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Encyclopedia > Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Part of World War II and the The Holocaust

Photo from Jürgen Stroop Report to Heinrich Himmler from May 1943 and one of the most famous pictures of World War II.
Date April 19, 1943 - May 16, 1943
Location Warsaw Ghetto, Poland
Result Nazi victory
Belligerents
Germany
(Waffen-SS, SD, OrPo, Gestapo, Wehrmacht)
Collaborators
(Arajs Kommando, Blue Police, Jewish Police, Lithuanian Police)
Jewish resistance
(ŻOB, ŻZW)
Polish resistance
(AK, GL)
Commanders
Franz Bürkl
Ludwig Hahn
Odilo Globocnik
Friedrich Krüger
Ferdinand von Sammern-Frankenegg
Jürgen Stroop
Mordechaj Anielewicz
Dawid Apfelbaum†
Icchak Cukierman
Marek Edelman
Paweł Frenkiel†
Henryk Iwański (AK)
Zivia Lubetkin
Dawid Wdowiński
Strength
Official daily average of 2,090 troops, including 821 Waffen-SS. Some 220[1] to 600[2] ŻOB and 400 ŻZW fighters (on April 19, 1943). Smaller numbers of a Polish fighters engaged at the different times.
About 70,000 civilians.
Casualties and losses
Officially 16 killed in action and 85 wounded, according to the Jürgen Stroop's report for Heinrich Himmler. Edelman estimated that up to 1,300 Germans and collaborators were either killed or wounded in the uprising. Total of 56,065 fighters and civilians accounted for {killed and captured}, according to the Stroop's report (71,000 in his own unofficial count).

The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (German: "Aufstand im Warschauer Ghetto", Polish: "Powstanie w getcie warszawskim") was the Jewish insurgency that arose within the Warsaw Ghetto in Poland during World War II, and which opposed Nazi Germany's effort to transport the remaining ghetto population to the Treblinka extermination camp. The insurgency was launched against the Germans and their Jewish collaborators on January 18, 1943. The most significant portion of the insurgency took place from April 19 until May 16, 1943, and ended when the poorly-armed and supplied resistance was crushed by the German troops under the direct command of Jürgen Stroop. It was the largest single revolt by the Jews during the Holocaust.[3] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... “Shoah” redirects here. ... Jürgen Stroop in custody Jürgen Stroop, (born Josef Stroop, September 26, 1895 in Detmold – March 6, 1952 in Warsaw), was an SS-Gruppenführer und Generalleutnant der Waffen-SS und Polizei, who served as the SS and Police Leader of the Poland-Warsaw area during the Warsaw Ghetto... Heinrich Luitpold Himmler ( ; 7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was commander of the Schutzstaffel (SS) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany and the Nazi hierarchy. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Monument to the Ghetto Heroes in Warsaw The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest of the Jewish ghettos established by Nazi Germany in Warsaw, former capital of Poland in the General Government during the Holocaust in World War II. Between 1941 and 1943, starvation, disease and deportations to concentration camps and... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Waffen-SS recruitment poster; Volunteer to the Waffen-SS The Waffen-SS was the armed wing of the Schutzstaffel. ... Sicherheitsdienst (SD) sleeve insignia. ... Flag of the Ordnungspolizei The Ordnungspolizei (OrPo) was the name for the regular German police force that existed in Nazi Germany between the years of 1936 and 1945. ... The   (contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei: “secret state police”) was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... The Arajs Kommando (also: Sonderkommando Arajs), lead by SS-Sturmbannführer Viktors Arājs, was a unit of Latvian Auxiliary Police (German: ) subordinated to the Nazi SD. It is one of the more well-known and notorious killing units during the Holocaust. ... Blue Police, more correctly translated as Navy-Blue Police (Polish: , name originating from the colour of their uniforms) was the popular name of collaborationist Polish police in General Government during Second World War. ... Jewish Ghetto Police (German: Jüdische Ghetto-Polizei, Jüdischer Ordnungsdienst) were a notorious Jewish ghetto police units organized in the Ghettos by the Jewish Judenrat councils under German Nazi orders. ... Lithuanian Security Police also referred to as Saugumas (Lithuanian: ) was a Lithuanian Nazi-sponsored collaborationist Police from 1941 to 1944. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1518x1372, 1426 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Star of David Yellow badge Talk:List of Jewish American journalists User:RolandR Metadata This file contains additional... The Jewish resistance during the Holocaust was the resistance of the Jewish people against Nazi Germany leading up to and through World War II. Due to the careful organization and overwhelming military might of the Nazi German State and its supporters, many Jews were unable to resist the killings. ... Other languages FAQs | Table free Welcome to Wikipedia, the free-content encyclopedia that anyone can edit. ... Å»ydowski ZwiÄ…zek Wojskowy (Å»ZW, Polish for Jewish Military Union) was an underground organisation operating during World War II in the area of Warsaw Ghetto and fighting during Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. ... Image File history File links Flaga_PPP.png‎ Unofficial flag of the Armia Krajowa and the Polish Secret State. ... German supply train blown up by the Armia Krajowa during World War II. Polish resistance movement was a resistance movement in Poland, part of the anti-fascist resistance movement which fought against the occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany during World War II. Resistance to the Nazi German occupation began... Armia Krajowa (the Home Army), abbreviated AK, was the dominant Polish resistance movement in World War II German-occupied Poland. ... Gwardia Ludowa (Peoples Guard, abbreviated GL) was a communist armed organisation in Poland, organised by the Soviet created Polish Workers Party. ... Gestapo officer insignia pins SS-Oberscharführer Franz Bürkl was a Sicherheitspolizei officer. ... Odilo Globocnik Odilo Globocnik (April 21, 1904 - May 31, 1945) was a prominent Austrian Nazi and later an SS leader. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Krüger (1894 – May 9, 1945) was a Nazi official and high-ranking member of the SA and SS. Krüger was born into a military family in Straßburg im Elsaß, Germany (nowadays Strasbourg in France) in 1894; he received elementary school education, but ultimately left school... Ferdinand von Sammern-Frankenegg (March 17, 1897 – September 20, 1943) was an Oberführer (senior colonel) of the SS and commander of the Warsaw area. ... Jürgen Stroop in custody Jürgen Stroop, (born Josef Stroop, September 26, 1895 in Detmold – March 6, 1952 in Warsaw), was an SS-Gruppenführer und Generalleutnant der Waffen-SS und Polizei, who served as the SS and Police Leader of the Poland-Warsaw area during the Warsaw Ghetto... [[Image:aniel. ... Icchak Cukierman (1915–1981), also known by his nom de guerre Antek, or by the anglicised spelling Yitzhak Zuckerman, was one of the leaders of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising and the commander of a small Jewish troop fighting in the Warsaw Uprising during World War II. World War II Cukierman... Marek Edelman, Warsaw University, Warsaw (Poland), April 26, 2005 Marek Edelman (b. ... PaweÅ‚ Frenkiel (Frenkel) (1920-1943) (Hebrew פאוול פרנקל), Polish Jewish youth leader in Warsaw , was of the senior commanders of the Jewish Military Union or the Å»ZW. Frenkiel was born in Warsaw, Poland. ... Henryk IwaÅ„ski (1902-1978), codename Bystry was a member of the Polish resistance during WWII. He is known for leading one of the most daring action of Armia Krajowa in support of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. ... Armia Krajowa (the Home Army), abbreviated AK, was the dominant Polish resistance movement in World War II German-occupied Poland. ... Zivia Lubetkin(1914-1976), also known as her nom de guerre Celina, was one of the leaders of the Jewish Underground in Warsaw and the only woman in the High Command of its fighting organization, the ZOB, (Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa). ... In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ... Temporary grave of an American machine-gunner during the Battle of Normandy. ... Heinrich Luitpold Himmler ( ; 7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was commander of the Schutzstaffel (SS) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany and the Nazi hierarchy. ... The history of the Jews in Poland reaches back over a millennium. ... “Insurrection” redirects here. ... Monument to the Ghetto Heroes in Warsaw The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest of the Jewish ghettos established by Nazi Germany in Warsaw, former capital of Poland in the General Government during the Holocaust in World War II. Between 1941 and 1943, starvation, disease and deportations to concentration camps and... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Treblinka II was a Nazi extermination camp in German-occupied Poland during World War II. Extermination camps like the one at Treblinka were used in the Holocaust for the systematic genocide of people categorized as sub-humans by the Nazis. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jürgen Stroop in custody Jürgen Stroop, (born Josef Stroop, September 26, 1895 in Detmold – March 6, 1952 in Warsaw), was an SS-Gruppenführer und Generalleutnant der Waffen-SS und Polizei, who served as the SS and Police Leader of the Poland-Warsaw area during the Warsaw Ghetto... “Shoah” redirects here. ...

Contents

Background

Memorial at Treblinka, 2005. The largest stone representing Warsaw.
Memorial at Treblinka, 2005. The largest stone representing Warsaw.

In 1940, the Nazis began concentrating Poland's population of over 3 million Jews into a number of extremely crowded ghettos located in various Polish cities. The largest of these, the Warsaw Ghetto, concentrated approximately 400,000 people into a densely packed central area of Warsaw. Thousands of Jews died due to rampant disease and starvation, even before the Nazis began their massive deportations from the ghetto to the Treblinka extermination camp. Approximately 300,000 Ghetto residents met their deaths at the Treblinka extermination camp in the 52 days preceding September 12, 1942. Image File history File linksMetadata Treblinka_memorial. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Treblinka_memorial. ... Treblinka II was a Nazi extermination camp in German-occupied Poland during World War II. Extermination camps like the one at Treblinka were used in the Holocaust for the systematic genocide of people categorized as sub-humans by the Nazis. ... Monument to the Ghetto Heroes in Warsaw The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest of the Jewish ghettos established by Nazi Germany in Warsaw, former capital of Poland in the General Government during the Holocaust in World War II. Between 1941 and 1943, starvation, disease and deportations to concentration camps and... Monument to the Ghetto Heroes in Warsaw The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest of the Jewish ghettos established by Nazi Germany in Warsaw, former capital of Poland in the General Government during the Holocaust in World War II. Between 1941 and 1943, starvation, disease and deportations to concentration camps and... Operation Reinhard (Aktion Reinhard, Einsatz Reinhard, Aktion Reinhardt or Einsatz Reinhardt in German) was the code name given to the Nazi plan to murder Polish Jews in the former General Government and rob their possessions. ... For the rapper, see Ghetto (rapper). ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... This article is about the medical term. ... This article is about extreme malnutrition. ... Deportation is the expelling of someone from a country. ... Treblinka II was a Nazi extermination camp in German-occupied Poland during World War II. Extermination camps like the one at Treblinka were used in the Holocaust for the systematic genocide of people categorized as sub-humans by the Nazis. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


When the deportations first began, members of the Jewish resistance movement met and decided not to fight the directives, believing that the Jews were being sent to labour camps and not to their deaths. By the end of 1942, however, it became clear that the deportations were part of an extermination process, and many of the remaining Jews decided to resist.[4] The Jewish resistance during the Holocaust was the resistance of the Jewish people against Nazi Germany leading up to and through World War II. Due to the careful organization and overwhelming military might of the Nazi German State and its supporters, many Jews were unable to resist the killings. ... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in forced labor. ...


The fighting

January 1943 rebellion

On January 18, 1943, the Germans began their second deportation of the Jews, which led to the first instance of armed insurgency within the ghetto. While Jewish families hid in their "bunkers," Germans and fighters engaged in two direct clashes. As a consequence, the deportation was halted within a few days, and only 5,000 Jews were removed instead of the planned 8,000.[2] is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Two resistance organizations, the Jewish Military Union (Żydowski Związek Wojskowy, ŻZW) and the Jewish Combat Organization (Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa, ŻOB) took control of the Ghetto. They built dozens of fighting posts and executed Jews whom they considered to be Nazi collaborators, including Jewish Police officers and Gestapo agents[5] The ŻOB established a prison to hold and execute traitors and collaborators[6]). Józef Szeryński, the former head of the Jewish Police, committed suicide.[7] Å»ydowski ZwiÄ…zek Wojskowy (Å»ZW, Polish for Jewish Military Union) was an underground resistance organization operating during World War II in the area of the Warsaw Ghetto and fighting during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Jewish Ghetto Police (German: Jüdische Ghetto-Polizei, Jüdischer Ordnungsdienst) were a notorious Jewish ghetto police units organized in the Ghettos by the Jewish Judenrat councils under German Nazi orders. ... The   (contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei: “secret state police”) was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. ...


Opposing forces

Jewish insurgents

The original German caption reads: "Women captured with arms." For Jewish IDs see "[[1]]" archive photo #1893
The original German caption reads: "Women captured with arms." For Jewish IDs see "[[1]]" archive photo #1893
Main articles: Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa and Żydowski Związek Wojskowy

As the frustrated Germans diverted additional resources to end the standoff, ghetto residents spent the next three months preparing for what they understood would be their last stand. Hundreds of camouflaged bunkier shelters were dug beneath houses, connecting the buildings through the sewage system and linking up with the central water supply and electricity. The Warsaw Ghetto was divided into military districts, with organizations responsible for each district. Other languages FAQs | Table free Welcome to Wikipedia, the free-content encyclopedia that anyone can edit. ... Å»ydowski ZwiÄ…zek Wojskowy (Å»ZW, Polish for Jewish Military Union) was an underground organisation operating during World War II in the area of Warsaw Ghetto and fighting during Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. ... Sewage is the mainly liquid waste containing some solids produced by humans which typically consists of washing water, faeces, urine, laundry waste and other material which goes down drains and toilets from households and industry. ...


Ghetto fighters were armed with mostly with a pistols and revolvers (if at all), with just a few rifles and automatic firearms. The insurgents had little ammunition, and relied heavily on improvised explosive devices and incendiary bottles. A few more weapons were supplied throughout the uprising, or captured from the Germans. In his report of May 24, 1943, Stroop claimed to have captured a total of "seven Polish rifles, one Russian and one German rifle, 59 pistols of various calibres, several hundred incendiary bottles, home-made explosives, infernal machines with fuses, and a large amount of explosives, ammunition for weapons of all calibers, including some machine-gun ammunition". A Browning 9 millimeter Hi-Power Ordnance pistol of the French Navy, 19th century, using a Percussion cap mechanism Derringers were small and easily hidden. ... For other uses, see Revolver (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rifle (disambiguation). ... M2 Browning machine gun An automatic firearm is a firearm that automatically extracts and ejects the fired cartridge case, and loads a new case, usually through the energy of the fired round. ... Munitions rigged for an IED discovered by Iraqi police in Baghdad, November 2005. ... Molotov cocktail is the generic name for a variety of crude incendiary weapons. ...


Polish support

Support from outside the Ghetto was limited, but Polish Resistance units from Armia Krajowa (AK) (the Home Army)[8] and Polish Communist Gwardia Ludowa (the People's Guard)[9] attacked German sentry units near the ghetto walls and attempted to smuggle weapons and ammunition into the ghetto. AK also disseminated information and appeals to help the Jews in the ghetto, both in Poland and by way of radio transmissions to the Allies.[8] Several ŻOB commanders and fighters escaped through the sewers with assistance from the Poles.[8] This article covers the Secret State of Poland during World War II. For the earlier secret state in Poland see: January Uprising This article is part of the series: Polish Secret State Categories: Historical stubs | Polish history | World War II resistance movements | National liberation movements ... Armia Krajowa (the Home Army), abbreviated AK, was the dominant Polish resistance movement in World War II German-occupied Poland. ... The Polish Workers Party (Polska Partia Robotnicza, PPR) was a communist party in Poland from 1942 to 1948. ... Gwardia Ludowa (Peoples Guard, abbreviated GL) was a communist armed organisation in Poland, organised by the Soviet created Polish Workers Party. ...


One Polish unit from AK, the National Security Corps (Państwowy Korpus Bezpieczeństwa), under the command of Henryk Iwański, fought inside the Ghetto along with ŻZW. Subsequently, both groups retreated together to the so-called "Aryan side". Although Iwański's action is the most well-known rescue mission, it was only one of many actions undertaken by the Polish resistance to help the Jews.[10] In the first day of uprising 19 April 1943 three units of AK under command kpt. Józef Pszenny tried to breach the Ghetto walls with anti-tank mines but the Germans defeated this action. AK engaged the Germans between April 19 and April 23 at different locations outside the ghetto walls, in a futile attempt to breach them.[8] PaÅ„stwowy Korpus BezpieczeÅ„stwa (Polish for National Security Corps, short PKB, sometimes also referred to as Kadra BezpieczeÅ„stwa) was a Polish underground police force organized by the Armia Krajowa and Government Delegates Office at Home under German occupation during World War II. It was trained as the... Henryk IwaÅ„ski (1902-1978), codename Bystry was a member of the Polish resistance during WWII. He is known for leading one of the most daring action of Armia Krajowa in support of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. ... An Anti-tank mine, or AT mine is similar to a Landmine except generally designed with a less sensitive trigger and more explosive power so as to be able to take out an armored vehicle, and not go off until such a vehicle comes along. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Participation of the Polish underground in the uprising was confirmed by a report of the German commander Jürgen Stroop. He wrote that German soldiers were "...permanently under gun fire behind the ghetto. It means from the Aryan side"... "When we invaded the Ghetto for the first time, the Jews and the Polish bandits succeeded in repelling the participating units, including tanks and armored cars, by a well-prepared concentration of fire". He described Iwański's action: "The main Jewish battle group, mixed with Polish bandits, had already retired during the first and second day to the so-called Muranowski Square. There, it was reinforced by a considerable number of Polish bandits".[11] Jürgen Stroop in custody Jürgen Stroop, (born Josef Stroop, September 26, 1895 in Detmold – March 6, 1952 in Warsaw), was an SS-Gruppenführer und Generalleutnant der Waffen-SS und Polizei, who served as the SS and Police Leader of the Poland-Warsaw area during the Warsaw Ghetto...


Nazi forces

Nazi sentries with a Maschinengewehr 08 machine gun at one of the gates to the ghetto.
Nazi sentries with a Maschinengewehr 08 machine gun at one of the gates to the ghetto.

Ultimately, the combined efforts of the Polish and Jewish resistance fighters proved insufficient against the German forces. The Germans eventually committed an average daily force of 2,054 soldiers and 36 officers, including 821 Waffen-SS Panzergrenadier troops (consisting of five SS reserve and training battalions and one SS cavalry reserve and training battalion), as well as 363 Polish Blue Policemen, who were ordered by the Germans to cordon the walls of the Ghetto.[12] Image File history File links Warsaw_ghetto_uprising_German_sentries. ... Image File history File links Warsaw_ghetto_uprising_German_sentries. ... MG08 with optical sight. ... Waffen-SS recruitment poster; Volunteer to the Waffen-SS The Waffen-SS was the armed wing of the Schutzstaffel. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The Military Reserves are an organization that is associated with the military but is not in active duty. ... Military education and training is a process which intends to establish and improve the capabilities of military personnel in their respective roles. ... Symbol of the Austrian 14th Armoured Battalion in NATO military graphic symbols This article is about the military unit. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... Blue Police, more correctly translated as Navy-Blue Police (Polish: , name originating from the colour of their uniforms) was the popular name of collaborationist Polish police in General Government during Second World War. ...

Two Lithuanian Askaris peer into a doorway past the bodies of Jews killed during the suppression of the uprising.
Two Lithuanian Askaris peer into a doorway past the bodies of Jews killed during the suppression of the uprising.

The other forces were drawn from the SS Ordnungspolizei (Orpo) "order police" (battalions from the regiments 22rd and 23rd), the SS Sicherheitsdienst (SD) security service, Warsaw Gestapo, one battalion each from two Wehrmacht railroad combat engineers regiments, a battery of Wehrmacht anti-aircraft artillery (and one field gun), a battalion of Ukrainian Trawniki-Männer from the SS Final Solution training camp Trawniki, Lithuanian and Latvian auxiliary policemen known as Askaris (Latvian Arajs Kommando and Lithuanian Saugumas), and technical emergency corps. Polish fire brigade personnel were forced to help in the operation. In addition, a number of Gestapo jailers and executioners from the nearby Pawiak prison, under the command of Franz Bürkl, volunteered to hunt for the Jews. Most of the remaining Jewish policemen were executed by the Gestapo, or used in the offensive and then subsequently too executed.[13] Flag of the Ordnungspolizei The Ordnungspolizei (OrPo) was the name for the regular German police force that existed in Nazi Germany between the years of 1936 and 1945. ... British regiment A regiment is a military unit, consisting of a variable number of battalions - commanded by a colonel. ... Sicherheitsdienst (SD) sleeve insignia. ... Security Service can mean: The British internal security service, MI5 A secret service or secret police agency ... The   (contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei: “secret state police”) was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft, or air defense, is any method of combating military aircraft from the ground. ... A field gun is an artillery piece. ... This article is about the term with respect to the Jewish Question in World War II. For other uses, see Final Solution (disambiguation). ... Trawniki was a Nazi labour camp in occupied Poland during the Second World War, under the command of HauptsturmfÇ–hrer Theodor von Eupen. ... A CISCO Security auxiliary police officer stands guard beside an armoured truck while his colleagues deliver high-valued goods to and from commercial clients at Raffles Place, Singapore. ... The Arajs Kommando (also: Sonderkommando Arajs), lead by SS-Sturmbannführer Viktors Arājs, was a unit of Latvian Auxiliary Police (German: ) subordinated to the Nazi SD. It is one of the more well-known and notorious killing units during the Holocaust. ... Lithuanian Security Police also referred to as Saugumas (Lithuanian: ) was a Lithuanian Nazi-sponsored collaborationist Police from 1941 to 1944. ... Firefighter with an axe A firefighter, sometimes still called a fireman though women have increasingly joined firefighting units, is a person who is trained and equipped to put out fires, rescue people and in some areas provide emergency medical services. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pawiak Pawiak was a famous prison in Warsaw built by the tsarist authorities between 1829 and 1835. ... Gestapo officer insignia pins SS-Oberscharführer Franz Bürkl was a Sicherheitspolizei officer. ...


German assault

On the eve of Passover, April 19, 1943, the police and SS auxiliary forces entered the Ghetto under the command of SS-Oberführer Ferdinand von Sammern-Frankenegg, planning to complete their Aktion within three days. However, they suffered losses as they were repeatedly ambushed by Jewish insurgents, who shot and launched Molotov cocktails and hand grenades at them from alleyways, sewers and windows. A French-made Lorraine 37L armoured fighting vehicle and an armoured car were set afire with ŻOB petrol bombs, and the German advance was halted.[13] This article is about the Jewish holiday. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... SS-Oberführer Collar Patch SA-Oberführer Collar Patch Oberführer was an early paramilitary rank of the Nazi Party dating back to 1921. ... Ferdinand von Sammern-Frankenegg (March 17, 1897 – September 20, 1943) was an Oberführer (senior colonel) of the SS and commander of the Warsaw area. ... An ambush is a long established military tactic in which an ambushing force uses concealment to attack an enemy that passes its position. ... Molotov cocktail is the generic name for a variety of crude incendiary weapons. ... Grenade redirects here. ... The Lorraine 37L, or Tracteur Blinde 37L (Lorraine), was a light tracked armoured personnel carrier and prime mover developed for the French Army in the late 1930s and employed at the start of World War Two. ... An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is a military vehicle, protected by armour and armed with weapons. ... Military armored cars A French VBL reconnaissance vehicle. ... Molotov cocktail is the generic name for a variety of crude incendiary weapons. ...

Surrounded by heavily armed guards, SS Brigadeführer Jürgen Stroop (center) watches housing blocks burn. SD Rottenführer at right is possibly Josef Blösche aka "Frankenstein".
Surrounded by heavily armed guards, SS Brigadeführer Jürgen Stroop (center) watches housing blocks burn. SD Rottenführer at right is possibly Josef Blösche aka "Frankenstein".

The Jewish insurgents achieved noteworthy success against von Sammern-Frankenegg's forces, and he subsequently lost his post as the SS and police commander of Warsaw. He was replaced by SS-Gruppenführer (then Brigadeführer) Jürgen Stroop, who rejected von Sammern-Frankenegg's proposal to call in bomber aircraft from Kraków and proceeded with a better-organized ground assault that included artillery support. Brigadeführer was an SS rank that was used in Nazi Germany between the years of 1932 and 1945. ... Jürgen Stroop in custody Jürgen Stroop, (born Josef Stroop, September 26, 1895 in Detmold – March 6, 1952 in Warsaw), was an SS-Gruppenführer und Generalleutnant der Waffen-SS und Polizei, who served as the SS and Police Leader of the Poland-Warsaw area during the Warsaw Ghetto... SA Rottenführer collar insignia SS-Rottenführer insignia Rottenführer was a Nazi Party paramilitary rank that was first created in the year 1932. ... Famous Warsaw Ghetto Photo. ... Reinhard Heydrich - the first director of RSHA The RSHA, or Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Reich Security Main Office), was a subordinate organization of the SS created by Heinrich Himmler on September 22, 1939, through the merger of the Sicherheitsdienst (SD, or Security Agency), the Gestapo (Secret State Police) and the Kriminalpolizei (Criminal Police). ... SS-Gruppenführer collar patch SA-Gruppenführer rank insignia Volkssturm Gruppenführer insignia Gruppenführer was an early paramilitary rank of the Nazi Party, first created in 1925 as a senior rank of the SA. Translated as “Group Leader”, a Gruppenführer was typically in charge of large numbers... Brigadeführer was an SS rank that was used in Nazi Germany between the years of 1932 and 1945. ... A bomber is a military aircraft designed to attack ground targets, primarily by dropping bombs. ... For other uses, see Krakow (disambiguation). ...


The longest-lasting defense of a position took place around the ŻZW stronghold at Muranowski Square from April 19 to late April. In the afternoon of April 19, two boys climbed up on the roof of the concrete headquarters of the ŻZW at Muranowski Square and raised two flags: the red-and-white Polish flag and the blue-and-white ŻZW flag (blue and white are the colors of the flag of Israel today). These flags were well-seen from the Warsaw streets and remained atop the house for four entire days, despite German attempts to remove them. Stroop recalled: The Civil Flag of Poland has been used since the early 20th century. ... The flag of Israel was adopted on October 28, 1948, five months after the countrys establishment. ...

The matter of the flags was of great political and moral importance. It reminded hundreds of thousands of the Polish cause, it excited them and unified the population of the General-Government, but especially Jews and Poles. Flags and national colors are a means of combat exactly like a rapid-fire weapon, like thousands of such weapons. We all knew that - Heinrich Himmler, Krueger, and Hahn. The Reichsfuehrer [Himmler] bellowed into the phone: "Stroop, you must at all costs bring down those two flags."[14] Heinrich Luitpold Himmler ( ; 7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was commander of the Schutzstaffel (SS) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany and the Nazi hierarchy. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Krüger (1894 – May 9, 1945) was a Nazi official and high-ranking member of the SA and SS. Krüger was born into a military family in Straßburg im Elsaß, Germany (nowadays Strasbourg in France) in 1894; he received elementary school education, but ultimately left school... Heinrich Himmler as the Reichsführer-SS Reichsführer-SS was a special SS rank that existed between the years of 1925 and 1945. ...

April 22, 1943: A man jumping out of a window of a burning house during the fighting. German soldiers nicknamed such people "parachutists".

Another German armoured vehicle was destroyed in an insurgent counterattack, in which ŻZW commander Dawid Apfelbaum was also killed. After Stroop's ultimatum to surrender was rejected by the defenders, the Nazis resorted to systematically burning houses block by block with flamethrowers and blowing up basements and sewers: "We were beaten by the flames, not the Germans," recalled Marek Edelman in 2007.[1] "The sea of flames flooded houses and courtyards... There was no air, only black, choking smoke and heavy burning heat radiating form the red-hot walls, from the glowing stone stairs," Edelman said in 2003.[15] Image File history File links A man jumping out of a window of a burning house during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising The German soldiers nick-named such people Parachutists File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links A man jumping out of a window of a burning house during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising The German soldiers nick-named such people Parachutists File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Closing the Falais-Argentan Pocket and the Mortain counterattack 6-17 August 1944 A counterattack is a military tactic used by defending forces when under attack by an enemy force. ... An ultimatum (Latin: ) is a demand whose fulfillment is requested in a specified period of time and which is backed up by a threat to be followed through in case of noncompliance. ... Riverboat of the U.S. Brownwater Navy shooting ignited napalm from its mounted flamethrower during the Vietnam war. ... Marek Edelman, Warsaw University, Warsaw (Poland), April 26, 2005 Marek Edelman (b. ...


The ŻZW lost all its leaders and, on April 29, 1943, the remaining fighters escaped the ghetto through the Muranowski tunnel, and relocated to the Michalin forest. This event marked the end of the organized resistance, and of significant fighting. is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

A group of SS men on the street of Warsaw Ghetto during the uprising.
A group of SS men on the street of Warsaw Ghetto during the uprising.
Original German caption reads: "Forcibly pulled out of dugouts." Captured Jews are led by German soldiers to the assembly point for deportation. For identification of Jewish victims see [2][3].
Original German caption reads: "Forcibly pulled out of dugouts." Captured Jews are led by German soldiers to the assembly point for deportation. For identification of Jewish victims see [2][3].

The remaining Jews, civilians and surviving fighters took cover in the "bunker" dugouts which were carefully hidden among the largely burned-out ruins of the ghetto. The German troops employed dogs to discover the hideouts, using smoke grenades and tear gas (and reportedly even poison gas) to force Jews out. In many instances, the Jews came out of their hiding places firing at the Germans, while a number of female fighters lobbed hidden grenades or fired concealed handguns after they had surrendered. Small groups of Jewish insurgents engaged German patrols in night-time skirmishes. However, German losses were minimal following the first ten days of the uprising. Warsaw Ghetto Uprising File links The following pages link to this file: History of the Jews in Poland Warsaw Ghetto Uprising Categories: Polish government site pictures ... Warsaw Ghetto Uprising File links The following pages link to this file: History of the Jews in Poland Warsaw Ghetto Uprising Categories: Polish government site pictures ... Smoke grenade A purple smoke grenade being used during a military training exercise Main article: Hand grenade Smoke grenades are canister-type grenades used as ground-to-ground or ground-to-air signaling devices, target or landing zone marking devices, or a screening devices for unit movements. ... A riot control agent is a type of lachrymatory agent (or lacrimatory agent). ... Early detection of chemical agents Sociopolitical climate of chemical warfare While the study of chemicals and their military uses was widespread in China, the use of toxic materials has historically been viewed with mixed emotions and some disdain in the West (especially when the enemy were doing it). ...


On May 8, 1943, the Germans discovered the ŻOB's main command post, located at Miła 18 Street. Most of its leadership and dozens of remaining fighters were killed, while others committed mass suicide by ingesting cyanide. The dead included the organization's commander, Mordechaj Anielewicz. His deputy, Edelman, escaped through the sewers on May 10 with a handful of comrades. Two days later, the Bundist Szmul Zygielbojm committed suicide in London in protest, citing a lack of assistance for the insurgents on the part of Western governments: is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Command Post is a military term referring to a field location whence the person in charge of a situation may issue orders. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Mass suicide occurs when a number of people kill themselves together with one another or for the same reason and is usually connected to a real or perceived persecution. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... [[Image:aniel. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A Bundist demonstration, 1917 The General Jewish Labour Union of Lithuania, Poland and Russia, in Yiddish the Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Lite, Poyln un Rusland (אַלגמײַנער ײדישער אַרבײטערסבונד אין ליטאַ, פוילין און רוסלאַנד), generally called The Bund (בונד) or the Jewish Labor Bund, was a Jewish political party operating in several European countries between the 1890s and the... Szmul Zygielbojm (Zygelbojm) (1895 – May 12, 1943) was a Jewish-Polish socialist politician, leader of Bund and a member of the Warsaw and Łódź city councils in interwar Poland. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...

I cannot continue to live and to be silent while the remnants of Polish Jewry, whose representative I am, are being murdered. My comrades in the Warsaw ghetto fell with arms in their hands in the last heroic battle. I was not permitted to fall like them, together with them, but I belong with them, to their mass grave. By my death, I wish to give expression to my most profound protest against the inaction in which the world watches and permits the destruction of the Jewish people.

The suppression of the uprising officially ended on May 16, 1943. Nevertheless, sporadic shooting could be heard within the Ghetto throughout the summer of 1943. The uprising was put down conclusively in a battle which took place on June 5, 1943 between Germans and a group of Jewish criminals without connection to the resistance groups. is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Death toll

Approximately 13,000 Jewish residents were killed during the uprising (some 6,000 among them were burnt alive or died from smoke inhalation). Of the remaining 50,000 inhabitants, most were captured and shipped to concentration and extermination camps, in particular to Treblinka. Smoke inhalation is the primary cause of death in victims of indoor fires. ...


Jürgen Stroop's final report, written on May 13, 1943, stated: is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

180 Jews, bandits and sub-humans, were destroyed. The former Jewish quarter of Warsaw is no longer in existence. The large-scale action was terminated at 20:15 hours by blowing up the Warsaw Synagogue. (...) Total number of Jews dealt with 56,065, including both Jews caught and Jews whose extermination can be proved. (...) Apart from 8 buildings (police barracks, hospital, and accommodations for housing working-parties) the former Ghetto is completely destroyed. Only the dividing walls are left standing where no explosions were carried out.[12] Model of the synagogue Great Synagogue (Polish: ) was the largest Jewish temple of pre-war Warsaw and one of the largest such houses of prayer in the world at the time. ...

According to the report, Stroop's force suffered 16 killed in action and 86 wounded (these figures included over 60 members of Waffen-SS, and did not include the Jewish collaborators). The real number of German losses, however, may be well higher. Temporary grave of an American machine-gunner during the Battle of Normandy. ...


Aftermath

After the uprising, most of the incinerated houses were razed, and the Warsaw concentration camp complex was established in their stead. Warsaw concentration camp (German: , short KL Warschau) was the German concentration and extermination camp in Warsaw, in the ruins of the Warsaw Ghetto and in other parts of the city. ...


In 1944, during the general Warsaw Uprising, the AK battalion Zośka was able to save 380 Jewish concentration camp prisoners from the Gęsiówka sub-camp, most whom immediately joined the AK. A few small groups of Ghetto inhabitants also managed to survive in the sewers. For other uses, see Warsaw Uprising (disambiguation). ... The Batalion ZoÅ›ka (named after Tadeusz Zawadzki) was a scouting battalion of the Armia Krajowa, mainly consisted by members of the Szare Szeregi, which took part in the Warsaw Uprising of 1944. ... GÄ™siówka (Polish informal name for the prison on GÄ™sia street (now: Anielewicza street) in Warsaw), was a Polish prison in Warsaw. ...


Franz Bürkl was assassinated by the Polish resistance in October 1943. Same month, Ferdinand von Sammern-Frankenegg was killed by Croatian partisans in Yugoslavia. Odilo Globocnik, Heinrich Himmler, and Friedrich Krüger all followed Adolf Hitler and committed suicide in May 1945. Jürgen Stroop was convicted of war crimes in two different trials and executed by hanging in Poland in 1951 (Stroop's aide Erich Steidtmann was exonerated in a post-war trial for "minimal involment"). Ludwig Hahn went into hiding until 1975, when he was apprehended and sentenced to life in prison for crimes against humanity; he died in prison in 1986. Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Odilo Globocnik Odilo Globocnik (April 21, 1904 - May 31, 1945) was a prominent Austrian Nazi and later an SS leader. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Krüger (1894 – May 9, 1945) was a Nazi official and high-ranking member of the SA and SS. Krüger was born into a military family in Straßburg im Elsaß, Germany (nowadays Strasbourg in France) in 1894; he received elementary school education, but ultimately left school... Hitler redirects here. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... Hanging is the suspension of a person by a ligature, usually a cord wrapped around the neck, causing death. ... This article is in need of attention. ...


Relation to 1944 Warsaw Uprising

Main article: Warsaw Uprising

The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of 1943 is sometimes confused with the Warsaw Uprising of 1944. The two events were separated in time, and their aims were different. The first Ghetto uprising was an act of desperation--- a choice between dying in battle with only a slim hope of escape, or facing sure death in an extermination camp. The second was a coordinated action, and part of the larger Operation Tempest. For other uses, see Warsaw Uprising (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tempest. ...


However, hundreds of the survivors from the first uprising took part in the 1944 general Warsaw Uprising, fighting in the ranks of the Armia Krajowa and Armia Ludowa. For other uses, see Warsaw Uprising (disambiguation). ... Armia Krajowa (the Home Army), abbreviated AK, was the dominant Polish resistance movement in World War II German-occupied Poland. ... Armia Ludowa (AL, pronounced ; English Polish Peoples Army) was a Polish World War II resistance organisation. ...

Monument to the Ghetto Heroes in Warsaw.
Monument to the Ghetto Heroes in Warsaw.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 185 KB) Monument of Warsaw ghetto uprising in 1943. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 185 KB) Monument of Warsaw ghetto uprising in 1943. ...

The Warsaw kneeling

Main article: Warschauer Kniefall

On December 7, 1970, West German Chancellor Willy Brandt spontaneously knelt while visiting a monument to the Uprising in the former People's Republic of Poland. At the time, the action surprised many and was the focus of controversy, but it has since been credited with helping improve relations between East and West Germany, and among the NATO and Warsaw Pact countries. Warschauer Kniefall is a German term meaning Warsaw Genuflection (kneeling), referring to an event on December 7th, 1970 where the social democratic Chancellor of Germany Willy Brandt, very surprisingly and to all appearences spontaneously, knelt at a monument to the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in what was then the communist Peoples... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... West Germany was the informal but almost universally used name for the Federal Republic of Germany from 1949 until 1990, during which years the Federal Republic did not yet include East Germany. ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... Willy Brandt, born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm (December 18, 1913 - October 8, 1992), was a German politician, Chancellor of West Germany 1969 – 1974, and leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) 1964 – 1987. ... Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Socialist republic Leaders  - 1948–1956 BolesÅ‚aw Bierut (First)  - 1981-1989 Wojciech Jaruzelski (Last) Prime minister  - 1944-1947 E. Osóbka-Morawski  - 1947-1952 and 1954-1970 Józef Cyrankiewicz  - 1952-1954 BolesÅ‚aw Bierut  - 1970-1980 Piotr Jaroszewicz  - 1980 Edward Babiuch  - 1980-1981... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ...


Remembrance in Israel

A number of survivors of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, known as the "Ghetto Fighters," went on to found Kibbutz Lohamey ha-Geta'ot (literally: "Ghetto Fighters' Kibbutz"), which is located north of Acre. The founding members of the kibbutz include Yitzhak Zuckerman, ŻOB deputy commander, and his wife Zivia Lubetkin, who also commanded a fighting unit. In 1984, the members of the kibbutz published Dapei Edut ("Testimonies of Survival"), four volumes of personal testimonies from 96 kibbutz members. The settlement also features a museum and archives dedicated to remembering the Holocaust. Kibbutz Merom Golan as seen from Bental mountain A Kibbutz (Hebrew: Translit. ... Lohamey ha-Getaot is an Israeli kibbutz on the coast of north Israel north of Acre. ... For other uses, see Akko (disambiguation). ... Icchak Cukierman (also known by the internationalised spelling Yitzhak Zuckerman; 1915 - 1981), who used the alias Antek, was one of the leaders of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising and the commander of a small Jewish troop fighting in the Warsaw Uprising during World War II. Cukierman was born in Vilna to... Zivia Lubetkin(1914-1976), also known as her nom de guerre Celina, was one of the leaders of the Jewish Underground in Warsaw and the only woman in the High Command of its fighting organization, the ZOB, (Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa). ... The Palais du Louvre in Paris, which houses the Musée du Louvre, one of the worlds most famous museums, and most certainly the largest. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ...


Yad Mordechai, another kibbutz just north of the Gaza Strip), was named after Mordechai Anielewicz. Memorial to Mordechaj Anielewicz at kibbutz Yad Mordechai Yad Mordechai (יד מרדכי) is a kibbutz located 10 km south of Ashkelon, Israel. ...


Pictures

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

There are many famous Holocaust survivors who survived the Nazi genocides in Europe and went on to achievements of great fame and notability. ... This is a list of victims of Nazism who were noted for their achievements. ... This is a list of people who helped Jewish people and others to escape from the Nazi Holocaust during World War II, often called rescuers. The list is not exhaustive, concentrating on famous cases, or people who saved the lives of many potential victims. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Book cover The Destruction of the European Jews is a three-volume work published in 1961 by historian Raul Hilberg. ... Functionalism versus intentionalism is a historiographical debate about the origins of the Holocaust as well as most aspects of the Third Reich, such as foreign policy. ... A Generation (Polish: Pokolenie) is a Polish film released in 1955, directed by Andrzej Wajda. ... Białystok Ghetto Uprising was an insurrection in Polands Białystok Ghetto against Germany during World War II. It was organised and led by Antyfaszystowska Organizacja Bojowa (Polish for Anti-fascist Military Organisation). ... Ghetto uprisings were armed revolts by Jews and other groups incarcerated in Nazi ghettos during World War II against the plans to deport the inhabitants to concentration and death camps. ... Spoiler warning: Mila 18 is a stirring novel set is in German occupied Warsaw during World War II. Leon Uriss work is about the Nazi atrocities of systematically dehumanising and eliminating the Jewish People from the face of the earth. ... Movie poster of The Pianist The Pianist is a 2002 movie directed by Roman Polanski starring Adrien Brody. ... Uprising is a 2001 war/drama television movie about the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Last Warsaw ghetto revolt commander honours fallen comrades
  2. ^ a b World War II: Warsaw Ghetto Uprising history.net
  3. ^ JEWISH UPRISINGS IN GHETTOS AND CAMPS, 1941-1944 USHMM
  4. ^ Warsaw Ghetto Uprising USHMM
  5. ^ The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman
  6. ^ Benjamin Wald Jewish Virtual Library
  7. ^ Josef “Andzi” Szerynski Jewish Virtual Library
  8. ^ a b c d Addendum 2 – Facts about Polish Resistance and Aid to Ghetto Fighters, Roman Barczynski, Americans of Polish Descent, Inc. Last accessed on 13 June 2006.
  9. ^ Getto 1943
  10. ^ Stefan Korbonski, "The Polish Underground State: A Guide to the Underground, 1939-1945", pages 120-139, Excerpts
  11. ^ The Stroop Report: The Warsaw Ghetto Is No More (German/English) 5. Retrieved on 2008-02-28.
  12. ^ a b From the Stroop Report by SS Gruppenführer Jürgen Stroop, May 1943.
  13. ^ a b World War II: Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
  14. ^ THE CHANGING FACE OF MEMORY: Who Defended The Warsaw Ghetto? The Jerusalem Post
  15. ^ Warsaw Jews mark uprising BBC News

“Stefan Korbonski” redirects here. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... SS-Gruppenführer collar patch SA-Gruppenführer rank insignia Volkssturm Gruppenführer insignia Gruppenführer was an early paramilitary rank of the Nazi Party, first created in 1925 as a senior rank of the SA. Translated as “Group Leader”, a Gruppenführer was typically in charge of large numbers...

Further reading

  • Edelman, Marek (1990). The Ghetto Fights: Warsaw, 1941-43. London: Bookmarks Publications. ISBN 0-9062-2456-X. 
  • Gebhardt-Herzberg, Sabine (2003). "Das Lied ist geschrieben mit Blut und nicht mit Blei": Mordechaj Anielewicz und der Aufstand im Warschauer Ghetto (in German). Bielefeld: S. Gebhardt-Herzberg. ISBN 3-0001-3643-6. 
  • Moczarski, Kazimierz (1984). Conversations with an Executioner. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-300-09546-3. 
  • Paulsson, Gunnar S. (2002). Secret City: The Hidden Jews of Warsaw, 1940-1945. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-1317-1918-1. Review
  • Wdowiński, Dawid; Lazar, Chaim & Chariton, Morris (1963), And we are not saved, New York: Philosophical Library, ISBN 0-8022-2486-5

Marek Edelman, Warsaw University, Warsaw (Poland), April 26, 2005 Marek Edelman (b. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

External links

Jewish Currents is a progressive, secular Jewish bimonthly magazine that carries on the insurgent tradition of the Jewish left through independent journalism, political commentary, and a countercultural approach to Jewish arts and literature. ... The Jewish Virtual Library is an online encyclopedia published by the American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise (AICE), notable for its strong pro-Israel views. ... Marek Edelman, Warsaw University, Warsaw (Poland), April 26, 2005 Marek Edelman (b. ... The Peoples Archive [sic] is a website which has videos of notable persons telling their life stories. ... Interior of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Exterior of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum viewed from Raoul Wallenberg Place (15th St. ... The Confederation of Bar (1768–1776), a grouping of Polish szlachta, formed at the fortress of Bar in Podolia in 1768 to defend the internal and external independence of Poland against the aggressions of the Russian government as represented by her representative at Warsaw, Prince Nikolai Repnin. ... KoÅ›ciuszko Uprising 1794 The KoÅ›ciuszko Uprising took place in Poland in 1794. ... The 1794 Greater Poland Uprising (Polish: powstanie wielkopolskie 1794 roku) was a military insurrection by Poles in Wielkopolska (Greater Poland) against the occupying Prussian forces after the 1793 Second Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Combatants First French Empire. ... Coat-of-arms of the November Uprising. ... The 1846 Wielkopolska Uprising (Polish: ) was a planned military insurrection by Poles in the land of Greater Poland against the occupying Prussian forces, designed to be part of a general Polish uprising in all three partitions of Poland, against the Russians, Austrians and Prussians. ... The Kraków Uprising of February 1846 was an attempt to incite an all-Polish fight for home-rule but was in fact limited only to the Free City of Kraków. ... Greater Poland Uprising of 1848 (Polish: ) was a military insurrection of the Polish people in the Grand Duchy of PoznaÅ„ (or the Greater Poland region) against the occupying Prussian forces, during the Spring of Nations period. ... Polonia (Poland), 1863, by Jan Matejko, 1864, oil on canvas, 156 × 232 cm, National Museum, Kraków. ... Siberian Uprising or Baikal Insurrection (Polish: or Powstanie nad BajkaÅ‚em, Russian: ) was a short-lived uprising of about 700 Polish political prisoners and exilees (Sybiracy) in Siberia, Russian Empire, that started on 24 June 1866 and lasted for a few days, till their defeat on 28 June. ... A monument in Łódź of the 1905 insurrection Łódź insurrection, also known as June Days, was the 3-day long uprising of Polish workers against the Russian Empire regime in Łódź, on 21-25 June 1905. ... Image File history File links Flaga_PPP.png‎ Unofficial flag of the Armia Krajowa and the Polish Secret State. ... Soldiers of the Greater Polish Army The Greater Poland Uprising of 1918–1919, or Wielkopolska Uprising of 1918–1919 (Polish: powstanie wielkopolskie 1918–19 roku; German: Großpolnischer Aufstand) or Posnanian War was a military insurrection of Poles in the Greater Poland (also called the Grand Duchy of PoznaÅ„ or... The Sejny Uprising (Polish: ) refers to a 1919 uprising by Polish irregular forces, later aided by the regular Polish army, in the area of the town of Sejny (Lithuanian: Seinai), against Lithuanian authorities. ... The Silesian Uprisings (German: ; Polish: ) were a series of three armed uprisings of the Poles of Upper Silesia, from 1919–1921, against Weimar rule; the resistance hoped to break away from Germany in order to join the Second Polish Republic, which had been established in the wake of World War... For other uses, see Tempest. ... For other uses, see Warsaw Uprising (disambiguation). ... Combatants Anti-communist labourers and other civilian protesters Communist LWP KBW and UB Commanders Unknown, probably none Gen. ... Monument to fallen Shipyard Workers in GdaÅ„sk. ... Solidarity (Polish: ; full name: Independent Self-governing Trade Union Solidarity — Niezależny SamorzÄ…dny ZwiÄ…zek Zawodowy Solidarność) is a Polish trade union federation founded in September 1980 at the then Lenin Shipyards, and originally led by Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
World War 2: Warsaw Uprising :: FAQ (2075 words)
During World War 2, 85% of Warsaw's left bank buildings were destroyed: 25% in the course of the Warsaw Uprising, 35% as the result of systematic German actions after the Uprising, the rest as a combination of the war in September 1939 and the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.
A: No. The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising was a struggle of the Jewish fighters who, between April 4, 1943 and May 16, 1943, gave armed resistance to the German efforts to liquidate the ghetto's remaining 55,000 inhabitants.
The Warsaw Uprising, on the other hand, was a struggle of the Polish underground which, between August 1, 1944 and October 2, 1944, conducted an armed struggle aimed at liberating Warsaw and its 1,000,000 inhabitants from the German occupation at the time the Soviet army was approaching the city limits from the east.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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