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Encyclopedia > Washington Monument
Washington Monument
IUCN Category III (Natural Monument)
Location Washington, D.C., United States
Coordinates 38°53′22″N 77°02′07″W / 38.88944, -77.03528
Area 106.01 acres (0.429 km²)
Established January 31, 1848
Visitors 467,550 (in 2005)
Governing body National Park Service

The Washington Monument is a large, tall white-colored obelisk at the west end of the National Mall in Washington, D.C. It is a United States Presidential Memorial constructed to commemorate George Washington. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... § Baltimores Washington Monument, the first Washington Monument, in 1890 Washington Statue in Baltimores Druid Hill Park, May 30, 1894 List of monuments dedicated to George Washington: Washington Monument in Washington, D.C. - the most prominent monument. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... A Natural Monument is a natural/cultural feature which is of outstanding or unique value because of its inherent rarity, representative of aesthetic qualities or cultural significance. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1433x1904, 348 KB) Summary Washington Monument as viewed at dusk. ... ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... The Luxor obelisk in the Place de la Concorde in Paris Obelisk outside Santa Maria sopra Minerva in Rome. ... Facing east across the Mall with ones back towards the Lincoln Memorial. ... ... United States presidential memorials are created to honor and perpetuate the legacy of United States presidents. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ...


The monument is among the world's tallest masonry structures and is the world's tallest obelisk, standing 555 feet 5⅛ inches (169.29 m) in height[1] and made of marble, granite, and sandstone. It was designed by Robert Mills, an American architect of the 1840s. The actual construction of the monument began in 1848 but was not completed until 1884, almost 30 years after the architect's death. This hiatus in construction was because of a lack of funds and the intervention of the American Civil War. A difference in shading of the marble, visible approximately 150 feet (45 m) up, clearly delineates the initial construction from its resumption in 1876. This article refers to the building structure component; for the fraternal organization, see Freemasonry. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... For other uses, see Marble (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon, Arizona, worn smooth due to erosion by flash flooding over millions of years Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ... Robert Mills (1781 - 1855) is sometimes called the first native born American to become a professional architect; Charles Bulfinch perhaps has a clearer claim to this honor. ... For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


Its cornerstone was laid on July 4, 1848; the capstone was set on December 6, 1884, and the completed monument was dedicated on February 21, 1885. It officially opened October 9, 1888. Upon completion, it became the world's tallest structure, a title it inherited from the Cologne Cathedral and held until 1889, when the Eiffel Tower was finished in Paris, France. Look up cornerstone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The capstone is the highest rock or mount of a structure. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For many millennia the record holder for worlds tallest structure was clearly defined (see table below. ... The Cologne Cathedral (German: , officially ) is the seat of the Archbishop of Cologne, under the administration of the Roman Catholic Church and is renowned as a monument of Christianity, of Gothic architecture and of the faith and perseverance of the people of the city in which it stands. ... The Eiffel Tower (French: , ) is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the Seine River in Paris. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


The Washington Monument reflection can be seen in the aptly named Reflecting Pool, a rectangular pool extending to the west towards the Lincoln Memorial. One famous reflecting pool lies between the Lincoln Memorial and the Washington Monument in Washington, D.C.. A reflecting pool is a structure often used in memorials. ... One famous reflecting pool lies between the Lincoln Memorial and the Washington Monument in Washington, D.C.. A reflecting pool is a structure often used in memorials. ... The Lincoln Memorial, in Washington, D.C., is a United States Presidential memorial built to honor 16th President Abraham Lincoln. ...

Contents

History

Motivation

Above the Founding Fathers of the United States, George Washington earned the title "Father of the Country" in recognition of his leadership in the cause of American independence. Appointed as commander of the Continental Army in 1775, he molded a fighting force that won independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1787, as president of the Constitutional Convention, he helped guide the deliberations to form a government that has lasted for more than 200 years. Two years later he was unanimously elected the President of the United States. Washington defined the Presidency and helped develop the relationships among the three branches of government. He established precedents which successfully launched the new government on its course. He refused the trappings of power and veered from monarchical government and traditions and twice—despite considerable pressure to do otherwise—gave up the most powerful position in the Americas. Washington remained ever mindful of the ramifications of his decisions and actions. With this monument the citizens of the United States show their enduring gratitude and respect. Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Illustration depicting uniforms and weapons used during the 1779 to 1783 period of the American Revolution by showing four soldiers standing in an informal group General George Washington, was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army on June 15, 1775. ... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... The Philadelphia Convention—also known as the Constitutional Convention—took place in May through September, 1787, to address problems in the government of the United States of America following independence from Britain. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... theSeparation of powers is a political doctrine under which the legislative, executive and judicial branches of government are kept distinct, to prevent abuse of power. ... Precedent is the principle in law of using the past in order to assist in current interpretation and decision-making. ...


When the Revolutionary War ended, no man in the United States commanded more respect than George Washington. Americans celebrated his ability to win the war despite limited supplies and inexperienced men, and they admired his decision to refuse a salary and accept only reimbursements for his expenses. Their regard increased further when it became known that he had rejected a proposal by some of his officers to make him king of the new country. It was not only what Washington did but the way he did it: Abigail Adams, wife of John Adams, described him as "polite with dignity, affable without familiarity, distant without haughtiness, grave without austerity, modest, wise, and good."[1] This article is about military actions only. ... Abigail Adams (née Smith) (November 11, 1744 – October 28, 1818) was the wife of John Adams, the second President of the United States and the mother of John Quincy Adams the sixth, and is seen as the first Second Lady of the United States and the second First Lady... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ...

George Washington, bronze replica of Houdon's marble, lobby, next to the elevators
George Washington, bronze replica of Houdon's marble, lobby, next to the elevators

Washington retired to his plantation at Mount Vernon after the war, but he soon had to decide whether to return to public life. As it became clear the Articles of Confederation had left the federal government too weak to levy taxes, regulate trade, or control its borders, men such as James Madison began calling for a convention that would strengthen its authority. Washington was reluctant to attend because he had business affairs to manage at Mount Vernon. If he did not go to Philadelphia, however, he worried about his reputation and about the future of the country. He finally decided that, since "to see this nation happy… is so much the wish of my soul," he would serve as one of Virginia's representatives. The other delegates during the summer of 1787 chose him to preside over their deliberations, which ultimately produced the U.S. Constitution.[1] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 2000 pixel, file size: 735 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I am the author, and I took this picture inside the monument. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 2000 pixel, file size: 735 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I am the author, and I took this picture inside the monument. ... Jean-Antoine Houdon (March 20, 1741 - July 15, 1828) was a French sculptor. ... Back of the main house. ... The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, commonly known as the Articles of Confederation, was the first governing document, or constitution, of the United States of America. ... This article is about the federal government of the United States. ... -1... For other persons named James Madison, see James Madison (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme...


A key part of the Constitution was the development of the office of president of the United States. No one seemed more qualified to fill that position than Washington, and in 1789 he began the first of his two terms. He used the nation's respect for him to develop respect for this new office, but he simultaneously tried to quiet fears that the president would become as powerful as the king the new country had fought against. He tried to create the kind of solid government he thought the nation needed, supporting a national bank, collecting taxes to pay for expenses, and strengthening the Army and Navy. Though many people wanted him to stay for a third term, in 1797 he again retired to Mount Vernon.[1] Washington died suddenly two years later. His death restarted attempts to honor him. As early as 1783, the Continental Congress had resolved "That an equestrian statue of George Washington be erected at the place where the residence of Congress shall be established." The proposal called for engraving on the statue which explained it had been erected "in honor of George Washington, the illustrious Commander-in-Chief of the Armies of the United States of America during the war which vindicated and secured their liberty, sovereignty, and independence."[citation needed] The Continental Congress was the first national government of the United States. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ...


Ten days after Washington's death, a Congressional committee recommended a different type of monument. John Marshall, a Representative from Virginia (who later became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court) proposed that a tomb be erected within the Capitol. But a lack of funds, disagreement over what type of memorial would best honor the country's first president, and the Washington family's reluctance to move his body prevented progress on any project. [1] For other persons named John Marshall, see John Marshall (disambiguation). ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... The United States Capitol is the capitol building that serves as the location for the United States Congress, the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government. ...


Design

A sketch of the proposed Washington Monument done by architect Robert Mills circa 1836.
A sketch of the proposed Washington Monument done by architect Robert Mills circa 1836.

Progress towards a memorial finally began in 1833. That year, which marked the 100th anniversary of Washington's birth, a large group of concerned citizens formed the Washington National Monument Society. They began collecting donations, much in the way Blodgett had suggested. By the middle of the 1830s, they had raised over $28,000 and announced a competition for the design of the memorial. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (400x678, 43 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (400x678, 43 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


On September 23, 1835, the board of managers of the society described their expectations:[citation needed] is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...

It is proposed that the contemplated monument shall be like him in whose honor it is to be constructed, unparalleled in the world, and commensurate with the gratitude, liberality, and patriotism of the people by whom it is to be erected… [It] should blend stupendousness with elegance, and be of such magnitude and beauty as to be an object of pride to the American people, and of admiration to all who see it. Its material is intended to be wholly American, and to be of marble and granite brought from each state, that each state may participate in the glory of contributing material as well as in funds to its construction.

The society held a competition for designs in 1836. The winner, architect Robert Mills, was well-qualified for the commission. The citizens of Baltimore had chosen him to build a monument to Washington, and he had designed a tall Greek column surmounted by a statue of the President. Mills also knew the capital well, having just been chosen Architect of Public Buildings for Washington. Baltimore redirects here. ... A refined canonic version of the Orders engraved for the Encyclopédie, vol. ...


His design called for a 600-foot (183 m) tall obelisk—an upright, four-sided pillar that tapers as it rises—with a nearly flat top. He surrounded the obelisk with a circular colonnade, the top of which would feature Washington standing in a chariot. Inside the colonnade would be statues of 30 prominent Revolutionary War heroes. The Luxor obelisk in the Place de la Concorde in Paris Obelisk outside Santa Maria sopra Minerva in Rome. ... Enormous colonnade of the Kazan Cathedral in St Petersburg. ...


Yet criticism of Mills' design and its estimated price tag of more than $1 million (over $21 million in 2008 dollars[2]) caused the society to hesitate. In 1848, its members decided to start building the obelisk and to leave the question of the colonnade for later. They believed that if they used the $87,000 they had already collected to start work, the appearance of the monument would spur further donations that would allow them to complete the project. USD redirects here. ...


Construction

The monument plans and timeline of construction.
The monument plans and timeline of construction.
The partially completed monument, photographed by Mathew Brady circa 1860
The partially completed monument, photographed by Mathew Brady circa 1860

Excavation for the foundation of the Washington Monument began in the spring of 1848. The cornerstone was laid as part of an elaborate Fourth of July ceremony hosted by the Freemasons, a worldwide fraternal organization to which Washington belonged. Speeches that day showed the country continued to revere Washington. One celebrant noted, "No more Washingtons shall come in our time ... But his virtues are stamped on the heart of mankind. He who is great in the battlefield looks upward to the generalship of Washington. He who grows wise in counsel feels that he is imitating Washington. He who can resign power against the wishes of a people, has in his eye the bright example of Washington." Image File history File links Size of this preview: 440 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (536 × 730 pixel, file size: 20 KB, MIME type: image/png) Science American Association for the Advancement of Science Published 1885 This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 440 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (536 × 730 pixel, file size: 20 KB, MIME type: image/png) Science American Association for the Advancement of Science Published 1885 This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3648x3296, 1080 KB) (This summary was created using Commons SumItUp) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Washington Monument ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3648x3296, 1080 KB) (This summary was created using Commons SumItUp) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Washington Monument ... Mathew B. Brady, circa 1875 For other persons named Matthew Brady, see Matthew Brady (disambiguation). ... Fourth of July redirects here. ... Freemasons redirects here. ...


Construction continued until 1854, when donations ran out. The next year, Congress voted to appropriate $200,000 to continue the work but rescinded before the money could be spent. This reversal came because of a new policy the society had adopted in 1849. It had agreed, after a request from some Alabamians, to encourage all states and territories to donate memorial stones that could be fitted into the interior walls. Members of the society believed this practice would make citizens feel they had a part in building the monument, and it would cut costs by limiting the amount of stone that had to be bought. Blocks of Maryland marble, granite and sandstone steadily appeared at the site. American Indian tribes, professional organizations, societies, businesses and foreign nations donated stones that were 4 feet by 2 feet by 12–18 inches (1.2 m by 0.6 m by 0.3 – 0.5 m). Many, however, carried inscriptions irrelevant to a memorial for George Washington. For example, one from the Templars of Honor and Temperance stated "We will not buy, sell, or use as a beverage, any spiritous or malt liquors, Wine, Cider, or any other Alcoholic Liquor." It was just one memorial stone that started the events that stopped the Congressional appropriation and ultimately construction altogether. In the early 1850s, Pope Pius IX contributed a block of marble. In March 1854, members of the anti-Catholic, nativist American Party—better known as the "Know-Nothings"—stole the Pope's stone as a protest and supposedly threw it into the Potomac. Then, in order to make sure the monument fit the definition of "American" at that time, the Know-Nothings conducted an election so they could take over the entire society[citation needed]. Congress immediately rescinded its $200,000 contribution. This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... For other uses, see Marble (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon, Arizona, worn smooth due to erosion by flash flooding over millions of years Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... The Templars of Honor and Temperance was established in the United States in 1845 as the Marshall Temperance Fraternity as part of the temperance movement. ... Pope Pius IX (May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878), born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from his election in June 16, 1846, until his death more than 31 years later in 1878. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... The Know-Nothing movement was a nativist American political movement of the 1850s. ...


The Know-Nothings retained control of the society until 1858, adding 13 courses of masonry to the monument—all of which was of such poor quality it was later removed. Unable to collect enough money to finish work, they increasingly lost public support. The Know-Nothings eventually gave up and returned all records to the original society, but the stoppage in construction continued into, then after, the Civil War.


Interest in the monument grew after the Civil War ended. Engineers studied the foundation several times to see whether it remained strong enough. In 1876, the Centennial of the Declaration of Independence, Congress agreed to appropriate another $200,000 to resume construction. The monument, which had stood for nearly 20 years at less than one-third of its proposed height, now seemed ready for completion. The United States Centennial was on July 4, 1876. ... The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were Free and Independent States and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to...


Before work could begin again, however, arguments about the most appropriate design resumed. Many people thought a simple obelisk, one without the colonnade, would be too bare. Architect Mills was reputed to have said omitting the colonnade would make the monument look like "a stalk of asparagus"; another critic said it offered "little… to be proud of."[1] For the botanical genus, see Asparagus (genus). ...


This attitude led people to submit alternative designs. Both the Washington National Monument Society and Congress held discussions about how the monument should be finished. The society considered five new designs, concluding that the one by William Wetmore Story seemed "vastly superior in artistic taste and beauty." Congress deliberated over those five as well as Mills' original; while it was deciding, it ordered work on the obelisk to continue. Finally, the members of the society agreed to abandon the colonnade and alter the obelisk so it conformed to classical Egyptian proportions. William Wetmore Story (1819 - 1895) was a U.S. sculptor. ...


Construction resumed in 1879 under the direction of Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Lincoln Casey of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Casey redesigned the foundation, strengthening it so it could support a structure that ultimately weighed more than 40,000 tons. He then followed the society's orders and figured out what to do with the memorial stones that had accumulated. Though many people ridiculed them, Casey managed to install all 193 stones in the interior walls. One difficulty that is visible to this day is that the builders were unable to find the same quarry stone used in the initial construction and, as a result, the bottom third of the monument is a slightly darker shade than the rest of the construction. Thomas Lincoln Casey Thomas Lincoln Casey (May 10, 1831 – March 25, 1896) was born in Sackets Harbor, New York, was a soldier and engineer. ... United States Army Corps of Engineers logo The United States Army Corps of Engineers, or USACE, is made up of some 34,600 civilian and 650 military men and women. ...


The building of the monument proceeded quickly after Congress had provided sufficient funding. In four years, it was finally completed, with the 100 ounce (2.8 kg) aluminum capstone/'lightning-rod' being put in place on December 6, 1884, during another elaborate dedication ceremony. It was the largest single piece of aluminum cast at the time. At the time of the monument's construction, aluminum was more expensive than silver, gold, or platinum. Over time, however, the price of the metal dropped; the invention of the Hall-Héroult process in 1886 caused the high price of aluminum to permanently collapse.[3] The monument opened to the public on October 9, 1888.[4] Aluminum is a soft and lightweight metal with a dull silvery appearance, due to a thin layer of oxidation that forms quickly when it is exposed to air. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Aluminum redirects here. ... The Hall-Héroult process is the major industrial process for the production of aluminium. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Later history

Diagram of the Principal High Buildings of the Old World, 1884. The Washington Monument is the tallest structure represented.
Diagram of the Principal High Buildings of the Old World, 1884. The Washington Monument is the tallest structure represented.
View of the Monument from below, with one of the flags that surround it.
View of the Monument from below, with one of the flags that surround it.

At the time of its construction, it was the tallest building in the world. It is still the tallest building in Washington, D.C. A 1910 law restricts new building heights to no more than 20 feet (6 m) greater than the width of the adjacent street. (There is a popular misconception that the law specifies that no building may be taller than the Washington Monument, but in fact the law makes no mention of it).[5] Ordinary antique obelisks were seldom taller than around 100 feet (30 m), making this monument vastly taller than the obelisks around the capitals of Europe and in Egypt. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,859 × 1,391 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,859 × 1,391 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2336 × 3504 pixels, file size: 641 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2336 × 3504 pixels, file size: 641 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


The Washington Monument brought enormous crowds even before it officially opened. During the six months that followed its dedication, 10,041 people climbed the 893 steps to the top. After the elevator that had been used to raise building materials was altered so that it could carry passengers, the number of visitors grew rapidly. As early as 1888, an average of 55,000 people per month went to the top, and today the Washington Monument has more than 800,000 visitors each year. As with all historic areas administered by the National Park Service, the national memorial was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966. The stairs are no longer accessible to the general public due to safety issues and vandalism of the interior memorial plaques. For other uses, see Elevator (disambiguation). ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... A typical plaque showing entry on the National Register of Historic Places. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ...


For ten hours in December 1982, the Washington Monument was "held hostage" by a nuclear arms protester, Norman Mayer, claiming to have explosives in a van he drove up to the monument's base. Eight tourists trapped in the monument at the time the standoff began were set free, and the incident ended with U.S. Park Police opening fire on Mayer and killing him. The monument was undamaged in the incident, and it was discovered later that Mayer did not have explosives. [6][7] The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ... Mayer protesting Norman David Mayer (March 31, 1916 - December 9, 1982) was an anti-nuclear weapons activist who was shot and killed by the United States Park Police after threatening to blow up the Washington Monument. ... The United States Park Police is the oldest uniformed federal law enforcement agency in the United States. ...


Construction details

The monument at sunrise
The monument at sunrise
Cherry blossoms
These fireworks over the reflecting pool between the Washington Monument and Lincoln Memorial are typical of Fourth of July celebrations
These fireworks over the reflecting pool between the Washington Monument and Lincoln Memorial are typical of Fourth of July celebrations
A view from the top of the monument in December of 1999. Looking East towards the Capitol Building, the Dome can be seen approximately 1.4 miles away. The Smithsonian Castle can be seen on the right.
A view from the top of the monument in December of 1999. Looking East towards the Capitol Building, the Dome can be seen approximately 1.4 miles away. The Smithsonian Castle can be seen on the right.
An ultra wide angle view of the monument showing the American flags arranged around it. Tourists wander at the base.
An ultra wide angle view of the monument showing the American flags arranged around it. Tourists wander at the base.

The completed monument stands 555 ft 5⅛ in (169.29 m) tall, with the following construction materials and details: Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1652x2732, 1254 KB) This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1652x2732, 1254 KB) This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... For other uses, see Fireworks (disambiguation). ... These fireworks over the Washington Monument are typical of Fourth of July celebrations In the United States, Independence Day, also called the Fourth of July, is a federal holiday celebrating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence in 1776. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1200 × 1800 pixel, file size: 837 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1200 × 1800 pixel, file size: 837 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Castle entrance The Smithsonian Institution Building, located on the National Mall in Washington, DC, houses the Smithsonian Institutions administrative offices and information center. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (4100x2176, 1417 KB) Summary A panorama of Washington Monument and its flags, showing some visitors. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (4100x2176, 1417 KB) Summary A panorama of Washington Monument and its flags, showing some visitors. ...

  • Phase One (1848 to 1858): To the 152 foot (46 m) level, under the direction of Superintendent William Daugherty.
Exterior: White marble from Texas, Maryland (adjacent to and east of north I-83 near the Warren Road exit in Cockeysville)
Exterior: White marble, four courses or rows, from Sheffield, Massachusetts
  • Phase Two (1878 to 1888): Work completed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, commanded by Lt. Col. Thomas L. Casey.
Exterior: White marble from a different Cockeysville quarry.[8]
  • Interior: Granite from Maine and New Hampshire[9]
  • Cap is made from aluminum, at the time a rare metal, valued about the same as silver. The cap was forged by William Frishmuth and a detailed history was printed in JOM, a publication of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society. Before the installation it was put on public display and stepped over by visitors who could later say they had "stepped over the top of the Washington Monument".

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Interstate 83 Interstate 83 (abbreviated I-83) is an interstate highway in the eastern United States. ... Cockeysville is an unincorporated community and a census-designated place located in Baltimore County, Maryland. ... Sheffield is a town in Berkshire County, Massachusetts, United States. ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Forged the aluminum cap of the Washington Monument. ...

Inscriptions

The four faces of the pyramidal point all bear inscriptions

North Face West Face South Face East Face
JOINT COMMISSION

AT SETTING OF CAPSTONE.


CHESTER A. ARTHUR. W. W. CORCORAN, Chairman. M. E. BELL. EDWARD CLARK. JOHN NEWTON. Act of August 2, 1876.

CORNER STONE LAID ON BED OF FOUNDATION

JULY 4, 1848.


FIRST STONE AT HEIGHT OF 152 FEET LAID AUGUST 7, 1880.


CAPSTONE SET DECEMBER 6, 1884.

CHIEF ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT, THOS. LINCOLN CASEY, COLONEL, CORPS OF ENGINEERS.foundhere Assistants: GEORGE W. DAVIS, CAPTAIN, 14TH INFANTRY, BERNARD R. GREEN, CIVIL ENGINEER. Master Mechanic. P. H. MCLAUGHLIN. LAUS DEO.

Praise be to God (Latin) Thomas Lincoln Casey Thomas Lincoln Casey (May 10, 1831 – March 25, 1896) was born in Sackets Harbor, New York, was a soldier and engineer. ... Brigadier George Whitefield Davis (1839-1918) was Governor of Puerto Rico from 1898 to 1899. ... This page lists direct English translations of common Latin phrases, such as veni vidi vici and et cetera. ...

Halfway up the steps of the monument is an inscription in Welsh: Fy iaith, fy ngwlad, fy nghenedl Cymru — Cymru am byth (My language, my land, my nation of Wales — Wales for ever). The reason for this inscription or its author is unknown.[10] Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ...


The cost of the monument was $1,187,710.[citation needed]


Exterior structure

  • Total height of monument:

555 ft 5⅛ in (169.294 m)

  • Height from lobby to observation level:

500 ft (152 m)

  • Width at base of monument:

55 ft 1½ in (16.80 m)

  • Width at top of shaft:

34 ft 5 in (10.5 m)

  • Thickness of monument walls at base:

15 ft (4.6 m)

  • Thickness of monument walls at observation level:

18 in (460 mm)

  • Total weight of monument:

90,854 short tons (82,421 t)

  • Total number of blocks in monument:

36,491


Capstone

  • Capstone weight:

3,300 lb (1.65)

  • Capstone cuneiform keystone measures 5.16 ft (1.57 m) from base to the top
  • Each side of the capstone base: 3 ft (914 mm)
  • Width of aluminum tip: 5.6 in (142 mm) on each of its four sides
  • Height of aluminum tip at base:

8.9 in (226 mm)

  • Weight of aluminum tip on capstone:

100 oz (2.8 kg)


Foundation

  • Depth:

36 ft 10 in (11.23 m)

  • Weight:

36,912 short tons (33,486 metric tons)

  • Area:

16,001 ft² (1487 m²)


Interior

  • Number of memorial stones in stairwell: 199
  • Present elevator installed: 1998
  • Present elevator cab installed: 2001
  • Elevator travel time: 70 seconds
  • Number of steps in stairwell: 897
  • Fastest known ascent time via stairs : 6.7 minutes (in 2005)

See also

Back of the main house. ... George Washington Masonic National Memorial George Washington Masonic National Memorial is a masonic lodge and memorial dedicated to the memory of George Washington, the first president of the United States of America and a Mason. ... Map of the George Washington Memorial Parkway Vehicles round a bend in the George Washington Parkway near Washington National Airport and Gravelly Point in Arlington, Va. ... The following fall under the definition of a tower which is a tall man-made structure, always taller than it is wide, and usually much higher. ... For other uses, see Monument (disambiguation). ... United States presidential memorials are created to honor and perpetuate the legacy of United States presidents. ... Torontos CN Tower is currently the tallest free-standing structure on land and has been for 30 years. ... Mayer protesting Norman David Mayer (March 31, 1916 - December 9, 1982) was an anti-nuclear weapons activist who was shot and killed by the United States Park Police after threatening to blow up the Washington Monument. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f "The Washington Monument: Tribute in Stone", National Park Service, ParkNet. 
  2. ^ Dollar Conversions From 1800 to 2016 Oregon State University.
  3. ^ A History of the Washington Monument: 1844–1968 by George J. Olszewski. April 1971. National Park Service. (Retrieved January 3, 2007).
  4. ^ "Washington Monument". Teaching with Historic Places. National Park Service. (Retrieved October 15, 2006).
  5. ^ The Building Height Act of 1910, codified at D.C. Code § 6-601.05
  6. ^ Washington Monument (from the Olin Partnership website)
  7. ^ Monumental Security (from the American Society of Landscape Architects website, April 10, 2006)
  8. ^ "Building Stones of Our Nation's Capital: Washington's Building Stones". United States Geological Survey.
  9. ^ "Washington Monument Memorial Stones". National Park Service. 22 December 2004.
  10. ^ "Presidential connection". Star Spangled Dragon. BBC.

The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is a Cabinet department of the United States government that manages and conserves most federally owned land. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The American Society of Landscape Architects is the national professional association representing landscape architects, with more than 15,000 members and 48 chapters, representing all 50 American states, US territories, and 42 countries around the world. ... InsertSLUTTY WHORES≤ non-formatted text here{| class=toccolours border=1 cellpadding=4 style=float: right; margin: 0 0 1em 1em; width: 20em; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%; clear: right; |+ United States Geological Survey |- |style= align=center colspan=2| [[Image:USGS logo. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Preceded by
Cologne Cathedral
World's tallest structure
1884—1889

169.29 m The Cologne Cathedral (German: , officially ) is the seat of the Archbishop of Cologne, under the administration of the Roman Catholic Church and is renowned as a monument of Christianity, of Gothic architecture and of the faith and perseverance of the people of the city in which it stands. ... For many millennia the record holder for worlds tallest structure was clearly defined (see table below. ...

Succeeded by
Eiffel Tower
The Eiffel Tower (French: , ) is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the Seine River in Paris. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ben's Guide (3-5): Statues and Memorials -- The Washington Monument (442 words)
Fifty flags surround the base of the Washington Monument and symbolize the 50 states of the Union.
The cornerstone for the monument was laid on July 4, 1848, and the monument was opened to the public on October 9, 1888.
Inserted into the interior walls of the monument are 188 carved stones presented by individuals, societies, cities, states, and nations of the world.
Washington Monument - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2754 words)
The actual construction of the monument began in 1848 and was not completed until 1884, almost 30 years after the architect's death, due to lack of funds and the intervention of the American Civil War.
Washington remained ever mindful of the ramifications of his decisions and actions, for he was a consummate statesman.
Excavation for the foundation of the Washington Monument began in the spring of 1848.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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