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Encyclopedia > Warsaw Uprising
Warsaw Uprising
Part of AK "Operation Tempest", World War II
Warsaw Uprising
Polish Home Army positions, outlined in red, on day 4 (August 4, 1944).
Date 1 August to 2 October 1944
Location Warsaw, Poland
Result German pyrrhic victory, uprising quelled
Combatants

Poland

Nazi Germany
Commanders
Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski #,
Antoni Chruściel #,
Tadeusz Pełczyński
Erich von dem Bach,
Rainer Stahel,
Heinz Reinefarth,
Bronislav Kaminski
Strength
47,500 troops[1] 25,000 troops (initially)[1]
Casualties
15,200[2] killed,
5,000[2] wounded,
15,000[2] taken prisoner
200,000[2] civilians killed
700,000[2] expelled from the city
16,000 killed[2],
9,000[2] wounded,
300 tanks and armored cars, 340 trucks and cars, 22 light artillery pieces[2]

Contents

Warsaw Uprising
Prelude - The Battle
Lack of outside support
Capitulation - Aftermath
Planned destruction
Cultural representations
Military units - Notable people
Atrocities
This box: view  talk  edit

The Warsaw Uprising (Powstanie Warszawskie) was a World War II struggle by the Polish Home Army (Armia Krajowa) to liberate Warsaw from German occupation. The Uprising began on August 1, 1944, as part of a nationwide rebellion, Operation Tempest. It was intended to last for only a few days until the Soviet Army would reach the city. The Soviet advance stopped short, however, while Polish resistance against the German forces continued for 63 days (until October 2). Warsaw uprising can refer to: Warsaw Uprising (1794), during KoÅ›ciuszkos Uprising, also known as Insurrection of Warsaw (November 29), an opening stage of the November Uprising. ... Armia Krajowa (the Home Army), abbreviated AK, was the dominant Polish resistance movement in World War II German-occupied Poland. ... For other uses, see Tempest. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 483 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1986 pixel, file size: 2. ... For other meanings of Home Army see: Home Army (disambiguation) The Armia Krajowa or AK (Home Army) functioned as the pre-eminent underground military organization in German-occupied Poland, which functioned in all areas of the country from September 1939 until its disbanding in January 1945. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Motto: Contemnit procellas (It defies the storms) Semper invicta (Always invincible) Coordinates: , Country  Poland Voivodeship Masovia Powiat city county Gmina Warszawa Districts 18 boroughs City Rights turn of the 13th century Government  - Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (PO) Area  - City 516. ... A Pyrrhic victory is a victory with devastating cost to the victor. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... When in 1933 German dictator Adolf Hitler gained power, the world was little (if at all), aware of the intensity and duration of the armed conflict that would follow in just a few short years. ... General Count Tadeusz Komorowski (June 1, 1895 - August 24, 1966), better known by the name Bór-Komorowski (after one of his wartime code-names: Bór) was a Polish military leader. ... Balian of Ibelin surrendering the city of Jerusalem to Saladin, from Les Passages faits Outremer par les Français contre les Turcs et autres Sarrasins et Maures outremarins, ca. ... Gen. ... Balian of Ibelin surrendering the city of Jerusalem to Saladin, from Les Passages faits Outremer par les Français contre les Turcs et autres Sarrasins et Maures outremarins, ca. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Erich von dem Bach, born Erich von Zelewski and also known as Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski (March 1, 1899 - March 8, 1972), was a Nazi official and a member of the SS (in which he reached the rank of SS-Obergruppenführer). ... Reiner Stahel (1892 – 1952 or 1955), also known as Rainer Stahel, was a German and Finnish military officer and a notable member of the Nazi Party. ... Heinrich Reinefarth (plus communément appelé Heinz Reinefarth, 26 décembre 1903-7 mai 1979), était un officiel et un officier militaire allemand durant, puis après la Seconde guerre mondiale. ... Bronislav Vladislavovich Kaminski (Russian: Бронислав Каминский in Russian) was the commander of the RONA (Russkaya Ovsoboditelnaya Narodnaya Armiya) unit, a Russian armed force that fought against the Soviet forces in alliance with Nazi Germany and was later incorporated into the Waffen SS. Engineer Bronislaw (also spelled Bronislav) Kaminski was born in 1899... Temporary grave of an American machine-gunner during the Battle of Normandy. ... WIA is a three letter abbreviation meaning Wounded in action. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... For other uses, see Tempest. ... Combatants Russian Empire Austria-Hungary German Empire Commanders Aleksei Brusilov Conrad von Hötzendorf Alexander von Linsingen Strength 29 Infantry and 12 Cavalry divisions 12 divisions The Battle of Kowel (also known as the Battle of Kovel or the Battle of Kovel-Stanislav took place during the First World War... The Wilno Uprising (also known as Operation Ostra Brama) was the armed struggle started by the Polish Home Army against the Nazi occupiers of Wilno (now Vilnius), during World War II. It started on July 7, 1944 as a part of a plan of all-national uprising codenamed Operation Tempest... The Lwów Uprising was the armed struggle started by the Polish Armia Krajowa against the Nazi occupiers of Lwów, during World War II. It started on July 23, 1944 as a part of a plan of all-national uprising codenamed Operation Tempest and lasted until July 27. ... The Warsaw Uprising occurred at a stage of the Second World War when it was becoming clear that Nazi Germany was likely to lose. ... The Warsaw Uprising began with simultaneous pre-arranged attacks at 17:00 hours August 1, 1944. ... The Warsaw Uprising, in 1944 ended in the capitulation of the city and its near total destruction. ... The Warsaw Uprising of 1944 was ended through a capitulation agreement which guaranteed not only the rights of the insurgents to be treated as Prisoners of War but also was designed to guarantee the fair treatment of the civilians living in Warsaw. ... The failure of the Warsaw Uprising and subsequent Capitulation agreement left Warsaw almost uninhabited. ... The city of Warsaw was nearly destroyed in a planned way by Nazi Germany after the fall of Warsaw Uprising in 1944. ... The representation of the Warsaw Uprising in the media had already become controversial even before it begun. ... This is a list of military units taking part in the Warsaw Uprising, a Polish insurgence during the Second World War that began on August 1, 1944. ... This is a list of notable individuals who were involved in the Warsaw Uprising, a Polish insurgence during the Second World War that begun on August 1 of 1944. ... This article details the war crimes and crimes against humanity committed against ethnic Poles during World War II. Three million non-Jewish Polish citizens perished during the course of the war, most of them civilians, killed by the actions of Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Armia Krajowa (the Home Army), abbreviated AK, was the dominant Polish resistance movement in World War II German-occupied Poland. ... Motto: Contemnit procellas (It defies the storms) Semper invicta (Always invincible) Coordinates: , Country  Poland Voivodeship Masovia Powiat city county Gmina Warszawa Districts 18 boroughs City Rights turn of the 13th century Government  - Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (PO) Area  - City 516. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Look up rebellion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Tempest. ...


The Uprising began at a crucial juncture as the Soviet Army was approaching Warsaw. The Uprising's chief objective was to drive the German occupiers from the city, helping with the larger fight against the Axis. Secondary political objectives were to liberate Warsaw before the Red Army arrived, so as to underscore Polish sovereignty, and to undo the Allied division of Central Europe into spheres of influence. Polish authorities were to reappear in liberated Warsaw and challenge the Soviet puppet government that was to rule Poland. Soviet redirects here. ... This article is about the armed forces of the Soviet Union. ... Combatants Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Ferdinand Schörner (until July 23) Johannes Friessner (from July 25) (Heeresgruppe Sudukraine) Günther Blumentritt (until June 28) Walter Model (until August 16) Georg Hans Reinhardt (Army Group Centre) Konstantin Rokossovsky (1st Belorussian Front) Strength  ?  ? Casualties  ?  ? Lublin‐Brest Offensive is covered in the... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... A sphere of influence (SOI) is an area or region over which an organization or state exerts some kind of indirect cultural, economic, military or political domination. ... The Government of the Polish Republic in exile maintained a continuous existence in exile from the time of the German occupation of Poland in September 1939 until the end of the Communist rule in Poland in 1990. ... A propaganda photo of a citizen reading the PKWN Manifesto, issued on July 22, 1944 The Polish Committee of National Liberation (Polish Polski Komitet Wyzwolenia Narodowego, PKWN), also known as the Lublin Committee, was the provisional Polish government. ...


By September 16, 1944, Soviet forces had reached a point a few hundred metres from the city, across the Vistula River, but they made no further headway during the Uprising leading to allegations that Stalin had wanted the insurrection to fail. is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Vistula river basin Vistula (Polish Wisła), is the longest river in Poland. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314...


Polish losses amounted to 18,000 soldiers killed and 25,000 wounded, in addition to between 120,000 and 200,000 civilian deaths, mostly from mass murders conducted by retreating German troops. German casualties totalled over 17,000 soldiers killed and over 9,000 wounded. During the urban combat approximately 25% of Warsaw's buildings were destroyed. Following the surrender of Polish forces on October 2, German troops systematically burned the city block by block. Together with earlier damage suffered in 1939 and during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (1943), over 85% of the city had been destroyed. By January 1945, when the Soviets finally entered the city, Warsaw had practically ceased to exist. MOUT/FIBUA simulated in US Army exercise Urban warfare is warfare conducted in populated urban areas such as towns and cities. ... Combatants Nazi Germany {SS, SD, Gestapo, Ordnungspolizei, Wehrmacht} Collaborators {Blue Police, Jewish Ghetto Police} Jewish resistance (ŻOB, ŻZW) Polish resistance (Armia Krajowa, Gwardia Ludowa) Commanders Ferdinand von Sammern-Frankenegg Jürgen Stroop Franz Bürkl Mordechai Anielewicz† Dawid Apfelbaum† Paweł Frenkiel† Icchak Cukierman Marek Edelman Zivia Lubetkin Henryk Iwański...


Eve of battle

See also: Lead up to the Warsaw Uprising
If not for Warsaw in the General Government, we wouldn't have 4/5 of our current problems on that territory. Warsaw was and will be the centre of chaos and a place from which opposition spreads throughout the rest of the country.

German Governor-General of Poland Hans Frank
Kraków, December 14, 1943[3]
The Warsaw Uprising occurred at a stage of the Second World War when it was becoming clear that Nazi Germany was likely to lose. ... The General Government (in full General government for the occupied Polish areas, in German Generalgouvernement für die besetzten polnischen Gebiete) was the name given by Germany to the governing authority in Poland after its occupation by the Wehrmacht in September and October 1939. ... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... Hans Frank (May 23, 1900 – October 16, 1946) was a lawyer for the Nazi party during the 1920s and a senior official in Nazi Germany. ... Motto: Ex navicula navis (From a boat, a ship) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lesser Poland Powiat city county Gmina Kraków City Rights June 5th, 1257 Government  - Mayor Jacek Majchrowski Area  - City 326. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

The Warsaw Uprising, or at least some form of insurrection in Poland, had been planned long in advance.[4] From its inception, the Home Army was planning a national uprising against the German forces. Initial plans created by the Polish government-in-exile in 1942 assumed that the Allied invasion of Europe would lead to the withdrawal of considerable German forces from the Eastern Front for the defence of the Third Reich. The Home Army would act to prevent troop transfer to the west and to allow the British and American forces to seize Germany by breaking all communication links with the majority of the German forces massed in the Soviet Union. Insurrection could refer to: * in a general sense, it means Rebellion * it is also a title of a Star Trek film, see Star Trek: Insurrection ... Armia Krajowa (the Home Army), abbreviated AK, was the dominant Polish resistance movement in World War II German-occupied Poland. ... The Government of the Polish Republic in exile maintained a continuous existence in exile from the time of the German occupation of Poland in September 1939 until the end of the Communist rule in Poland in 1990. ... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Eastern Front was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...

Polish flag with "anchor" device.
Polish flag with "anchor" device.

The Home Army's initial plans for a national uprising, Operation Tempest, which would link up with Western Allies forces, changed in 1943 when the situation on the Eastern Front made it apparent that the Red Army, rather than the Western Allies, would force the Germans from Poland. By 1943 it was clear that the allied invasion of Europe would not come in time, and that in all probability the Red Army would reach the pre-war borders of Poland before the invasion could make notable headway. In February 1943, General Stefan Rowecki amended the plan. The Uprising was to be started in three phases, the first being in the East (with main centres of resistance in Lwów and Wilno), before the advancing Red Army. The second part was to include armed struggle in the belt between the Curzon Line and the Vistula river, while the third phase was to be a nationwide uprising throughout Poland. Warsaw was chosen, partially, because of its status as a pre-war capital and partly because it was assumed that the Germans would wish to hold onto the city for as long as possible, as a tool for morale boosting, and as a base for communications, supply, and troop movements. Image File history File links Flaga_PPP.png‎ Unofficial flag of the Armia Krajowa and the Polish Secret State. ... Image File history File links Flaga_PPP.png‎ Unofficial flag of the Armia Krajowa and the Polish Secret State. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Banner of Poland. ... Kotwica painted on one of the monuments in Warsaw by the Szare Szeregi Kotwica (Polish anchor) was the symbol of the Polish Secret State and the Armia Krajowa during World War II. It was created in 1942 by the members of the Wawer Small Sabotage unit of the Armia Krajowa... Armia Krajowa (the Home Army), abbreviated AK, was the dominant Polish resistance movement in World War II German-occupied Poland. ... For other uses, see Tempest. ... The Western Allies were the democracies and their colonial peoples, within the broader coalition of Allies during World War II. The term is generally understood to refer to the countries of the British Commonwealth of Nations and Poland (from 1939), exiled forces from Occupied Europe (from 1940), the United States... Combatants Soviet Union,[1] Poland, Tannu Tuva (until 1944 incorporation with USSR), Mongolia Germany,[2] Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Spain (to 1943, unofficial) Commanders Joseph Stalin, Aleksei Antonov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Stefan PaweÅ‚ Rowecki (pseudonym: Grot, hence called Stefan Grot-Rowecki, 1895-1944?) was a Polish general, journalist and the leader of the Armia Krajowa. ... Motto: Semper fidelis Oblast Lviv Oblast Municipal government City council (Львівська міська рада) Mayor City chairman Lyubomyr Bunyak Area 171,01 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 808,900 ? 4786/km² Founded City rights 13th century 1353 Latitude Longitude 49°51′ N 24°01′ E Area code +0322 Car plates  ? Twin towns Corning, Freiburg... Vilnius Old Town Vilnius (sometimes Vilna; Polish Wilno, Belarusian Вільня, Russian Вильнюс, see also Cities alternative names) is the capital city of Lithuania. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... The Curzon Line was a demarcation line proposed in 1919 by the British Foreign Secretary, Lord Curzon of Kedleston, as a possible armistice line between Poland, to the west, and Soviet Russia to the east, during the Polish-Soviet War of 1919–20. ... For other uses, see Vistula (disambiguation). ... Motto: Contemnit procellas (It defies the storms) Semper invicta (Always invincible) Coordinates: , Country  Poland Voivodeship Masovia Powiat city county Gmina Warszawa Districts 18 boroughs City Rights turn of the 13th century Government  - Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (PO) Area  - City 516. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ...


The Polish government-in-exile carried out frantic diplomatic efforts to gain support from their allies prior to the start of battle. However the Allies support for the Polish resistance was not high on the priority list. The Polish government in London asked the SOE and the Foreign Office several times for an allied mission to be sent to Poland;[5] since such missions had already been dispatched to all other resistance movements in Europe, such as Albania, Czechoslovakia, France, Greece, Italy, Norway, Yugoslavia. However, the Polish pleas were not heeded until December 1944. The Government of the Polish Republic in exile maintained a continuous existence in exile from the time of the German occupation of Poland in September 1939 until the end of the Communist rule in Poland in 1990. ... The Warsaw Uprising began with simultaneous pre-arranged attacks at 17:00 hours August 1, 1944. ... The Special Operations Executive (SOE), sometimes referred to as the Baker Street Irregulars after Sherlock Holmess fictional group of spies, was a World War II organization initiated by Winston Churchill and Hugh Dalton in July 1940 as a mechanism for conducting warfare by means other than direct military engagement. ... The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for promoting the interests of the United Kingdom abroad. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ...

Rowecki, early 1930s.
Rowecki, early 1930s.

For the Soviets, this represented more of a hindrance than a help. Polish-Soviet relations were broken off on April 25, 1943 as a result of the Katyn massacre and Soviet partisans often clashed with Polish partisans.[5] It became obvious that the advancing Red Army might not come to Poland as a liberator but rather, as General Stefan Grot-Rowecki put it, as "our Allies' ally." On November 26, 1943, the Polish government-in-exile issued an instruction to the effect that if diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union were not resumed before the Soviet entry into Poland, Home Army forces were to remain underground pending further decisions. However, the Home Army commander took a different approach, and on November 30, 1943, the final version of the plan, which became known as Operation Tempest, was devised. Although doubts existed about the military wisdom of a major uprising, planning continued nonetheless. Gen. ... Gen. ... Stefan PaweÅ‚ Rowecki (pseudonym: Grot, hence called Stefan Grot-Rowecki, 1895-1944?) was a Polish general, journalist and the leader of the Armia Krajowa. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Katyn and KatyÅ„ redirect here. ... Poland was annexed and partitioned by Germany and the Soviet Union in the aftermath of the Polish September Campaign of 1939. ... Stefan Paweł Rowecki (pseudonym: Grot, hence called Stefan Grot-Rowecki, 1895-1944?) was a Polish general, journalist and the leader of the Armia Krajowa. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Government of the Polish Republic in exile maintained a continuous existence in exile from the time of the German occupation of Poland in September 1939 until the end of the Communist rule in Poland in 1990. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Tempest. ...


The situation came to a head on 13 July as Operation Bagration, the Soviet offensive, crossed the old Polish border. At this point the Poles had to make a decision: either initiate the uprising in the current difficult political situation and risk problems with Soviet support, or fail to rebel and face Soviet propaganda describing Armia Krajowa as collaborators and ineffective cowards. The plan was intended both as a political manifestation of the influence of Polish Government in Exile and as a direct operation against German occupiers.[2] The fear was that in the aftermath of the war the Allies would ignore the legal London-based government. It was clear both that Poland would be 'liberated' by the Red Army, and that the Soviet Union did not recognise the Government-in-Exile. The urgency for this decision increased as it became clear that after any successful Polish-Soviet co-operation in the liberation of various towns (for example, in the Wilno Uprising), the Soviet NKVD units who followed behind would either shoot or arrest most Polish officers and those Polish soldiers who could not or would not join the Soviet controlled forces.[5] Following a flood of reports from the eastern territories about forced demilitarisation, trials and execution of Home Army soldiers by the Soviets, on 21 July 1944 the High Command of the Home Army decided to expand the scope of Operation Tempest to include Warsaw itself. The date for the Warsaw Uprising was set as 1 August. On 25 July the Polish government in exile in London approved the planned uprising in Warsaw. is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Ernst Busch Walther Model Ferdinand Schörner Konstantin Rokossovsky Georgy Zhukov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength 800,000 1,700,000 Casualties : 400,000 killed, 158,000 POWs, 590,000 wounded : 260,000 killed, 250,000 wounded 116,000 POWs 60,000 KIA/MIA, 110,000 WIA... Kraków Katowice WrocÅ‚aw Łódź PoznaÅ„ Bydgoszcz Lublin BiaÅ‚ystok GdaÅ„sk Szczecin Warsaw Baltic Sea Tatra Sudetes Russia Lithuania Belarus Ukraine Slovakia Czech Republic Ger. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Armia Krajowa (the Home Army), abbreviated AK, was the dominant Polish resistance movement in World War II German-occupied Poland. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... The Wilno Uprising (also known as Operation Ostra Brama) was the armed struggle started by the Polish Home Army against the Nazi occupiers of Wilno (now Vilnius), during World War II. It started on July 7, 1944 as a part of a plan of all-national uprising codenamed Operation Tempest... The NKVD (Narodny Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del  ) (Russian: , ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repressions during Stalinism. ... Polish volunteers to the Anders Army, released from Soviet POW camp. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Government of the Polish Republic in Exile was the government of Poland after the country had been occupied by Germany and the Soviet Union during September-October 1939. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


In the early summer of 1944, German planning required Warsaw to serve as the defensive centre of the area and to be held at all costs. The Germans had fortifications constructed and built up their forces in the area. This process slowed after the failed July 20 Plot to assassinate Adolf Hitler, but by late July 1944, German forces had almost reached their full strength again. On July 27, the head of the General Government, Hans Frank, called for 100,000 Polish men between the ages of 17–65 to present themselves at several designated meeting places in Warsaw the following day,[2] as part of the plan which envisaged the Poles constructing fortifications for the Wehrmacht in and around the city. The Home Army viewed this move as an attempt to neutralise the underground forces, and the underground urged Warsaw inhabitants to ignore it.[2] Fearing German reprisals following the ignored order, and believing that time was of the essence, General Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski ordered full mobilisation of Home Army forces in the Warsaw area on 1 August 1944.[2] Festung Warschau (German Fortress Warsaw) is the name applied to the city of Warsaw by the Germans. ... Claus von Stauffenberg The July 20 Plot was an attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler, the dictator of Germany, on July 20, 1944. ... Hitler redirects here. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The General Government (in full General government for the occupied Polish areas, in German Generalgouvernement für die besetzten polnischen Gebiete) was the name given by Germany to the governing authority in Poland after its occupation by the Wehrmacht in September and October 1939. ... Hans Frank (May 23, 1900 – October 16, 1946) was a lawyer for the Nazi party during the 1920s and a senior official in Nazi Germany. ... Wehrmacht   (armed forces, literally defence force(s)) was the name of the armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. ... General Count Tadeusz Komorowski (June 1, 1895 - August 24, 1966), better known by the name Bór-Komorowski (after one of his wartime code-names: Bór) was a Polish military leader. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


This mobilization decision had some key ramifications for the Soviet Union. Stalin decried for not being officially consulted on the uprising and thus suspected subterfuge from his Western allies. In retrospect, both sides were jockeying for regional political alignment, with the Polish Home Army's desire for a pro-Western Polish government and the Soviet's intention of establishing a Polish Communist regime. Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... ...


The official Soviet propaganda line tried to portray the Polish underground as "waiting with their arms at ease" and not fighting the common enemy.[citation needed] As the Soviet forces approached Warsaw in June and July 1944, Soviet radio stations demanded a full national uprising in Warsaw to cut the communication lines of German units still on the right bank of the Vistula; just two days prior to the uprising, Soviet-controlled radio Kosciuszko had called for the Polish people to rise in arms.[2] On July 29[1], 1944, the first Soviet armoured units reached the outskirts of Warsaw, but were counter-attacked by German 39th Panzer Corps, comprising 4th Panzer Division, 5th SS Panzer Division, 19th Panzer Division, and the Hermann Goering Panzer Division.[6] [7] By 10 August, in the ensuing battle of Radzymin, the Germans had enveloped and inflicted heavy casualties on the Soviet 3rd Tank Corps at Wołomin, 15 kilometres outside Warsaw.[6][7] For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Vistula (disambiguation). ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... German tank of the 4th Division during the failed assault of Warsaw The German 4th Panzer Division () was established in 1938. ... Nordische Division (Nr. ... The German 19th Panzer Division was created from the 19th Infantry Division and was formed on 1 November 1940. ... Polizeiabteilung z. ... The Battle of Radzymin was a clash between the Red Army and the Wehrmacht that happened between August 1 and August 10 near the town of Radzymin in the vicinity of Warsaw. ... Coat of arms of WoÅ‚omin WoÅ‚omin is the main town of the Wolomin county situated in Masovian Voivodship. ...


Opposing forces

Batalion Zośka soldiers in Wola during Warsaw Uprising
Batalion Zośka soldiers in Wola during Warsaw Uprising
Polish insurgent, wearing armband in the national colours, at a Warsaw Uprising barricade. He is using the Polish submachine gun Błyskawica.
Polish insurgent, wearing armband in the national colours, at a Warsaw Uprising barricade. He is using the Polish submachine gun Błyskawica.
Locations of barricades marked on a prewar map of Warsaw.
Locations of barricades marked on a prewar map of Warsaw.
Statue of Mały Powstaniec (The Little Insurgent), just outside Warsaw's medieval city walls, commemorates the child soldiers that fought in the Warsaw Uprising. The boy wears a captured German helmet with Polish national colours. Honour guard of Polish Boy Scouts.
Statue of Mały Powstaniec (The Little Insurgent), just outside Warsaw's medieval city walls, commemorates the child soldiers that fought in the Warsaw Uprising. The boy wears a captured German helmet with Polish national colours. Honour guard of Polish Boy Scouts.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Batalion ZoÅ›ka (named after Tadeusz Zawadzki) was a scouting battalion of the Armia Krajowa, mainly consisted by members of the Szare Szeregi, which took part in the Warsaw Uprising of 1944. ... Area 19,26 km² Population 143 996 (2003) Population density 7476/km² Mayor ZdzisÅ‚aw Sipiera Notable landmarks PowÄ…zki Cemetery Wola Website For other meanings of the word, see WOLA. Wola is a district in western Warsaw, Poland, formerly the village of Wielka Wola, incorporated into Warsaw in 1916. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... One of the Armia Krajowa soldiers defending a barricade during the Warsaw Uprising. ... One of the Armia Krajowa soldiers defending a barricade during the Warsaw Uprising. ... An insurgency is an armed rebellion against a constituted authority, by any irregular armed force that rises up against an enforced or established authority, government, or administration. ... National colours are frequently part of a countrys set of national symbols. ... Closeup of a collection of blinker equipped barricades A barricade is any object or structure that creates a barrier or obstacle to control, block passage or force the flow of traffic in the desired direction. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Position of baricades during the Warsaw Uprising on a pre-war map of Warsaw (1935). ... Position of baricades during the Warsaw Uprising on a pre-war map of Warsaw (1935). ... Closeup of a collection of blinker equipped barricades A barricade is any object or structure that creates a barrier or obstacle to control, block passage or force the flow of traffic in the desired direction. ... For other uses, see Map (disambiguation). ... Motto: Contemnit procellas (It defies the storms) Semper invicta (Always invincible) Coordinates: , Country  Poland Voivodeship Masovia Powiat city county Gmina Warszawa Districts 18 boroughs City Rights turn of the 13th century Government  - Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (PO) Area  - City 516. ... Download high resolution version (539x721, 220 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (539x721, 220 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Motto: Contemnit procellas (It defies the storms) Semper invicta (Always invincible) Coordinates: , Country  Poland Voivodeship Masovia Powiat city county Gmina Warszawa Districts 18 boroughs City Rights turn of the 13th century Government  - Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (PO) Area  - City 516. ... The military use of children refers to children being placed in harms way in military actions, the desire being to protect a location or provide propaganda. ... National colours are frequently part of a countrys set of national symbols. ... Związek Harcerstwa Polskiego (Polish Scouting and Guiding Association, ZHP) is the Polish Scouting organization recognized by the World Organization of the Scout Movement. ... This is a list of military units taking part in the Warsaw Uprising, a Polish insurgence during the Second World War that began on August 1, 1944. ...

Poles

The Home Army forces of the Warsaw District numbered about 45,000 soldiers, of which 23,000 were equipped and combat-ready; about 2,500 further soldiers came from the ranks of other formations like the far-right Narodowe Siły Zbrojne and the communist Armia Ludowa.[1] Most of them had trained for several years in partisan and urban guerrilla warfare, but lacked experience in prolonged daylight fighting. The forces lacked equipment,[1] especially since the Home Army had shuttled weapons and men to the east of the city before the decision on 21 July to include Warsaw in Operation Tempest. A number of other partisan groups also subordinated themselves to Home Army command for the uprising. Many volunteers, including some Jews freed from the concentration camp in the ruins of the Warsaw Ghetto, joined during the fighting.[8] Narodowe SiÅ‚y Zbrojne (English National Armed Forces, NSZ) was one of the Polish armed underground guerilla organizations, fighting Nazi German occupation in General Government. ... Armia Ludowa (AL, pronounced ; English Polish Peoples Army) was a Polish World War II resistance organisation. ... Look up partisan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Urban guerrilla refers to someone who fights a government or dictatorship using unconventional warfare in an urban environment (see: guerrilla tactics). ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Ghetto Heroes Memorial in Warsaw The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest of the Jewish ghettos established by Nazi Germany in the General Government during the Holocaust in World War II. Between 1940 and 1943, starvation, disease and deportations to concentration camps and extermination camps dropped the population of the...


General Antoni Chruściel, codename 'Monter', commanded the Polish forces in Warsaw. Initially he divided his forces into eight areas: Gen. ...

On September 20 a re-organisation of this structure took place to align with the structure of Polish forces fighting with the Western Allies. The entire force, renamed the Warsaw Home Army Corps (Warszawski Korpus Armii Krajowej) and commanded by General Antoni Chruściel (Monter), formed into three infantry divisions. Area 15. ... Area km² Population (2003) Population density Mayor Notable landmarks Website Warsaw Citadel and the Hibner park in Å»oliborz Å»oliborz is one of the northern boroughs of the city of Warsaw. ... Marymont (from French Mont de Marie - Marys Hill) is one of the northern neighbourhoods of Warsaw, administratively a part of the borough of Å»oliborz. ... Area 32,3 km² Population 136 485 (2003) Population density 4225,5/km² Mayor Cezary PomaraÅ„ski Notable landmarks Bielany Website This article is about district in Warsaw. ... Area 19,26 km² Population 143 996 (2003) Population density 7476/km² Mayor ZdzisÅ‚aw Sipiera Notable landmarks PowÄ…zki Cemetery Wola Website For other meanings of the word, see WOLA. Wola is a district in western Warsaw, Poland, formerly the village of Wielka Wola, incorporated into Warsaw in 1916. ... Area 9,7 km² Population 93 192 (2003) Population density 9 607/km² Mayor Maurycy Wojciech Komorowski Notable landmarks Ochota Website Ochota is a district in Warsaw located in the central part of the city. ... Area 35,42 km² Population (2003) 221 000 Population density 6239,4 Mayor Ewa WÄ™gÅ‚owska Notable landmarks Polish Radio and Television, Pole Mokotowskie, School of Economics, Rakowiecka Street Prison Website Mokotow (pol. ... Kedyw (acronym for Kierownictwo Dywersji, Polish Directorate of Sabotage and Diversion; probably also a play on the Turkish khedive, which translates into Polish as kedyw): a Polish World War II Armia Krajowa organization that specialized in active and passive sabotage, propaganda and armed action against German forces and collaborators. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bold Bold texttext,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvMedia:Example. ...


As of August 1 their military supplies consisted of: is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

In the course of the fighting the Poles obtained further supplies through airdrops and by capture from the enemy (including several armoured vehicles). Also, the insurgents’ workshops worked busily throughout the uprising, producing 300 automatic pistols, 150 flame-throwers, 40,000 grenades, a number of mortars, and even an armoured car (Kubuś). This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A Browning 9 millimeter Hi-Power Ordnance pistol of the French Navy, 19th century, using a Percussion cap mechanism Derringers were small and easily hidden. ... A machine pistol shares several properties of the semi-automatic handgun and the sub-machine gun. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... The Maschinengewehr 1942, or MG42, is a German machine gun, first manufactured in 1942 as the successor to the MG34. ... Anti-tank, or simply AT, refers to any method of combating military armored fighting vehicles, notably tanks. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Projector, Infantry, Anti Tank, was one of the earlier anti-tank weapons using a high explosive anti-tank projectile. ... For the alcoholic beverage sold in New Orleans, see hand grenade (drink). ... A C-130 Hercules airdropping a light tank. ... An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is a military vehicle, equipped with protection against hostile attacks and often mounted weapons. ... A semi-automatic pistol is a handgun commonly used as a sidearm by police and military all over the world. ... German troops use a flamethrower on the Eastern Front during the Second World War A flamethrower is a mechanical device designed to throw flames or, more correctly, project an ignited stream of liquid. ... US soldier loading a M224 60-mm mortar. ... Military armored cars A French VBL reconnaissance vehicle. ... Original car Modern replica KubuÅ› was a Polish World War II armoured car and Armoured personnel carrier(APC), made by the Home Army during the Warsaw Uprising. ...


Germans

In late July the German units stationed in and around Warsaw were divided into three categories. The first - and the most numerous - was the garrison of Warsaw. As of July 31, 1944, it numbered some 11,000 troops under General Rainer Stahel[9]. These forces included: is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Reiner Stahel (1892 – 1952 or 1955), also known as Rainer Stahel, was a German and Finnish military officer and a notable member of the Nazi Party. ...

  • Approximately 5,000 regular troops
  • 4,000 Luftwaffe personnel (1,000 at Okęcie airport, 700 at Bielany, 1,000 in Boernerowo, 300 at Służewiec and 1,000 in anti-air artillery posts throughout the city
  • Approximately 2,000 men of the Wachtregiment Warschau (German: Sentry Regiment Warsaw), including four infantry battalions (Patz, Baltz, No.996 and No.997), an SS reconnaissance squadron (ca. 350 men), factory guards, Andrey Vlasov's men, Turkmmen and other auxiliary troops.

These well-equipped German forces had been prepared for the defence of the city's key positions for many months. Several hundred concrete bunkers and barbed wire lines protected the buildings and areas occupied by the Germans. The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, literally Air Weapon, pronounced lufft-va-fa, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... Airport maintenance facilities seen from runway Warsaw Frederic Chopin Airport (Polish: ) (IATA: WAW, ICAO: EPWA) is an international airport located in the OkÄ™cie district of Warsaw, Poland. ... Area 32,3 km² Population 136 485 (2003) Population density 4225,5/km² Mayor Cezary PomaraÅ„ski Notable landmarks Bielany Website This article is about district in Warsaw. ... Transatlantic Radio Station and the Fort Babice; aerial photo made in 1939 Boernerowo is a neighbourhood in the Warsaws borough of Bemowo. ... American troops mount an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft warfare, or air defence, is any method of engaging military aircraft in combat from the ground. ... SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop... General Andrey Vlasov General Andrey Andreyevich Vlasov (Russian: Андрей Андреевич Власов; alternative transliterations of his names appear as Andrei Andreievich and as Vlassov or (in German) Wlassow) (September 14 [O.S. September 1] 1900 — August 2, 1946) was a Soviet Army General who later cooperated with Nazi Germany during World War II in... Bunkers in Albania A bunker is a defensive military fortification. ... A selection of forms of barbed wire. ...


Apart from the garrison itself, there were numerous units stationed on both banks of the Vistula or moving through the city in both directions. These comprised some 15,000 to 16,000 Wehrmacht soldiers[citation needed]. Also, at least 90,000 additional German troops were available from occupation forces in the surrounding area[citation needed]. For other uses, see Vistula (disambiguation). ... Wehrmacht   (armed forces, literally defence force(s)) was the name of the armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. ...


The second category was formed by police and SS under Col. Paul Otto Geibel, numbering initially 5,710 men.[10] These included three Schutzpolizei battalions (1,000 men) and two Sauferkaserne SS battalions (1,000 men), as well as reserve companies (300 men), an SA battalion (400 men), military police, Ordnungspolizei, Sicherheitspolizei, training units and many smaller units up to 400 men strong. SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop... The Schutzpolizei (Schupo) is a branch of the Landespolizei, the state police of Germany. ... SA may stand for: // Students Association, an association of students, also written as S.A. for e. ... Flag of the Ordnungspolizei The Ordnungspolizei (OrPo) was the name for the regular German police force that existed in Nazi Germany between the years of 1936 and 1945. ... The Sicherheitspolizei (security police) was a term used in Nazi Germany to described the combined forces of the Gestapo and Sicherheitsdienst (the SD) between 1934 and 1939. ...


The third category was formed by various sentry and guard units, altogether some 3,500 men strong. Among them were detachments of the Bahnschutz (rail guard), Werkschutz (factory guard) and a transport protection battalion.


In the course of the uprising the German side received reinforcements on a daily basis. As of August 23, 1944, the German units directly involved with fighting in Warsaw included: is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...

  • Battle Group Rohr (commanded by Major General Rohr)
  • Battle Group Reinefarth (commanded by SS-Gruppenführer Heinz Reinefarth)
    • Attack Group Dirlewanger Brigade
    • Attack Group Reck (commanded by Major Reck)
    • Attack Group Schmidt (commanded by Colonel Schmidt)
    • Various support and backup units
  • Warsaw Garrison (Group of Warsaw Commandant) commanded by Lieutenant General Stahel

Heinrich Reinefarth (plus communément appelé Heinz Reinefarth, 26 décembre 1903-7 mai 1979), était un officiel et un officier militaire allemand durant, puis après la Seconde guerre mondiale. ... Wilddiebkommando Oranienburg Sonderkommando SS-Sonderbataillon Dirlewanger SS-Sonderregiment Dirlewanger SS-Sonderbrigade Dirlewanger 2. ...

The rising

Postwar Kotwica sculpture before bullet-riddled Bank of Poland Redoubt. The "anchor" combines the letters "P" and "W," initials of "Polska walcząca" — "Poland fights."
Postwar Kotwica sculpture before bullet-riddled Bank of Poland Redoubt. The "anchor" combines the letters "P" and "W," initials of "Polska walcząca" — "Poland fights."

The Warsaw Uprising began with simultaneous pre-arranged attacks at 17:00 hours August 1, 1944. ... Download high resolution version (853x640, 143 KB)Kotwica, the symbol of the Armia Krajowa. ... Download high resolution version (853x640, 143 KB)Kotwica, the symbol of the Armia Krajowa. ... Kotwica painted on one of the monuments in Warsaw by the Szare Szeregi Kotwica (Polish anchor) was the symbol of the Polish Secret State and the Armia Krajowa during World War II. It was created in 1942 by the members of the Wawer Small Sabotage unit of the Armia Krajowa... Kotwica painted on one of the monuments in Warsaw by the Szare Szeregi Kotwica (Polish anchor) was the symbol of the Polish Secret State and the Armia Krajowa during World War II. It was created in 1942 by the members of the Wawer Small Sabotage unit of the Armia Krajowa...

W-hour

After days of hesitation, at 17:30 on July 31st, the Polish headquarters scheduled "W-hour" (from the Polish wybuch, "outbreak"), the moment of the start of the uprising, for 17:00 of the following day.[11] The decision proved to be a costly strategic mistake as the under-equipped Polish forces were prepared for a series of coordinated surprise night attacks and the daylight exposed them to German machine gun fire. Although a large number of the partisan units were already mobilized and waiting at assembly points throughout the city, the mobilization of thousands of young men and women was hard to conceal and fighting started in advance of "W-hour",[11] notably in the boroughs of Żoliborz, Mokotów and Czerniaków, around Napoleon Square, in the vicinity of the Hale Mirowskie and Plac Kercelego marketplaces, and at Okopowa street. Area km² Population (2003) Population density Mayor Notable landmarks Website Warsaw Citadel and the Hibner park in Å»oliborz Å»oliborz is one of the northern boroughs of the city of Warsaw. ... Area 35,42 km² Population (2003) 221 000 Population density 6239,4 Mayor Ewa WÄ™gÅ‚owska Notable landmarks Polish Radio and Television, Pole Mokotowskie, School of Economics, Rakowiecka Street Prison Website Mokotow (pol. ... Czerniaków is a neighbourhood of the city of Warsaw, located within the borough of Mokotów, between the escarpment of the Vistula river and the river itself. ... Hale Mirowskie - in the past. ...


Until "W-hour" these incidents were not generally perceived as part of a larger plan. However, at around 16:00, SS-Standartenfuhrer Paul Otto Geibel, chief of police and SS in the Warsaw District, received a warning about the uprising from an anonymous 'lieutenant of the Luftwaffe', who had in turn been warned about it by a Polish woman.[citation needed] He alerted the units under his command, which thus were prepared for the assault at 17:00. This drastically reduced the element of surprise for the insurgents. On the other hand, while the Germans had been considering the possibility of an uprising, they had no operational plans to meet such an occurrence. SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop...


Under these circumstances the coordinated attacks on the German outposts and garrisons were largely successful. The first two days were crucial in establishing the battlefield for the rest of the fight. Most successes were achieved in the city centre (Śródmieście) and the old town (Stare Miasto) and the nearby boroughs of Wola, where most objectives were captured, although several major German strongholds remained, and in some areas of Wola Poles sustained heavy losses that forced them to retreat early on. In other areas such as Mokotów the attackers almost completely failed to secure any of their objectives and controlled only the residential areas. In Praga, on the eastern bank of the Vistula river, the concentration of German forces was so high that the Poles fighting there were quickly forced back into hiding.[12] Most crucially, the fighters in different areas failed to link up, either with each other or with areas outside Warsaw, leaving each section of the city isolated from the others. Area 15. ... Panorama: Old Town Market Place, Warsaw (Rynek Starego Miasta). ... Area 19,26 km² Population 143 996 (2003) Population density 7476/km² Mayor ZdzisÅ‚aw Sipiera Notable landmarks PowÄ…zki Cemetery Wola Website For other meanings of the word, see WOLA. Wola is a district in western Warsaw, Poland, formerly the village of Wielka Wola, incorporated into Warsaw in 1916. ... Area 35,42 km² Population (2003) 221 000 Population density 6239,4 Mayor Ewa WÄ™gÅ‚owska Notable landmarks Polish Radio and Television, Pole Mokotowskie, School of Economics, Rakowiecka Street Prison Website Mokotow (pol. ... Praga Północ and Praga PoÅ‚udnie Pragas market, Jan Piotr Norblin, 1791. ... For other uses, see Vistula (disambiguation). ...


After the first hours of fighting many units adopted a more defensive strategy while the civilian population started erecting barricades throughout the city. Despite all the problems, by August 4 most of the city lay in Polish hands.

Poles erected barricades, such as this one on Napoleon Square, throughout Warsaw, making it difficult for German infantry and tanks to operate. In background: captured Hetzer tank destroyer.
Poles erected barricades, such as this one on Napoleon Square, throughout Warsaw, making it difficult for German infantry and tanks to operate. In background: captured Hetzer tank destroyer.

Warsaw Uprising - Polish barricade on the Napoleon square. ... Warsaw Uprising - Polish barricade on the Napoleon square. ... Closeup of a collection of blinker equipped barricades A barricade is any object or structure that creates a barrier or obstacle to control, block passage or force the flow of traffic in the desired direction. ... Plac Powstańców Warszawy (Warsaw Uprising Square; formerly Plac Napoleona — Napoleon Square) is a square in downtown Warsaw. ... The Jagdpanzer 38(t) (Sd. ... A self-propelled anti-tank gun, or tank destroyer, is a type of armoured fighting vehicle. ...

First four days

The uprising was intended to last a few days until Soviet forces arrived;[13] however, this never happened, and the Polish forces had to fight with little outside assistance. The results of the first two days of fighting in different parts of the city were as follows: Soviet redirects here. ...

  • Area I (city centre and the Old Town): Units captured most of their assigned territory, but failed to capture areas where there were strong German pockets of resistance (the Warsaw University buildings, PAST skyscraper, or the headquarters of the German garrison in the Saxon Palace). They thus failed to create a central stronghold and secure communication links to other areas. The main failures were in not establishing a secure land connection with the northern area of Żoliborz through the northern railway line and the Cytadela fortress, as well as not capturing the bridges over the Vistula. The forces mobilized in the city centre also failed to capture the German-only area near the Szucha avenue.
  • Area II (Żoliborz, Marymont, Bielany): Units here failed to secure the most important military targets in the area of Żoliborz. Many units retreated outside of the city, into the forests. Although most of the area was captured, the soldiers of Colonel Żywiciel failed to capture the Cytadela fortress area and break through German defences at Warszawa Gdańska railway station.
  • Area III (Wola): Units here initially succeeded in securing most of the territory, but sustained heavy losses (up to 30%). Some units retreated into the forests, while others retreated to the eastern part of the area. In the northern part of Wola the soldiers of Colonel Radosław managed to capture the German barracks, the German supply depot at Stawki Street, and the flanking position at the Jewish cemetery.
  • Area IV (Ochota): The units mobilized in this area did not capture either the territory or the military targets (the Gęsiówka concentration camp, SS and Sipo barracks located in former Students' House on Narutowicz Square). After suffering heavy casualties most of the forces of the Armia Krajowa retreated to the forests west of Warsaw. Only two small units of approximately 200 to 300 men under Lieut. Gustaw remained in the area and managed to create strong pockets of resistance. They were later reinforced by units from the city centre. Elite units of the KeDyw managed to secure most of the northern part of the area and captured all of the military targets there. However, they were soon tied down by German tactical counter-attacks from the south and west.
  • Area V (Mokotów): The situation in this area was very serious from the start of the hostilities. The partisans were to capture the heavily-defended and fortified so-called Police Area (Dzielnica policyjna) on Rakowiecka Street. They were also to establish a connection with the city centre through open terrain at the former airfield of Pole Mokotowskie. As both of the areas were heavily fortified and could be approached only through open terrain, the assaults failed. Some units retreated into the forests, while others managed to capture parts of Dolny Mokotów, which was, however, severed from most communications routes to other areas.
  • Area VI (Praga): The Uprising was also started on the right bank of the Vistula. The main task of the Area VI (Obwód VI) was to seize the bridges on the river and secure the bridgeheads until the arrival of the Red Army. It was clear that, since the location was far worse than that of the other areas, there was no chance of any help from the outside. After some minor initial successes, the forces of Lt.Col. Antoni Żurowski were badly outnumbered by the German forces concentrated there. The fights were halted, and the Home Army forces located in the Praga area were forced back into the underground.[11] After the Soviets finally reached the right bank of the Vistula on September 10, the officers proposed recreating the pre-war 36th Academic Legion Infantry Regiment; however, they were all arrested by the NKVD and sent to Russia for interrogation.
  • Area VII (Powiat warszawski): this area consisted of territories outside Warsaw city limits. Actions here mostly failed to capture their targets.

An additional area within the Polish command structure was formed by the units of the Kedyw (Directorate of Sabotage and Diversion), an elite formation that was to guard the headquarters and was to be used as an armed ambulance, thrown into the battle in the most endangered areas. These units secured parts of Śródmieście and Wola; along with the units of Area I, they were the most successful during the first few hours. Warsaw University (Polish: ) is one of the largest universities in Poland. ... The past is the portion of the timeline that has already occurred; it is the opposite of the future. ... Rendering of the Saxon Palace, as it is to be rebuilt. ... Cytadela (Polish for Citadel) is a 19th-century fortress in Warsaw, Poland. ... For other uses, see Vistula (disambiguation). ... Nur für Deutsche (German: For Germans only): during World War II, in many German-occupied countries, signs bearing this admonition were posted at entrances to parks, cafes, cinemas, theaters and other facilities reserved for Germans only. ... Marymont (from French Mont de Marie - Marys Hill) is one of the northern neighbourhoods of Warsaw, administratively a part of the borough of Å»oliborz. ... Area 32,3 km² Population 136 485 (2003) Population density 4225,5/km² Mayor Cezary PomaraÅ„ski Notable landmarks Bielany Website This article is about district in Warsaw. ... Location of Warsaw GdaÅ„sk Station Station building Warsaw GdaÅ„sk Station (in Polish, Warszawa GdaÅ„ska or Dworzec GdaÅ„ski) is a railway station in northern Warsaw, Poland. ... Area 19,26 km² Population 143 996 (2003) Population density 7476/km² Mayor ZdzisÅ‚aw Sipiera Notable landmarks PowÄ…zki Cemetery Wola Website For other meanings of the word, see WOLA. Wola is a district in western Warsaw, Poland, formerly the village of Wielka Wola, incorporated into Warsaw in 1916. ... Jan Mazurkiewicz (1896-1988), codename RadosÅ‚aw, was a colonel of Armia Krajowa, general in Ludowe Wojsko Polskie, vice-president of ZBoWiD. Member of Polish Legions in World War I. In Polish resistance he was a commander of Tajna Organizacja Wojskowa and later Kedyw. ... The Warsaw Jewish Cemetery (Polish: Cmentarz Zydowski) is one of the largest Jewish cemeteries in Europe. ... Area 9,7 km² Population 93 192 (2003) Population density 9 607/km² Mayor Maurycy Wojciech Komorowski Notable landmarks Ochota Website Ochota is a district in Warsaw located in the central part of the city. ... GÄ™siówka (Polish informal name for the prison on GÄ™sia street (now: Anielewicza street) in Warsaw), was a Polish prison in Warsaw. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop... The Sicherheitspolizei was a term used in Nazi Germany to described the combined forces of the Gestapo and Sicherheitsdienst (the SD) between 1934 and 1939. ... Term of office from December 9, 1922, until December 16, 1922 Profession Engineer, university professor Political party nonpartisan Spouse Date of birth March 17, 1865 Place of birth Telsze (in todays Lithuania) Date of death December 16, 1922 Place of death Warsaw, Poland Gabriel Narutowicz, born on March 17... Armia Krajowa (the Home Army), abbreviated AK, was the dominant Polish resistance movement in World War II German-occupied Poland. ... Kedyw (acronym for Kierownictwo Dywersji, Polish Directorate of Sabotage and Diversion; probably also a play on the Turkish khedive, which translates into Polish as kedyw): a Polish World War II Armia Krajowa organization that specialized in active and passive sabotage, propaganda and armed action against German forces and collaborators. ... Area 35,42 km² Population (2003) 221 000 Population density 6239,4 Mayor Ewa WÄ™gÅ‚owska Notable landmarks Polish Radio and Television, Pole Mokotowskie, School of Economics, Rakowiecka Street Prison Website Mokotow (pol. ... Mokotów Prison (Polish WiÄ™zienie mokotowskie, otherwise known as Rakowiecka Prison) is a prison in Warsaws borough of Mokotów, located on Rakowiecka street 37. ... Pola Mokotowskie (sometimes the singular form Pole Mokotowskie is used) is a big park in Warsaw. ... Praga Północ and Praga PoÅ‚udnie Pragas market, Jan Piotr Norblin, 1791. ... For other uses, see Vistula (disambiguation). ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of Home Army see: Home Army (disambiguation) The Armia Krajowa or AK (Home Army) functioned as the pre-eminent underground military organization in German-occupied Poland, which functioned in all areas of the country from September 1939 until its disbanding in January 1945. ... Praga Północ and Praga PoÅ‚udnie Pragas market, Jan Piotr Norblin, 1791. ... Soviet redirects here. ... For other uses, see Vistula (disambiguation). ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The 36th Infantry Regiment of the Academic Legion (Polish 36 puÅ‚k piechoty Legii Akademickiej, 36pp) was a Polish military unit. ... The NKVD (Narodny Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del  ) (Russian: , ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repressions during Stalinism. ... A county (Polish: powiat, pronounced povyat; plural, powiaty) is the Polish third-level unit of administration, equivalent to a county, district or prefecture (NUTS-4 or rather LAU-1) in other countries. ... Kedyw (acronym for Kierownictwo Dywersji, Polish Directorate of Sabotage and Diversion; probably also a play on the Turkish khedive, which translates into Polish as kedyw): a Polish World War II Armia Krajowa organization that specialized in active and passive sabotage, propaganda and armed action against German forces and collaborators. ...


Among the most notable primary targets that were not taken during the opening stages of the uprising were the airfields of Okęcie and Pole Mokotowskie, as well as the PAST sky-scraper overlooking the city centre and the Warszawa Gdańska guarding the passage between the centre and the northern borough of Żoliborz. OkÄ™cie is one of the boroughs of Warsaw, Poland, currently part of WÅ‚ochy district. ... Pola Mokotowskie (sometimes the singular form Pole Mokotowskie is used) is a big park in Warsaw. ... Location of Warsaw GdaÅ„sk Station Station building Warsaw GdaÅ„sk Station (in Polish, Warszawa GdaÅ„ska or Dworzec GdaÅ„ski) is a railway station in northern Warsaw, Poland. ...


Wola massacre

For more details on this topic, see Wola massacre.

The Uprising reached its apogee on August 4 when the Home Army soldiers managed to establish front lines in the westernmost boroughs of Wola and Ochota. However, the moment of greatest gains was also the moment at which the German army stopped its retreat westwards and began receiving reinforcements. On the same day SS General Erich von dem Bach was appointed commander of all the forces employed against the Uprising,[11] and began to counter-attack with the aim of linking up with the remaining German pockets and then cutting off the Uprising from the Vistula river. Among the units to arrive at the city at that time were forces of Oskar Dirlewanger,[11] Willy Schmidt and Heinz Reinefarth[11]. The Wola massacre (August 5-8 1944 in Wola, Warsaw) was the scene of the largest single massacre in the history of Poland. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A front line is a line of confrontation in an armed conflict, most often a war. ... Area 19,26 km² Population 143 996 (2003) Population density 7476/km² Mayor Zdzisław Sipiera Notable landmarks Powązki Cemetery Wola Website For other meanings of the word, see WOLA. Wola is a district in western Warsaw, Poland, formerly the village of Wielka Wola, incorporated into Warsaw in 1916. ... Area 9,7 km² Population 93 192 (2003) Population density 9 607/km² Mayor Maurycy Wojciech Komorowski Notable landmarks Ochota Website Ochota is a district in Warsaw located in the central part of the city. ... SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop... Erich von dem Bach, born Erich von Zelewski and also known as Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski (March 1, 1899 - March 8, 1972), was a Nazi official and a member of the SS (in which he reached the rank of SS-Obergruppenführer). ... Oskar Dirlewanger as an SS-Oberführer, 1944. ... Heinrich Reinefarth (plus communément appelé Heinz Reinefarth, 26 décembre 1903-7 mai 1979), était un officiel et un officier militaire allemand durant, puis après la Seconde guerre mondiale. ...

Postwar mass graves of civilians killed in the Wola massacre.
Postwar mass graves of civilians killed in the Wola massacre.

On August 5 the three German groups started their advance westward along Wolska and Górczewska streets toward the main East-West communication line of Aleje Jerozolimskie Avenue. Their advance was halted, but the Reinefarth and Dirlewanger regiments began carrying out Heinrich Himmler's orders: behind the lines, special SS, police and Wehrmacht groups went from house to house, shooting the inhabitants and burning their bodies.[11] By August 8, some 40,000 civilians had been killed in Wola alone,[14] though some estimates cite numbers as high as 100,000.[15] Download high resolution version (853x640, 126 KB)Mass graves of civilians killed in Wola Massacre during the Warsaw Uprising File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (853x640, 126 KB)Mass graves of civilians killed in Wola Massacre during the Warsaw Uprising File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A mass grave is a grave containing more than one human corpse. ... The Warsaw Uprising began with simultaneous pre-arranged attacks at 17:00 hours August 1, 1944. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Aleje Jerozolimskie (literally Jerusalem Avenue) is one of the principal streets of the city of Warsaw in Poland. ... Heinrich Luitpold Himmler ( ; 7 October 1900–23 May 1945) was the commander of the Schutzstaffel (SS) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany by being second in power to Adolf Hitler in the Nazi hierarchy. ...

The aim of this policy was to crush the will to fight and put the uprising to an end without having to commit to heavy city fighting.[16] Until mid-September, the Germans shot all captured insurgents on the spot. The main perpetrators were Oskar Dirlewanger and Bronislav Kaminski, who committed the cruelest atrocities.[citation needed] After von dem Bach arrived in Warsaw (August 7), it became clear that atrocities only stiffened the resistance and that some political solution should be found, considering the small forces at the disposal of the German commander. The aim was to gain a significant victory to show the Home Army the futility of further fighting and induce them to surrender. This did not succeed, but from the end of September, some of the captured Polish soldiers were treated as POWs.[citation needed] Bronislav Kaminski, leader of the RONA. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Bronislav Kaminski, leader of the RONA. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Bronislav Vladislavovich Kaminski (Russian: Бронислав Каминский in Russian) was the commander of the RONA (Russkaya Ovsoboditelnaya Narodnaya Armiya) unit, a Russian armed force that fought against the Soviet forces in alliance with Nazi Germany and was later incorporated into the Waffen SS. Engineer Bronislaw (also spelled Bronislav) Kaminski was born in 1899... Oskar Dirlewanger as an SS-Oberführer, 1944. ... Bronislav Vladislavovich Kaminski (Russian: Бронислав Каминский in Russian) was the commander of the RONA (Russkaya Ovsoboditelnaya Narodnaya Armiya) unit, a Russian armed force that fought against the Soviet forces in alliance with Nazi Germany and was later incorporated into the Waffen SS. Engineer Bronislaw (also spelled Bronislav) Kaminski was born in 1899... Armia Krajowa (the Home Army), abbreviated AK, was the dominant Polish resistance movement in World War II German-occupied Poland. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


Stalemate

This is the fiercest of our battles since the start of the war. It compares to the street battles of StalingradSS chief Heinrich Himmler to other German generals on 21 September 1944.[17]

Despite the loss of Wola, the Polish resistance stiffened. Zośka and Wacek battalions managed to capture the ruins of the Warsaw Ghetto and liberate the Gęsiówka concentration camp, freeing about 350 Jews.[11] The area became one of the main communication links between the insurgents fighting in Wola and those defending the Old Town. On August 7 German forces were strengthened by the arrival of tanks with civilians being used as human shields[11]. After two days of heavy fighting they managed to bisect Wola and reach the Bankowy Square. However, by then the net of barricades, street fortifications and tank obstacles was already well-prepared and both sides reached a stalemate, with heavy house-to-house fighting. Combatants Germany Romania Italy Hungary Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Hermann Hoth Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Italo Garibaldi Gusztav Jany Vasiliy Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovskiy Rodion Malinovskiy Andrei Yeremenko Strength Army Group B: German Sixth Army # German Fourth Panzer... SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop... Heinrich Luitpold Himmler ( ; 7 October 1900–23 May 1945) was the commander of the Schutzstaffel (SS) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany by being second in power to Adolf Hitler in the Nazi hierarchy. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The Ghetto Heroes Memorial in Warsaw The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest of the Jewish ghettos established by Nazi Germany in the General Government during the Holocaust in World War II. Between 1940 and 1943, starvation, disease and deportations to concentration camps and extermination camps dropped the population of the... GÄ™siówka (Polish informal name for the prison on GÄ™sia street (now: Anielewicza street) in Warsaw), was a Polish prison in Warsaw. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Human shield is a military and political term describing the presence of civilians in or around combat targets to deter an enemy from attacking those targets. ... Palace of the treasury minister, and the ministrys seat. ...


Between August 9 and August 18 pitched battles raged around the Old Town and nearby Bankowy Square, with successful attacks by the Germans and counter-attacks from the Poles. Once again, the Germans used demoralizing tactics: targeted attacks against clearly marked hospitals (reminiscent of Luftwaffe attacks against hospitals in September, 1939). German tactics hinged on bombardment through the use of heavy artillery (including the Schwerer Gustav super-heavy mortar) and tactical bombers, against which the Poles were unable to effectively defend, as they lacked anti-aircraft artillery weapons.[citation needed] is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Historically, artillery refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ... Preparing to fire the gun Schwerer Gustav and Dora were the names under which the German 80 cm K (E) railway guns were known. ... A tactical bomber is a relatively small aircraft used in the battle zone to attack troops and military equipment for tactical bombing. ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft, or air defense, is any method of combating military aircraft from the ground. ...


Although the Battle of Stalingrad had already shown the danger which a city can pose to armies which fight within it and the importance of local support, the Warsaw Uprising was probably the first demonstration that in an urban terrain, a vastly under-equipped force supported by the civilian population can hold its own against better-equipped professional soldiers— though at the cost of considerable sacrifices on the part of the city's residents. Combatants Germany Romania Italy Hungary Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Hermann Hoth Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Italo Garibaldi Gusztav Jany Vasiliy Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovskiy Rodion Malinovskiy Andrei Yeremenko Strength Army Group B: German Sixth Army # German Fourth Panzer... Cities with atleast a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... This article is about a military rank. ...


Siege

Polish-controlled area after the fall of the Old Town, around September 10th
Polish-controlled area after the fall of the Old Town, around September 10th

The Old Town was held until the end of August when diminished supplies made further defence impossible. On September 2[11] the defenders of the Old Town withdrew through the sewers, which at this time were becoming a major means of communication between different parts of the Uprising.[11] More than 5,300 men and women were evacuated in this way. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 483 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1986 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 483 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1986 pixel, file size: 2. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A sewer is an artificial conduit or system of conduits used to remove sewage (human liquid waste) and to provide drainage. ...

The Warsaw sewer system (map) was used to move insurgent forces, unseen, between the Old Town and the Downtown (Śródmieście) and Żoliborz districts.
The Warsaw sewer system (map) was used to move insurgent forces, unseen, between the Old Town and the Downtown (Śródmieście) and Żoliborz districts.

The Soviet army captured Eastern Warsaw and arrived on the eastern bank of the Vistula in mid-September. When they finally reached the right bank of the Vistula on September 10, the officers of the Home Army units stationed there proposed recreating the pre-war 36th 'Academic Legion' infantry regiment; however, the NKVD arrested them all and sent them to the Soviet Union.[citation needed]. Download high resolution version (853x640, 58 KB)Plan of sewer evacuation routes, File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (853x640, 58 KB)Plan of sewer evacuation routes, File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Sewers transport wastewater from buildings to treatment facilities. ... Area km² Population (2003) Population density Mayor Notable landmarks Website Warsaw Citadel and the Hibner park in Å»oliborz Å»oliborz is one of the northern boroughs of the city of Warsaw. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The 36th Infantry Regiment of the Academic Legion (Polish 36 puÅ‚k piechoty Legii Akademickiej, 36pp) was a Polish military unit. ... The NKVD (Narodny Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del  ) (Russian: , ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repressions during Stalinism. ...


Soviet attacks on 4th SS Panzer Corps east of Warsaw were renewed on August 26, and forced the Germans to retreat into Praga, and then across the Vistula. The Soviet army included the 1st Polish Army (1 Armia Wojska Polskiego), and some of them landed in the Czerniaków and Powiśle areas and made contacts with Home Army forces. Their initiative was however not supported by the Soviet High Command. With inadequate artillery, air support, and numbers, the landing troops sustained heavy casualties and were forced to retreat. After the failure of repeated attempts by the 1st Polish Army to link up with the insurgents, the Soviets limited their assistance to sporadic artillery and air support. Plans for a river crossing were suspended "for at least 4 months", since operations against the five panzer divisions on 9th Army's order of battle were problematic at that point, and the commander of the 1st Polish Army, General Zygmunt Berling, who ordered the crossing of the Vistula by his units, was relieved of his duties by his Soviet superiors.[5] is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Polish flag over Berlin. ... Czerniaków is a neighbourhood of the city of Warsaw, located within the borough of Mokotów, between the escarpment of the Vistula river and the river itself. ... PowiÅ›le (literally near-the-Vistula) is a neighbourhood in Warsaws borough of ÅšródmieÅ›cie (city centre). ... Panzer IV Ausf. ... General Zygmunt Berling Zygmunt Henryk Berling (27 April 1896 - 11 July 1980), Polish general and politician, best known as the commander of the 1st Polish Army during the Second World War. ...


From this point on, the Warsaw Uprising can be seen as a one-sided war of attrition or, alternatively, as a fight for acceptable terms of surrender. Fighting ended on 2 October when the Polish forces were finally forced to capitulate. is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up Capitulation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Life behind the lines

Polish Boy Scouts fighting in the Warsaw Uprising
Polish Boy Scouts fighting in the Warsaw Uprising

In 1939 Warsaw had roughly 1,350,000 inhabitants. Over a million were still living in the city at the start of the Uprising. In Polish-controlled territory, during the first weeks of the Uprising, people tried to recreate the normal day-to-day life of their free country. Cultural life was vibrant, both among the soldiers and civilian population, with theatres, post offices, newspapers and similar activities.[18] Boys and girls of the Polish Scouts acted as couriers for an underground postal service, risking their lives daily to transmit any information that might help their people.[19][11] Near the end of the Uprising, lack of food, medicine, overcrowding and indiscriminate German air and artillery assault on the city made the civilian situation more and more desperate. Young boy and girl scouts fighting in the Warsaw Uprising Author unknown, from the archives of Archives of Audiovisual Documentation (Archiwum Dokumentacji Audiowizualnej), Warsaw This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Young boy and girl scouts fighting in the Warsaw Uprising Author unknown, from the archives of Archives of Audiovisual Documentation (Archiwum Dokumentacji Audiowizualnej), Warsaw This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Fleur-de-lys, the symbol of the ZHP ZwiÄ…zek Harcerstwa Polskiego (Polish Scouting and Guiding Association, ZHP) is the coeducational Polish Scouting organization recognized by the World Organization of the Scout Movement. ...


Food shortages

As the Uprising was supposed to be relieved by the Soviets in a matter of days, the Polish underground did not predict food shortages would be a problem. However, as the fighting dragged on, the inhabitants of the city faced hunger and starvation. Soon horses, dogs and cats disappeared from the city's streets. The situation was improved by the Home Army units who captured several German army depots and started distribution of food through the net of public eateries. A major break-through took place on August 6, when the Polish units recaptured the Haberbusch i Schiele brewery complex at Ceglana Street. From that time on the Varsovians lived mostly on barley from the brewery's warehouses. Every day up to several thousand people organized into cargo teams reported to the brewery for bags of barley and then distributed them in the city centre. The barley was then ground in coffee grinders and boiled with water to form a so-called spit-soup (Polish: pluj-zupa). The "Sowiński" Battalion managed to hold the brewery until the end of the fighting. Haberbush i Schiele was a (now defunct) Warsaw-based brewery holding created in 1846. ... The entrance of a brewery. ...


Another serious problem for civilians and soldiers alike was a shortage of water.[11] By mid-August most of the water conduits were either out of order or filled with corpses. In addition, the main water pumping station remained in German hands.[11] To prevent the spread of epidemics and provide the people with water, the authorities ordered all janitors to supervise the construction of water wells in the backyards of every house. On September 21 the Germans blew up the remaining pumping stations at Koszykowa street and after that the public wells were the only source of potable water in the besieged city.[20] By the end of September, the City Centre district had more than 90 functioning wells.[11] A system of copper water tubes used in a radiator heating system. ...


Polish media

Polish Radio broadcast in English
A news programme informing of the daily fights in Warsaw
Problems listening to the file? See media help
Bohdziewicz in Uprising.
Bohdziewicz in Uprising.

Before the Uprising the Bureau of Information and Propaganda of the Home Army had set up a group of war correspondents. Headed by Antoni Bohdziewicz, the group made three newsreels and over 30,000 meters of film tape documenting the struggles. The first newsreel was shown to the public on August 13 in the Palladium cinema at Złota Street.[11] In addition to films, dozens of newspapers appeared from the very first days of the uprising. Several previously underground newspapers started to be distributed openly.[21][22] The two main daily newspapers were the government-run Rzeczpospolita Polska and military Biuletyn Informacyjny. There were also several dozen newspapers, magazines, bulletins and weeklies published routinely by various organizations and military units.[21] Image File history File links Warsaw_Uprising_broadcast. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 799 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2062 × 1547 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 799 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2062 × 1547 pixel, file size: 2. ... Bohdziewicz during the Warsaw Uprising Antoni Bohdziewicz (1906-1970) was a Polish screenplay writer and director, best known for his 1956 adaptation of Zemsta by Aleksander Fredro. ... Bohdziewicz during the Warsaw Uprising Antoni Bohdziewicz (1906-1970) was a Polish screenplay writer and director, best known for his 1956 adaptation of Zemsta by Aleksander Fredro. ... A newsreel is a documentary film that is regularly released in a public presentation place containing filmed news stories. ... Biuletyn Informacyjny (Information Bulletin) was a Polish weekly published covertly in occupied Poland during World War II. It was started in November 1939 in Warsaw as the main press release of the SZP, the first underground resistance organisation in Poland. ...

Nowak, 1937.
Nowak, 1937.

The besieged city had also three long-range radio transmitters: the Błyskawica and Burza (Lighting and Storm, respectively). The Błyskawica, assembled on August 7 in the city centre, was run by the military, but was also used by the recreated Polish Radio (from August 9).[11] It was on the air three or four times a day, broadcasting news programmes and appeals for help in Polish, English, German and French, as well as reports from the government, patriotic poems and music.[23][24] It was the only such radio transmitter in German-held Europe.[25] Among the speakers appearing on the insurgent radio were Jan Nowak-Jeziorański,[26] Zbigniew Swiętochowski, Stefan Sojecki, Jeremi Przybora,[27] and John Ward, a war correspondent for The Times of London.[28] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 401 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (642 × 960 pixel, file size: 281 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) ZdzisÅ‚aw JezioraÅ„ski (Jan Nowak-JezioraÅ„ski, 1914-2005) jako podchorąży altylerii konnej, 1937 r. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 401 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (642 × 960 pixel, file size: 281 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) ZdzisÅ‚aw JezioraÅ„ski (Jan Nowak-JezioraÅ„ski, 1914-2005) jako podchorąży altylerii konnej, 1937 r. ... Jan Nowak-JezioraÅ„ski Jan Nowak-JezioraÅ„ski (October 3, 1914 – January 20, 2005) was a Polish journalist, writer, politician, social worker and patriot. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Operation Tempest (Polish Plan Burza, sometimes also translated as Operation Storm) was a series of planned local uprisings prepared by the Polish Home Army during World War II. The main aim of the operation was to seize control of the cities and areas where the German forces were preparing their... Polish Radio and Television (Polish: Polskie Radio i Telewizja) is a public-service broadcaster in Poland. ... Jan Nowak-JezioraÅ„ski Jan Nowak-JezioraÅ„ski (October 3, 1914 – January 20, 2005) was a Polish journalist, writer, politician, social worker and patriot. ... Jeremi Przybora (December 12, 1915 – March 4, 2004) was a popular Polish writer, actor and singer, best known for creating Kabaret Starszych Panów (Old Gentlemen Cabaret) with Jerzy Wasowski and for his ballads and sung poetry, a popular music genre in Poland. ... John Ward (1921 – 1995) was a Royal Air Force (RAF) airman (Flight Lieutenant), an ex-POW, and a member of the Polish resistance Armia Krajowa (Home Army) in occupied Poland of Second World War. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1788. ...


Lack of outside support

According to many historians, a major cause of this was the almost complete lack of outside support and the late arrival of the support which did arrive.[2][6] The only support operation which ran continuously for the duration of the Uprising were night supply drops by long-range planes of the RAF, other British Commonwealth air forces, and units of the Polish Air Force, which had to use distant airfields in Italy and so had very limited effect. The Warsaw Uprising, in 1944 ended in the capitulation of the city and its near total destruction. ... “RAF” redirects here. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... Polish Air Force (SiÅ‚y Powietrzne Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, SiÅ‚y Powietrzne RP). ...


Western Allies

Monument to Allied airmen lost over Warsaw.
Monument to Allied airmen lost over Warsaw.

Limited support in terms of airdrops came from the Western allies; particularly the Royal Air Force, in which a number of Polish, Australian, Canadian and South African pilots flew, made 223 sorties and lost 34 aircraft. However the effect of these airdrops was mostly psychological, as they delivered much smaller number of supplies than was needed by the insurgents, and many air drops landed outside insurgent-controlled territory. Download high resolution version (853x640, 98 KB)Monument to the Allied airmen who fell during the Warsaw Uprising, File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (853x640, 98 KB)Monument to the Allied airmen who fell during the Warsaw Uprising, File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Taj Mahal, commissioned by the Muslim Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, as a mausoleum for his wife, Arjumand Banu Begum. ... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... A C-130 Hercules airdropping a light tank. ... “RAF” redirects here. ... Aviators are people who fly aircraft either for pleasure or for a job. ... “Flying Machine” redirects here. ...


American support was also limited. After Stalin's objections to supporting the uprising, Churchill telegrammed Roosevelt on August 25 and proposed sending planes in defiance of Stalin, to "see what happens". Unwilling to upset Stalin before the Yalta Conference, Roosevelt replied on August 26 with: I do not consider it advantageous to the long-range general war prospect for me to join you in the proposed message to Uncle Joe.[29] Churchill redirects here. ... Roosevelt is a surname of Dutch origin, with the literal meaning of rose field. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Also of significant note was the existence of an American airbase at Poltava in the Ukraine, from which an airdrop was made during the "Frantic Mission" in mid-September. However, this action infuriated Stalin, who immediately forbade all Allied presence in Soviet airspace[citation needed]. Thus all but one Allied airdrops had to be carried out from faraway Brindisi in Italy. Location Map of Ukraine with Poltava highlighted. ... Brindisi is an ancient city in the Italian region of Puglia, the capital of the province of Brindisi. ...


Airdrops

There was no difficulty in finding Warsaw. It was visible from 100 kilometres away. The city was in flames and with so many huge fires burning, it was almost impossible to pick up the target marker flares.
-William Fairly, a South African pilot, from an interview in 1982[30]
Armia Krajowa 26th Infantry Regiment en route to Warsaw from the Kielce-Radom area, marching in an attempt to join the Warsaw Uprising during Operation Tempest
Armia Krajowa 26th Infantry Regiment en route to Warsaw from the Kielce-Radom area, marching in an attempt to join the Warsaw Uprising during Operation Tempest
Cichociemni after being delivered to the Radom-Kielce Armia Krajowa inspectorate on September 22, 1944
Cichociemni after being delivered to the Radom-Kielce Armia Krajowa inspectorate on September 22, 1944

From August 4 the Western Allies begun supporting the Warsaw Uprising with airdrops of munitions and other supplies.[31] Initially the air raids were carried out mostly by the 1568th Polish Flight of the Polish Air Force stationed in Bari and Brindisi in Italy, flying B-24 Liberator, Handley Page Halifax and Douglas C-47 Dakota planes. Later on, at the insistence of the Polish government-in-exile, they were joined by the Liberators of 2 Wing - 31 and 34 Squadrons of the SAAF based at Foggia in Southern Italy, and Halifaxes, flown by 148 and 178 Squadrons of the RAF. The drops by British, Polish and South African forces continued to September 21. The total weight of allied drops vary according to source (104 tons[32] to 230 tons[31] or 239 tons[5]), over 200 flights were made.[33] Image File history File links 26PPAK_relief_Warsaw_Uprising. ... Image File history File links 26PPAK_relief_Warsaw_Uprising. ... Armia Krajowa (the Home Army), abbreviated AK, was the dominant Polish resistance movement in World War II German-occupied Poland. ... Motto: Contemnit procellas (It defies the storms) Semper invicta (Always invincible) Coordinates: , Country  Poland Voivodeship Masovia Powiat city county Gmina Warszawa Districts 18 boroughs City Rights turn of the 13th century Government  - Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (PO) Area  - City 516. ... Map of the centre of Kielce Monastery Exbud headquarters-symbol of todays Kielce City The monument to commemorate of tragedy in New York 11 September 2001 Bishops Palace Building of Stefan Å»eromski Theatre The new stadium in Kielce Bus Station in Kielce of characterisic shape of alien saucer Kielce... Radom (pronounce: [radÉ”m]) is a city in central Poland with 227 309 inhabitants. ... For other uses, see Tempest. ... Image File history File links Cichociemni_Radom-Kielce_22Sept1944. ... Image File history File links Cichociemni_Radom-Kielce_22Sept1944. ... Cichociemni in England in 1943 Cichociemni (Polish for Silentdark) were a secret unit of the Polish Army in exile created to maintain contact with occupied Poland during World War II. // Initially the name was informal and used only by the soldiers who volunteered to be dropped over Poland. ... Radom (pronounce: [radÉ”m]) is a city in central Poland with 227 309 inhabitants. ... Map of the centre of Kielce Monastery Exbud headquarters-symbol of todays Kielce City The monument to commemorate of tragedy in New York 11 September 2001 Bishops Palace Building of Stefan Å»eromski Theatre The new stadium in Kielce Bus Station in Kielce of characterisic shape of alien saucer Kielce... Armia Krajowa (the Home Army), abbreviated AK, was the dominant Polish resistance movement in World War II German-occupied Poland. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A C-130 Hercules airdropping a light tank. ... Polish Air Force (SiÅ‚y Powietrzne Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, SiÅ‚y Powietrzne RP). ... Location within Italy Bari is the capital of the province of Bari and of the Apulia (or Puglia) region, on the Adriatic sea, in Italy. ... Brindisi is an ancient city in the Italian region of Puglia, the capital of the province of Brindisi. ... The Consolidated B-24 Liberator was an American heavy bomber that was produced in greater numbers than any other American combat aircraft during World War II and still holds the record as the most produced allied aircraft. ... The Handley Page Halifax was one of the British front-line, four-engine heavy bombers of the Royal Air Force during the Second World War. ... The Douglas C-47 Skytrain or Dakota is a military transport that was developed from the Douglas DC-3 airliner. ... The Government of the Polish Republic in exile maintained a continuous existence in exile from the time of the German occupation of Poland in September 1939 until the end of the Communist rule in Poland in 1990. ... The South African Air Force roundel The South African Air Force (SAAF) (Afrikaans: Suid-Afrikaanse Lugmag) is the air force of South Africa. ... The Villa Comunale (Municipal Park) of Foggia. ... The Handley Page Halifax was one of the British front-line, four-engine heavy bombers of the Royal Air Force during the Second World War. ... [[[[No. ... “RAF” redirects here. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Soviet Union did not give permission to the Allies for use of its airports for those supply operations[2] and thus the planes were forced to use bases in the United Kingdom and Italy which reduced their carrying weight and number of sorties. The Allies' specific request for the use of landing strips made on 20 August was denied by Stalin on 22 August[30] (he referred to the insurgents as 'a handful of criminals'[34] and stated that the uprising was inspired by 'enemies of the Soviet Union'[35]). Thus by denying landing rights to Allied aircraft on Soviet-controlled territory the Soviets vastly limited effectivness of Allied assistance to the Uprising, and even fired at[30] and shot down a number of Allied airplanes which carried supplies from Italy and strayed into Soviet-controlled airspace.[citation needed] is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


After Stalin's objections to support for the uprising, Churchill telegrammed Roosevelt on August 25 and proposed sending planes in defiance of Stalin and to 'see what happens'. Roosevelt replied on August 26: 'I do not consider it advantageous to the long-range general war prospect for me to join you in the proposed message to Uncle Joe'.[36][30] is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Finally on September 18 the Soviets allowed one USAAF flight of 107 B-17 Flying Fortresses of the 3 division Eighth Air Force to re-fuel and reload at Soviet airfields used in Operation Frantic, but it was too little too late. USAAF 107 bombers (and 1000 airman) dropped 100 tons of supplies (only 20 was recovered by the insurgent due to wide spread).[35] The planes then landed in Soviet-held territory, and on their return flight to Foggia and then back to England the B-17's bombed the rail yards in Budapest, Hungary.[citation needed] is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) was the aviation component of the United States Army primarily during World War II. The title of Army Air Forces succeeded the prior name of Army Air Corps in June 1941 during preparation for expected combat in what came to be known as... The Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress is an American four-engine heavy bomber aircraft developed for the US Army Air Corps (USAAC). ... The Eighth Air Force is a numbered air force (NAF) of the major command (MAJCOM) of Air Combat Command of the United States Air Force and it is headquartered at Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana. ... During World War II, Operation Frantic was a series of air raids conducted by American bombers based in Britain or the Mediterranean which then landed at bases built by the Americans in Soviet-controlled Ukraine. ... The Villa Comunale (Municipal Park) of Foggia. ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ...


Although German air defence over the Warsaw area itself was almost non-existent about 12% of the 296 planes taking part in the operations were lost because they had to fly 1,600 km out over heavily defended enemy territory and then back over the same route (112 out of 637 Polish and 133 out of 735 British and South African airman were shot down).[35] Most of the drops were made during night, at no more than 100-300 feet altitude, and poor accuracy left many parachuted packages stranded behind German-controlled territory (only about 50 tones of supplies, less than 50% delivered, was recovered by the insurgents).[31]


From September 14[31] to 28 on the Soviets began their own airdrop raids with supplies, and dropped about 55 tons in total. The drops continued until September 28. Since the Soviet airmen did not equip the containers with parachutes[31] the majority of recovered packages were damaged. is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the device. ...


Soviet stance

Contrary to our expectations, the enemy has halted all of their offensive actions alongside the entire front of the 9th Army.
- from operations journal of German 9th Army on 16 August 1944

[citation needed]


The role of the Red Army during the Warsaw Uprising remains controversial and is still disputed by some historians.[6] The Uprising started when the Red Army appeared on the city's doorstep, and the Poles in Warsaw were counting on Soviet aid coming in a matter of days. This basic scenario of an uprising against the Germans launched a few days before the arrival of Allied forces played out successfully in a number of European capitals, notably Paris and Prague. However, the Red Army did not extend effective aid to the desperate city despite standing less than 10 km from Warsaw's city center for about 40 days, and then moving even closer to the right bank of the Vistula river a few hundred meters away from the main battle of the uprising during its last two weeks. Some Western historians, as well as the official line of the Communist regime in Poland before 1989, claimed that the Red Army, exhausted by its long advance on its way to Warsaw, lacked sufficient fighting power to overcome the German forces around Warsaw and extend effective aid to the Uprising. However, it is also speculated that Stalin did not want to aid the Home Army, made up of likely opponents of the Soviet regime in Poland after the war.[6] The Liberation of Paris in World War II took place in late August 1944 after the battle of Normandy. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


One of the reasons given as to why the Warsaw uprising failed, was the failure of the Soviet Red Army to aid the Resistance. The Red Army, which was ordered to halt and therefore positioned just a short distance away on the right bank of the Vistula, was ordered not to link up with or in any way assist the Resistance forces. Post-war political considerations and malice by Stalin are seen as the reason for the Red Army's failure to act.[5] Another possible reason was the 4–5 Panzer Divisions in the 46th Panzer Corps and 4th SS Panzer Corps on the order of battle of German 9th Army holding positions east of Warsaw.[6]


It is likely that Stalin ordered his forces to halt right before entering the city so that the Home Army would not succeed. Had the Home Army triumphed, the Polish government-in-exile in London would have increased their political and moral legitimacy to reinstate a government of its own, rather than accept a Soviet regime. By halting the Red Army's advance, Stalin guaranteed the destruction of Polish resistance (which would undoubtedly also have resisted Soviet occupation), that it would be the Soviets who "liberated" Warsaw, and that Soviet influence would prevail over Poland.[5] The Soviet military gave a shortage of fuel as the reason why they could not advance. Soviet and Polish sources disagree.


One explanation which has been given for the lack of outside support is that the uprising began too early and so the nearby Soviet forces were not ready to support. This explanation, however, appears to be contradicted by the fact that, at times during the uprising the NKVD was actively arresting Home Army forces in the East of Warsaw and that a large proportion of RAF losses were caused by Soviet anti-aircraft fire. Two further explanations have been given for the failure of Allied support. The first is that the Soviets misunderstood the circumstances of the uprising, though, again this cannot easily explain their attacks on their own allies, the British, without some further complication. The second is that the Soviet forces deliberately blocked the Western Allies from providing support to the Polish forces to support their desire to have Warsaw and any independent-minded Polish forces destroyed before their arrival. The Warsaw Uprising occurred at a stage of the Second World War when it was becoming clear that Nazi Germany was likely to lose. ... Soviet redirects here. ... The NKVD (Narodny Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del  ) (Russian: , ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repressions during Stalinism. ... Armia Krajowa (the Home Army), abbreviated AK, was the dominant Polish resistance movement in World War II German-occupied Poland. ... Motto: Contemnit procellas (It defies the storms) Semper invicta (Always invincible) Coordinates: , Country  Poland Voivodeship Masovia Powiat city county Gmina Warszawa Districts 18 boroughs City Rights turn of the 13th century Government  - Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (PO) Area  - City 516. ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft, or air defense, is any method of combating military aircraft from the ground. ... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Soviet redirects here. ...


An alternative explanation is that, regardless of Stalin's political intentions, the Red Army was simply exhausted and hence unable to extend effective support to the Uprising. In support of this thesis, it is often claimed that since the opening of Operation Bagration many of Red Army units had covered several hundred miles in a far-ranging offensive, and their advance elements were at the very end of their logistical tether. This, coupled with the presence of several fresh SS and Panzer divisions around Warsaw which administered a sharp reverse to the Soviet 2nd Tank Army in the final days of July, was, according to this view, sufficient to stop the Red Army in its tracks on the Warsaw front. However, it must be kept in mind that the units which reached Warsaw in late July 1944 were not part of Bagration, but instead advanced from Western Ukraine as part of the Lublin-Brest Operation, covering a much smaller distance. Those units were in fact able to operate quite effectively against German forces to the south and north of Warsaw during August and September, successfully securing bridgeheads over the Vistula and Narew rivers in those sectors. Given that Soviet success, the apparent inactivity on the most direct route of approach towards Warsaw, through the suburb of Praga, lasting through August and the first half of September, is to say the least puzzling. Furthermore, once the Soviet forces seized Praga in mid-September 1944, only poorly supported units of the inexperienced 1st Polish Army were assigned to attempt the crossing of the river Vistula to aid the insurgents. Those crossings failed to establish a durable foothold on the left bank of the river, and caused considerable casualties among the Polish units involved. It is an open question whether an earlier Soviet effort using more experienced units with adequate support would have been able to reach and cross the Vistula in the Warsaw sector, and provide timely and effective support to the Polish units fighting in the main part of the city. The continued difficulty in accessing the Soviet documents of the time presently located in the Russian archives makes it difficult for historians to answer this question with any degree of certainty.[citation needed] Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Ernst Busch Walther Model Ferdinand Schörner Konstantin Rokossovsky Georgy Zhukov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength 800,000 1,700,000 Casualties : 400,000 killed, 158,000 POWs, 590,000 wounded : 260,000 killed, 250,000 wounded 116,000 POWs 60,000 KIA/MIA, 110,000 WIA... Combatants Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Ferdinand Schörner (until July 23) Johannes Friessner (from July 25) (Heeresgruppe Sudukraine) Günther Blumentritt (until June 28) Walter Model (until August 16) Georg Hans Reinhardt (Army Group Centre) Konstantin Rokossovsky (1st Belorussian Front) Strength  ?  ? Casualties  ?  ? Lublin‐Brest Offensive is covered in the... Polish flag over Berlin. ...


The Red Army reached the outskirts of Warsaw in the final days of July, 1944. The Soviet units belonged to the 1st Belorussian Front, participating in the Lublin-Brest Operation, between the Lvov-Sandomierz Operation on its left and Operation Bagration on its right.[6][7] These two operations were colossal defeats for the German army and completely destroyed a large number of German formations.[6][7] As a consequence, the Germans at this time were desperately trying to put together a new force to hold the line of the Vistula river, the last major river barrier between the Red Army and Germany proper, rushing in units in various stages of readiness from all over Europe. These units included a few high quality panzer and SS divisions pulled from their refits, but also many infantry units of poor quality[37]. In terms of combat power this scratch force was considerably inferior to what the Soviets had available. On the other hand, after their long advances in June and July the Soviet suffered from the usual difficulties with supply accompanying any long-range Soviet offensive that has advanced far beyond its starting line. Capturing the city of Warsaw would be advantageous for the Soviets if its infrastructure was intact. However, it was not essential, as the Soviets already seized a series of convenient bridgeheads to the south of Warsaw, and were concentrating on defending them against vigorous German counter-attacks.[6][7] The Red Army was also gearing for a major thrust into the Balkans through Romania at around this time and a large proportion of Soviet resources was being sent in that direction. The 1st Belorussian Front (alternative spellings are 1st Byelorussian Front and 1st Belarusian Front) was a military subdivision (Front) of the Soviet Army during the Second World War. ... Combatants Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Ferdinand Schörner (until July 23) Johannes Friessner (from July 25) (Heeresgruppe Sudukraine) Günther Blumentritt (until June 28) Walter Model (until August 16) Georg Hans Reinhardt (Army Group Centre) Konstantin Rokossovsky (1st Belorussian Front) Strength  ?  ? Casualties  ?  ? Lublin‐Brest Offensive is covered in the... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Josef Harpe (Heeresgruppe Nordukraine) Ivan Koniev (1st Ukrainian Front) Strength 368,000 men 340 AFVs 4,800 guns 1,200,000 men 1,979 AFVs 11,265 guns Casualties 37,400 men 520 AFVs 198,000 men 1,285 AFVs The Lvov-Sandomierz Operation was... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Ernst Busch Walther Model Ferdinand Schörner Konstantin Rokossovsky Georgy Zhukov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength 800,000 1,700,000 Casualties : 400,000 killed, 158,000 POWs, 590,000 wounded : 260,000 killed, 250,000 wounded 116,000 POWs 60,000 KIA/MIA, 110,000 WIA...


In the initial battle of Radzymin Soviet advance armoured units of the 2nd Tank Army suffered a major defeat which prevented them from taking Warsaw from the march.[6][7] It was the presence of Soviet tanks in nearby Wołomin that sealed the decision of the Home Army leaders in Warsaw to launch the uprising. As a result of the battle, the Soviet tank army was pushed out of Wołomin to the east of Warsaw and pushed back about 10 km.[38][39][40][41] However, the defeat did not change the fact of the overwhelming Soviet superiority over the Germans in the sector. The Battle of Radzymin was a clash between the Red Army and the Wehrmacht that happened between August 1 and August 10 near the town of Radzymin in the vicinity of Warsaw. ... Coat of arms of WoÅ‚omin WoÅ‚omin is the main town of the Wolomin county situated in Masovian Voivodship. ...


On August 1st, only several hours prior to the outbreak of the Uprising, the Soviet advance was halted by a direct order from the Kremlin[42]. Soon afterwards the Soviet tank units stopped to receive any oil from their depots[42]. By then the Soviets knew of the planned outbreak from their agents in Warsaw and, more importantly, from the Polish prime minister Stanisław Mikołajczyk, who informed them of the Polish plans the day before[42]. StanisÅ‚aw MikoÅ‚ajczyk StanisÅ‚aw MikoÅ‚ajczyk (1901 - 1966), Polish politician, was Prime Minister of the Polish government in exile during World War II, and later Deputy Prime Minister in postwar Poland. ...


The Soviets retained their positions to the south-east of Warsaw along the Vistula river, barely 10 km away from the city centre, at the outskirts of the Warsaw right bank suburb Praga. The Poles fighting in the Uprising were counting that the Soviet forces would seize Praga in a matter of days and then be in a position to have Red Army units cross to the left bank where the main battle of the Uprising was occurring and come to its aid. Praga Północ and Praga Południe Pragas market, Jan Piotr Norblin, 1791. ...


However, on that line along the outskirts of Praga, on the most direct route of advance towards Warsaw, the Soviets stopped their advance and the front line did not move for the next 45 days. The sector was held by the understrength German 73rd infantry division, destroyed many times on the Eastern Front and recently reconstituted.[43] The division, though weak, did not experience significant Soviet pressure during that period. At the same time, the Red Army was fighting intense battles to the south of Warsaw, to seize and maintain bridgeheads over the Vistula river, and to the north, to gain bridgeheads over the river Narew. It was on those sectors that the best panzer and armored divisions that the Germans had were fighting. Despite that, both of these objectives have been mostly secured by early September. The German 73rd Infantry Division was a German military unit which served during World War II. The division consisted of more than 10,000 soldiers, primarily of the infantry branch, with supporting artillery. ... Narew (Belarusian: На́раў) is a river in western Belarus and north-eastern Poland, a tributary of the Vistula river. ...


Finally, on September 11, the Soviet 47th army began its advance into Praga. The resistance by the German 73rd division was weak and collapsed quickly, with the Soviets gaining control of the suburb by September 14. With the taking of Praga, the Soviet forces were now directly across the river from the Uprising fighting in left-bank Warsaw. If the Soviets had reached this stage in early August, the crossing of the river would have been easy, as the Poles then held considerable stretches of the riverfront. By mid-September a series of German attacks have reduced the Poles to holding one narrow stretch of the riverbank, in the district of Czerniakow. Nevertheless, the Soviets now made an attempt to aid the Uprising, but not by using Red Army units. [citation needed] Czerniaków is a neighbourhood of the city of Warsaw, located within the borough of Mokotów, between the escarpment of the Vistula river and the river itself. ...


Berling's landings

The limited landings by the 1st Polish Army represented the only external force which arrived to physically support the uprising; and even they were curtailed by the Soviet High Command.[44] Polish Wiki [[1]] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Polish Wiki [[1]] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... General Zygmunt Berling Zygmunt Henryk Berling (27 April 1896 - 11 July 1980), Polish general and politician, best known as the commander of the 1st Polish Army during the Second World War. ... Polish flag over Berlin. ...


In the Praga area Polish units under command of General Zygmunt Berling (thus sometimes known as 'berlingowcy' - 'the Berling men'), the 1st Polish Army (1 Armia Wojska Polskiego) were in position. On the night of 14/15th of September three patrols from landed on the shore of Czerniaków and Powiśle areas and made contacts with Home Army forces. Under heavy German fire only small elements of main units made it ashore (I and III battalions of 9th infantry regiment, 3rd Infantry Division).[44] Praga Północ and Praga PoÅ‚udnie Pragas market, Jan Piotr Norblin, 1791. ... General Zygmunt Berling Zygmunt Henryk Berling (27 April 1896 - 11 July 1980), Polish general and politician, best known as the commander of the 1st Polish Army during the Second World War. ... Polish flag over Berlin. ...


The Germans intensified their attacks on the Home Army positions near the river to prevent any further landings, which could seriously compromise their line of defence, but weren't able to made any significant advances for several days, while Polish forces held those vital positions in preparation for new expected wave of Soviet landings. Polish units from the eastern shore attempted several more landings, and from 15 to 23 September sustained heavy losses (including destruction of all landing boats and most of other river crossing equipment).[44] Red Army support was negligible.[44] For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ...


Shortly after the Berling landings, the Soviets decide to postpone all plans for a river crossing in Warsaw "for at least 4 months" and soon afterwards general Berling was relieved of his command.[45] On the night of September 19, after no further attempts from the other side of the river were made and the promised evacuation of wounded did not take place, Home Army soldiers and landed elements of Wojsko Polskie were forced to begin a retreat from their positions on the bank of the river.[44] is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Out of approximately 3,000 men who made it ashore only around 900 made it back to the eastern shores of Vistula, approximately 600 of them seriously wounded.[citation needed] Berling's Polish Army losses in the attempt to aid the Warsaw Uprising were 5,660 killed, missing or wounded.[2] For other uses, see Vistula (disambiguation). ...


Aftermath

Capitulation

The 9th Army has crushed the final resistance in the southern Vistula circle. The insurgents fought to the very last bullet.
—from the German report on 23 September (T 4924/44)
[46]
Graves of a Hungarian honvéd captain and 6 of his men who fell, fighting on the Polish side.
Graves of a Hungarian honvéd captain and 6 of his men who fell, fighting on the Polish side.

On October 2 General Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski signed the capitulation order of the remaining Polish forces (Warszawski Korpus Armii Krajowej or Home Army Warsaw Corps) at the German headquarters in the presence of General von dem Bach.[11] All fighting ceases by 1800 that day.[11] According to the capitulation agreement, the Wehrmacht promised to treat Home Army soldiers in accordance with the Geneva Convention, and to treat the civilian population humanely.[11] The Warsaw Uprising of 1944 was ended through a capitulation agreement which guaranteed not only the rights of the insurgents to be treated as Prisoners of War but also was designed to guarantee the fair treatment of the civilians living in Warsaw. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 3400 KB) A grave of capt. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 3400 KB) A grave of capt. ... The Honvédség (lit. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... General Count Tadeusz Komorowski (June 1, 1895 - August 24, 1966), better known by the name Bór-Komorowski (after one of his wartime code-names: Bór) was a Polish military leader. ... The Geneva Conventions consist of treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland that set the standards for international law for humanitarian concerns. ...


The next day the Germans began to disarm the Home Army soldiers. They later sent 15,000 of them to POW camps in various parts of Germany. Between 5,000–6,000 insurgents decided to blend into the civilian population hoping to continue the fight later. The entire Warsaw civilian population was expelled from the city and sent to a transit camp Durchgangslager 121 in Pruszków[47]. Out of 350,000–550,000 civilians who passed through the camp, 90,000 were sent to labour camps in the Reich, 60,000 were shipped to death and concentration camps (Ravensbruck, Auschwitz, Mauthausen, others), while the rest were transported to various locations in the General Government and released[47]. Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Pruszków ( ) is a town in central Poland. ...   (IPA: ; German IPA: ), is the German word used most for empire, realm, or nation cognate with Scandinavian rike/rige, Dutch: , Sanskrit: and English: as found in bishopric. ... View of the barracks at Ravensbrück Ravensbrück was a German concentration camp located 90 km north of Berlin. ... Auschwitz, in English, commonly refers to the Auschwitz concentration camp complex built near the town of Oświęcim, by Nazi Germany during World War II. Rarely, it may refer to the Polish town of Oświęcim (called by the Germans Auschwitz) itself. ... Mauthausen is a small town in Upper Austria about 20 kilometers east of the city of Linz. ... The General Government (in full General government for the occupied Polish areas, in German Generalgouvernement für die besetzten polnischen Gebiete) was the name given by Germany to the governing authority in Poland after its occupation by the Wehrmacht in September and October 1939. ...


City's destruction

Main article: Planned destruction of Warsaw
The city must completly disappear from the surface of the earth and serve only as a transport station for the Wehrmacht. No stone can remain standing. Every building must be razed to its foundation.
SS chief Heinrich Himmler, October 17, SS officers conference[17]
Warsaw has to be pacified, that is, razed to the ground.
Adolf Hitler, 1944[48]

After the remaining population had been expelled, the Germans started the destruction of the remains of the city.[2] Special groups of German engineers were dispatched throughout the city in order to burn and demolish the remaining buildings. According to German plans, after the war Warsaw was to be turned into nothing more but a military transit station,[17] or even a lake.[49] The demolition squads used flame-throwers and explosives to methodically destroy house after house. They paid special attention to historical monuments, Polish national archives and places of interest: nothing was to be left of what used to be a city.[48] The city of Warsaw was nearly destroyed in a planned way by Nazi Germany after the fall of Warsaw Uprising in 1944. ... SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop... Heinrich Luitpold Himmler ( ; 7 October 1900–23 May 1945) was the commander of the Schutzstaffel (SS) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany by being second in power to Adolf Hitler in the Nazi hierarchy. ... Hitler redirects here. ... German troops use a flamethrower on the Eastern Front during the Second World War A flamethrower is a mechanical device designed to throw flames or, more correctly, project an ignited stream of liquid. ...

Bank Polski (Bank of Poland) on Długa St. (left) in the 1944 photo , is one of the few buildings on that street still standing. Photo on right shows the Bank bearing the scars of the Uprising. The lighter-colored bricks were added during the building's reconstruction after 2003.

By January 1945 85% of the buildings were destroyed: 25% as a result of the Uprising, 35% as a result of systematic German actions after the uprising, the rest as a result of the earlier Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (15%) and other combat including the September 1939 campaign (10%).[2] Download high resolution version (853x640, 118 KB)Ruins of Bank Polski in Warsaw. ... Combatants Nazi Germany {SS, SD, Gestapo, Ordnungspolizei, Wehrmacht} Collaborators {Blue Police, Jewish Ghetto Police} Jewish resistance (ŻOB, ŻZW) Polish resistance (Armia Krajowa, Gwardia Ludowa) Commanders Ferdinand von Sammern-Frankenegg Jürgen Stroop Franz Bürkl Mordechai Anielewicz† Dawid Apfelbaum† Paweł Frenkiel† Icchak Cukierman Marek Edelman Zivia Lubetkin Henryk Iwański... Combatants Poland Germany Soviet Union Slovakia Commanders Edward Rydz-Śmigły Fedor von Bock (Army Group North), Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South), Mikhail Kovalev (Belorussian Front), Semyon Timoshenko (Ukrainian Front), Ferdinand Čatloš (Field Army Bernolák) Strength 39 divisions, 16 brigades, 4,300 guns, 880 tanks, 400 aircraft Total...


Material losses were estimated at 10,455 buildings, 923 historical buildings (94 percent), 25 churches, 14 libraries including the National Library, 81 primary schools, 64 high schools, University of Warsaw and Warsaw University of Technology, and most of the historical monuments.[2] Almost a million inhabitants lost all of their possessions.[2] The exact amount of losses of private and public property as well as pieces of art, monuments of science and culture is unknown but considered enormous. Studies done in the late 1940s estimated total damage at about $30 billion US dollars.[50] In 2004 President of Warsaw Lech Kaczyński, now President of Poland, established a historical commission to estimate material losses that were inflicted upon the city by German authorities. The commission estimated the losses on at least 31.5 billion US dollars in 2004 value.[51] Those estimates where later raised to 45 billion 2004 US dollars and in 2005, to 54,6 billions.[52] Polands National Library (Polish: ) is a central repository of books and newspapers of Poland. ... University of Warsaw (Polish: ) is the largest university in Poland. ... Warsaw University of Technology is the largest academic school of technology in Poland, and one of the largest in East Europe, employing 2,000 professors. ... United States one-dollar bill Canadian one-dollar coin (Loonie) One New Taiwan dollar Australian one-dollar coin 500 old Zimbabwean dollars The dollar (often represented by the dollar sign: $) is the name of the official currency in several countries, dependencies and other regions. ... President of Warsaw is the head of the capital of Poland and counterpart of a mayor in smaller Polish and foreign cities. ...  , IPA: [] (born June 18, 1949) is the President of the Republic of Poland and a politician of the conservative party Prawo i Sprawiedliwość (Law and Justice, PiS.) KaczyÅ„ski served as President of Warsaw from 2002 until December 22, 2005, the day before his presidential inauguration. ... Following are the successive heads of state of Poland. ... One thousand million (1,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. ... United States one-dollar bill Canadian one-dollar coin (Loonie) One New Taiwan dollar Australian one-dollar coin 500 old Zimbabwean dollars The dollar (often represented by the dollar sign: $) is the name of the official currency in several countries, dependencies and other regions. ... One thousand million (1,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. ...


Casualties

The exact number of casualties on both sides is unknown to this day, various estimates the casualties were made, falling into roughly similar ranges. Overall Polish casualties are estimated at 200,000[2], mostly civilian. Both Polish and German military personnel losses are estimated at under 20,000.[2][53]

Side KIA WIA MIA POW
Polish[54] 10,000 to 18,000[53]
5,200[2]
8,000 to 28,000[53]
5,000[2]
all declared dead[53] 15,000[53][2]
German[55] 10,000 to 17,000[53]
higher range includes MIA[56]
16,000 killed[2]
9,000[53][2] 7,000[56] [53] 2,000[2] to 5,000[53]

In addition, Germans lost some valuable military equipment, including 3 aircraft, 300 tanks and armored cars, 340 trucks and cars and 22 light (75 mm) artillery pieces.[2] Temporary grave of an American machine-gunner during the Battle of Normandy. ... WIA is a three letter abbreviation meaning Wounded in action. ... MIA is a three-letter acronym that is most commonly used to designate a combatant who is Missing In Action, and has not yet returned or otherwise been accounted for as either dead (KIA) or a prisoner of war (POW). ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


During the 60th anniversary of the Uprising it was often underlined, that in Warsaw the same number of people were killed every day for 60 days as died in the World Trade Center on 11 September 2001[57][58]


After the war

After the Uprising, one grave was left in the streets of Warsaw.
After the Uprising, one grave was left in the streets of Warsaw.

Due to a lack of cooperation and often the active aggressive moves on the part of the Soviets and several other factors, the Warsaw Uprising and Operation Tempest failed in their primary goal: to free part of the Polish territories so that a government loyal to the Polish government-in-exile could be established there instead of a Soviet puppet state. There is no consensus among historians as to whether that was ever possible, or whether those operations had any other lasting effect. Some argue that without Operation Tempest and the Warsaw Uprising, Poland would have ended as a Soviet republic, a fate definitely worse than that of an "independent" puppet state, and thus the Operation succeeded at least partially in being a political demonstration to the Soviets and Western Allies.[citation needed] In addition, the Warsaw Uprising compelled the Soviets to stop their offensive in Poland to let the Germans suppress the uprising. Some historians speculate that if they had not stopped their march, they would have occupied all of Germany rather than just the eastern section. [citation needed] The failure of the Warsaw Uprising and subsequent Capitulation agreement left Warsaw almost uninhabited. ... The representation of the Warsaw Uprising in the media had already become controversial even before it begun. ... Download high resolution version (537x653, 169 KB) The only grave that was left in the city center of Warsaw after the Warsaw Uprising. ... Download high resolution version (537x653, 169 KB) The only grave that was left in the city center of Warsaw after the Warsaw Uprising. ... The Government of the Polish Republic in exile maintained a continuous existence in exile from the time of the German occupation of Poland in September 1939 until the end of the Communist rule in Poland in 1990. ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ...


Warsaw was liberated from the Nazis on 17 January 1945 by the Red Army and the 1st army of Ludowe Wojsko Polskie during the Vistula-Oder Offensive.[11] is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Piast eagle worn by LWP soldiers. ... Combatants Wehrmacht i. ...

Warsaw monument to the heroes of the Warsaw Uprising.
Warsaw monument to the heroes of the Warsaw Uprising.

Most soldiers of the Home Army (including those who took part in the Warsaw Uprising) were persecuted after the war: captured by the NKVD or UB political police, interrogated and imprisoned, awaiting trials on various charges.[59][60] Many of them were sent to Gulags, executed or just "disappeared".[59] Image File history File links Description: WWII memory Source: Dhirad 2004 please credit Dhirad if picture is used Description: Monument to the heroes of the Warsaw Uprising in Warsaw, Poland Plac KrasiÅ„skich (KrasiÅ„ski sq. ... Image File history File links Description: WWII memory Source: Dhirad 2004 please credit Dhirad if picture is used Description: Monument to the heroes of the Warsaw Uprising in Warsaw, Poland Plac KrasiÅ„skich (KrasiÅ„ski sq. ... Motto: Contemnit procellas (It defies the storms) Semper invicta (Always invincible) Coordinates: , Country  Poland Voivodeship Masovia Powiat city county Gmina Warszawa Districts 18 boroughs City Rights turn of the 13th century Government  - Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (PO) Area  - City 516. ... The NKVD (Narodny Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del  ) (Russian: , ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repressions during Stalinism. ... Służba Bezpieczeństwa (SB, until 1956 Urząd Bezpieczeństwa, UB) was the name of the intelligence agency and secret police in the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... Gulag ( , Russian: ) was the government body responsible for administering prison camps across the former Soviet Union. ...


In addition, members of the Polish Air Force flying supplies to the Home Army, were likewise persecuted after the war and many others "disappeared" after their return to Poland. Once word got back to the Polish flyers still in England, many decided not to return to Poland. Many insurgents, captured by the Germans and sent to POW camps in Germany were later liberated by British, American and Polish forces and remained in the West. Among those were the leaders of the uprising: Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski and Antoni Chruściel (in London and the United States, respectively). General Count Tadeusz Komorowski (June 1, 1895 - August 24, 1966), better known by the name Bór-Komorowski (after one of his wartime code-names: Bór) was a Polish military leader. ... Gen. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Factual knowledge of the Warsaw Uprising, inconvenient to Stalin, was twisted by propaganda of the People's Republic of Poland, which stressed the failings of the Home Army and the Polish government-in-exile, and forbade all criticism of the Red Army or the political goals of Soviet strategy[61]. Until the late sixties the very name of the Home Army was censored, and most films and novels covering the 1944 Uprising were either banned or modified so that the name of the Home Army did not appear[61]. Further, the official propaganda of both communist Poland and the USSR suggested that the Home Army was some sort of a group of right-wing collaborators with Nazi Germany. From 1956 on, the image of the Warsaw Uprising in Polish propaganda was changed a little bit to underline that the soldiers were indeed brave, while the officers were treacherous and the commanders were characterised by disregard of the losses[61]. The first serious publications on the topic were not issued until the late eighties. In Warsaw no monument to the Home Army could be built until 1989. Instead, efforts of the Soviet-backed Armia Ludowa were glorified and exaggerated. Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Socialist republic Leaders  - 1948–1956 BolesÅ‚aw Bierut (First)  - 1981-1989 Wojciech Jaruzelski (Last) Prime minister  - 1944-1947 E. Osóbka-Morawski  - 1947-1952 and 1954-1970 Józef Cyrankiewicz  - 1952-1954 BolesÅ‚aw Bierut  - 1970-1980 Piotr Jaroszewicz  - 1980 Edward Babiuch  - 1980-1981... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Armia Ludowa (AL, pronounced ; English Polish Peoples Army) was a Polish World War II resistance organisation. ...

Warsaw monument to the heroes of the Warsaw Uprising.
Warsaw monument to the heroes of the Warsaw Uprising.

In the West, the story of the Polish fight for Warsaw with little support was an embarrassment, as was the shock of Home Army soldiers as Western Allies recognised the Soviet controlled pro-Communist regime installed by Stalin; as a result, the story was not publicised for many years. Image File history File links Description: WWII memory Source: Dhirad 2004 please credit Dhirad if picture is used Description: Monument to the heroes of the Warsaw Uprising Plac KrasiÅ„skich (KrasiÅ„ski sq. ... Image File history File links Description: WWII memory Source: Dhirad 2004 please credit Dhirad if picture is used Description: Monument to the heroes of the Warsaw Uprising Plac KrasiÅ„skich (KrasiÅ„ski sq. ... Motto: Contemnit procellas (It defies the storms) Semper invicta (Always invincible) Coordinates: , Country  Poland Voivodeship Masovia Powiat city county Gmina Warszawa Districts 18 boroughs City Rights turn of the 13th century Government  - Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (PO) Area  - City 516. ...


The courage of soldiers and civilians involved in the Warsaw Uprising, and its betrayal by the Soviet Union, contributed to keeping anti-Soviet sentiment in Poland at a high level throughout the Cold War. Memories of the Uprising helped to inspire the Polish labour movement Solidarity, which led a peaceful opposition movement against the Communist government during the 1980s, leading to the downfall of that government in 1989 and the emergence of democratic political representation. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Solidarity (Polish: ; full name: Independent Self-governing Trade Union Solidarity — Niezależny Samorządny Związek Zawodowy Solidarność) is a Polish trade union federation founded in September 1980 at the then Lenin Shipyards, and originally led by Lech Wałęsa. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ...


After fall of communism in 1989, the censorship of the facts of the Uprising ceased, and 1 August has now become a celebrated anniversary. On 1 August 1994, Poland held a ceremony commemorating the 50th anniversary of the Uprising. Germany and Russia were invited to the ceremony, although there was opposition to Russia's invitation. Moreover, a joke making the rounds suggested that "Yeltsin should be given a pair of binoculars so he can observe the ceremony from across the Vistula river." On July 31, 2004, a Warsaw Uprising Museum opened in Warsaw. The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ... It has been suggested that Suppression of dissent be merged into this article or section. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (b. ... For other uses, see Vistula (disambiguation). ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kotwica The Warsaw Uprising Museum, located in Warsaw, Poland, is a Museum dedicated to the Warsaw Uprising. ...


Research into the Warsaw Uprising has been boosted since the 1990s, particularly due to abolition of censorship and opening of state archives in Poland, however research into the lack of support of the Warsaw Uprising is (according to historians such as Norman Davies)is still very difficult due to lack of access to archives in both UK and Russia. For records related to the period, currently both the United Kingdom archives and Russian archives (where the majority of Soviet archives are kept) remain mostly closed to the public. Further complicating the matter is the United Kingdom's claim that they accidentally destroyed the archives of the Polish Government in Exile.[62] Norman Davies, Warsaw (Poland), October 7, 2004 Norman Davies (born June 8, 1939 in Bolton, Lancashire) is an English historian of Welsh descent, noted for his publications on the history of Poland, Europe and the British Isles. ... The Government of the Polish Republic in Exile was the government of Poland after the country had been occupied by Germany and the Soviet Union during September-October 1939. ...


See also

Main engagements of Polish forces Westerplatte – Mokra – Bzura – Enigma – Narvik – Battle of Britain – Tobruk – Gazala – Dieppe – Lenino – Monte Cassino – Ostra Brama – V2 Capture – Warsaw Uprising - Falaise – Studzianki - Market Garden – Scheldt – Seelow Heights – Bautzen – Berlin // 1939 poster. ... Western betrayal is a popular term in many Central European nations (including Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania, the Baltic States, and East Germany) which refers to the foreign policy of several Western countries during the period from the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 through World War II and... The Krzyż Powstania Warszawskiego (Cross of the Warsaw Uprising) is an informal award used by the Polish soldiers during the Polish-German fights for the city of Warsaw in 1944. ... Original car Modern replica Kubuś was a Polish World War II armoured car and Armoured personnel carrier(APC), made by the Home Army during the Warsaw Uprising. ... Kanał is a Polish film released in 1956, directed by Andrzej Wajda for P.P. Film Polski at its production unit, Zespol Filmowy Kadr. “Watch them closely, for these are the last hours of their lives,” announces the disembodied voice of a narrator, foreshadowing the tragedy that unravels as Wajda... The Krakow Uprising was a planned but never realized uprising of the Polish Resistance against the German occupation in the city of Kraków during World War II. The summer of 1944 was a busy time for the Home Army (Armia Krajowa) - the biggest underground organization of German-occupied Poland. ...

Other Media

Swedish black metal merchants Marduk treated the subject of the Warsaw uprising in their song Warschau (Warsaw spelt in German), featured on the album Plague Angel focusing on the harsh nazi reprisals and the devastation of the city via weapons like the Karl Mortar. The title was also used for the subsequent album, simply titled Warschau whose cover pictured a scene of urban desolation. This article is about the musical genre. ... Marduk is a Swedish black metal band, who are based in Norrköping. ... Plague Angel is a 2005 album by Marduk. ...


German metalcore band Heaven Shall Burn paid a tribute to the Warsaw Uprising fighters in the song "Armia" from their album Deaf to Our Prayers. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Heaven Shall Burn (named after the Marduk album of the same name) is a deathcore/metalcore band from Saalfeld, Germany. ... Deaf to Our Prayers is the fourth full-length album of the band Heaven Shall Burn. ...


French post-punk band Varsovie was named after Warsaw city and the influence of the Warsaw Uprising is visible in its creation. The song "Varsovie" is directly related to the insurrection. Post punk generally refers to the particularly fertile and creative period following the initial punk rock explosion. During the first wave of punk, roughly spanning 1976-1983, bands such as The Sex Pistols, The Clash, The Ramones and The Damned began to challenge the current styles and conventions of rock...


Notes and references

See also this external link for more English language books on the topic.
In-line:
  1. ^ a b c d COMPARISON OF FORCES, Warsaw Rising Museum
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac Warsaw Uprising: FAQ
  3. ^ (Polish) Whatfor (2004). Akcje zbrojne - Warszawa. Powstanie Warszawskie. Retrieved on 2007-04-11. “Gdybyśmy nie mieli Warszawy w Generalnym Gubernatorstwie, to nie mielibyśmy 4/5 trudności, z którymi musimy walczyć. Warszawa jest i pozostanie ogniskiem zamętu, punktem, z którego rozprzestrzenia się niepokój w tym kraju.”
  4. ^ George Sanford, Katyn and the Soviet Massacre of 1940: Truth, Justice and Memory, Routledge, 2005, ISBN 0415338735, Google Print, p.205-206
  5. ^ a b c d e f g The Warsaw Rising, polandinexile.com
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j David M. Glantz, The Soviet-German War 1941-1945: Myths and Realities: A Survey Essay Retrieved on 20 May 2007
  7. ^ a b c d e f "When Titans Clashed. How the Red Army Stopped Hitler" - How the Red Army Stopped Hitler. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Belarus. Retrieved on 20 May 2007
  8. ^ The exact number of Poles of Jewish ancestry and Jews to take part in the uprising is a matter of controversy. General Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski estimated the number of Jewish Poles in Polish ranks at 1,000, other authors place it at between several hundred and 2,000. See for instance: (Polish) Edward Kossoy. "Żydzi w Powstaniu Warszawskim" (pdf). Task Force for International Cooperation on Holocaust Education, Remembrance and Research. Retrieved on 2007-05-09.
  9. ^ (Polish) Adam Borkiewicz (1957). Powstanie Warszawskie 1944. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo PAX, 40. 
  10. ^ Borkiewicz, op.cit., p.41
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Warsaw Uprising - Timeline
  12. ^ (Polish) Bartelski, Lesław M. (2000). Praga. Warsaw: Fundacja "Wystawa Warszawa Walczy 1939-1945", 182. ISBN 8387545333. 
  13. ^ (Polish) (German) various authors; Czesław Madajczyk (1999). "Nie rozwiązane problemy powstania warszawskiego", in Stanisława Lewandowska, Bernd Martin: Powstanie Warszawskie 1944. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Polsko-Niemieckie, 613. ISBN 8386653086. 
  14. ^ (Polish) "Muzeum Powstania otwarte", BBC Polish edition, 2004-10-02. 
  15. ^ (Polish) Jerzy Kłoczowski. "O Powstaniu Warszawskim opowiada prof. Jerzy Kłoczowski", Gazeta Wyborcza, 1998-08-01. 
  16. ^ THE SLAUGHTER IN WOLA at Warsaw Rising Museum
  17. ^ a b c Krystyna Wituska, Irene Tomaszewski, Inside a Gestapo Prison: The Letters of Krystyna Wituska, 1942-1944, Wayne State University Press, 2006, ISBN 0814332943, Google Print, p.xxii
  18. ^ (Polish) Nawrocka-Dońska, Barbara (1961). Powszedni dzień dramatu, 1, Warsaw: Czytelnik, 169. 
  19. ^ (Polish) Tomczyk, Damian (1982). Młodociani uczestnicy powstania warszawskiego. Łambinowice: Muzeum Martyrologii i Walki Jeńców Wojennych w Łambinowicach, 70. 
  20. ^ (Polish) Ryszard Mączewski. Stacja Filtrów. Architektura przedwojennej Warszawy. warszawa1939.pl. Retrieved on 2007-05-08.
  21. ^ a b (Polish) various authors; Jadwiga Cieślakiewicz, Hanna Falkowska, Andrzej Paczkowski (1984). Polska prasa konspiracyjna (1939-1945) i Powstania Warszawskiego w zbiorach Biblioteki Narodowej. Warsaw: Biblioteka Narodowa, 205. ISBN 830000842X. 
  22. ^ (Polish) collection of documents (1974). in Marian Marek Drozdowski, Maria Maniakówna, Tomasz Strzembosz, Władysław Bartoszewski: Ludność cywilna w powstaniu warszawskim. Warsaw: Państwowy Instytut Wydawniczy. 
  23. ^ (Polish) Zadrożny, Stanisław (1964). Tu--Warszawa; Dzieje radiostacji powstańczej "Błyskawica". London: Orbis, 112. 
  24. ^ (Polish) Sławomir Bułajewski, Burza i Błyskawica, [[{{{publisher}}}]], [[{{{date}}}]].
  25. ^ (English) Project InPosterum (corporate author). Warsaw Uprising: Radio 'Lighting' (Blyskawica). Retrieved on 2007-05-08.
  26. ^ (English) (English) Jan Nowak-Jeziorański (1982). Courier from Warsaw. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. ISBN 9780814317259. 
  27. ^ (Polish) Adam Nogaj. Radiostacja Błyskawica. Retrieved on 2007-05-14.
  28. ^ (English) Project InPosterum (corporate author) (2004). John Ward. Warsaw Uprising 1944. Retrieved on 2007-05-14.
  29. ^ Warsaw Uprising CNN Special - August 26. Last accessed on 11 April 2007.
  30. ^ a b c d American Radioworks on Warsaw Uprising
  31. ^ a b c d e AIRDROPS FOR INSURGENTS at Warsaw Rising Museum
  32. ^ (English) Neil Orpen (1984). Airlift to Warsaw. The Rising of 1944. University of Oklahoma, 192. ISBN 8324702350. 
  33. ^ ALLIED AIRMEN OVER WARSAW at Warsaw Rising Museum
  34. ^ Kamil Tchorek, Escaped British Airman Was Hero of Warsaw Uprising
  35. ^ a b c STALIN’S PRIVATE AIRFIELDS, Warsaw Rising Museum
  36. ^ CNN Presents: The Warsaw Uprising. CNN. Retrieved on March 15, 2006.
  37. ^ (Polish) Bartoszewski, Władysław; Muzeum Powstania Warszawskiego. Dni walczącej stolicy: kronika Powstania Warszawskiego. Warszawa: Muzeum Powstania Warszawskiego; Świat Książki. ISBN 9788373916791. 
  38. ^ www.rkka.ru - Map of 2nd Tank Army operations around Warsaw - 1-5 August, 1944 map
  39. ^ The Soviet Conduct of Tactical Maneuver: Spearhead of the Offensive by David M Glantz. Map of the front lines on August 3, 1944 - Google book search
  40. ^ ibid, Google book search result
  41. ^ Map of 2nd Tank Army operations map
  42. ^ a b c (Polish) Jan Nowak-Jeziorański (1993-07-31). "Białe plamy wokół Powstania". Gazeta Wyborcza (177): 13. Retrieved on 2007-05-14. 
  43. ^ SS: The Waffen-SS War in Russia 1941-45 Relevant page viewable via Google book search
  44. ^ a b c d e For description of Berling's landings, see Warsaw Uprising Timeline, Warsaw Uprising PART 10 - "THE FINAL AGONY", and p.27 of Steven J. Zaloga's The Polish Army, 1939-45 (Google Print's excerpt)
  45. ^ Richard J. Kozicki, Piotr Wróbel (eds), Historical Dictionary of Poland, 966-1945, Greenwood Press, 1996, ISBN 0313260079, Google Print, p.34
  46. ^ Adam Józef Borkiewicz, Powstanie warszawskie 1944: zarys działań natury wojskowej, 1957, PAX, p.617 or another source, Władysław T. Bartoszewski, Dni Walczacej Stolicy: kronika Powstania Warszawskiego, 1984, Aneks, p.282. Translation from Nad Wisłą został złamany przez 9. armię ostatni opór powstańców, którzy walczyli aż do ostatniego naboju.
  47. ^ a b (Polish) Zaborski, Zdzisław (2004). Tędy przeszła Warszawa: Epilog powstania warszawskiego: Pruszków Durchgangslager 121, 6 VIII - 10 X 1944. Warsaw: Askon, 55. ISBN 8387545864. 
  48. ^ a b Anthony M. Tung, PRESERVING THE WORLD'S GREAT CITIES: The Destruction and Renewal of the Historic Metropolis, Three Rivers Press, New York, 2001, ISBN 0-517-70148-0. See [http://www.anthonymtung.com/excerpts.htm#Chap4 CHAPTER FOUR: WARSAW: THE HERITAGE OF WAR (online excerpt).
  49. ^ Peter K. Gessner, "For over two months..."
  50. ^ Vanessa Gera Warsaw bloodbath still stirs emotions, Chicago Sun-Times, Aug 1, 2004
  51. ^ (Polish) Warszawa szacuje straty wojenne (Polish). Retrieved on 2007-03-16.
  52. ^ See the following pages on the official site of Warsaw: Raport o stratach wojennych Warszawy LISTOPAD 2004, Straty Warszawy w albumie and Straty wojenne Warszawy
  53. ^ a b c d e f g h i (Polish) Jerzy Kirchmayer (1978). Powstanie warszawskie. Warsaw: Książka i Wiedza, 576. ISBN 83-05-11080-X. 
  54. ^ The higher number includes all fighting personnel, both men, women and children volunteers fighting in support formations, the lower number includes just the military personnel.
  55. ^ The number includes all troops fighting under German command, including Germans, Azeri, Hungarians, Russians, Ukrainians, Cossacksetc. Also, the number come from General von dem Bach himself and should probably be higher.
  56. ^ a b German MIA were never declared dead and are still considered missing 60 years after the battle. According to various Polish historians (among them col. Jerzy Kirchmayer) the purpose of this policy is to lessen the total casualties rate.
  57. ^ (English) Breffni O'Rourke. "Poland: Aftershocks Still Being Felt As Warsaw Remembers FailedUprising", Radio Free Europe, 2004-07-29. Retrieved on 2007-05-08. 
  58. ^ (Polish) Jerzy S. Majewski (August 2005). "Moda na Powstanie". Gazeta Wyborcza (177): 2. Retrieved on 2007-05-08. 
  59. ^ a b Andrzej Paczkowski. Poland, the "Enemy Nation", pp. 372-375, in Black Book of Communism. Crimes, Terror, Repression. Harvard University Press, London. See online excerpt.
  60. ^ Michał Zając, Warsaw Uprising: 5 pm, August 1, 1944, Retrieved on 4 July 2007.
  61. ^ a b c (Polish) Sawicki, Jacek Zygmunt (2005). Bitwa o prawdę: Historia zmagań o pamieć Powstania Warszawskiego 1944-1989. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo "DiG", 230. ISBN 837181366X. 
  62. ^ Rising '44. The Battle for Warsaw, Norman Davies, Pan Books, 2004, ISBN 0-330-48863-5, Chapter VII: Stalinist Repression, Page 528, "the post Communist Polish Government was told that the files had been 'inadvertently destroyed'"; Davies refers to http://www.archiwa.gov.pl/kronika as the place a report on the subject should be delivered in 2003, but that link appears dead.
General:
  • (Polish) Jerzy Kirchmayer (1978). Powstanie warszawskie. Warsaw: Książka i Wiedza, 576. ISBN 83-05-11080-X. 
  • (English) Davies, Norman (2004). Rising '44 : the battle for Warsaw, 1st American ed., New York: Viking. ISBN 9780670032846. 
  • (English) Karski, Jan (2001). Story of a secret state. Safety Harbor, FL: Simon Publications. ISBN 9781931541398. 
  • (English) Komorowski, Tadeusz. The secret army, 1st U.S. ed., Nashville: Battery Press. ISBN 9780898390827. 
  • "Old scars, new squabbles." Newsweek, 1 August 1994.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... George Sanford was a college football coach at Columbia, Virginia, and Rutgers. ... David M. Glantz is an American military historian and the editor of The Journal of Slavic Military Studies. ... General Count Tadeusz Komorowski (June 1, 1895 - August 24, 1966), better known by the name Bór-Komorowski (after one of his wartime code-names: Bór) was a Polish military leader. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gazeta Wyborcza (pronounce: [gazεta vibÉ”rʧa] , gazeta vibborcha) is, as of 2005, Polands second largest distribution daily newspaper (after the tabloid Fakt). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Andrzej Paczkowski (1938-) is a Polish historian. ... Tomasz Strzembosz (11 September 1930 - 16 October 2004) was a Polish historian specializing in history of Poland during Second World War, Harcmistrz. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Bartoszewski WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Bartoszewski (b. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan Nowak-JezioraÅ„ski Jan Nowak-JezioraÅ„ski (October 3, 1914 – January 20, 2005) was a Polish journalist, writer, politician, social worker and patriot. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... University of Oklahoma, abbreviated OU, is a coeducational public research university located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma founded in 1890. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kotwica The Warsaw Uprising Museum, located in Warsaw, Poland, is a Museum dedicated to the Warsaw Uprising. ... Jan Nowak-JezioraÅ„ski Jan Nowak-JezioraÅ„ski (October 3, 1914 – January 20, 2005) was a Polish journalist, writer, politician, social worker and patriot. ... Gazeta Wyborcza (pronounce: [gazεta vibÉ”rʧa] , gazeta vibborcha) is, as of 2005, Polands second largest distribution daily newspaper (after the tabloid Fakt). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Chicago Sun-Times is an American daily newspaper published in Chicago. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 16 is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jerzy Kirchmayer (1895-1959) was a Polish historian and military commander, a brigadier general of the Polish Army and one of the first historians of the Warsaw Uprising of 1944. ... This article is about the country in Eurasia. ... This article needs cleanup. ... MIA is a three-letter acronym that is most commonly used to designate a combatant who is Missing In Action, and has not yet returned or otherwise been accounted for as either dead (KIA) or a prisoner of war (POW). ... Jerzy Kirchmayer (1895-1959) was a Polish historian and military commander, a brigadier general of the Polish Army and one of the first historians of the Warsaw Uprising of 1944. ... Cover of Radio Liberty booklet The Most Important Job in the World Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a radio and communications organization which is funded by the United States Congress. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gazeta Wyborcza (pronounce: [gazεta vibÉ”rʧa] , gazeta vibborcha) is, as of 2005, Polands second largest distribution daily newspaper (after the tabloid Fakt). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression is a controversial book edited by doctor Stéphane Courtois which attempts to catalog various crimes (deaths, torture, deportations, etc. ... Rising 44. ... Norman Davies, Warsaw (Poland), October 7, 2004 Norman Davies (born June 8, 1939 in Bolton, Lancashire) is an English historian of Welsh descent, noted for his publications on the history of Poland, Europe and the British Isles. ... Jerzy Kirchmayer (1895-1959) was a Polish historian and military commander, a brigadier general of the Polish Army and one of the first historians of the Warsaw Uprising of 1944. ... Rising 44. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • Warsaw Uprising Museum in Warsaw
  • Warsaw Uprising 1944 A source for checking data used in this page and offers of material and help.
  • The Warsaw Uprising on the Polish Resistance page provides information and maps which may be freely copied with attribution.
  • Warsaw Rising: The Forgotten Soldiers of World War II. Educator Guide
  • Photographs of the Warsaw Uprising
  • The Warsaw Rising
  • The Warsaw Uprising - 1.VIII.1944
  • Warsaw Uprising CNN Special
  • Warsaw Life: A detailed account of the 1944 Warsaw Rising, including the facts, the politics and first-hand accounts
  • Polish Boy Scouts Deliver "AK" Mail
  • The Warsaw Uprising daily diary, written in English by Eugenuisz Melech, on the events as they happened. Edited and published by Dr Lester Gideon & Associates.
  • (Polish) Website summarizing many publications against decision to initiate Warsaw Uprising
  • (Polish) Dariusz Baliszewski, Przerwać tę rzeź! Tygodnik "Wprost", Nr 1132 (08 August 2004)
  • (German) Warschau- Der letzte Blick German aerial photos of Warsaw taken during the last days before the Warsaw Uprising

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links LinkFA-star. ... The Confederation of Bar (1768–1776), a grouping of Polish szlachta, formed at the fortress of Bar in Podolia in 1768 to defend the internal and external independence of Poland against the aggressions of the Russian government as represented by her representative at Warsaw, Prince Nikolai Repnin. ... KoÅ›ciuszko Uprising 1794 The KoÅ›ciuszko Uprising took place in Poland in 1794. ... The 1794 Greater Poland Uprising (Polish: powstanie wielkopolskie 1794 roku) was a military insurrection by Poles in Wielkopolska (Greater Poland) against the occupying Prussian forces after the 1793 Second Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Combatants First French Empire. ... Coat-of-arms of the November Uprising. ... The 1846 Wielkopolska Uprising (Polish: ) was a planned military insurrection by Poles in the land of Greater Poland against the occupying Prussian forces, designed to be part of a general Polish uprising in all three partitions of Poland, against the Russians, Austrians and Prussians. ... The Kraków Uprising of February 1846 was an attempt to incite an all-Polish fight for home-rule but was in fact limited only to the Free City of Kraków. ... Greater Poland Uprising of 1848 (Polish: ) was a military insurrection of the Polish people in the Grand Duchy of PoznaÅ„ (or the Greater Poland region) against the occupying Prussian forces, during the Spring of Nations period. ... Polonia (Poland), 1863, by Jan Matejko, 1864, oil on canvas, 156 × 232 cm, National Museum, Kraków. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 209 × 300 pixelsFull resolution (209 × 300 pixel, file size: 22 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Herb z czasów Postania Listopadowego (November Uprising) 1830 from English Wiki emended File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file... Image File history File links Flaga_PPP.png‎ Unofficial flag of the Armia Krajowa and the Polish Secret State. ... Soldiers of the Greater Polish Army The Greater Poland Uprising of 1918–1919, or Wielkopolska Uprising of 1918–1919 (Polish: powstanie wielkopolskie 1918–19 roku; German: Großpolnischer Aufstand) or Posnanian War was a military insurrection of Poles in the Greater Poland (also called the Grand Duchy of PoznaÅ„ or... The Silesian Uprisings (Polish: Powstania Å›lÄ…skie) was a series of three military insurections (1919-1921) of the Polish people in the Upper Silesia region against the German/Prussian forces in order to force them out the region and join it with Poland, that regained her independence after the World... Combatants Nazi Germany {SS, SD, Gestapo, Ordnungspolizei, Wehrmacht} Collaborators {Blue Police, Jewish Ghetto Police} Jewish resistance (Å»OB, Å»ZW) Polish resistance (Armia Krajowa, Gwardia Ludowa) Commanders Ferdinand von Sammern-Frankenegg Jürgen Stroop Franz Bürkl Mordechai Anielewicz† Dawid Apfelbaum† PaweÅ‚ Frenkiel† Icchak Cukierman Marek Edelman Zivia Lubetkin Henryk IwaÅ„ski... For other uses, see Tempest. ... PoznaÅ„ crosses commemorating the PoznaÅ„ 1956 protests and subsequent Polish protests against the communist political system. ... Monument to fallen Shipyard Workers in GdaÅ„sk. ... Solidarity (Polish: ; full name: Independent Self-governing Trade Union Solidarity — Niezależny SamorzÄ…dny ZwiÄ…zek Zawodowy Solidarność) is a Polish trade union federation founded in September 1980 at the then Lenin Shipyards, and originally led by Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Warsaw Uprising: Information from Answers.com (4889 words)
In 2004 the Warsaw self-government authorities estimated that the approximate loss of the municipal property is 45 billion 2004 US dollars (this includes only the property owned by the city of Warsaw on August 31, 1939, and not the properties owned by the inhabitants themselves).
Factual knowledge of the Warsaw Uprising, inconvenient to Stalin, was twisted by propaganda of the People's Republic of Poland, which stressed the failings of the Home Army and the Polish government-in-exile, and forbade all criticism of the Red Army or the political goals of Soviet strategy.
From 1956 on, the image of the Warsaw Uprising in Polish propaganda was changed a little bit to underline that the soldiers were indeed brave, while the officers were treacherous and the commanders were characterised by disregard of the losses.
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1878 words)
The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising was the Jewish insurgency against Nazi Germany's attempt to liquidate the remains of the Warsaw Ghetto in Poland during World War II.
The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of 1943 is sometimes confused with the Warsaw Uprising of 1944.
Uprising - A Response to the NBC Miniseries
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