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Encyclopedia > Wastewater

Wastewater is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. It comprises liquid waste discharged by domestic residences, commercial properties, industry, and/or agriculture and can encompass a wide range of potential contaminants and concentrations. In the most common usage, it refers to the municipal wastewater that contains a broad spectrum of contaminants resulting from the mixing of wastewaters from different sources. Impact of a drop of water. ... Anthropogenic effects or processes are those that are derived from human activities, as opposed to effects or processes that occur in the natural environment without human influences. ...


Sewage is correctly the subset of wastewater that is contaminated with faeces or urine, but is often used to mean any waste water. "Sewage" includes domestic, municipal, or industrial liquid waste products disposed of, usually via a pipe or sewer or similar structure, sometimes in a cesspool emptier. Rabbit feces are usually 0. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Waste Waste inside a rubbish bin Waste, rubbish, trash, or garbage is unwanted or undesired material. ... An elevated section of the Alaska Pipeline Pipeline transport is a transportation of goods through a tube. ... Image of a sewer pipe // Function Sewers transport wastewater from buildings to treatment facilities. ... A cesspool emptier is a type of specialized tanker-lorry which can suck contaminated water out of hollows such as cesspools and sewage tanks and carry it to a suitable disposal point. ...


The physical infrastructure, including pipes, pumps, screens, channels etc. used to convey sewage from its origin to the point of eventual treatment or disposal is termed sewerage. In the past the word "sewage" also meant what is now called "sewerage". Possibly because of that, the word "sewerage" is often mistakenly used to mean "sewage". An electrically-driven waterworks pump near the Hengsteysee, Germany. ... The word sewerage means the provision of pipes etc to collect and dispose of sewage. ...

Contents

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Wastewater origin

Wastewater or sewage can come from (text in brackets indicates likely inclusions or contaminants) :-

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Sewage treatment is the process that removes the majority of the contaminants from waste-water or sewage and produces both a liquid effluent suitable for disposal to the natural environment and a sludge. ... Flush toilet A toilet is a plumbing fixture devised for the disposal of bodily wastes, including urine, feces, methane, semen and vomit. ... Human feces, also known as stools, vary significantly in appearance, depending on the state of the whole digestive system, influenced by diet and health. ... A roll of toilet paper. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Blackwater (waste) is a relatively recent term used to describe water containing Feacal matter and Urine: its is also known as foul water, or as sewage. ... A cesspit, or cesspool, is a pit, conservancy tank, or covered cistern, to which can be used for sewage or refuse. ... A septic tank is part of a small scale sewage treatment system often referred to as a septic system, which consists of the tank itself and a septic drain field. ... Sewage (or domestic wastewater) treatment is the process of removing contaminants from sewage. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Natural olive oil Synthetic motor oil Oil, in a general sense, is a chemical compound that is not miscible with water, and is in a liquid state at ambient temperatures. ... Fuel is any material that is capable of releasing energy when its chemical or physical structure is changed or converted. ... Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of geologic formations. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... Lubricants are an essential part of modern machinery. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... In meteorology, precipitation is any kind of water that falls from the sky as part of the weather. ... A road ascends a mountainside using hairpin bends in the French Alps. ... Litter in the habitat of a lizard. ... Rubber is an elastic hydrocarbon polymer which occurs as a milky colloidal suspension (known as latex) in the sap of several varieties of plants. ... Hot metal work from a blacksmith In chemistry, a metal (Greek: Metallon) is an element that readily forms positive ions (cations) and has metallic bonds. ... The word exhaust can mean:- A verb meaning tire out, as in After the long gallop, his horse was exhausted. ... Sea water is water from a sea or ocean. ... The River Thames in London River running into Harrietville Trout Farm A river is a large natural waterway. ... Highway in Pennsylvania, USA The Pan-American Highway, in the Peruvian town of Máncora, where it serves as the main street. ... A roll cloud associated with a heavy or severe thunderstorm over Enschede, Netherlands A storm is any disturbed state of a planets atmosphere, especially affecting its surface, and strongly implying severe weather. ... Blackwater (waste) is a relatively recent term used to describe water containing Feacal matter and Urine: its is also known as foul water, or as sewage. ... Workers and cattle in a slaughterhouse. ... A Creamery is an establishment where dairy products are prepared or sold. ... Cherry iced cream Ice cream (actually iced cream) is a frozen dessert made from dairy products such as cream (or substituted ingredients), combined with flavorings and sweeteners such as sugar. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... pH is a measure of the acidity of a solution, in terms of activity of hydrogen ions (H+). For dilute solutions, however, it is convenient to substitute the activity of the hydrogen ions with the molarity (mol/L) of the hydrogen ions (however, this is not necessarily accurate at higher... -) :-( :-P :-*An acid (often represented by the generic formula HA) is traditionally considered any chemical compound that when dissolved in water, gives a solution with a pH of less than 7. ... In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly) is a specific type of base, formed as a carbonate, hydroxide or other ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkali earth metal element. ... Toxic redirects here, but this is also the name of a song by Britney Spears; see Toxic (song) Look up toxic and toxicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The cyanide ion, CN−. From the top: 1. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... A solid is a state of matter, characterized by a definite volume and a definite shape (i. ... A. Two immisicble liquids, not emulsified; B. An emulsion of Phase B dispersed in Phase A; C. The unstable emulsion progressively separates; D. The surfactant (purple outline) positions itself on the interfaces between Phase A and Phase B, stabilizing the emulsion An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible (unblendable... <alternateuses> <Image:Paper 450x450. ... Natural olive oil Synthetic motor oil Oil, in a general sense, is a chemical compound that is not miscible with water, and is in a liquid state at ambient temperatures. ...

Wastewater constituents

The composition of wastewater varies widely. This is a partial list of what it may contain:

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Flushing has multiple meanings: For any of several populated places, a village in the United Kingdom, see Flushing, Cornwall a city in the Netherlands, see Flushing, Netherlands a section of the borough of Queens in New York City, see Flushing, New York a city in Genesee County, Michigan, see Flushing... A pathogen (literally birth of pain from the Greek &#960;&#945;&#952;&#959;&#947;&#941;&#957;&#949;&#953;&#945;) is a biological agent that can cause disease to its host. ... Groups I: dsDNA viruses II: ssDNA viruses III: dsRNA viruses IV: (+)ssRNA viruses V: (-)ssRNA viruses VI: ssRNA-RT viruses VII: dsDNA-RT viruses A virus (Latin, poison) is a microscopic particle that can infect the cells of a biological organism. ... A prion (IPA: [1]  ) — short for proteinaceous infectious particle — (by analogy to virion) is a type of infectious agent. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Organic material or organic matter is informally used to denote a material that originated as a living organism; most such materials contain carbon and are capable of decay. ... Rabbit feces are usually 0. ... Young Girl Fixing her Hair, by Sophie Gengembre Anderson Hair is a filamentous outgrowth from the skin, found mainly in mammals. ... Vomiting (or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth. ... Humus is a word actually used for two different things, which are both related to soil and thus get used interchangeably. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solution. ... Urea is an organic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen, with the formula CON2H4 or (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Non-proprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Oral medication A medication is a licenced drug taken to cure or reduce symptoms of an illness or medical condition. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. ... Patterns in the sand Sand is an example of a class of materials called granular matter. ... Fixed Partial Denture, or Bridge The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικος (keramikos, potters earth, or pottery). The term covers inorganic non-metallic materials whose formation is due to the action of heat. ... Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3. ... The cyanide ion, CN−. From the top: 1. ... Flash point -82. ... Thiocyanate (also known as sulphocyanate or thiocyanide) is both an anion SCN- and, in organic chemistry, a functional group: An example of the anion is found in potassium thiocyanate, KSCN. Thiocyanate is analogous to the cyanate ion, OCN-, wherein oxygen is replaced by sulfur. ... Thiosulfates contain the anion S2O32-. Thiosulfates are only stable in neutral or alkaline solutions, but not in acidic solutions, due to decomposition to sulfite and sulfur, the sulfite being expelled as sulfur dioxide: S2O32-(aq) + 2H+(aq) → SO2(g) + S(s) + H2O This reaction is usually used to generate a... Wikisource has an original article from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica about: Protozoa Protozoa (in Greek proto = first and zoa = animal) are single-celled eukaryotes (organisms whose cells have nuclei) that commonly show characteristics usually associated with animals, most notably mobility and heterotrophy. ... Classes & Orders See taxonomy Insects are invertebrate animals of the Class Insecta, the largest and (on land) most widely-distributed taxon within the phylum Arthropoda. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... The Guppy, also known as guppie (Poecilia reticulata) is one of the most popular freshwater aquarium fish species in the world. ... A sanitary towel (U.K.) or sanitary napkin (U.S.) is an absorbent piece of material worn by a woman while she is menstruating, to absorb the flow of blood from the vagina. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A 67 m long condom on the Obelisk of Buenos Aires, Argentina, part of an awareness campaign for the 2005 World AIDS Day A condom is a device, usually made of latex, or more recently polyurethane, that is used during sexual intercourse. ... Look up needle in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Pets and humans often contribute toward the happiness of the other in a pet relationship. ... -1... For other meaning link to H2S radar. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... The simplest hydrocarbon, methane, is a gas (at standard temperature and pressure, STP) with a chemical formula of CH4. ... A. Two immisicble liquids, not emulsified; B. An emulsion of Phase B dispersed in Phase A; C. The unstable emulsion progressively separates; D. The surfactant (purple outline) positions itself on the interfaces between Phase A and Phase B, stabilizing the emulsion An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible (unblendable... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... An adhesive is a compound that adheres or bonds two items together. ... Mayonnaise is a thick, creamy sauce, usually of a white or light yellow color. ... Young Girl Fixing her Hair, by Sophie Gengembre Anderson Hair is a filamentous outgrowth from the skin, found mainly in mammals. ... For a list of biologically injurious substances, including toxins and other materials, as well as their effects, see poison. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... The skull and crossbones symbol traditionally used to label a poisonous substance. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Wastewater quality indicators

Main article: Wastewater quality indicators

Any oxidizable material present in a natural waterway or in an industrial wastewater will be oxidized both by biochemical (bacterial) or chemical processes. The result is that the oxygen content of the water will be decreased. Basically, the reaction for biochemical oxidation may be written as: Wastewater quality indicators such as the Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and the Chemical oxygen demand (COD) are essentially laboratory test measures of the amount of oxygen in a wastewater. ... Semi-accurate illustration of a redox reaction Redox reactions include all chemical processes in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Oxidizable material + bacteria + nutrient + O2 → CO2 + H2O + oxidized inorganics such as NO3 or SO4

Oxygen consumption by reducing chemicals such as sulfides and nitrites is typified as follows: Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. ...

S-- + 2 O2 → SO4--
NO2- + ½ O2 → NO3-

Since all natural waterways contain bacteria and nutrient, almost any waste compounds introduced into such waterways will initiate biochemical reactions (such as shown above). Those biochemical reactions create what is measured in the laboratory as the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD).


Oxidizable chemicals (such as reducing chemicals) introduced into a natural water will similarly initiate chemical reactions (such as shown above). Those chemical reactions create what is measured in the laboratory as the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD).


Both the BOD and COD tests are a measure of the relative oxygen-depletion effect of a waste contaminant. Both have been widely adopted as a measure of pollution effect. The BOD test measures the oxygen demand of biodegradable pollutants whereas the COD test measures the oxygen demand of biogradable pollutants plus the oxygen demand of non-biodegradable oxidizable pollutants. Biodegradation is the decomposition of organic material by microorganisms. ...


The so-called 5-day BOD measures the amount of oxygen consumed by biochemical oxidation of waste contaminants in a 5-day period. The total amount of oxygen consumed when the biochemical reaction is allowed to proceed to completion is called the Ultimate BOD. The Ultimate BOD is too time consuming, so the 5-day BOD has almost universally been adopted as a measure of relative pollution effect.


There are also many different COD tests. Perhaps, the most common is the 4-hour COD.


It should be emphasized that there is no generalized correlation between the 5-day BOD and the Ultimate BOD. Likewise, there is no generalized correlation between BOD and COD. It is possible to develop such correlations for a specific waste contaminant in a specific wastewater stream ... but such correlations cannot be generalized for use with any other waste contaminants or wastewater streams.


The laboratory test procedures for the determining the above oxygen demands are detailed in the following sections of the "Standard Methods For the Examination Of Water and Wastewater" available at www.standardmethods.org:

  • 5-day BOD and Ultimate BOD: Sections 5210B and 5210C
  • COD: Section 5220
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Sewage disposal

In some urban areas, sewage is carried separately in sanitary sewers and runoff from streets is carried in storm drains. Access to either of these is typically through a manhole. During high precipitation periods a sanitary sewer overflow can occur, causing potential public health and ecological damage. A sanitary sewer (also called, especially in the UK, a foul sewer) is a type of underground carriage system for transporting sewage from houses or industry to treatment or disposal. ... A storm drain, storm sewer, or stormwater drain (in Australia) system is designed to drain excess rain and ground water from an area. ... Image:Manhole Cover 800x650. ... Decentralized wet weather overflow event Sanitary sewer overflow (SSO} is a condition whereby untreated sewage is discharged into the environment, escaping wastewater treatment. ... Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ... Ernst Haeckel coined the term oekologie in 1866. ...


Sewage may drain directly into major watersheds with minimal or no treatment. When untreated, sewage can have serious impacts on the quality of an environment and on the health of people. Pathogens can cause a variety of illnesses. Some chemicals pose risks even at very low concentrations and can remain a threat for long periods of time because of bioaccumulation in animal or human tissue. A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (yellow outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (blue lines) of a contiguous area. ... A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... To bioaccumulate literally means to accumulate in a biological system. ...

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Treatment

For more details on this topic, see Sewage treatment.

There are numerous processes that can be used to clean up waste waters depending on the type and extent of contamination. Most wastewater is treated in industrial-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) which may include physical, chemical and biological treatment processes. However, the use of septic tanks is widespread in rural areas, serving up to one quarter of the homes in the U.S. The most important aerobic treatment system is the activated sludge process, based on the maintenance and recirculation of a complex biomass composed by micro-organisms able to degrade the organic matter carried in the wastewater. Anaerobic processes are widely applied in the treatment of industrial wastewaters and biological sludge. Some wastewater may be highly treated and reused as reclaimed water. For some waste waters ecological approaches using reed bed systems such as constructed wetlands may be appropriate. Modern systems include tertiary treatment by micro filtration or synthetic membranes. After membrane filtration, the treated wastewater is indistinguishable from waters of natural origin of drinking quality. Nitrates can be removed from wastewater by microbial denitrification, for which a small amount of methanol is typically added to provide the bacteria with a source of carbon. Ozone Waste Water Treatment is also growing in popularity, and requires the use of an ozone generator (See: http://www.biozone.com/ozone_generators.html ), which decontaminates the water as Ozone bubbles percolate through the tank. Sewage (or domestic wastewater) treatment is the process of removing contaminants from sewage. ... Sewage (or domestic wastewater) treatment is the process of removing contaminants from sewage. ... A septic tank is part of a small scale sewage treatment system often referred to as a septic system, which consists of the tank itself and a septic drain field. ... Warning sign in Santa Monica, California, where reclaimed water is used to irrigate plants in public parks. ... Ecology is the branch of science that studies the distribution and abundance of living organisms, and the interactions between organisms and their environment. ... species Pragmites australis Reed is a generic term used to describe numerous plants including: Common Reed (Phragmites australis Cav. ... A constructed wetland is an artificial marsh or swamp, created for human use, such as wastewater, storm water runoff or sewage treatment, as habitat to attract wildlife, or for land reclamation after mining or other disturbance. ... An electrostatic potential map of the nitrate ion. ... Denitrification is the process of reducing nitrate, a form of nitrogen available for consumption by many groups of organisms, into gaseous nitrogen, which is far less accessible to life forms but makes up the bulk of our atmosphere. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol or wood alcohol, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH. It is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatile, colourless, flammable, poisonous liquid with a distinctive odor that is somewhat sweeter than ethanol (ethyl alcohol). ...


Disposal of wastewaters from an industrial plant is a difficult and costly problem. Most petroleum refineries, chemical and petrochemical plants[1][2] have onsite facilities to treat their wastewaters so that the pollutant concentrations in the treated wastewater comply with the local and/or national regulations regarding disposal of wastewaters into community treatment plants or into rivers, lakes or oceans.

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Reuse

Treated wastewater can be reused as drinking water (Singapore), in industry (cooling towers), in artificial recharge of aquifers, in agriculture (70% of Israel's irrigated agriculture is based on highly purified wastewater) and in the rehabilitation of natural ecosystems (Florida's Everglades).

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Etymology

The words "sewage" and "sewer" came from Old French essouier = "to drain", which came from Latin exaquāre. Their formal Latin antecedents are exaquāticum and exaquārium. Image of a sewer pipe // Function Sewers transport wastewater from buildings to treatment facilities. ... Old French is a term sometimes used to refer to the langue doïl, the continuum of varieties of Romance language spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of Belgium and Switzerland during the period roughly from 1000 to 1300 A.D... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...

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References

  1. ^ Beychok, Milton R. (1967). Aqueous Wastes from Petroleum and Petrochemical Plants, 1st Edition, John Wiley & Sons. LCCN 67-19834.
  2. ^ Tchobanoglous, G., Burton, F.L., and Stensel, H.D. (2003). Wastewater Engineering (Treatment Disposal Reuse) / Metcalf & Eddy, Inc., 4th Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company. ISBN 0-07-041878-0.
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Aqueous Wastes from Petroleum and Petrochemical Plants is a book about the composition and treatment of the various wastewater streams produced in the hydrocarbon processing industries (i. ...

External links

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The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) is devoted to scientific research and science- and engineering-education leading to MS and PhD degrees in oceanography and related fields. ... The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) is devoted to scientific research and science- and engineering-education leading to MS and PhD degrees in oceanography and related fields. ...

See also


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