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Encyclopedia > Washington and Lee University

Washington and Lee University

Crest of Washington and Lee University File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Motto Non Incautus Futuri
Latin: "Not Unmindful of the Future"
Established 1749
Type Private university
Endowment US $477,504,000[1]
President Kenneth P. Ruscio
Faculty 209
Students 2,161
Undergraduates 1,755
Postgraduates 406
Location Lexington, Virginia, USA
Campus National Historic Landmark, Rural, 325 acres
Colors Royal Blue and White
           
Nickname "The Generals"
Athletics NCAA Division III, ODAC
Website www.wlu.edu

Washington and Lee University is a private liberal arts college in Lexington, Virginia. It is known for its close student-teacher relationships, curricular breadth, strong traditions, and excellence in Division III athletics. For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... Meaning Not unmindful of the Future, the following link provides a brief history about the WLU Crest and the motto: non incautus futuri [About WLU Crest] ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The date of establishment or date of founding of an institution is the date on which that institution chooses to claim as its starting point. ... Events While in debtors prison, John Cleland writes Fanny Hill (Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure). ... Private schools, or independent schools, are schools not administered by local, state, or national government, which retain the right to select their student body and are funded in whole or in part by charging their students tuition rather than with public (state) funds. ... A financial endowment is a transfer of money or property donated to an institution, with the stipulation that it be invested, and the principal remain intact. ... University President is the title of the highest ranking officer within a university, within university systems that prefer that appellation over other variations such as Chancellor or rector. ... A faculty is a division within a university. ... Alternate uses: Student (disambiguation) Etymologically derived through Middle English from the Latin second-type conjugation verb stŭdērĕ, which means to study, a student is one who studies. ... In some educational systems, undergraduate education is post-secondary education up to the level of a Bachelors degree. ... Degree ceremony at Cambridge. ... Lexington is an independent city within the confines of Rockbridge County in the Commonwealth of Virginia. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Sheep eating grass in rural Australia Rural areas are sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities and towns. ... School colors are the colors chosen by a school to represent it on uniforms and other items of identification. ... Royal blue is a lighter shade of blue. ... This article is about the color. ... The athletic nickname, or equivalently athletic moniker, of a university or college within the United States of America is the name officially adopted by that institution for at least the members of its athletic teams. ... The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA, often pronounced N-C-Double-A or N-C-Two-A ) is a voluntary association of about 1,200 institutions, conferences, organizations and individuals that organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States. ... Division III (or DIII) is a division of the National Collegiate Athletic Association of the United States. ... The Old Dominion Athletic Conference is an NCAA Division III athletic conference. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos and other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... Liberal arts colleges in the United States are institutions of higher education in the United States which are primarily liberal arts colleges. ... Lexington is an independent city within the confines of Rockbridge County in the Commonwealth of Virginia. ...


The classical school from which Washington and Lee is descended was established in 1749 as Augusta Academy, about 20 miles north of its present location. In 1776 it was renamed Liberty Hall in a burst of revolutionary fervor. The academy moved to Lexington in 1780, when it was chartered as Liberty Hall Academy, and built its first facility near town in 1782. Year 1776 (MDCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


In 1796, George Washington endowed it with the largest gift ever given to a college (at the time) -- $20,000 in stock, rescuing it from near-certain insolvency. In gratitude, the trustees changed the school's name to Washington Academy; it was subsequently chartered as Washington College. Dividends from Washington's gift continue to pay about $3 a year toward the cost of each student's education. Robert E. Lee was its highly influential president after the Civil War until his death in 1870, after which the school was renamed Washington and Lee University. George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... // This article is about the Confederate general. ...


Today the university has about 1,750 undergraduate students and 360 in the School of Law. Both the undergraduate and law schools are in the top 25 rankings of U.S. News and World Report (2007) for national liberal arts universities and law schools, respectively.


The row of brick buildings that form the Front Campus, which trace to 1824, is a National Historic Landmark. Separately, the Lee Chapel is also a National Historic Landmark.


Washington and Lee's motto is Non incautus futuri, meaning "Not unmindful of the future." It is an adaptation of the Lee family motto.


More than 1,100 undergraduate courses are offered. There are no graduate or teaching assistants; every course is taught by a faculty member.


A quarter of undergraduates participate in varsity athletics, three-quarters in club or intramural programs. There are more than 120 student organizations and publications, and approximately three-quarters of undergraduates belong to fraternities or sororities.


According to The Princeton Review, Washington and Lee proves the truth of the cliché about students who work hard and play hard. In that publication's 2007 edition, Washington and Lee scores 4th in "professors get high marks" and 6th in professors' accessibility. The university ranks second in prevalence of beer, and fourth in hard liquor. Combining academics with the party culture, Washington and Lee ranked 14th in "Best Overall Academic Experience for Undergraduates." Citing many of these statistics, Men's Health named Washington and Lee one of the 10 most male-friendly colleges in America. The Princeton Review (TPR) is a for-profit American educational preparation company. ... Mens Health (MH), published by Rodale Press in Emmaus, Pennsylvania, United States, is the largest circulation mens lifestyle magazine in the world. ...


W&L is a member of the Associated Colleges of the South. Overview The Associated Colleges of the South (ACS) is a consortium of 16 private liberal arts colleges Members Birmingham-Southern College 900 Arkadelphia Rd. ...

Contents

Academics

Washington and Lee University, Lexington, Virginia
Washington and Lee University, Lexington, Virginia

Washington and Lee is divided into three schools: (1) The College, where all undergraduates begin their studies, encompassing the liberal arts, humanities and hard sciences, with notable interest among students in pre-health and pre-law studies; (2) the Williams School of Commerce, Economics, and Politics, which offers majors in accounting and business administration, business administration, economics, politics, and public accounting; and (3) the School of Law, which offers Juris Doctor and Master of Laws degrees. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1173x772, 717 KB) Washington and Lee University, Lexington, Va. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1173x772, 717 KB) Washington and Lee University, Lexington, Va. ... The Washington and Lee University School of Law is a private law school located in Lexington, Virginia. ...


In all, more than 1,100 undergraduate courses are taught. The undergraduate library has more than 700,000 volumes (and a vast electronic network). The law library has more than 400,000 volumes (and ditto).


Washington and Lee offers 42 undergraduate majors (including interdisciplinary majors in neuroscience, Medieval and Renaissance studies, and Russian area studies) and additional non-major interdisciplinary programs in African-American studies, East Asian studies, environmental studies, Latin American and Caribbean studies, and women's studies. No minors are available. Washington and Lee also hosts the Shepherd Program for the Interdisciplinary Study of Poverty and Human Capability. Drawing of the cells in the chicken cerebellum by S. Ramón y Cajal Neuroscience is a field that is devoted to the scientific study of the nervous system. ... African American studies, or Black studies, is an interdisciplinary academic field devoted to the study of the history, culture, and politics of African Americans. ... Kekeke. ... Environmental studies is the systematic study of human interaction with their environment. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ...


Despite refusing to provide information for the publication, the university was ranked highly by the Princeton Review in its 2006 edition of The Best 357 Colleges for "Best Overall Academic Experience," "Professors Get High Marks," and Professor Accessibility. It is 15th in the U.S. News and World Report's ranking of national liberal arts institutions and 25th in the 2007 US News ranking of law schools. The Princeton Review (TPR) is a for-profit U.S. company that offers private instruction and tutoring for standardized achievement tests, in particular those offered by the Educational Testing Service (ETS), such as the SAT, GRE, LSAT, GMAT, and MCAT. The company was founded in 1982 and is based in...


The undergraduate calendar is an unusual three-term system with 12-week fall and winter terms followed by a required six-week spring term, though a Spring Option to be absent from campus was recently approved by the faculty. The spring-term courses include topical often-unique seminars, faculty-supervised study abroad, and some domestic and international internships. The law calendar consists of the more traditional early-semester system.


History

Liberty Hall Academy became a college when it granted its first bachelor of arts degree in 1785, making it the ninth oldest institution of higher education in the country. George Washington gave the school its first significant endowment in 1796, $20,000, at the time the largest gift ever given to an educational institution in the United States, and Washington's gift continues to provide nearly $3 a year toward every student's tuition. Trustees changed the name of the school to Washington Academy, and later Washington College, to honor him. [Of note: among many alumni who have followed in Washington's footsteps by donating generously to W&L, an anonymous alumnus announced in June 2007 that he is donating $100 million to the University. This is one of the largest gifts ever bestowed upon a liberal arts institution.) George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... A financial endowment is a transfer of money or property donated to an institution, with the stipulation that it be invested, and the principal remain intact. ... Year 1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Liberty Hall is said to have admitted its first African-American student when John Chavis, a free black, enrolled in 1795. Chavis accomplished much in his life including fighting in the American Revolution, studying at both Liberty Hall and the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University), becoming an ordained Presbyterian minister, and opening a school that instructed white and poor black students in North Carolina. He is believed to be the first black student to have earned a degree in the United States. Washington and Lee enrolled its next African-American student in 1966 to the law school. The next African-American students admitted were in 1968, two men who grew up in Lexington. [citation needed] Languages Predominantly American English Religions Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... John Chavis (c. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ...


The Lee Years

After the American Civil War, General Robert E. Lee turned down several financially tantalizing offers of employment that would merely have traded on his name, and instead accepted the post of college president for three reasons. First, he had been superintendent of West Point, so higher education was in his background. Second, and more important, he believed that it was a position in which he could actually make a contribution to the reconciliation of the nation. Third, the Washington family were his in-laws: his wife was the great-granddaughter of Martha Washington. Lee had long looked on George Washington as a hero and role model, so it is hardly surprising that he welcomed the challenge of leading a college endowed by and named after the first president. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... // This article is about the Confederate general. ...


Arguably Lee's finest achievement was transforming a small, not particularly distinguished Latin academy into a forward-looking institution of higher education ("not unmindful of the future"). He established the first school of professional journalism education in the country and he added both a business school and a law school to the college curriculum, under the conviction that those occupations should be intimately and inextricably linked with the liberal arts. That was a radical idea; journalism and law had always been considered technical crafts, not intellectual endeavors, and business was even worse. Yet Lee's concept has become universally accepted, and today it would seem subversive if anyone suggested that education in journalism, business and law should be kept separate from the liberal arts and sciences.


Lee was also the father of an Honor System and a speaking tradition at Washington College that continue to the present time. And, ardent about restoring national unity, he successfully recruited students from the north as well as the south.


Lee died on October 12, 1870, after just five years as Washington College president. The school's name was almost immediately changed to link his with Washington's. His son, George Washington Custis Lee, followed as the school's next president. General Lee; his wife; his son; his father, the Revolutionary War hero "Light Horse Harry" Lee, and much of the rest of the Lee family are buried in the Lee Chapel on campus, which faces the main row of antebellum college buildings. Robert E. Lee's beloved horse, Traveller, is buried near the wall of the Chapel. George Washington Custis Lee (also known as Custis Lee) (September 16, 1832 – February 18, 1913) was the eldest son of Robert E. Lee and Mary Anna Custis Lee. ... Lee Chapel is an historic building found in Lexington, Virginia, on the campus of Washington & Lee University. ... Traveller and Robert E. Lee Traveller (1857 – 1871) was Confederate General Robert E. Lees most famous horse during the American Civil War. ...


Honor System

Washington and Lee maintains a rigorous Honor System that traces directly to Robert E. Lee, who said, "We have but one rule here, and it is that every student must be a gentleman." Students, upon entering the university, vow to act honorably in academic and nonacademic endeavors. While "honor" is often interpreted as meaning that they will never lie, cheat or steal, the Honor System actually proscribes whatever behavior the current generation of students decides is dishonorable. This article is about a code of practice based on trust. ...


The Honor System has been run by the student body since 1906. Any student found guilty of an honor violation by his or her peers is subject to a single penalty: expulsion. Faculty, administration and even trustees are powerless; the Honor System is defined and administered solely by students, and there is no higher review. Referendums are held every three academic years to gauge each generation's appetite to maintain the Honor System and its single penalty, and the students always re-ratify the Honor System by a wide margin.


Washington and Lee's Honor System is distinct from others such as those found at the neighboring Virginia Military Institute and the University of Virginia because it is not codified. That is to say, unlike those others, Washington and Lee's does not have a list of rules that define punishable behavior. The Virginia Military Institute (VMI), located in Lexington, Virginia, is the oldest state military college in the United States. ... The University of Virginia (also called U.Va. ...


The Honor System encompasses fundamental honesty and integrity. Other disciplinary frameworks exist to address lapses of social and behavioral standards that do not fall into the category of a student's basic honor. (If you cheat on an exam or take a book from the library without checking it out, it's an honor violation. If you go 55 in a 50-mph-zone, it isn't.)


As a result, a sense of trust and safety pervades the community. The faculty and staff always take students at their word (and indeed, local merchants accept their checks without question; many also extend credit). Exams at W&L are ordinarily unproctored and self-scheduled. It is not unusual for professors to assign take-home, closed-book finals with an explicit trust in their students not to cheat.


The Honor System clearly works. In most years, a few students are expelled after hearings conducted by the Executive Committee, which is the University's elected student government (with the accused usually counseled by law students). Recently, expulsions have ranged from 8 in the 2003-04 school year to a more modest 2 in the 2004-05 year. Students found guilty can appeal the verdict to the entire student body, although this daunting option is not often exercised.


Alumni of note

  • H. F. Lenfest '53 — philanthropist and CEO of Lenfest Group; gave the second largest donation in W&L's history, $33 million, on March 21, 2007
  • William E. Brock '53 — former Senator from Tennessee (1971-77), chairman of the National Republican Party (1977-81), U.S. Trade Representative (1981-85), and Secretary of Labor (1985-87)
  • Paul Maslansky '54 — producer of the "Police Academy" movie series, among other films
  • Terry Brooks '69 (law) — Author of fantasy fiction; 12 million copies in print
  • Rupert H. Johnson '62 — vice chairman of Franklin Resources, the investment management firm with $572 billion under management. In 2007 he donated $100 million to establish a scholarship program.
  • Alex S. Jones '68 — Pulitzer Prize-winning ex-reporter for the New York Times; co-author, with wife Susan Tifft, of the definitive biographies of the Binghams and Sulzbergers, who created historic newspaper dynasties in, respectively, Louisville and New York; now head of Harvard University's Shorenstein Center on the Press, Politics and Public Policy
  • Sydney Lewis '40 — founder of Best Products, which invented the big-box retail concept; recipient with his wife, Frances, in 1987, of the National Medal of the Arts
  • Bill Miller '72 — president and chief investment officer of Legg Mason (now a unit of Citicorp); the most successful fund manager in the business today (his Value Trust has beaten the S&P 500 Index for 15 straight years and counting), responsible for $22 billion in assets
  • Donald D. Hook '50 — Professor emeritus at Trinity College, Hartford; author of "Madmen of History" and "Clerical Failure."
  • Edward Cooper (congressman) 1892, member of the United States House of Representatives.

In total, 27 alumni have served in the United States Senate, 67 have served in the United States House of Representatives, 31 have served as governor of a state, and four have served as Supreme Court Justices. For the early 20th century American novelist, see Thomas Wolfe. ... New Journalism was the name given to a style of 1960s and 1970s news writing and journalism which used literary techniques deemed unconventional at the time. ... The book The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, by Tom Wolfe, follows Ken Kesey and the Merry Pranksters as they take the bus Furthur around the country. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... I Am Charlotte Simmons I Am Charlotte Simmons is a 2004 novel by Tom Wolfe, concerning sexual and status relationships at the fictional Dupont University, closely modeled after Duke University and Stanford University. ... H. F. Gerry Lenfest is a media entrepreneur and philanthropist. ... Cy Twombly (born April 25, 1928) is an American abstract artist. ... Meriwether Lewis (August 18, 1774 – October 11, 1809) was an American explorer, soldier, and public administrator, best known for his role as the leader of the Corps of Discovery, whose mission was to explore the territory of the Louisiana Purchase. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... For other persons named William Clark, see William Clark (disambiguation). ... For the musical, see Louisiana Purchase (musical) and Louisiana Purchase (film). ... The Lewis and Clark expedition (1804-1806) was the first American overland expedition to the Pacific coast and back. ... Robert Huntington Adams (1792 - July 2, 1830) was a United States Senator from Mississippi. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... Bill Brock William Emerson Bill Brock III (born November 23, 1930) was a Republican United States Senator from Tennessee from 1971 to 1977. ... Terence Dean Terry Brooks (born January 8, 1944) is a writer of fantasy fiction. ... John W. Davis John William Davis (April 13, 1873 — March 24, 1955) was an American politician and lawyer. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... The United States Solicitor General is the individual appointed to argue for the Government of the United States in front of the Supreme Court of the United States, when the government is party to a case. ... Franklin Resources Inc. ... David Gardiner Tyler (July 12, 1846-September 5, 1927), U.S. politician, He was born in Easthampton, New York. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... John Tyler, Jr. ... Sydney Lewis was a prominent Virginia businessman, philanthropist, and art collector. ... J. Michael Luttig (born in Tyler, Texas, June 13, 1954) is a judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit, having been appointed to a newly created seat by President George H. W. Bush on April 23, 1991, and confirmed by the United States Senate on... The United States courts of appeals (or circuit courts) are the mid-level appellate courts of the United States federal court system. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Bill Miller is Chairman and Chief Investment Officer of Legg Mason Capital Management, a subsidiary of Legg Mason Inc. ... U.S. Senator Jackson Morton (Whig-Florida) Jackson Morton (August 10, 1794 - November 20, 1874) was a United States Senator from Florida. ... Robert Adam Mosbacher Robert Adam Mosbacher shaking hands with Boris Yeltsin Robert Adam Mosbacher (born March 11, 1927) is a U.S. businessman. ... The office of the U.S. Secretary of Commerce in the mid-20th century. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Roger Mudd, born February 9, 1928 in Washington, is a U.S. television journalist. ... This article is about the broadcast network. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... The History Channel is a cable television channel, dedicated to the presentation of historical events and persons, often with frequent observations and explanations by noted historians as well as reenactors and witnesses to events, if possible. ... Delta Tau Delta (ΔΤΔ, DTD, or Delts) is a U.S.-based international college fraternity. ... Lewis Franklin Powell, Jr. ... Tom Robbins at a reading of Wild Ducks Flying Backward in San Francisco on September 24, 2005 Thomas Eugene Robbins (born July 22, 1936 in Blowing Rock, North Carolina) is an American author. ... Even Cowgirls Get the Blues is a 1976 novel by Tom Robbins. ... Marion Gordon Pat Robertson (born March 22, 1930) is a televangelist from the United States. ... In the USA, a televangelist (television evangelist) is a religious minister (often a Christian priest or minister) who devotes a large portion of his (or her) ministry to TV broadcasts to a regular viewing and listening audience. ... The Christian Broadcasting Network, or CBN, is, as its name implies, a Christian television broadcasting network in the United States. ... This article is about the organization presently operating in the United States. ... The American Center for Law and Justice was founded in 1990 by Christian televangelist Dr. Pat Robertson as a nonprofit public interest law firm composed of attorneys committed to defending what it sees as the Judeo-Christian values of religious liberty, the sanctity of human life, and the two-parent... Regent University is an accredited institution of higher education with a curriculum based on Christian principles. ... The 700 Club is the flagship news talk show of the Christian Broadcasting Network, airing on cables ABC Family and in syndication throughout the United States and Canada. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The United States presidential election of 1988 featured an open primary for both major parties. ... Sigma Alpha Epsilon (ΣΑΕ) is a secret letter, social college fraternity. ... Paul Seward Trible, Jr. ... Christopher Newport University, locally abbreviated as CNU, is a small liberal arts university located in Newport News, Virginia. ... John William Warner (born February 18, 1927) is an American politician, who served as Secretary of the Navy from 1972 to 1974 and has served as the Republican senior U.S. Senator from Virginia since January 2, 1979. ... Beta Theta Pi (ΒΘΠ) is a social collegiate fraternity that was founded at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, USA, where it is part of the Miami Triad which includes Phi Delta Theta and Sigma Chi. ... T. Kenneth Cribb Jr. ... The Intercollegiate Studies Institute, Inc. ... Mike Pressler is the head coach of the Bryant University Bulldogs mens lacrosse team. ... Bryant University is a four-year private university located in Smithfield, Rhode Island. ... Duke University is a private coeducational research university located in Durham, North Carolina, USA. Founded by Methodists and Quakers in the present-day town of Trinity in 1838, the school moved to Durham in 1892. ... The 2006 Duke University lacrosse case was a scandal that started in March 2006 when Crystal Gail Mangum,[1][2][3] a black stripper and escort, and a student at North Carolina Central University, falsely accused three white members of Duke Universitys mens lacrosse team[4] of raping... Edward Cooper (February 26, 1873 - March 1, 1928) was a lawyer and Republican politician who represented West Virginia in the United States House of Representatives during the 64th65th United States Congressesfrom 1915 to 1919. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... 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Student activities

Washington and Lee's Trident Athletic Logo

The school's teams are known as "The Generals" and compete in NCAA Division III in the Old Dominion Athletic Conference. The student body is relatively balanced in its political outlook compared to most elite colleges and universities. Every four years, the school sponsors the Washington and Lee Mock Convention for whichever political party (Democratic or Republican) does not hold the Presidency. The Convention receives gavel-to-gavel coverage on C-SPAN and attention from many other national media outlets. This is a copyrighted and/or trademarked logo. ... This is a copyrighted and/or trademarked logo. ... The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA, often pronounced N-C-Double-A or N-C-Two-A ) is a voluntary association of about 1,200 institutions, conferences, organizations and individuals that organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States. ... Division III (or DIII) is a division of the National Collegiate Athletic Association of the United States. ... The Old Dominion Athletic Conference is an NCAA Division III athletic conference. ... Washington and Lee Mock Convention is a simulation of a Presidential nominating convention held once every four years, during the early stages of the U.S. Presidential Primary at Washington and Lee University. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ...


Demographics

Washington and Lee was all male until 1972, when women were admitted to the law school; the first female undergraduates enrolled in 1985. This anomaly survived as long as it did largely because, within an hour's drive of Washington and Lee, a large number of all-women's colleges existed (and still do): Randolph College in Lynchburg (formerly all-women Randolph-Macon College), Sweet Briar College, just north of Lynchburg, Hollins University near Roanoke, and Mary Baldwin College in Staunton. Randolph College is a private coeducational liberal arts college located in Lynchburg, Virginia. ... Lynchburg is an independent city located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. ... Sweet Briar College is a liberal arts womens college in Sweet Briar, Virginia. ... Hollins University is a four-year institution of higher education, a private university located on a 475-acre campus on the border of Roanoke County, Virginia and Botetourt County, Virginia. ... The Colony of Roanoke was the first English colony in the New World, founded at Roanoke Island. ... Mary Baldwin College is a private independent comprehensive four-year liberal arts womens college in Staunton, Virginia. ...


As of 2005, the University is 49% female, 51% male. [1] In 2006, the number of women receiving diplomas exceeded the number of men for the first time in the school's history.


The University has also attempted to increase the number of minority faculty and students. The student body, once totally white, has steadily diversified. The proportion of minority students now comprise approximately 13% of the student body. [2] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The university's students have generally been known for conservative politics. In recent years, however, the campus has become far more diverse in its political thought. Groups like Campus Democrats and GSA (W&L's Gay-Straight Alliance) are active, the Office of Multicultural Affairs is recruiting a more racially and religiously diverse student body, and speakers like Spike Lee fill the seats of Lee Chapel. The faculty and curriculum reflect a strong global and progressive consciousness, as evidenced by the strength of unique curricular options such as the Shepherd Poverty Program.


Fraternities and sororities

Greek letter organizations play a major role in Washington and Lee's social scene. The following is a list of active, recognized fraternities and sororities.


Fraternities and Chapter Titles


Dormant fraternity chapters at Washington and Lee also include Alpha Tau Omega, Chi Phi, Delta Tau Delta, Delta Upsilon, Kappa Sigma- Mu (Charter Revoked July 13, 2007), Psi Upsilon, Phi Epsilon Pi and Zeta Beta Tau. Alpha Phi Alpha (ΑΦΑ) is the first intercollegiate fraternity established by African Americans. ... Beta Theta Pi (ΒΘΠ) is a social collegiate fraternity that was founded at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, USA, where it is part of the Miami Triad which includes Phi Delta Theta and Sigma Chi. ... Chi Psi, ΧΨ is a fraternity consisting of more than 30 chapters (known as alphas) at American colleges and universities. ... The Kappa Alpha Order (KA) is a secret collegiate Order of Knights. ... Lambda Chi Alpha (ΛΧΑ), headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana, is one of the largest mens general fraternities in North America with more than 250,000 initiated members and chapters at more than 300 universities. ... Phi Beta Sigma (ΦΒΣ) Fraternity was founded at Howard University in Washington, D.C. on January 9, 1914, by three young African-American male students. ... Phi Delta Theta (ΦΔΘ) is an international fraternity founded in 1848 at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio. ... Phi Gamma Delta (also known as FIJI) is a collegiate social fraternity with 116 chapters and 5 colonies across the United States and Canada. ... Phi Kappa Psi (ΦΚΨ, Phi Psi) is a U.S. national college fraternity. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pi Kappa Alpha International Fraternity (ΠΚΑ) is an international, secret, social, Greek-letter, college fraternity. ... Pi Kappa Phi is a national social fraternity that was founded in the spirit of nu phi, meaning non-fraternity. ... Sigma Alpha Epsilon (ΣΑΕ) is a secret letter, social college fraternity. ... Sigma Chi (ΣΧ) is one of the largest and oldest all-male, college, Greek-letter social fraternities. ... ΣΝ (Sigma Nu) is an undergraduate college fraternity with chapters in the United States and Canada. ... ΣΦΕ (Sigma Phi Epsilon), commonly nicknamed SigEp or S-P-E, is a social fraternity for male college students in the United States. ... ATΩ (Alpha Tau Omega) is an American fraternity. ... The Chi Phi (ΧΦ) fraternity is an American college social fraternity founded in 1824 at Princeton University, in 1858 at the University of North Carolina, and in 1860 at Hobart College, making it the oldest social collegiate fraternity in history. ... Delta Tau Delta (ΔΤΔ, DTD, or Delts) is a U.S.-based international college fraternity. ... Delta Upsilon (ΔΥ) is one of the oldest international, all-male, college, Greek-letter social fraternities and is the first non-secret fraternity ever founded. ... ΚΣ (Kappa Sigma) is an international fraternity with currently 236 chapters and 42 colonies in North America. ... Psi Upsilon (ΨΥ, Psi U) is the fifth oldest college fraternity, founded at Union College in 1833. ... Zeta Beta Tau (ZBT, brothers of which are nicknamed Zebes) is a historically Jewish, presently nonsectarian international fraternity. ...


Sororities

Chi Omega (ΧΩ) is the largest womens fraternal organization in the National Panhellenic Conference. ... Kappa Alpha Theta (ΚΑΘ) is an international womens fraternity founded on January 27, 1870 at DePauw University. ... Kappa Delta (ΚΔ) is a sorority founded at the State Female Normal School, now Longwood University in Farmville, Virginia. ... Kappa Kappa Gamma (ΚΚΓ) is a college womens fraternity, founded on October 13, 1870 at Monmouth College, Illinois. ... Pi Beta Phi (ΠΒΦ) is an international fraternity for women founded as I.C. Sorosis on April 28, 1867, at Monmouth College in Monmouth, Illinois. ...

Washington and Lee in fiction

The archetypal Washington and Lee novel was Professor Lawrence E. Watkin’s Geese in the Forum (1940) (see Sidelights, below). The book was set in Stillwater, Virginia, home of Beauregard University.


In 1949, The Hero, by Millard Lampell, who did not attend Washington and Lee, was published; it told the story of a New Jersey boy who went south to attend Jackson University in Geneva, Virginia, and found epic difficulty in balancing academics, athletics and a social life. The book is dedicated to Richard Pinck, ’41, who played football in the days when Washington and Lee competed in Division I and went to bowl games (or at least to one, the Gator Bowl on New Year's Day in 1951, before a cheating scandal in the early 1950s caused the university to abandon subsidized athletics). Lampell adapted his own book for the movies in 1950; it became Saturday’s Hero, starring John Derek and Donna Reed. After its release Lampell stayed in Hollywood as a screenwriter and folk-songwriter.


A Sound of Voices Dying, by Glenn Scott, was published in 1954, the year its author graduated from Washington and Lee. It’s set at Philips-Whitehead University in Concord (!), Virginia. A year later it was issued in paperback – but in search of a broader audience, it was retitled Farewell My Young Lover and was given a cover picture of a voluptuous, leering young woman tugging on her bathrobe belt and, behind her, a preppy college-age boy holding a bottle of booze who can’t believe his good luck. The cover’s teaser line is, “The Fury and Ecstasy of Young Rapture.” For many years Scott wrote editorials for the Norfolk Virginian-Pilot.


In 1986, the French novelist and film director Philippe Labro, ’58, wrote L'Étudiant étranger (The Foreign Student), for which he won Europe’s Prix Interallié. It was both a coming-of-age novel and a love letter to American popular culture of the 1950s – Buicks and Jack Kerouac and, far from least, girls of all classes and races. In 1994 the novel was made into an English-language movie with Marco Hofschneider playing Labro; also in it were Robin Givens, Edward Herrmann and Hinton Battle. The film came and went in the blink of an eye.


In Harry Turtledove's alternate history of World War II, Settling Accounts, the school is simply "Washington University" and is the site of the Confederate nuclear weapons program.


Sidelights

Before it morphed into a swing and Dixieland standard, "The Washington and Lee Swing" was one of the most well known — and widely borrowed — football marches ever written, according to Robert Lissauer's Encyclopedia of Popular Music in America. Schools and colleges from Tulane to Slippery Rock copied it (sometimes with attribution). It was written in 1910 by Mark W. Sheafe, '06, Clarence A. (Tod) Robbins, '11, and Thornton W. Allen, '13. It has been recorded by virtually every important jazz and swing musician, including Glenn Miller (with Tex Beneke on vocals), Louis Armstrong, Kay Kyser, Hal Kemp and the Dukes of Dixieland. "The Swing" was a trademark of the New Orleans showman Pete Fountain. The trumpeter Red Nichols played it (and Danny Kaye pretended to play it) in the 1959 movie The Five Pennies. (Here is an audio excerpt from a 1944 recording by Jan Garber, a prominent dance-band leader of the era. Here is an exuberant instrumental version by a group called the Dixie Boys, which YouTube dates to 2006.) Robert Lissauer (May 2, 1917 - October 14, 2004) was an American composer, author, and musicologist. ... Clarence “Tod” Robbins (1888-1949) was an American author. ... Pete Fountain (born July 3, 1930) is a New Orleans clarinetist. ...


The "Swing" was parodied in "The Dummy Song" by Ray Brown and Lew Henderson (who also wrote "Birth of the Blues," "Bye Bye Blackbird," "Life Is Just a Bowl of Cherries." "You're the Cream in My Coffee" and "Keep Your Skirts Down, Mary Ann"). "Dummy" was recorded by NRBQ, Louis Armstrong, Louis Prima and Glenn Miller's vocal jazz group, the Modernaires, among many others, and was used in the movie You've Got Mail.


The noted British writer John Cowper Powys once called W&L the "most beautiful college campus in America." The poet and dramatist John Drinkwater remarked, "If this scene were set down in the middle of Europe, the whole continent would flock to see it!" John Cowper Powys (October 8, 1872 - June 17, 1963) was a British (English-Welsh) writer, lecturer, and philosopher. ... John Drinkwater (June 1, 1882 - March 25, 1937) was an English poet and dramatist. ...


A Washington and Lee art history professor, Pamela Hemenway Simpson, in 1999 wrote the only scholarly book on linoleum, giving it the sublime title Cheap, Quick and Easy. The book also examines other home-design materials once used by the lower classes to emulate their betters.


The widely acclaimed photographer Sally Mann got her start at Washington and Lee. Daughter of a local physician and the manager of the college book store, Mann's first job, in the early 1970s, was as the university's photographer, and she took lovely photos, as any institutional employee must. But she also showed her trademark knack for seeing what lay behind the curtain. In the mid-1970s her boss, Frank Parsons, encouraged her to photograph the construction of Washington and Lee's new law school, Lewis Hall, even though the pictures would have no earthly use in promoting the university. The mystical and surrealistic images that resulted led to her first commercial success, with a one-woman show of them at the Corcoran Gallery in Washington, D.C., in 1977. She and her husband, a Washington and Lee graduate, still live outside Lexington. They have three children. Sally Mann (born May 1, 1951) is an American photographer. ...


On Borrowed Time by Professor Lawrence Edward Watkin (1937) was turned into an exceedingly sentimental but successful Broadway play. Watkin's next novel, Geese in the Forum (1940), was an allegory about campus politics (the geese were the faculty), and soon thereafter he left academia for Hollywood, where for the rest of his life he wrote screenplays for Disney.


Washington and Lee is home to perhaps the finest collection of 18th- and 19th-century Chinese and European porcelain in America, the gift of Euchlin Dalcho Reeves, an eccentric 1927 graduate of the law school, and his well-matched wife, Louise Herreshoff. In 1967, Mr. Reeves contacted Washington and Lee about making "a small gift," which turned out to be a collection of porcelain so vast that it filled two entire houses which he and his wife owned in Providence, R.I. A number of dirt-covered picture frames, found in the two houses, were put on the van along with the porcelain. Soon it was discovered that the frames actually contained Impressionist-like paintings created by Louise as a young woman in the early days of the century. Mrs. Reeves had, it turned out, been a painter of stupendous talent, certified when in 1976 the Corcoran Gallery in Washington mounted a posthumous one-woman exhibition of her works. Their story is helped by the fact that he ("Boy") was almost 30 years younger than she ("Dol").


In 1913 a New York advertising executive and avid Civil War buff, Robert Doremus, and his wife visited the campus. A student came up to them and asked if he might show them around. The Doremuses were so impressed by this spontaneous act of friendliness that they bequeathed almost $1.5 million to the University, although they had no other connection to it. Today, Doremus Gymnasium, the main gym, bears their name.


The campus took its current architectural form in the 1820s when a local merchant, "Jockey" John Robinson, an uneducated Irish immigrant, donated funds to build a central building. For the dedication celebration in 1824, Robinson supplied a huge barrel of whiskey, which he intended for the dignitaries in attendance. But according to a contemporary history, the rabble broke through the barriers and created pandemonium, which ended only when college officials demolished the whiskey barrel with an ax. A justice of the Virginia State Supreme Court, Christian Compton ('50 undergraduate, '53 law), re-created the episode in 1976 (without the unfortunate denouement) by having several barrels of Scotch imported especially for the dedication of the new law school.


The world's first recorded streaker — his name was George William Crump — was a student at Washington College, in 1804. He later became (perhaps inevitably) a Congressman as well as America's ambassador to Chile. George William Crump (September 26, 1786 - October 1, 1848) was a member of the House of Representatives in the 19th US Congress and a United States Ambassador to Chile. ...


In 1977 The New Yorker published a cartoon showing a family in a car in front of the Washington and Lee campus. The caption was: "The College of Your Choice."


References

  1. ^ http://news.wlu.edu/web/page/normal/629.html#faculty
  2. ^ (1963) Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607-1896. Chicago: Marquis Who's Who. 

External links

  • University home page
  • Short University History
  • University Timeline
  • Virtual Tour Virtual Tour of the University (Flash plugin required)
  • Music Department Website
  • Lenfest Center for the Arts Website
  • W&L Professor and Course Reviews - written by students, ad-supported
  • The homepage of the governing Executive Committee of the Student Body. The White Book governing the school's Honor System can be found here in .pdf form
  • Washington and Lee Security and Crime Information and Statistics
  • Profile of the Shepherd Program for the Interdisciplinary Study of Poverty and Human Capability
  • Washington & Lee Mock Convention Blog

  Results from FactBites:
 
Washington and Lee University - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2608 words)
Lee; his wife; his son; his father "Light Horse Harry" (a signer of the Declaration of Independence) and much of the Lee family are buried in the Lee Chapel on campus, which faces the main row of antebellum college buildings.
Washington and Lee was all-male until 1972, when women were admitted to the law school; the first female undergraduates enrolled in 1985.
Washington and Lee is home to perhaps the finest collection of 18th- and 19th-century Chinese and European porcelain in America, the gift of Euchlin Dalcho Reeves, an eccentric 1927 graduate of Washington and Lee's law school, and his well-matched wife, Louise Herreshoff.
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