from the air and falling to earth or ocean.
  • runoff from the land usually reaching the sea.

Most water vapor over the oceans returns to the oceans, but winds carry water vapor over land at the same rate as runoff into the sea, about 36 Tt per year. Over land, evaporation and transpiration contribute another 71 Tt per year. Precipitation, at a rate of 107 Tt per year over land, has several forms: most commonly rain, snow, and hail, with some contribution from fog and dew. Condensed water in the air may also refract sunlight to produce rainbows. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Transpiration is the evaporation of excess water from aerial parts and of plants, especially leaves but also stems, flowers and fruits. ... Run-off, composed of a mixture of water and soil along with any other organic or inorganic substances that may exist in the land, is the product of precipitation, snowmelt, over-irrigation, or other water coming in contact with the earth and carrying matter to streams, rivers, lakes, and other... For the three letter acronym, see SEA. For the ancient Jewish unit of volume, see Seah (unit). ... A tonne or metric ton (symbol t), sometimes referred to as a metric tonne, is a measurement of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms. ... Rain is a type of precipitation which forms when separate drops of water fall to the Earths surface from clouds. ... Snow is a type of precipitation in the form of crystalline water ice, consisting of a multitude of snowflakes that fall from clouds. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Golden Gate Bridge in Fog Evening fog obscures Londons Tower Bridge from passers by. ... Dew on a spider web Dew is water in the form of droplets that appears on thin, exposed objects in the morning or evening. ... This article refers to refraction in waves. ... Prism splitting light High Resolution Solar Spectrum Sunlight in the broad sense is the total spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. ... Full featured double rainbow in Wrangell-St. ...


Water runoff often collects over watersheds flowing into rivers. Some of this is diverted to irrigation for agriculture. Rivers and seas offer opportunity for travel and commerce. Through erosion, runoff shapes the environment creating river valleys and deltas which provide rich soil and level ground for the establishment of population centers. This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil. ... Statue dedicated to the traveller. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. For erosion as an operation of Mathematical morphology, see Erosion (morphology) Erosion is displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock and other particles) by the agents of ocean currents, wind, water, or ice by downward or down-slope movement... Fljótsdalur in East Iceland, a rather flat valley A valley or a low area between two hills dale (in Scotland, a glen) is a landform, which can range from a few square kilometres to hundreds or even thousands of square kilometres in area. ... Nile River delta, as seen from Earth orbit. ...


Fresh water storage

Some runoff water is trapped for periods, for example in lakes. At high altitude, during winter, and in the far north and south, snow collects in ice caps, snow pack and glaciers. Water also infiltrates the ground and goes into aquifers. This groundwater later flows back to the surface in springs, or more spectacularly in hot springs and geysers. Groundwater is also extracted artificially in wells. This water storage is important, since clean, fresh water is essential to human and other land-based life. In many parts of the world, it is in short supply. Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of geologic formations. ... A natural spring on Mackinac Island in Michigan. ... Green Dragon Spring at Norris Geyser A hot spring is a place where warm or hot groundwater issues from the ground on a regular basis for at least a predictable part of the year, and is significantly above the ambient ground temperature (which is usually around 55~57 F or... Strokkur geyser, Iceland A geyser is a type of hot spring that erupts periodically, ejecting a column of hot water and steam into the air. ... Cable tool water well drilling rig in Kimball, West Virginia. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) in the family Hominidae (the great apes). ...

Snowflakes by Wilson Bentley, 1902
Snowflakes by Wilson Bentley, 1902

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 469 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1124 × 1437 pixel, file size: 479 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 469 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1124 × 1437 pixel, file size: 479 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://www. ... Wilson Snowflake Bentley (1865–1931), born in Jericho, Vermont, was the first known photographer of snowflakes. ...

Forms of water

For more details on this topic, see Category: Forms of water.

Water takes many different forms on Earth: water vapor and clouds in the sky; seawater and rarely icebergs in the ocean; glaciers and rivers in the mountains; and aquifers in the ground. It has been suggested that multiple sections of steam be merged into this article or section. ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... Icebergs at Cape York, Greenland Iceberg at Cape York, Greenland Iceberg, Tèmpanos, Patagonia, Argentina. ... Glacial and Glaciation redirect here. ... Lyskamm, 4 527 m, Pennine Alps A mountain is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain in a limited area. ...


Water can dissolve many different substances imparting upon it different tastes and odours. In fact, humans and other animals have developed senses to be able to evaluate the potability of water: animals generally dislike the taste of salty sea water and the putrid swamps and favor the purer water of a mountain spring or aquifer. The taste advertised in spring water or mineral water derives from the minerals dissolved, while pure H2O is tasteless. As such, purity in spring and mineral water refers to purity from toxins, pollutants, and microbes. Drinking water Mineral Water Drinking water is water that is intended to be ingested by humans. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... Sea water is water from a sea or ocean. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A spring is a point where groundwater flows out of the ground, and is thus where the aquifer surface meets the ground surface. ... In many places, mineral water is often colloquially used to mean carbonated water (which is usually carbonated mineral water, as opposed to tap water). ... ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Many of the compounds which are dangerous to the environment can also be harmful to humans in the long-term range and come from mineral and fossil sources or are produced by humans themselves. ... A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ...


Effects on life

Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef
Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef

From a biological standpoint, water has many distinct properties that are critical for the proliferation of life that set it apart from other substances. It carries out this role by allowing organic compounds to react in ways that ultimately allow replication. All known forms of life depend on water. Water is vital both as a solvent in which many of the body's solutes dissolve and as an essential part of many metabolic processes within the body. Metabolism is the sum total of anabolism and catabolism. In anabolism, water is removed from molecules (through energy requiring enzymatic chemical reactions) in order to grow larger molecules (e.g. starches, triglycerides and proteins for storage of fuels and information). In catabolism, water is used to break bonds in order to generate smaller molecules (e.g. glucose, fatty acids and amino acids to be used for fuels for energy use or other purposes). Water is thus essential and central to these metabolic processes. Therefore, without water, these metabolic processes would cease to exist, leaving us to muse about what processes would be in its place, such as gas absorption, dust collection, etc. Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 210 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 210 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Life (disambiguation). ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon and hydrogen; therefore, carbides, carbonates, carbon oxides and elementary carbon are not organic (see below for more on the definition controversy... Replication may mean: In biology: Self-replication, when a molecule (or any other pattern) makes a copy of itself DNA replication, the act of copying the genetic material of a cell (DNA) to a daughter cell Semiconservative replication, mechanism of DNA replication Other: replication (computer science), the provision of redundant... A solvent is a liquid that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution. ... A few of the metabolic pathways in a cell. ...


Water is also central to photosynthesis and respiration. Photosynthetic cells use the sun's energy to split off water's hydrogen from oxygen. Hydrogen is combined with CO2 (absorbed from air or water) to form glucose and release oxygen. All living cells use such fuels and oxidize the hydrogen and carbon to capture the sun's energy and reform water and CO2 in the process (cellular respiration).


Water is also central to acid-base neutrality and enzyme function. An acid, a hydrogen ion (H+, that is, a proton) donor, can be neutralized by a base, a proton acceptor such as hydroxide ion (OH) to form water. Water is considered to be neutral, with a pH (the negative log of the hydrogen ion concentration) of 7. Acids have pH values less than 7 while bases have values greater than 7. Stomach acid (HCl) is useful to digestion. However, its corrosive effect on the esophagus during reflux can temporarily be neutralized by ingestion of a base such as aluminum hydroxide to produce the neutral molecules water and the salt aluminum chloride. Human biochemistry that involves enzymes usually performs optimally around a biologically neutral pH of 7.4. The correct title of this article is . ... For alternative meanings see acid (disambiguation). ... The best STM agency in the world ... ...


Aquatic life forms

Some marine diatoms - a key phytoplankton group
Some marine diatoms - a key phytoplankton group

Earth's waters are filled with life. Nearly all fish live exclusively in water, and there are many types of marine mammals, such as dolphins and whales that also live in the water. Some kinds of animals, such as amphibians, spend portions of their lives in water and portions on land. Plants such as kelp and algae grow in the water and are the basis for some underwater ecosystems. Plankton is generally the foundation of the ocean food chain. Image File history File links Beautiful marine diatoms as seen through a microscope. ... Image File history File links Beautiful marine diatoms as seen through a microscope. ... Orders Centrales Pennales Diatoms (Greek: (dia) = through + (temnein) = to cut, i. ... Diagrams of some typical phytoplankton Phytoplankton are the autotrophic component of plankton. ... A giant grouper at the Georgia Aquarium Fish are aquatic vertebrates that are typically cold-blooded, covered with scales, and equipped with two sets of paired fins and several unpaired fins. ... Genera See article below. ... A Fin Whale The term whale is ambiguous: it can refer to all cetaceans, to just the larger ones, or only to members of particular families within the order Cetacea. ... For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). ... Insert non-formatted text hereLink title Families Alariaceae Chordaceae Laminariaceae Lessoniaceae Phyllariaceae Pseudochordaceae For other uses, see Kelp (disambiguation). ... A seaweed (Laurencia) up close: the branches are multicellular and only about 1 mm thick. ... Photomontage of plankton organisms Plankton are any drifting organism that inhabits the water column of oceans, seas, and bodies of fresh water. ...


Different water creatures have found different solutions to obtaining oxygen in the water. Fish have gills instead of lungs, though some species of fish, such as the lungfish, have both. Marine mammals, such as dolphins, whales, otters, and seals need to surface periodically to breathe air. In aquatic organisms, gills are a respiratory organ for the extraction of oxygen from water and for the excretion of carbon dioxide. ... The heart and lungs (from an older edition of Grays Anatomy) The lung is an organ belonging to the respiratory system and interfacing to the circulatory system of air-breathing vertebrates. ... Orders See text. ... A Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), a member of Order Cetacea A Leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx), a member of infrafamily Pinnipedia A West Indian Manatee (Trichechus manatus), a member of Order Sirenia A pair of Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris), a member of family Mustelidae yeahh boii ♥ A marine mammal is a... Genera Amblonyx Aonyx Enhydra Lontra Lutra Lutrogale Pteronura The otter (lutrinae) is a carnivorous aquatic or marine mammal part of the family Mustelidae, which also includes weasels, polecats, badgers, as well as others. ... Families Odobenidae Otariidae Phocidae Pinnipeds (fin-feet, lit. ...


Effects on human civilization

Civilization has historically flourished around rivers and major waterways; Mesopotamia, the so-called cradle of civilization, was situated between the major rivers Tigris and Euphrates; the ancient society of the Egyptians depended entirely upon the Nile. Large metropolises like Rotterdam, London, Montreal, Paris, New York City, Shanghai, Tokyo, Chicago, and Hong Kong owe their success in part to their easy accessibility via water and the resultant expansion of trade. Islands with safe water ports, like Singapore, have flourished for the same reason. In places such as North Africa and the Middle East, where water is more scarce, access to clean drinking water was and is a major factor in human development. Download high resolution version (571x920, 66 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (571x920, 66 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... It has been suggested that Steam shower be merged into this article or section. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, and parts of eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and southwest Iran. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... Surfer Rosa The Euphrates (IPA: /juːˈfreɪtiːz/; Greek: EuphrátÄ“s; Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu; Hebrew: פְּרָת PÄ•rāth; Syriac: Prâth; Arabic: الفرات Al-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat; Kurdish: فرهات, Firhat, Ferhat, Azeri: FÉ™rat) is the western of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (the other... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... Cities with atleast a million inhabitants in 2006 A metropolis (in Greek μήτηρ, mÄ“tÄ“r = mother and πόλις, pólis = city/town) is a big city[1], in most cases with over half million inhabitants in the city proper, and with a population of at least one million living in its... Nickname: Motto: Sterker door strijd (Stronger through Struggle) Location of Rotterdam Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province South Holland Government  - Mayor Ivo Opstelten  - Aldermen Jeannette Baljeu Hamit Karakus Orhan Kaya Lucas Bolsius Jantine Kriens Dominic Schrijer Roelf de Boer Leonard Geluk Area [1]  - City 319 km²  (123. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Quebec Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Shanghai (Chinese: ; pinyin:  ; Wu (Long-short): ZÃ¥nhae; Shanghainese (IPA): ), situated on the banks of the Yangtze River Delta in East China, is the largest city of the Peoples Republic of China and the ninth largest in the world. ...   , literally Eastern capital) is a unique subnational administrative region of Japan with characteristics of both a prefecture and a city. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country United States State Illinois County Cook & DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... North Africa is the Mediterranean, northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


Health and pollution

Water fit for human consumption is called drinking water or potable water. Water that is not potable can be made potable by distillation (heating it until it becomes water vapor, and then capturing the vapor without any of the impurities it leaves behind), or by other methods (chemical or heat treatment that kills bacteria). Sometimes the term safe water is applied to potable water of a lower quality threshold (i.e., it is used effectively for nutrition in humans that have weak access to water cleaning processes, and does more good than harm). Water that is not fit for drinking but is not harmful for humans when used for swimming or bathing is called by various names other than potable or drinking water, and is sometimes called safe water, or "safe for bathing". Chlorine is a skin and mucous membrane irritant that is used to make water safe for bathing or drinking. Its use is highly technical and is usually monitored by government regulations (typically 1 part per million (ppm) for drinking water, and 1-2 ppm of chlorine not yet reacted with impurities for bathing water). Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) in the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... Drinking water Mineral Water Drinking water is water that is intended to be ingested by humans. ... Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ... Safe water is water that will not harm you if you come in contact with it. ... Safe water is water that will not harm you if you come in contact with it. ...


This natural resource is becoming scarcer in certain places, and its availability is a major social and economic concern. Currently, about 1 billion people around the world routinely drink unhealthy water. Most countries accepted the goal of halving by 2015 the number of people worldwide who do not have access to safe water and sanitation during the 2003 G8 Evian summit.[12] Even if this difficult goal is met, it will still leave more than an estimated half a billion people without access to safe drinking water supplies and over 1 billion without access to adequate sanitation facilities. Poor water quality and bad sanitation are deadly; some 5 million deaths a year are caused by polluted drinking water. Water, however, is not a finite resource (like petroleum is), but rather re-circulated as potable water in precipitation in quantities many degrees of magnitude higher than human consumption. Therefore, it is the relatively small quantity of water in reserve in the earth (about 1% of our drinking water supply, which is replenished in aquifers around every 1 to 10 years), that is a non-renewable resource, and it is, rather, the distribution of potable and irrigation water which is scarce, rather than the actual amount of it that exists on the earth. Water-poor countries use importation of goods as the primary method of importing water (to leave enough for local human consumption), since the manufacturing process uses around 10 to 100 times products' masses in water. E. Coli bacteria under magnification Sanitation is the hygienic disposal or recycling of waste, as well as the policy and practice of protecting health through hygienic measures. ... The 29th G8 summit took place in Évian-les-Bains, France, in June 2003. ...


In the developing world, 90% of all wastewater still goes untreated into local rivers and streams. Some 50 countries, with roughly a third of the world’s population, also suffer from medium or high water stress, and 17 of these extract more water annually than is recharged through their natural water cycles[citation needed]. The strain affects surface freshwater bodies like rivers and lakes, but it also degrades groundwater resources. Wastewater is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. ...


Human uses

For Weighing

One liter of water was used to determine the weight of a kilogram. Unfortunately, the measurement of water was taken at one degree Celsius[citation needed]. Water is its most dense at four degrees Celsius. Thus the measurement was actually not correct.[citation needed] The liter (spelled liter in American English and litre in Commonwealth English) is a unit of volume. ... A spring scale measures the weight of an object In the physical sciences, weight is a measurement of the gravitational force acting on an object. ... The U.S. National Prototype Kilogram, which currently serves as the primary standard for measuring mass in the U.S. It was assigned to the United States in 1889 and is periodically recertified and traceable to the primary international standard, The Kilogram, held at the Bureau International des Poids et... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ...


For drinking

A manual water pump in China
A manual water pump in China
Main article: Drinking water

About 70% of the fat free mass of the human body is made of water.[citation needed] To function properly, the body requires between one and seven liters of water per day to avoid dehydration; the precise amount depends on the level of activity, temperature, humidity, and other factors. Most of this is ingested through foods or beverages other than drinking straight water. It is not clear how much water intake is needed by healthy people, though most experts agree that 8–10 glasses of water (approximately 2 liters) daily is the minimum to maintain proper hydration.[13] For those who have healthy kidneys, it is rather difficult to drink too much water, but (especially in warm humid weather and while exercising) it is dangerous to drink too little. People can drink far more water than necessary while exercising, however, putting them at risk of water intoxication, which can be fatal. The "fact" that a person should consume eight glasses of water per day cannot be traced back to a scientific source.[14] There are other myths such as the effect of water on weight loss and constipation that have been dispelled.[15] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1004 KB) 老式的压水的自来水设施。在一些农村还可以看到。 Shizhao2005年摄于诸暨乡间。 File links The following pages link to this file: Water Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1004 KB) 老式的压水的自来水设施。在一些农村还可以看到。 Shizhao2005年摄于诸暨乡间。 File links The following pages link to this file: Water Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... An electrically driven pump (electropump) for waterworks near the Hengsteysee, Germany. ... Drinking water Mineral Water Drinking water is water that is intended to be ingested by humans. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) in the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... The liter (spelled liter in American English and litre in Commonwealth English) is a unit of volume. ... Look up day in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (hydro in ancient Greek) from an object. ... Water intoxication (also known as hyperhydration or water poisoning) is a potentially fatal disturbance in brain function that results when the normal balance of electrolytes in the body is pushed outside of safe limits by a very rapid intake of water. ...


Original recommendation for water intake in 1945 by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Research Council read: "An ordinary standard for diverse persons is 1 milliliter for each calorie of food. Most of this quantity is contained in prepared foods."[16] The latest dietary reference intake report by the United States National Research Council in general recommended (including food sources): 2.7 liters of water total for women and 3.7 liters for men.[17] Specifically, pregnant and breastfeeding women need additional fluids to stay hydrated. According to the Institute of Medicine — who recommend that, on average, women consume 2.2 litres and men 3.0 litres — this is recommended to be 2.4 litres (approx. 9 cups) for pregnant women and 3 litres (approx. 12.5 cups) for breastfeeding women since an especially large amount of fluid is lost during nursing.[18] Also noted is that normally, about 20 percent of water intake comes from food, while the rest comes from drinking water and beverages (caffeinated included). Water is excreted from the body in multiple forms; through urine and feces, through sweating, and by exhalation of water vapor in the breath. With physical exertion and heat exposure, water loss will increase and daily fluid needs may increase as well.-1... The National Research Council (NRC) of the USA is the working arm of the United States National Academy of Sciences and the United States National Academy of Engineering, carrying out most of the studies done in their names. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Breastfeeding an infant Symbol for breastfeeding (Matt Daigle, Mothering magazine contest winner 2006) Breastfeeding is the feeding of an infant or young child with milk from a womans breasts. ... The Institute of Medicine, a part of the National Academy of Sciences, is an American organization whose purpose is to provide national advice on issues relating to biomedical science, medicine, and health (National Academy of Sciences, n. ... Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Feces, faeces, or fæces (see spelling differences) In humans, defecation may occur (depending on the individual and the circumstances) from once every two or three days to several times a day. ... SWEAT is an OLN/TSN show hosted by Julie Zwillich that aired in 2003-2004. ... It has been suggested that multiple sections of steam be merged into this article or section. ...


Humans require water that does not contain too many impurities. Common impurities include metal salts and/or harmful bacteria, such as Vibrio. Some solutes are acceptable and even desirable for taste enhancement and to provide needed electrolytes. Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Vibrio is a genus of bacteria, included in the gamma subgroup of the Proteobacteria. ... A substance is soluble in a fluid if it dissolves in the fluid. ... An electrolyte is a substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ...


The single largest freshwater resource suitable for drinking is Lake Baikal in Siberia, which has a very low salt and calcium content and is very clean. Lake Baikal (Russian: Байка́л, pronounced ; Buryat and Mongol: Dalai-Nor) lies in Southern Siberia in Russia between Irkutsk Oblast to the northwest and Buryatia to the southeast near the city of Irkutsk. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 40. ...


As a solvent

Dissolving (or suspending) is used to wash everyday items such as the human body, clothes, floors, cars, food, and pets. Look up Dissolve in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Mixture. ...


As a thermal transfer agent

Boiling, steaming, and simmering are popular cooking methods that often require immersing food in water or its gaseous state, steam. Water is also used in industrial contexts as a coolant, and in almost all power-stations as a coolant and to drive steam turbines to generate electricity. In the nuclear industry, water can also be used as a neutron moderator. Boiling, a type of phase transition, is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which typically occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding atmospheric pressure. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Simmering is a cooking technique in which foods are cooked in hot liquids kept at or just barely below the boiling point of water (at average sea level air pressure), 100 °C (212 °F). ... Cooking is the act of preparing food. ... A coolant, or heat transfer fluid, is a fluid which flows through a device in order to prevent its overheating, transferring the heat produced by the device to other devices that utilize or dissipate it. ... A Siemens steam turbine with the case opened. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Recreation

Humans use water for many recreational purposes, as well as for exercising and for sports. Some of these include swimming, waterskiing, boating, fishing, and diving. In addition, some sports, like ice hockey and ice skating, are played on ice. This article concentrates on human swimming. ... Recreational skiiers typically use two skis — other techniques abound. ... // Boating, the leisurely activity of traveling by boat typically refers to the recreational use of boats whether power boats, sail boats, or yachts (large vessels), focused on the travel itself, as well as sports activities, such as fishing or waterskiing. ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering. ... For other uses, see Dive. ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... Outdoor ice skating in Austria Ice skating is travelling on ice with skates, narrow (and sometimes parabolic) blade-like devices moulded into special boots (or, more primitively, without boots, tied to regular footwear). ...

Some boats in a harbor in Miami Beach, Florida

Lakesides and beaches are popular places for people to go to relax and enjoy recreation. Many find the sound of flowing water to be calming, too. Some keep fish and other life in water tanks or ponds for show, fun, and companionship. Humans also use water for snow sports i.e. skiing or snowboarding, which requires the water to be frozen. People may also use water for play fighting such as with snowballs, water guns or water balloons. They may also make fountains and use water in their public or private decorations. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 2034 KB) A group of boats in in Miami Beach Florida, Photograph by User:fuzzz in www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 2034 KB) A group of boats in in Miami Beach Florida, Photograph by User:fuzzz in www. ... A harbor or harbour (see spelling differences), or haven, is a place where ships may shelter from the weather or are stored. ... Location in Miami-Dade and the state of Florida. ... “Aquaria” redirects here. ... Two people reflected in a fish pond A pond is typically a man made body of water smaller than a lake. ... Cross-country skiing (skating style) in Einsiedeln, Switzerland. ... Snowboarder in a half-pipe Snowboarder on trial Snowboarding is a sport that involves descending a snow-covered slope on a snowboard that is attached to ones feet using a boot/binding interface. ... In humans, play fighting is an activity in which two or more persons act as though they are in combat, but without actually meaning to harm their partners, nor dealing sufficient bodily harm to make the game unenjoyable. ... A sampling of snowballs. ... A water gun (or water pistol or squirt gun) is a type of soy bean designed to shoot monkeys. ... Exploding water balloon eight water balloons lying on pavement A water balloon, or water bomb, is a simple small latex rubber balloon filled with water. ...


Industrial applications

Pressurized water is used in water blasting and water jet cutters. Also, very high pressure water guns are used for precise cutting. It works very well, is relatively safe, and is not harmful to the environment. A diagram of a water jet cutter A water jet cutter is a tool capable of slicing into metal or other materials using a jet of water at high velocity and pressure, or a mixture of water and an abrasive substance. ...


Food processing

Water plays many critical roles within the field of food science. It is important for a food scientist to understand the roles that water plays within food processing to ensure the success of their products. Food science is a discipline concerned with all technical aspects of food, beginning with harvesting or slaughtering, and ending with its cooking and consumption. ...


Solutes such as salts and sugars found in water affect the physical properties of water. The boiling and freezing points of water is affected by solutes. One mole of sucrose (sugar) raises the boiling point of water by 0.52 °C, and one mole of salt raises the boiling point by 1.04 °C while lowering the freezing point of water in a similar way.[19] Solutes in water also affect water activity which affects many chemical reactions and the growth of microbes in food.[20] Water activity can be described as a ratio of the vapor pressure of water in a solution to the vapor pressure of pure water.[19] Solutes in water lower water activity. This is important to know because most bacterial growth ceases at low levels of water activity.[20] Not only does microbial growth affect the safety of food but also the preservation and shelf life of food. The mole (symbol: mol) is the SI base unit that measures an amount of substance. ...


Water hardness is also a critical factor in food processing. It can dramatically affect the quality of a product as well as playing a role in sanitation. Water hardness is classified based on the amounts of removable calcium carbonate salt it contains per gallon. Water hardness is measured in grains; 0.064 g calcium carbonate is equivalent to one grain of hardness.[19] Water is classified as soft if it contains 1 to 4 grains, medium if it contains 5 to 10 grains and hard if it contains 11 to 20 grains.[19] The hardness of water may be altered or treated by using a chemical ion exchange system. The hardness of water also affects its pH balance which plays a critical role in food processing. For example, hard water prevents successful production of clear beverages. Water hardness also affects sanitation; with increasing hardness, there is a loss of effectiveness for its use as a sanitizer.[19]


Power generation

Hydroelectricity is electricity obtained from hydropower. Hydroelectric power comes from water driving a water turbine connected to a generator. Hydroelectricity is a low-cost, non-polluting, renewable energy source. Hydroelectricity is the worlds leading renewable energy source. ... Undershot water wheels on the Orontes River in Hama, Syria Saint Anthony Falls Hydropower is the capture of the energy of moving water for some useful purpose. ...


Politics

See also: Water resources and Category:Water and politics
People waiting in line to gather water during the Siege of Sarajevo
People waiting in line to gather water during the Siege of Sarajevo

Because of overpopulation, mass consumption, misuse, and water pollution, the availability of drinking water per capita is inadequate and shrinking as of the year 2006. For this reason, water is a strategic resource in the globe and an important element in many political conflicts. Some have predicted that clean water will become the "next oil"[citation needed], making Canada, with this resource in abundance, possibly the richest country in the world. There is a long history of conflict over water, including efforts to gain access to water, the use of water in wars started for other reasons, and tensions over shortages and control.[21] UNESCO's World Water Development Report (WWDR, 2003) from its World Water Assessment Program indicates that, in the next 20 years, the quantity of water available to everyone is predicted to decrease by 30%. 40% of the world's inhabitants currently have insufficient fresh water for minimal hygiene. More than 2.2 million people died in 2000 from diseases related to the consumption of contaminated water or drought. In 2004, the UK charity WaterAid reported that a child dies every 15 seconds from easily preventable water-related diseases; often this means lack of sewage disposal; see toilet. Fresh water — now more precious than ever in our history for its extensive use in agriculture, high-tech manufacturing, and energy production — is increasingly receiving attention as a resource requiring better management and sustainable use. Water resources are sources of water that are useful or potentially useful to humans. ... Image File history File links Evstafiev-bosnia-sarajevo-water-line. ... Image File history File links Evstafiev-bosnia-sarajevo-water-line. ... Combatants ARBiH (1992-95) NATO Air Force (1995) JNA (1992) VRS (1992-95) Commanders Jovan Divjak Mustafa Hajrulahović Vahid Karavelić Nedžad Ajnadžić Stanislav Galić (1992-94) Dragomir MiloÅ¡ević (1994-95) Strength 40,000 badly-armed soldiers (1992) 30,000-50,000 heavily-armed troops (1992) The Siege... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ... It has been suggested that affluenza and anti-consumerism be merged into this article or section. ... Raw sewage and industrial waste flows into the U.S. from Mexico as the New River passes from Mexicali, Baja California to Calexico, California Water pollution is a large set of adverse effects upon water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Hygiene refers to practices associated with ensuring good health and cleanliness. ... The term disease refers to an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs function. ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... Current logo, introduced in 2006 Old logo WaterAid is an international non-profit organisation dedicated to helping people escape the poverty and disease caused by living without safe water and sanitation. ... Sewage is the liquid water produced by human society which typically contains washing water, laundry waste, faeces, urine and other liquid or semi-liquid wastes. ... Flush toilet. ...


OECD countries

With nearly 2,000 cubic metres (70,000 ft3) of water per person and per year, the United States leads the world in water consumption per capita. In the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, the U.S. is first for water consumption, then Canada with 1,600 cubic meters (56,000 ft3) of water per person per year, which is about twice the amount of water used by the average person from France, three times as much as the average German, and almost eight times as much as the average Dane. Since 1980, overall water use in Canada has increased by 25.7%. This is five times higher than the overall OECD increase of 4.5%. In contrast, nine OECD nations were able to decrease their overall water use since 1980 (Sweden, the Netherlands, the United States, the United Kingdom, the Czech Republic, Luxembourg, Poland, Finland and Denmark).[22][23] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1400x933, 667 KB) Summary Hopetoun Falls, Beech Forest, near Otway National Park, Victoria. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1400x933, 667 KB) Summary Hopetoun Falls, Beech Forest, near Otway National Park, Victoria. ... Otway is a national park in Victoria (Australia), 162 km southwest of Melbourne. ... Motto: Peace and Prosperity Other Australian states and territories Capital Melbourne Governor HE Mr John Landy Premier Steve Bracks (ALP) Area 237,629 km² (6th)  - Land 227,416 km²  - Water 10,213 km² (4. ... The cubic metre (symbol m³) is the SI derived unit of volume. ... The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ...


United States

Ninety-five percent of the United States' fresh water is underground. One crucial source is a huge underground reservoir, the 1,300-kilometer (800 mi) Ogallala aquifer which stretches from Texas to South Dakota and waters one fifth of U.S. irrigated land. Formed over millions of years, the Ogallala aquifer has since been cut off from its original natural sources. It is being depleted at a rate of 12 billion cubic meters (420 billion ft3) per year, amounting to a total depletion to date of a volume equal to the annual flow of 18 Colorado Rivers. Some estimates say it will dry up in as little as 25 years. Many farmers in the Texas High Plains, which rely particularly on the underground source, are now turning away from irrigated agriculture as they become aware of the hazards of overpumping.[24] The Ogallala aquifer underlies portions of eight states. ... Official language(s) No Official Language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,163 sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... The Colorado River from the bottom of Marble Canyon, in the Upper Grand Canyon Colorado River in the Grand Canyon from Desert View The Colorado River from Laughlin The Colorado River is a river in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, approximately 1,450 mi (2,330 km) long... The High Plains are a subregion of the Great Plains in the central United States, located in eastern Colorado, western Kansas, western Nebraska, central and eastern Montana, eastern New Mexico, western Oklahoma, western Texas, and southeastern Wyoming. ... Irrigating cotton fields Irrigation in the Heart of the Sahara Irrigation (in agriculture) is the replacement or supplementation of rainfall with water from another source in order to grow crops. ...


Mexico

See also: Water supply and sanitation in Mexico

In Mexico City, an estimated 40% of the city's water is lost through leaky pipes built at the turn of the 20th century.[25] While many Mexican water supply and sewer service providers rank among the best in Latin America, in general, the Mexican water and sanitation sector is characterized by the following issues (i) poor technical and commercial efficiency of service provision; (ii) inadequate water service quality; and (iii) inadequate sanitation service quality... Nickname: Location of Mexico City in central Mexico Coordinates: , Country Mexico Federal entity Federal District Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded (as Tenochtitlan) c. ...


Middle East

The Middle East region has only 1% of the world's available fresh water, which is shared among 5% of the world's population. Thus, in this region, water is an important strategic resource. By 2025, it is predicted that the countries of the Arabian peninsula will be using more than double the amount of water naturally available to them.[26] According to a report by the Arab League, two-thirds of Arab countries have less than 1,000 cubic meters (35,000 ft3) of water per person per year available, which is considered the limit.[27] A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Largest cities Alexandria, Baghdad, Cairo, Casablanca, Damascus, Khartoum Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13...

Jordan, for example, has little water, and dams in other countries have reduced its available water sources over the years. The 1994 Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace stated that Israel would give 50 million cubic meters of water (1.7 billion ft3) per year to Jordan, which it refused to do in 1999 before backtracking. The 1994 treaty stated that the two countries would cooperate in order to allow Jordan better access to water resources, notably through dams on the Yarmouk River.[28] Confronted by this lack of water, Jordan is preparing new techniques to use non-conventional water resources, such as second-hand use of irrigation water and desalinization techniques, which are very costly and are not yet used. A desalinization project will soon be started in Hisban, south of Amman. The Disi groundwater project, in the south of Jordan, will cost at least $250 million to bring out water. Along with the Unity Dam on the Yarmouk River, it is one of Jordan's largest strategic projects. Born in 1987, the "Unity Dam" would involve both Jordan and Syria. This "Unity Dam" still has not been implemented because of Israel's opposition, Jordan and Syrian conflictive relations and refusal of world investors. However, Jordan's reconciliation with Syria following the death of King Hussein represents the removal of one of the project's greatest obstacles.[29] Image File history File links Circle-question-red. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace (full name: Treaty of Peace Between the State of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan) (Hebrew:הסכם השלום בין ישראל לירדן; transliterated: HaSekhem Ha-Shalom beyn Yisrael Le-Yarden) (Arabic: معاهدة السلام الأردنية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: Muahadat as-Salam al-Orduniyah al-Israyliyah, and commonly referred to as Araba Valley... The Yarmouk River (Arabic:Nahr Al-Yarmuk; Hebrew:נהר הירמוך, Nehar HaYarmukh; Greek:Hieromax) is one of the three main tributaries which enter the Jordan River between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea (the other being the Jabbok). ... Desalination refers to any of several processes that removes the excess salt and minerals from water in order to obtain fresh water suitable for animal consumption or for irrigation, sometimes producing table salt as a byproduct. ... For other meanings, see Amman (disambiguation) and Ammann. ... Emilio Disi (2 August 1943-) is an Argentine actor. ... Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of geologic formations. ... Hussein I bin Talal, King of Jordan (Arabic: ‎ ; November 14, 1935 – February 7, 1999). ...

Both Israel and Jordan rely on the Jordan River, but Israel controls it, as well as 90% of the water resources in the region. Water is also an important issue in the conflict with the Palestinians - indeed, according to former Israeli prime minister Ariel Sharon quoted by Abel Darwish in the BBC, it was one of the causes of the 1967 Six-Day War. In practice the access to water has been a casus belli for Israel. The Israeli army prohibits Palestinians from pumping water, and settlers use much more advanced pumping equipment. Palestinians complain of a lack of access to water in the region.[30] Israelis in the West Bank use four times as much water as their Palestinian neighbors.[31] According to the World Bank, 90% of the West Bank's water is used by Israelis.[29] Article 40 of the appendix B of the September 28, 1995 Oslo accords stated that "Israel recognizes Palestinians' rights on water in the West Bank". Image File history File links Hayarden. ... Image File history File links Hayarden. ... The Jordan River runs along the border between the West Bank and the Kingdom of Jordan Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River Road sign In spring The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest... The Jordan River runs along the border between the West Bank and the Kingdom of Jordan Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River Road sign In spring The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest... Israel, with the West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights The Israeli-Palestinian conflict, which is often claimed to be at the heart of the Arab-Israeli conflict, is an ongoing dispute between two peoples, Jewish Israelis and Arab Palestinians, who both claim the right to sovereignty over the Land...   (Hebrew: , also known by his diminutive Arik אָרִיק) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Saudi Arabia Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... Casus belli is a modern Latin language expression meaning the justification for acts of war. ... The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: צבא ההגנה לישראל Tsva Ha-Haganah Le-Yisrael ([Army] Force [for] the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the Hebrew name of Israels armed... The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old Kingdoms of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Israeli settlement. ... ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ...


The Golan Heights provide 770 million cubic meters (27 billion ft3) of water per year to Israel, which represents a third of its annual consumption. The Golan's water goes to the Sea of Galilee — Israel's largest reserve — which is then redistributed throughout the country by the National Water Carrier. The Golan, which Israel annexed, represents a strategic territory for Israel because of its water resources.[29]. However, the level on the Sea of Galilee has dropped over the years, sparking fears that Israel's main water reservoir will become salinated. On its northern border, Israel threatened military action in 2002 when Lebanon opened a new pumping station taking water from a river feeding the Jordan. To help ease the crisis, Israel has agreed to buy water from Turkey and is investigating the construction of desalination plants.[32] Golan (aka Gaulonitis; gō´lan; גּולן, gōlān; Γαυλανῖτις, Gaulanítis) was a city in the territory allotted to Manasseh in Bashan, the most northerly of the three cities of refuge... The Sea of Galilee is Israels largest freshwater lake. ... Completed in 1964, the National Water Carrier connects the Sea of Galilee with Israels water system. ...


Iraq and Syria watched with apprehension the construction of the Atatürk Dam in Turkey and a projected system of 22 dams on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.[33] According to the BBC, the list of 'water-scarce' countries in the region grew steadily from three in 1955 to eight in 1990 with another seven expected to be added within 20 years, including three Nile nations (the Nile is shared by nine countries). Atatürk Dam was built on Euphrates river and was completed in 1990. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... Surfer Rosa The Euphrates (IPA: /juːˈfreɪtiːz/; Greek: EuphrátÄ“s; Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu; Hebrew: פְּרָת PÄ•rāth; Syriac: Prâth; Arabic: الفرات Al-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat; Kurdish: فرهات, Firhat, Ferhat, Azeri: FÉ™rat) is the western of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (the other... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ...


Asia

Three Gorges Dam, receiving, upstream side, 26 July 2004
Three Gorges Dam, receiving, upstream side, 26 July 2004

In Asia, Cambodia and Vietnam are concerned by China's and Laos' attempts to control the flux of water. China is also preparing the Three Gorges Dam project on the Yangtze River, which would become the world's largest dam, causing many social and environmental problems. It also has a project to divert water from the Yangtze to the dwindling Yellow River, which feeds China's most important farming region. Download high resolution version (4096x1228, 744 KB)Three Gorges Dam, Sandouping, Hubei Province, China. ... Download high resolution version (4096x1228, 744 KB)Three Gorges Dam, Sandouping, Hubei Province, China. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... Relative position of the Three Gorges Dam . ... The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or Drichu in Tibetan (Tibetan: འབྲི་ཆུ་; Wylie: bri chu) is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world, after the Nile in Africa, and the Amazon in South America. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Yellow River (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Huáng Hé ; Wade-Giles: Hwang-ho, sometimes simply called the River in ancient Chinese) is the second longest river in China (after the Yangtze River) and the seventh longest in the world, at 3,395 miles long [1]. Originating in the...

Ganges river delta, Bangladesh and India
Ganges river delta, Bangladesh and India

The Ganges is disputed between India and Bangladesh. The water reserves are being quickly depleted and polluted, while the glacier feeding the sacred Hindu river is retreating hundreds of feet each year because of global warming[citation needed] and deforestation in the Himalayas, which is causing subsoil streams flowing into the Ganges river to dry up. Downstream, India controls the flow to Bangladesh with the Farakka Barrage, 10 kilometers (6 mi) on the Indian side of the border. Until the late 1990s, India used the barrage to divert the river to Calcutta to keep the city's port from drying up during the dry season. This denied Bangladeshi farmers water and silt, and it left the Sundarban wetlands and mangrove forests at the river's delta seriously threatened. The two countries have now signed an agreement to share the water more equally. Water quality, however, remains a problem, with high levels of arsenic and untreated sewage in the river water.[34] ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x1370, 804 KB) GANGES RIVER DELTA, BANGLADESH, INDIA (STS066-92-013). ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x1370, 804 KB) GANGES RIVER DELTA, BANGLADESH, INDIA (STS066-92-013). ... Nile River delta, as seen from Earth orbit. ... “Ganga” redirects here. ... Glacial and Glaciation redirect here. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages) is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Global mean surface temperatures 1850 to 2006 Mean surface temperature anomalies during the period 1995 to 2004 with respect to the average temperatures from 1940 to 1980 Global warming is the observed increase in the average temperature of the Earths atmosphere and oceans in recent decades and the projected... Deforestation is the conversion of forested areas to non-forest land use such as arable land, pasture, urban use, logged area or wasteland. ... Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... The Farakka Barrage is located 10 km from the Indian side of the border between India and Bangladesh. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... Silt is soil or rock derived granular material of a specific grain size. ... Ganges River Delta, Bangladesh and India The Sundarbans delta is the largest mangrove forest in the world. ... Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ...


South America

The Guaraní Aquifer, located between the Mercosur countries of Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay, with a volume of about 40,000 km³, is an important source of fresh potable water for all four countries. The Guaraní Aquifer is one of the worlds largest aquifer systems, located beneath the surface of the four Mercosur countries Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, is an important source of fresh water for all of them [1]. Named after the Guaraní tribe, it covers 120000 km², with a volume... Official Languages Portuguese, Spanish and Guaraní Members  Argentina (1991)  Brazil (1991)  Paraguay (1991)  Uruguay (1991)  Venezuela (2006)2 Associate Members  Bolivia (1997)  Chile (1996)  Colombia (2004)  Ecuador (2004)  Peru (2003) Observer  Mexico (2004)3 Presidency Carlos Chacho Álvarez Seat of Secretariat Montevideo Area 12. ...


Privatization

Privatization of water companies has been contested on several occasions because of poor water quality, increasing prices, and ethical concerns. In Bolivia for example, the proposed privatization of water companies by the IMF was met by popular protests in Cochabamba in 2000, which ousted Bechtel, an American engineering firm based in San Francisco. SUEZ has started retreating from South America because of similar protests in Buenos Aires, Santa Fe, and Córdoba, Argentina. Consumers took to the streets to protest water rate hikes of as much as 500% mandated by SUEZ. In South and Central America, SUEZ has water concessions in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Mexico. "Bolivian officials fault SUEZ for not connecting enough households to water lines as mandated by its contract and for charging as much as $455 a connection, or about three times the average monthly salary of an office clerk", according to the Mercury News.[35] This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The flag of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the international organization entrusted with overseeing the global financial system by monitoring foreign exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering technical and financial assistance when asked. ... The Cochabamba protests of 2000 were a series of protests that took place in Cochabamba, Bolivia, between January and April 2000, because of the privatization of the municipal water supply, which was sold to a private company, International Waters Limited (IWL) of London (a wholly-owned subsidiary of Bechtel Corporation... Bechtel Corporation (Bechtel Group) is the largest engineering company in the United States, ranking as the 9th-largest privately owned company in the U.S. With headquarters in San Francisco, Bechtel had 40,000 employees as of 2006 working on projects in nearly 50 countries with $20. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Northermost part of Gulf of Suez with town Suez on map of 1856. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... Santa Fe is the capital city of the Santa Fe Province of Argentina. ... Córdoba is a city located near the geographical center of Argentina, in the foothills of the Sierras Chicas mountains on the Suquía River, about 700 km west-northwest from Buenos Aires. ... The Mercs sections vary by day of the week, but Business, Sports, and The Valley are standard daily fare. ...


South Africa also made moves to privatize water, provoking an outbreak of cholera killing 200.[36]


In 1997, World Bank consultants assisted the Philippine government in the privatization of the city of Manila's Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage Systems (MWSS). By 2003, water price increases registered at 81% in the east zone of the Philippines and 36% in the west region. As services became more expensive and inefficient under privatization, there was reduced access to water for poor households. In October 2003, the Freedom from Debt Coalition reported that the diminished access to clean water resulted in an outbreak of cholera and other gastro-intestinal diseases.[37]


Regulation

A water-carrier in India, circa ~1882. In many places where running water is not available, water has to be transported by people.
A water-carrier in India, circa ~1882. In many places where running water is not available, water has to be transported by people.

Drinking water is often collected at springs, extracted from artificial borings in the ground, or wells. Building more wells in adequate places is thus a possible way to produce more water, assuming the aquifers can supply an adequate flow. Other water sources are rainwater and river or lake water. This surface water, however, must be purified for human consumption. This may involve removal of undissolved substances, dissolved substances and harmful microbes. Popular methods are filtering with sand which only removes undissolved material, while chlorination and boiling kill harmful microbes. Distillation does all three functions. More advanced techniques exist, such as reverse osmosis. Desalination of abundant ocean or seawater is a more expensive solution used in coastal arid climates. Image File history File links Water_carrier. ... Image File history File links Water_carrier. ... A natural spring on Mackinac Island in Michigan. ... Boring, in this sense, is the process of drilling a hole into the solid Earth. ... Control room and schematics of the water purification plant to Bret lake. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... An industrial water filter with geared motor A water filter is a device which removes impurities from water by means of a fine physical barrier, chemical processes and/or biological process. ... Chlorination is the process of adding the element chlorine to water as a method of water purification to make it fit for human consumption as drinking water. ... Boiling, a type of phase transition, is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which typically occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding atmospheric pressure. ... Laboratory distillation set-up using, without a fractionating column 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed... Reverse osmosis is a separation process that uses pressure to force a solvent through a membrane that retains the solute on one side and allows the pure solvent to pass to the other side. ... Shevchenko BN350 desalination unit situated on the shore of the Caspian Sea. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... An arid environment has an extremely low yearly precipitation, receiving much less rain or snowfall annually than would satisfy the climatological demand for evaporation and transpiration. ...


The distribution of drinking water is done through municipal water systems or as bottled water. Governments in many countries have programs to distribute water to the needy at no charge. Others argue that the market mechanism and free enterprise are best to manage this rare resource and to finance the boring of wells or the construction of dams and reservoirs. A municipal water system is a large system of reservoirs and large-scale piping which supplies fresh water, suitable for human consumption, to houses and other residences. ... A 1. ... Look up Market in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Free Enterprise is am economic system characterized by private or corporate ownership of capital goods; investments that are determined by private decision rather than by state control; and determined in a free market. ... The Ashokan Reservoir, located in Ulster County, New York, USA. It is one of 19 that supplies New York City with drinking water. ...


Reducing waste by using drinking water only for human consumption is another option. In some cities such as Hong Kong, sea water is extensively used for flushing toilets citywide in order to conserve fresh water resources. Polluting water may be the biggest single misuse of water; to the extent that a pollutant limits other uses of the water, it becomes a waste of the resource, regardless of benefits to the polluter. Like other types of pollution, this does not enter standard accounting of market costs, being conceived as externalities for which the market cannot account. Thus other people pay the price of water pollution, while the private firms' profits are not redistributed to the local population victim of this pollution. Pharmaceuticals consumed by humans often end up in the waterways and can have detrimental effects on aquatic life if they bioaccumulate and if they are not biodegradable. In economics, an externality is a cost or benefit resulting from an economic transaction that is borne or received by parties not directly involved in the transaction. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... Marine biology is the scientific study of the plants, animals and other organisms that live in the ocean or any other body of water. ... If the input of a toxic substance to an organism is greater than the rate at which the substance is lost, the organism is said to be bioaccumulating that substance. ... Biodegradation is the decomposition of material by microorganisms. ...


Religion, philosophy, and literature

A Hindu ablution as practiced in Tamil Nadu
A Hindu ablution as practiced in Tamil Nadu

Water is considered a purifier in most religions. Major faiths that incorporate ritual washing (ablution) include Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Shinto. Water baptism is a central sacrament of Christianity; it is also a part of the practice of other religions, including Judaism (mikvah) and Sikhism (Amrit Sanskar). In addition, a ritual bath in pure water is performed for the dead in many religions including Judaism and Islam. In Islam, the five daily prayers can be done in most cases after completing washing certain parts of the body using clean water (wudu). In Shinto, water is used in almost all rituals to cleanse a person or an area (e.g., in the ritual of misogi). Water is mentioned in the Bible 442 times in the New International Version and 363 times in the King James Version: 2 Peter 3:5(b) states, "The earth was formed out of water and by water" (NIV). Image File history File linksMetadata Hindu_water_ritual. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Hindu_water_ritual. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with ritual purification. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages) is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... Baptism in early Christian art. ... In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... Mikvah (or mikveh) (Hebrew: מִקְוָה, Standard Tiberian  ; plural: mikvaot or mikvot) is a specially constructed pool of water used for total immersion in a purification ceremony within Judaism. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is a religion that began in fifteenth century Northern India with the teachings of Nanak and nine successive human gurus. ... The Amrit Sanskar Ceremony Amrit Sanskar or Amrit Sanchar or the Amrit ceremony is the Sikh ceremony of initiation or baptism. ... This article is about Hygiene in Islam. ... This article is about Hygiene in Islam. ... Misogi is a Shinto practice involving purification in a waterfall or other natural running water. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... The New International Version (NIV) is an English translation of the Christian Bible which is the most popular of the modern translations of the Bible made in the twentieth century. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ...


Some faiths use water especially prepared for religious purposes (holy water in some Christian denominations, Amrit in Sikhism and Hinduism). Many religions also consider particular sources or bodies of water to be sacred or at least auspicious; examples include Lourdes in Roman Catholicism, the Zamzam Well in Islam and the River Ganges (among many others) in Hinduism. In Neo-Paganism water is often combined with salt in the first steps of a ritual, to act as a purifier of worshippers and the altar, symbolising both cleansing tears and the ocean. St. ... The Temple of Amrit. ... This article is about the French pilgrimage location. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Well of Zamzam (or the Zamzam Well, or just Zamzam; Arabic: زمزم) is a well located within the Masjid al Haram in Mecca, near the Kaaba, the holiest place in Islam. ... “Ganga” redirects here. ...


Water is often believed to have spiritual powers. In Celtic mythology, Sulis is the local goddess of thermal springs; in Hinduism, the Ganges is also personified as a goddess, while Saraswati have been referred to as goddess in Vedas. Also water is one of the "panch-tatva"s (basic 5 elements, others including fire, earth, space, air). Alternatively, gods can be patrons of particular springs, rivers, or lakes: for example in Greek and Roman mythology, Peneus was a river god, one of the three thousand Oceanids. In Islam, not only does water give life, but every life is itself made of water: "We made from water every living thing".[38] Template:Buttface mythology Celtic mythology is the mythology of Celtic polytheism annas hippo butt, apparently the religion of the Iron Age Celts. ... In ancient Celtic polytheism, Sulis (also found as Sulevis/Sulis/Sulla) was the deification of spring-water, especially of thermal spring-water, conceived as a nourishing, life-giving Mother goddess. ... Statue of Ceres, the Roman goddess of agriculture For the 1934 film, see, see The Goddess (1934 film). ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages) is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... In Hinduism, the Ganges River (called locally as the Ganga) is personified as a goddess, who holds an important place in the Hindu pantheon. ... In Hinduism, Saraswati (Sanskrit ) is one of the goddesses, the other two being Lakshmi and Durga, that form the female counterpart of the Trimurti. ... The Vedas are part of the Hindu Shruti; these religious scriptures form part of the core of the Brahminical and Vedic traditions within Hinduism and are the inspirational, metaphysical and mythological foundation for later Vedanta, Yoga, Tantra and even Bhakti forms of Hinduism. ... A forest fire Fire is a rapid oxidation process that creates light, heat, smoke, frost, and releases energy in varying intensities. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Space has been an interest for philosophers and scientists for much of human history. ... Look up air in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... The word mythology (from the Greek μυολογία mythología, from mythologein to relate myths, from mythos, meaning a narrative, and logos, meaning speech or argument) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use the supernatural to interpret natural events and... In Greek mythology, Peneus (Πηνειός) was a river god, one of the three-thousand Rivers, a child of Oceanus and Tethys. ... In Greek and Roman mythology, the Oceanids were the three thousand children of the Titans Oceanus and Tethys. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


The Greek philosopher Empedocles held that water is one of the four classical elements along with fire, earth and air, and was regarded as the ylem, or basic substance of the universe. Water was considered cold and moist. In the theory of the four bodily humors, water was associated with phlegm. Water was also one of the five elements in traditional Chinese philosophy, along with earth, fire, wood, and metal. A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Empedocles (Greek: , ca. ... Chinese Japanese Earth (地) | Water (水) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism and Buddhism Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water “The Four Elements” redirects here. ... A forest fire Fire is a rapid oxidation process that creates light, heat, smoke, frost, and releases energy in varying intensities. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Chinese (Wu Xing) Japanese (Godai) Earth (地) | Water (水) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (Mahābhūta) Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Bön New Zealand According to modern science, Earth’s atmosphere is a mixture of... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Phlegm (pronounced ) is sticky fluid secreted by the typhoid membranes of animals. ... Chinese Wood (木) | Fire (火) Earth (土) | Metal (金) | Water (水) Japanese Earth (地) | Water (水) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism and Buddhism Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Water has been important to all peoples of the earth, and it is rich in spiritual tradition. ... Chinese Wood (木) | Fire (火) Earth (土) | Metal (金) | Water (水) Japanese Earth (地) | Water (水) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism and Buddhism Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water In traditional Chinese philosophy, natural phenomena can be classified into the Five Elements (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ): wood, fire... Yin Yang symbol and Ba gua paved in a clearing outside of Nanning City, Guangxi province, China. ... Chinese (Wu Xing) Japanese (Godai) Earth (地) | Water (水) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (Mahābhūta) Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Bön New Zealand Earth, home and origin of humanity, has often been worshipped in... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In Chinese alchemy, wood was one of the five elements. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Water also plays an important role in literature as a symbol of purification. Examples include the critical importance of a river in As I Lay Dying by William Faulkner and the drowning of Ophelia in Hamlet. Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... Categories: Move to Wiktionary | Stub | Chemistry ... This bridge across the Danube River links Hungary with Slovakia. ... As I Lay Dying is a novel written by the American author William Faulkner. ... William Cuthbert Faulkner (September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American novelist and poet whose works feature his native state of Mississippi. ... Hamlet and Horatio in the cemetery by Eugène Delacroix For other uses, see Hamlet (disambiguation). ...


See also

Main lists: List of water related topics and List by water type
Water Portal
Sustainable development Portal

This lists water related topic categorized by topic This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... This lists water related topics categorized by by water state and dominant type categories. ... An Atmospheric water generator (AWG) is a machine that produces pure drinking water from the humidity of the surrounding air. ... A bioswale is a piece of landscape designed to function in aid of local water drainage. ... Bubbles of carbon dioxide float to the surface of a soft drink. ... // Getting water out of a cistern A cistern (Middle English cisterne, from Latin cisterna, from cista, box, from Greek kistê, basket) is a receptacle for holding liquids, usually water. ... A common misconception is that the ocean is blue due to the reflections from the sky on its surface. ... Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (hydro in ancient Greek) from an object. ... Water intoxication is a medical condition (also known as hyperhydration) in which an individuals intake of water is excessive. ... Shevchenko BN350 desalination unit situated on the shore of the Caspian Sea. ... The logo of DHMO.org, primary current residence of the dihydrogen monoxide hoax Dihydrogen monoxide (DHMO) is a scientific name for water that is relatively unknown to most of the public, used in hoaxes that illustrate how the lack of scientific knowledge and an exaggerated analysis can lead to misplaced... Bottle for Distilled water in the Real Farmacia in Madrid. ... Drinking water Mineral Water Drinking water is water that is intended to be ingested by humans. ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... Ecohydrology is a sub-discipline of hydrology that focuses on ecological processes involved in the hydrological cycle. ... Evapotranspiration (ET) is the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration. ... Flooding in Amphoe Sena, Ayutthaya Province, Thailand. ... For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Freshwater, Isle of Wight. ... Heavy water is dideuterium oxide, or D2O or 2H2O. It is chemically the same as normal water, H2O, but the hydrogen atoms are of the heavy isotope deuterium, in which the nucleus contains a neutron in addition to the proton found in the nucleus of any hydrogen atom. ... River in Madagascar relatively free of sediment load An hydrological transport model is a mathematical model used to simulate river or stream flow and calculate water quality parameters. ... Hydrography focuses on the measurement of physical characteristics of waters and marginal land. ... Water covers 70% of the Earths surface. ... Undershot water wheels on the Orontes River in Hama, Syria Saint Anthony Falls Hydropower is the capture of the energy of moving water for some useful purpose. ... The movement of water around, over, and through the Earth is called the water cycle, a key process of the hydrosphere. ... Snowflakes by Wilson Bentley, 1902 Ice is the name given to any one of the 14 known solid phases of water. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil. ... In many places, mineral water is often colloquially used to mean carbonated water (which is usually carbonated mineral water, as opposed to tap water). ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Late-summer rainstorm in Denmark In meteorology, precipitation (also known as hydrometeor) is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that is deposited on the earths surface. ... Rain is a type of precipitation which forms when separate drops of water fall to the Earths surface from clouds. ... View of a Johad at village Thathawata View of a stepwell at Fatehpur,Shekhawati. ... Safe water is water that will not harm you if you come in contact with it. ... Sea water is water from a sea or ocean. ... A spring is a point where groundwater flows out of the ground, and is thus where the aquifer surface meets the ground surface. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled steam and water vapor, accessible from a disambiguation page. ... “Ebb tide” redirects here. ... The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa is an agreement to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought through national action programs that incorporate long-term strategies supported by international cooperation and partnership arrangements. ... Virtual water refers to the water required in the production of a good or service. ... Wastewater is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. ... Water 1st International is a non-profit organization helping people in poor countries implement water, sanitation and hygiene education projects. ... Current logo, introduced in 2006 Old logo WaterAid is an international non-profit organisation dedicated to helping people escape the poverty and disease caused by living without safe water and sanitation. ... Deforestation of the Madagascar Highland Plateau has led to extensive siltation and unstable flows of western rivers. ... This article describes water from a scientific and technical perspective. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on water. ... The movement of water around, over, and through the Earth is called the water cycle. ... The water fuel cell, named by American Stanley Meyer, is a device designed to convert water into its component elements, hydrogen and oxygen (2H2O → 2H2 + O2). ... Categories: Stub | Water | Sewerage | Industries ... Water intoxication (also known as hyperhydration or water poisoning) is a potentially fatal disturbance in brain function that results when the normal balance of electrolytes in the body is pushed outside of safe limits by a very rapid intake of water. ... A water ionizer is an appliance that claims to ionize water. ... Water laws are regulated individually by sovereign states. ... Water memory is a concept, basic to homeopathy, which holds that water is capable of containing memory of particles dissolved in it. ... Fun at a water park A water park is an amusement park that features waterplay areas, such as water slides, splash pads, spraygrounds (water playgrounds), lazy rivers, or other recreational bathing environments. ... Control room and schematics of the water purification plant to Bret lake. ... Water quality is the chemical and physical characterization of water. ... Water resources are sources of water that are useful or potentially useful to humans. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A water sport is a form of recreation where water (other than drinking water) is an essential aspect of the activity. ... Chemical, Elevated, Hydropneumatic and Ground Storage Water Tanks shown together in one installation. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... World Ocean Day began on 8 June 1992 at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. ... World Water Day or the World Day for Water occurs each year on March 22, as designated by United Nations General Assembly resolution. ... Image File history File links Drinking_water. ... Image File history File links Sustainable_development. ...

References

Cited references

  1. ^ http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi/bichaw/1997/36/i43/abs/bi971323j.html
  2. ^ Water Vapor in the Climate System, Special Report, [AGU], December 1995 (linked 4/2007). Vital Water UNEP.
  3. ^ [http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1642811,00.html Water Found on Distant Planet July 12, 2007 By LAURA BLUE TIME
  4. ^ Water Found in Extrasolar Planet's Atmosphere - Space.com
  5. ^ Why is water blue?
  6. ^ Physical Forces Organizing Biomolecules (PDF)
  7. ^ P. G. Debenedetti, P. G., and Stanley, H. E.; "Supercooled and Glassy Water", Physics Today 56 (6), p. 40–46 (2003).
  8. ^ The pressure due to water vapor in the air is called the partial pressure(Dalton's law) and it is directly proportional to concentration of water molecules in air (Boyle's law).
  9. ^ Adiabatic cooling resulting from the ideal gas law.
  10. ^ Gary Melnick, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and David Neufeld, Johns Hopkins University quoted in: "Discover of Water Vapor Near Orion Nebula Suggests Possible Origin of H20 in Solar System [sic]", The Harvard University Gazette, April 23, 1998.  "Space Cloud Holds Enough Water to Fill Earth's Oceans 1 Million Times", [email protected], JHU, April 9, 1998.  "Water, Water Everywhere: Radio telescope finds water is common in universe", The Harvard University Gazette, February 25, 1999. . (linked 4/2007)
  11. ^ J. C. I. Dooge. "Integrated Management of Water Resources". in E. Ehlers, T. Krafft. (eds.) Understanding the Earth System: compartments, processes, and interactions. Springer, 2001, p. 116. More references are at the end of the article "Habitable Zone" at The Encyclopedia of Astrobiology, Astronomy and Spaceflight.
  12. ^ G8 "Action plan" decided upon at the 2003 Evian summit
  13. ^ Healthy Water Living. Retrieved on 2007-02-01.
  14. ^ "Drink at least eight glasses of water a day." Really? Is there scientific evidence for "8 × 8"? by Heinz Valdin, Department of Physiology, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire
  15. ^ Drinking Water - How Much?, Factsmart.org web site and references within
  16. ^ Food and Nutrition Board, National Academy of Sciences. Recommended Dietary Allowances, revised 1945. National Research Council, Reprint and Circular Series, No. 122, 1945 (Aug), p. 3-18.
  17. ^ Dietary Reference Intakes: Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate, Food and Nutrition Board
  18. ^ http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/water/NU00283
  19. ^ a b c d e Vaclacik and Christian, 2003
  20. ^ a b DeMan, 1999
  21. ^ A Chronology of Water-Related Conflicts
  22. ^ Water consumption indicator in the OECD countries
  23. ^ "Golf 'is water hazard'", BBC News, March 17, 2003. 
  24. ^ "Ogallala aquifer - Water hot spots", BBC News, ?. 
  25. ^ "Mexico City - Water hot spots", BBC News, ?. 
  26. ^ "Water shortages 'foster terrorism'", BBC News, March 18, 2003. 
  27. ^ "Major aspects of scarce water resources management with reference to the Arab countries", Arab League report published for the International Conference on water gestion and water politics in arid zones, in Amman, Jordan, December 1-3, 1999. Quoted by French journalist Christian Chesnot in "Drought in the Middle East", Monde diplomatique, February 2000.  - French original version freely available here.
  28. ^ See 1994 Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace, annex II, article II, first paragraph
  29. ^ a b c See Christian Chesnot in "Drought in the Middle East", Le Monde diplomatique, February 2000.  - French original version freely available here.
  30. ^ "Analysis: Middle East water wars, by Abel Darwish", BBC News, May 30, 2003. 
  31. ^ "Israel - water hot spots", BBC News, ?. 
  32. ^ "Israel - water hot spots", BBC News, ?. 
  33. ^ "Turkey - water hot spots", BBC News, ?. 
  34. ^ "Ganges river - water hot spots", BBC News, ?. 
  35. ^ "Bolivia's water wars coming to end under Morales", Mercury News, February 26, 2006. 
  36. ^ "Water privatisation: ask the experts", BBC News, December 10, 2004. 
  37. ^ "Rights Education Empowers People in the Philippines", Aurora Parong, 1995. 
  38. ^ Sura of Al-Anbiya 21:30
  • John M. DeMan (1999). Principles of Food Chemistry 3rd Edition. 
  • Vickie A. Vaclavik and Elizabeth W. Christian (2003). Essentials of Food Science 2nd Edition. 

Klaus Töpfer, UNEP Exec. ... A pocket watch, a device used to tell time Look up time in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In chemistry and physics, Daltons law (also called Daltons law of partial pressures) states that the total pressure exerted by a gaseous mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of each individual component in a gas mixture. ... Boyles law (sometimes referred to as the Boyle Mariotte law) is one of the gas laws. ... In thermodynamics, an adiabatic process or an isocaloric process is a process in which no heat is transferred to or from the working fluid. ... Isotherms of an ideal gas The ideal gas law is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas, first stated by Benoît Paul Émile Clapeyron in 1834. ... The Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) is located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... The Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, is a private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Official language(s) English Capital Concord Largest city Manchester Area  Ranked 46th  - Total 9,359 sq mi (24,239 km²)  - Width 68 miles (110 km)  - Length 190 miles (305 km)  - % water 3. ... The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... Christian Chesnot is a French journalist working for Radio France who, along with Georges Malbrunot, was taken hostage on August 20, 2004, by the Islamic Army in Iraq. ... The Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace (full name: Treaty of Peace Between the State of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan) (Hebrew:הסכם השלום בין ישראל לירדן; transliterated: HaSekhem Ha-Shalom beyn Yisrael Le-Yarden) (Arabic: معاهدة السلام الأردنية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: Muahadat as-Salam al-Orduniyah al-Israyliyah, and commonly referred to as Araba Valley... Christian Chesnot is a French journalist working for Radio France who, along with Georges Malbrunot, was taken hostage on August 20, 2004, by the Islamic Army in Iraq. ... Le Monde diplomatique (nicknamed Le Diplo by its French readers) is a monthly publication offering analysis and opinion on politics, culture, and current affairs. ... The Mercs sections vary by day of the week, but Business, Sports, and The Valley are standard daily fare. ... Sura (sometimes spelt Surah , plural Suwar ) is an Arabic term literally meaning something enclosed or surrounded by a fence or wall. ... Surat al-Anbiya (The Prophets) is the 21st sura of the Quran. ...

General references

  • OA Jones, JN Lester and N Voulvoulis, Pharmaceuticals: a threat to drinking water? TRENDS in Biotechnology 23(4): 163, 2005
  • Franks, F (Ed), Water, A comprehensive treatise, Plenum Press, New York, 1972-1982
  • Property of Water and Water Steam w Thermodynamic Surface
  • PH Gleick and associates, The World's Water: The Biennial Report on Freshwater Resources. Island Press, Washington, D.C. (published every two years, beginning in 1998.)
  • Marks, William E., The Holy Order of Water: Healing Earth's Waters and Ourselves. Bell Pond Books ( a div. of Steiner Books), Great Barrington, MA, November 2001 [ISBN 0-88010-483-X]
  • Debenedetti, P. G., and Stanley, H. E.; "Supercooled and Glassy Water", Physics Today 56 (6), p. 40–46 (2003). Downloadable PDF (1.9 MB)

Water as a natural resource

  • Gleick, Peter H.. The World's Water: The Biennial Report on Freshwater Resources. Washington: Island Press.  (November 10, 2006)| ISBN-13: 9781597261050]
  • Postel, Sandra (1997, second edition). Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity. New York: Norton Press. 
  • Anderson (1991). Water Rights: Scarce Resource Allocation, Bureaucracy, and the Environment. 
  • Marq de Villiers (2003, revised edition). Water: The Fate of Our Most Precious Resource. 
  • Diane Raines Ward (2002). Water Wars: Drought, Flood, Folly and the Politics of Thirst. 
  • Miriam R. Lowi (1995). Water and Power: The Politics of a Scarce Resource in the Jordan River Basin.  (Cambridge Middle East Library)
  • Worster, Donald (1992). Rivers of Empire: Water, Aridity, and the Growth of the American West. 
  • Reisner, Marc (1993). Cadillac Desert: The American West and Its Disappearing Water. 
  • Maude Barlow, Tony Clarke (2003). Blue Gold: The Fight to Stop the Corporate Theft of the World's Water. 
  • Vandana Shiva (2002). Water Wars: Privatization, Pollution, and Profit. ISBN 0-7453-1837-1. 
  • Anita Roddick, et al (2004). Troubled Water: Saints, Sinners, Truth And Lies About The Global Water Crisis. 
  • William E. Marks (2001). The Holy Order of Water: Healing Earths Waters and Ourselves. 

External links

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Look up Water in
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  • American Water Resources Association
  • WaterAid - Charity dedicated to the provision of clean water, sanitation and hygiene education
  • Properties Water and Water Steame

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Food chemistry is the study of chemical processes of biological substances that are dead or dying. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Food coloring spreading on a thin water film. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Flavor or flavour (see spelling differences) is the sensory impression of a food or other substance, and is determined mainly by the chemical senses of taste and smell. ... Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or improve its taste and appearance. ... A polyunsaturated triglyceride. ... Dietary Minerals are the chemical elements required by living organisms, other than the four elements Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, and Oxygen which are omnipresent in organic molecules. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Retinol (Vitamin A) For the record label, see Vitamin Records A vitamin is an organic compound required in tiny amounts for essential metabolic reactions in a living organism. ...



  Results from FactBites:
 
The Joy of Water Fountains (0 words)
The larger the volume of water that passes from the top of the fountain to the bottom, the louder the sound will be.
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Everything from the role of the waters of hydration in antibody-binding to the effect of solvation for stabilizing protein structure to the dependence of water's dielectric and pH on temperature and pressure.
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