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Encyclopedia > Washington Irving
Washington Irving

Washington Irving
Born April 3, 1783(1783-04-03)
New York, New York, United States
Died November 28, 1859 (aged 76)
Sunnyside, New York, United States
Occupation Short story writer, essayist, biographer
Literary movement Romanticism
Influenced Nathaniel Hawthorne, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Edgar Allan Poe

Washington Irving (April 3, 1783November 28, 1859) was an American author of the early 19th century. Best known for his short stories "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" and "Rip Van Winkle" (both of which appear in his book The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon), he was also a prolific essayist, biographer and historian. His works include biographies of George Washington and Muhammad, and histories of 15th century Spain dealing with subjects such as Columbus, the Moors, and the Alhambra. Download high resolution version (1888x2688, 612 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Midtown Manhattan, looking north from the Empire State Building, 2005 New York City (officially named the City of New York) is the most populous city in the state of New York and the entire United States. ... This article is about the state. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Sunnyside is the name of a neighborhood in the Mid-Island region of Staten Island. ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about work. ... ... Nathaniel Hawthorne (born Nathaniel Hathorne; July 4, 1804 – May 19, 1864) was a 19th century American novelist and short story writer. ... Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (February 27, 1807 – March 24, 1882) was an American poet whose works include Paul Reveres Ride, A Psalm of Life, The Song of Hiawatha and Evangeline. He also wrote the first American translation of Dante Alighieris Divine Comedy and was one of the five members... Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, playwright, editor, literary critic, essayist and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is in need of attention. ... The Legend of Sleepy Hollow is a short story by Washington Irving contained in his collection The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. ... For the operetta of the same name, see Rip Van Winkle (operetta). ... Headline text ... Essay, a short work that treats of a topic from an authors personal point of view, often taking into account subjective experiences and personal reflections upon them. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the study of the past in human terms. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... The Alhambra (Arabic: الحمراء = Al-Ħamrā; literally the red palace) is a palace and fortress complex of the Moorish monarchs of Granada, in southern Spain (known as Al-Andalus when the fortress was constructed), occupying a hilly terrace on the south-eastern border of the city of Granada. ...


Irving and James Fenimore Cooper were the first American writers to earn acclaim in Europe, and Irving is said to have encouraged authors such as Nathaniel Hawthorne, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, and Edgar Allan Poe. Irving was also the U.S. minister to Spain 1842–1845. Cooper portrait by John Wesley Jarvis, 1822 James Fenimore Cooper (September 15, 1789 – September 14, 1851) was a prolific and popular American writer of the early 19th century. ... Nathaniel Hawthorne (born Nathaniel Hathorne; July 4, 1804 – May 19, 1864) was a 19th century American novelist and short story writer. ... Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (February 27, 1807 – March 24, 1882) was an American poet whose works include Paul Reveres Ride, A Psalm of Life, The Song of Hiawatha and Evangeline. He also wrote the first American translation of Dante Alighieris Divine Comedy and was one of the five members... Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, playwright, editor, literary critic, essayist and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... // ^ John Jay proceeded to post but was not formally received at court. ...

Contents

Biography

Washington Irving's parents were William Irving, originally of Shapinsay, Orkney, and Sarah (née Sanders), of Dutch descent. They were married in 1761, while William was serving as a petty officer in the British Navy. By the time Washington was born, William was settled in Manhattan, and part of that city's vibrant small merchant class. Several of Washington Irving's older brothers themselves became active New York merchants, and they encouraged their younger brother's literary aspirations. By 1804 he was reading law in the city and contributing theatrical reviews and humorous sketches to various periodicals [1]. His first book was A History of New-York from the Beginning of the World to the End of the Dutch Dynasty, by Diedrich Knickerbocker (1809), a brilliant satire on self-important local history and contemporary politics. The surname of Diedrich Knickerbocker, the fictional narrator of this and other Irving works, became a nickname for Manhattanites in general [2]. William Irving may refer to: William Irving (UK politician) (1892–1967), British Labour Co-operative MP 1945–1955 William Irving (US politician) (1766-1821), Democratic-Republican congressman from New York Category: ... Shapinsay shown within Orkney Islands Shapinsay is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland. ... Location Geography Area Ranked 16th  - Total 990 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Kirkwall ISO 3166-2 GB-ORK ONS code 00RA Demographics Population Ranked 32nd  - Total (2006) 19,800  - Density 20 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics Orkney Islands Council http://www. ... For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ... See also: 1808 in literature, other events of 1809, 1810 in literature, list of years in literature. ...


Like many merchants and many New Yorkers, Irving originally opposed the War of 1812, but the British attack on Washington, D.C. in 1814 convinced him to enlist. He served on the staff of Daniel Tompkins, governor of New York and commander of the New York State Militia, and saw action along the Great Lakes. The War was disastrous for many American merchants, including Irving's family, and in mid-1815 he left for England to attempt to salvage the family trading company. He remained in Europe for the next seventeen years. He never married. This article is about the U.S. – U.K. war. ... Portrait of U.S. Vice President Daniel D Tompkins Daniel D[ecius?] Tompkins (June 21, 1774–June 11, 1825) was entrepreneur, jurist, Congressman, Governor of New York, and the sixth Vice President of the United States. ...


Irving left for Europe in 1815. His efforts to restore the family business were unsuccessful, but he wrote prolifically, creating a series of sketches, stories, and observations. In 1819-1820 he published The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, which includes his best known stories, "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" and "Rip Van Winkle". "Rip Van Winkle" was written overnight while Irving was staying with his sister Sarah and her husband, Henry van Wart in Birmingham, England, a place that also inspired some of his other works. Bracebridge Hall or The Humorists, A Medley is based on Aston Hall there. The Sketch Book was an enormous success, and Irving soon traveled to the continent in search of new material, reading widely in Dutch and German folk tales. Like many successful authors of this era, Irving struggled against literary bootleggers. While in England, his sketches were published in book form by British publishers without his permission and from then on he published in Europe and the U.S. concurrently to protect his copyright. Headline text ... The Legend of Sleepy Hollow is a short story by Washington Irving contained in his collection The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. ... For the operetta of the same name, see Rip Van Winkle (operetta). ... Henry van Wart (1784 - ????) was an American, but became British by special act of parliament. ... This article is about the British city. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Aston Hall, after the coming of the railways, in 1851 Aston Hall is a Jacobean-style mansion in Aston, Birmingham, England, completed in 1635. ...

A Younger Washington Irving

While in Paris in 1825, Irving met Alexander Hill Everett, who was on his way to Madrid as American Minister to Spain. Everett invited Irving to join him in Madrid, noting that a number of manuscripts dealing with the Spanish conquest of the Americas had recently been made public. Irving left for Madrid in early 1826 and enthusiastically began scouring the Spanish archives for colorful material. He published The Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus in 1828, the Conquest of Granada a year later, and the Voyages of the Companions of Columbus in 1831. These works are a mixture of history and fiction, a genre now called romantic history – Irving based them on extensive research in the Spanish archives, but also added imaginative elements aimed at sharpening the story. The first of these works is the source of the durable myth that medieval Europeans believed the earth was flat. Irving left Spain in 1829 to accept a position in the US Embassy in London. While serving there he wrote Tales of the Alhambra, which was published concurrently in England and the United States. (The actual title is more lengthy, as its contents amounted to a collection of sketches. In 1851 he wrote an "Author's Revised Edition," also entitled Tales of the Alhambra.) Image File history File links Size of this preview: 397 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (984 × 1485 pixel, file size: 905 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Scan from 1858 book cyclopedia of Wit and Humor edited by William E. Burton. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 397 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (984 × 1485 pixel, file size: 905 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Scan from 1858 book cyclopedia of Wit and Humor edited by William E. Burton. ... Alexander Hill Everett (March 19, 1792–June 28, 1847) was a noted America diplomatist, politician, and Boston man of letters. ... The Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus is a novel about Christopher Columbus written by Washington Irving in 1838. ... Tales of the Alhambra (ISBN 978-8424105044) is a collection of essays, verbal sketches, and stories by Washington Irving . ...


Irving returned to the United States in 1832 and traveled on the Western frontier in the 1830s (with Charles La Trobe[3] for some time) and recorded his glimpses of Western tribes in A Tour on the Prairies (1835). He spoke against the mishandling of relations with the Native American tribes by Europeans and Americans: A frontier is a political and geographical term referring to areas near or beyond a boundary, or of a different nature. ... Charles La Trobe (March 20, 1801 - December 4, 1875) was the first lieutenant-governor of the state of Victoria. ... See also: 1834 in literature, other events of 1835, 1836 in literature, list of years in literature. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...

It has been the lot of the unfortunate aborigines of America, in the early periods of colonization, to be doubly wronged by the white men. They have been dispossessed of their hereditary possessions by mercenary and frequently wanton warfare, and their characters have been traduced by bigoted and interested writers.

The beginning of Prairies Chapter 10 includes the following, interpreted by some literary critics to be a comment on concerns about his public persona:

We send our youth abroad to grow luxurious and effeminate in Europe; it appears to me, that a previous tour on the prairies would be more likely to produce that manliness, simplicity, and self-dependence, most in unison with our political institutions.

Irving is also the author of The Adventures of Captain Bonneville and Astoria and used firsthand accounts of these American west journeys, although most readers continue to believe they are "embellished" history.

Sunnyside: Irving's famous home in Tarrytown, New York.

His second Western book was Astoria; he wrote it during a six-month stay with the then-retired John Jacob Astor. It was a worshipful account of Astor's attempt to establish a fur trading colony at present-day Astoria, Oregon. The three "Western" books were designed to put to rest the notion that Irving's time in England and Spain had made him more European than American. Legends of the Conquest of Spain was published in 1835. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1065 KB) Sunnyside, author Washington Irvings house by the Hudson River in Tarrytown, New York. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1065 KB) Sunnyside, author Washington Irvings house by the Hudson River in Tarrytown, New York. ... Sunnyside, Tarrytown, New York. ... Tarrytown is a village in Westchester County, New York, United States. ... John Jacob Astor, detail of an oil painting by Gilbert Stuart, 1794 John Jacob (originally either Johann Jakob or Johann Jacob) Astor (July 17, 1763 - March 29, 1848) was the first of the Astor family dynasty and the first millionaire in the United States, the creator of the first Trust... An Alberta fur trader in the 1890s. ... The Astoria Column Suomi Hall, the meeting hall of Finnish and Scandinavian immigrants, under the Astoria-Megler Bridge Woman walking her dog along the Columbia River in Astoria The city of Astoria is the county seat of Clatsop County, Oregon, United States. ...


During Irving's stay with Astor, Benjamin Bonneville paid a visit. His tales of his three years in Oregon Country were said to have enthralled Irving. A month or two later, when Irving encountered Bonneville in Washington, D.C., Bonneville, struggling to write about his journey, decided instead to sell his maps and notes to Irving for $1,000. Irving used that material as the basis for his 1837 book The Adventures of Captain Bonneville, which is often considered the best of his three Western books. Benjamin Bonneville Benjamin Louis Eulalie de Bonneville (April 14, 1796-1878) was a French-born officer in the United States Army, fur trapper, and explorer in the American West. ... Landscape in Oregon Country, by Charles Marion Russell Map of Oregon Country Oregon Country was a region of western North America that originally consisted of the land north of 42°N latitude, south of 54°40N latitude, and west of the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... See also: 1836 in literature, other events of 1837, 1838 in literature, list of years in literature. ...


Washington's home - Sunnyside - is still standing, just south of the Tappan Zee Bridge in Tarrytown, New York. The original house and the surrounding property were once owned by 18th-century colonialist Wolfert Acker, about whom Irving wrote his sketch Wolfert's Roost (the name of the house). The house is now owned and operated as an historic site by Historic Hudson Valley and is open to the public for tours. Sunnyside, Tarrytown, New York. ... The Governor Malcolm Wilson Tappan Zee Bridge, almost always referred to as the Tappan Zee Bridge or simply the Tappan Zee (though this can cause confusion with the body of water for which it is named) is a cantilever bridge in New York over the Hudson River at its widest... Tarrytown is a village in Westchester County, New York, United States. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Historic Hudson Valley logo Historic Hudson Valley is a not-for-profit educational and historic preservation organization headquartered in Tarrytown, New York, in Westchester County. ...


Irving popularized the nickname "Gotham" for New York City, later used in Batman comics and movies, and is credited with inventing the expression "the Almighty dollar". Look up Gotham in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Batman (originally referred to as the Bat-Man and still referred to at times as the Batman) is a DC Comics fictional superhero who first appeared in Detective Comics #27 in May 1939. ... Almighty dollar is an idiom often used to satirize the obsession many Americans have for material wealth. ...

Irving's grave, marked by a flag, in Sleepy Hollow Cemetery
Irving's grave, marked by a flag, in Sleepy Hollow Cemetery

, Sleepy Hollow, New York.]] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Sleepy Hollow Cemetery is the resting place of numerous famous figures, including Washington Irving, whose story The Legend of Sleepy Hollow is set in the adjacent Old Dutch Burying Ground. ... Sleepy Hollow is a village in Westchester County, New York, United States. ...

Irving as a Namesake

Irving became the namesake for towns and streets across the United States. The village of Irvington, New York, and the town of Irvington, New Jersey, were named after the author, and also, it is believed, the city of Irving, Texas. Irvington, a community in eastern Indianapolis, is named after Washington Irving. Both Washington Street and Irving Street in Birmingham, Alabama, also bear the author's name. His book Bracebridge Hall was the inspiration for the naming of the town of Bracebridge, Ontario. In addition, a library in Los Angeles, California, is named in his honor. Irving Avenue in Port Chester, N.Y., is named after him, as is a condominium townhouse community along this road called Washington Mews, which was built during the 1980s. The Rip Van Winkle Bridge crosses the Huson River at Catskill, NY. Washington Irving Memorial Park and Arboretum in Bixby, Oklahoma also bears his name. Irvington is a village in Westchester County, New York, USA. The population was 6,631 at the 2000 census. ... Map of Irvington Township in Essex County Irvington is a Township in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. ... Mustangs at Las Colinas Streetscape along Las Colinas Blvd in North Irving Aerial shot of Irving/Las Colinass Urban Center. ... Nickname: Location in Jefferson County in the state of Alabama Coordinates: , Country State Counties Jefferson, Shelby Incorporated December 19, 1871 Government  - Type Mayor - Council  - Mayor Bernard Kincaid (Current) Larry Langford (Mayor-Elect) Area  - City 151. ... Bracebridge Hall or The Humorists was written by Washington Irving and published by C.S. Van Winkle in New York and in London by Murray. ... Bracebridge (2001 population 13,751) is a town and the seat of the Muskoka District Municipality of Ontario, Canada. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Washington Irving Memorial Park and Arboretum (32. ... Bixby is a city in Oklahoma, and is a suburb of Tulsa, Oklahoma. ...


In Spain, the room at which he stayed in the Alhambra is labelled and referred to as his room and there is a hotel named for him just outside the Alhambra.


The southernmost section of Lexington Avenue in New York City (between 14th and 20th Streets) is named Irving Place, named so after Washington Irving in 1833. A house that stands on the corner of 17th Street and Irving Place is said to have been the one time home of Washington Irving, however that claim seems to have been only a myth [4]. Across the street from this house is the Washington Irving High School (New York City). On the corner of 16th Street and 3rd Avenue (one block east of Irving Place), is the Washington Irving House apartment building. In Fremont, California, the districts of Irvington and Washington and their respective high schools (Washington, Irvington) are also named in his honor. Lexington Avenue is an avenue on the East Side of the borough of Manhattan in New York City that carries southbound one-way traffic from East 131st Street to Gramercy Park at East 21st Street. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Washington Irving High School is located in the Gramercy Park neighborhood of New York City. ... For the unincorporated community in Yolo County, California, see Fremont, Yolo County, California. ... Washington High School (WHS) is one of the five Fremont, California public high schools which was established in 1892. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


There was also a Washington Irving High School in Clarksburg, West Virginia which was replaced by Robert C. Byrd High School in 1995. Washington Irving HS — or "WI" as it was called by locals — subsequently became the middle school. Clarksburg is a city in Harrison County, West Virginia, U.S. The population was 16,743 at the 2000 census. ...


Pen names and associated writings

Geoffrey Crayon

Diedrich Knickerbocker Bracebridge Hall or The Humorists was written by Washington Irving and published by C.S. Van Winkle in New York and in London by Murray. ... The Devil and Tom Walker is a short story by Washington Irving that first appeared in his 1824 collection of stories and sketches It was part of the Money-Diggers portion. ... Headline text ...

Jonathan Oldstyle The Legend of Sleepy Hollow is a short story by Washington Irving contained in his collection The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. ... For the operetta of the same name, see Rip Van Winkle (operetta). ...

  • Letters of Jonathan Oldstyle

Bibliography

  • The Complete Works of Washington Irving. (Richard Rust and others, eds.) (University of Wisconsin Press and Twayne Publishers, 1969-1982). This 30-volume series includes complete scholarly editions of all Irving's prose, as well as four volumes of letters and five volumes of journals and notebooks. Many of the volumes include extensive introductions and detailed biographical and contextual material.
  • History, Tales & Sketches: Letters of Jonathan Oldstyle, Gent.; Salmagundi; A History of New York; The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. (James W. Tuttleton, ed.) (Library of America, 1983) ISBN 978-0-94045014-1
  • Bracebridge Hall, Tales of a Traveller, The Alhambra (Andrew Myers, ed.) (Library of America, 1991) ISBN 978-0-94045059-2
  • Three Western Narratives: A Tour on the Prairies, Astoria, The Adventures of Captain Bonneville (James P. Ronda, ed.) (Library of America, 2004) ISBN 978-1-93108253-2
  • The Life of Washington Irving, by Stanley T. Williams, 1935.
  • The Original Knickerbocker: The Life of Washington Irving, by Andrew Burstein, 2007.
  • Washington Irving: An American Original, by Brian Jay Jones (Arcade, 2008) ISBN 978-1-55970-836-4
  • Tales of the Alhambra, by Washington Irving, ISBN 84-7169-018-7

Volumes in the Library of America series The Library of America (LoA) is a nonprofit publisher of classic American literature. ... Volumes in the Library of America series The Library of America (LoA) is a nonprofit publisher of classic American literature. ... Volumes in the Library of America series The Library of America (LoA) is a nonprofit publisher of classic American literature. ...

References

  1. ^ Stanley T. Williams, Life of Washington Irving, 1935 is still the standard source for Irving's biography. See also Andrew Burstein, The Original Knickerbocker, 2007.
  2. ^ Oxford English Dictionary
  3. ^ Jill Eastwood (1967). La Trobe, Charles Joseph (1801 - 1875). Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 2 89-93. MUP. Retrieved on 2007-07-13.
  4. ^ Gray, Christopher, "The Washington Irving House; Why the Legend of Irving Place Is but a Myth", The New York Times, March 13, 1994
Preceded by
Aaron Vail
U.S. Minister to Spain
1842–1846
Succeeded by
Romulus M. Saunders
Persondata
NAME Irving, Washington
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION American short story writer, essayist, biographer
DATE OF BIRTH April 3, 1783
PLACE OF BIRTH Manhattan, New York, United States
DATE OF DEATH November 28, 1859
PLACE OF DEATH

  Results from FactBites:
 
About Washington Irving (585 words)
Irving enjoyed visiting different places and a large part of his life was spent in Europe, particularly England, France, Germany, and Spain.
During this period, when Irving traveled or was sent on a diplomatic mission, he always had a home and family to which to return.
Irving's home was publicized throughout the world in lithographs, magazines, and tourists maps.
Washington Irving - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1073 words)
Washington Irving (April 3, 1783 – November 28, 1859) was an American author of the early 19th century.
Irving's grave, marked by the flag, in Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Sleepy Hollow, New York.
Irving wrote The Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus in 1828, the Conquest of Granada a year later, and, the Voyages of the Companions of Columbus in 1831, during his 4 year stay in Spain.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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