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Encyclopedia > Warsaw Ghetto
Monument to the Ghetto Heroes in Warsaw
Monument to the Ghetto Heroes in Warsaw

The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest of the Jewish ghettos established by Nazi Germany in Warsaw, former capital of Poland in the General Government during the Holocaust in World War II. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 185 KB) Monument of Warsaw ghetto uprising in 1943. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 185 KB) Monument of Warsaw ghetto uprising in 1943. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... For the rapper, see Ghetto (rapper). ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... The General Government (in full General government for the occupied Polish areas, in German Generalgouvernement für die besetzten polnischen Gebiete) was the name given by Germany to the governing authority in Poland after its occupation by the Wehrmacht in September and October 1939. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Between 1941 and 1943, starvation, disease and deportations to concentration camps and extermination camps dropped the population of the ghetto from an estimated 450,000 to approximately 70,000. In 1943 the Warsaw Ghetto was the scene of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, the first urban mass rebellion against the Nazi occupation of Europe.[1] This article is about extreme malnutrition. ... This article is about the medical term. ... Deportation is the expelling of someone from a country. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... Extermination camps were one type of facility that Nazi Germany built during World War II for the systematic killing of millions of people in what has become known as the Holocaust. ... For the rapper, see Ghetto (rapper). ... Combatants Nazi Germany (Waffen-SS, SD, OrPo, Gestapo, Wehrmacht) Collaborators (Arajs Kommando, Blue Police, Jewish Police, Lithuanian Police) Jewish resistance (Å»OB, Å»ZW) Polish resistance (AK, GL) Commanders Franz Bürkl Odilo Globocnik Ludwig Hahn Friedrich Krüger Ferdinand von Sammern-Frankenegg Jürgen Stroop Mordechaj Anielewicz† Dawid Apfelbaum† Icchak Cukierman... Look up rebellion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History

Ghetto under the German occupation

A boy working in the Warsaw ghetto cemetery drags a corpse to the edge of the mass grave where it will be buried. September 19, 1941
A boy working in the Warsaw ghetto cemetery drags a corpse to the edge of the mass grave where it will be buried. September 19, 1941
Great Synagogue in Warsaw in 1939
Great Synagogue in Warsaw in 1939

The Warsaw Ghetto was established by the German Governor-General Hans Frank on October 16, 1940. At this time, the population of the Ghetto was estimated to be 440,000 people, about 37% of the population of Warsaw. However, the size of the Ghetto was about 4.5% of the size of Warsaw. Nazis then closed off the Warsaw Ghetto from the outside world on November 16, 1940, building a wall with armed guards. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 600 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (742 × 741 pixel, file size: 308 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)A boy working in the Warsaw ghetto cemetery drags a corpse to the edge of the mass grave where it will be buried. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 600 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (742 × 741 pixel, file size: 308 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)A boy working in the Warsaw ghetto cemetery drags a corpse to the edge of the mass grave where it will be buried. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Great Assembly (Anshe Knesset HaGedolah in Hebrew: men of the great assembly/gathering) (also known as the Great Synagogue) was an assembly of 120 rabbis that ruled in Israel in the period after the time of the prophets up to the time of the development of rabbinic Judaism in... The General Government (in full General government for the occupied Polish areas, in German Generalgouvernement für die besetzten polnischen Gebiete) was the name given by Germany to the governing authority in Poland after its occupation by the Wehrmacht in September and October 1939. ... Hans Frank (May 23, 1900 – October 16, 1946) was a lawyer for the Nazi party during the 1920s and a senior official in Nazi Germany. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


During the next year and a half, thousands of the Polish Jews as well as some Romani people[2] from smaller cities and the countryside were brought into the Ghetto, while diseases (especially typhoid) and starvation kept the inhabitants at about the same number. Average food rations in 1941 for Jews in Warsaw were limited to 253 kcal, compared to 2,325 kcal for gentile Poles and 5,613 kcal for German people. The life in the ghetto was chronicled by the Oyneg Shabbos group. In 1942 Polish resistance fighter Jan Karski reported to the Western governments on the situation in the Ghetto and on the extermination camps. From the Middle Ages until the Holocaust, Jews were a significant part of the Polish population. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Romani people (as a noun, singular Rom, plural Roma; sometimes Rrom, Rroma) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... This is about the disease typhoid fever. ... The word gentile is an anglicised version of the Latin word gentilis, meaning of or belonging to a clan or tribe. ... Generally a chronicle (Latin chronica, from Greek Χρόνος) is historical account of facts and events in chronological order. ... One of the milk cans used to hide documents from the Ringelblum Oyneg Shabbos Archive Oyneg Shabbos (Yiddish pronunciation; in Hebrew: Oneg Shabbat, עונג שבת) was the code name of a group led by Jewish historian Dr. Emanuel Ringelblum in the Warsaw Ghetto during the Holocaust. ... Before a wall map of the Warsaw Ghetto at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Jan Karski recalls his secret 1942 missions into the Nazi prison-city-within-a-city. ...

Round-up of residents of the Ghetto, January 1943

Over 100,000 of the Ghetto's residents died due to rampant disease or starvation, as well as random killings, even before the Nazis began massive deportations of the inhabitants from the Ghetto's Umschlagplatz to the Treblinka extermination camp during Operation Reinhard. Between Tisha B'Av, July 23, 1942, and Yom Kippur, September 21, 1942, about 254,000 Ghetto residents were sent to Treblinka and murdered there.[3] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Jews loading onto trains at the Umschlagplatz In the Holocaust, the Umschlagplatz (German literally meaning change-place) in the Warsaw Ghetto was where Jews gathered for deportation to the Treblinka extermination camp. ... Treblinka II was a Nazi extermination camp in German-occupied Poland during World War II. Extermination camps like the one at Treblinka were used in the Holocaust for the systematic genocide of people categorized as sub-humans by the Nazis. ... Operation Reinhard (Aktion Reinhard, Einsatz Reinhard, Aktion Reinhardt or Einsatz Reinhardt in German) was the code name given to the Nazi plan to murder Polish Jews in the former General Government and rob their possessions. ... Tisha BAv (Hebrew: תשעה באב or ט׳ באב), or the Ninth of Av, is an annual fast day in Judaism. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Yom Kippur (Hebrew:יוֹם כִּפּוּר ) is a Jewish holiday, known in English as the Day of Atonement. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


By the end of 1942, it was clear that the deportations were to their deaths, and many of the remaining Jews decided to fight.[1]


Warsaw Ghetto Uprising and destruction of the Ghetto

German troops in the street of the burning Ghetto, April 1943
Captured Jews are led by German soldiers to the assembly point for deportation, April 1943

On January 18, 1943, the first instance of armed resistance occurred when the Germans started the final expulsion of the remaining Jews. The Jewish fighters had some success: the expulsion stopped after four days and the ŻOB and ŻZW resistance organizations took control of the Ghetto, building shelters and fighting posts and operating against Jewish collaborators. During the next three months, all inhabitants of the Ghetto prepared for what they realized would be a final struggle. Combatants Nazi Germany (Waffen-SS, SD, OrPo, Gestapo, Wehrmacht) Collaborators (Arajs Kommando, Blue Police, Jewish Police, Lithuanian Police) Jewish resistance (Å»OB, Å»ZW) Polish resistance (AK, GL) Commanders Franz Bürkl Odilo Globocnik Ludwig Hahn Friedrich Krüger Ferdinand von Sammern-Frankenegg Jürgen Stroop Mordechaj Anielewicz† Dawid Apfelbaum† Icchak Cukierman... Warsaw Ghetto Uprising File links The following pages link to this file: History of the Jews in Poland Warsaw Ghetto Uprising Categories: Polish government site pictures ... Warsaw Ghetto Uprising File links The following pages link to this file: History of the Jews in Poland Warsaw Ghetto Uprising Categories: Polish government site pictures ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Other languages FAQs | Table free Welcome to Wikipedia, the free-content encyclopedia that anyone can edit. ... Å»ydowski ZwiÄ…zek Wojskowy (Å»ZW, Polish for Jewish Military Union) was an underground organisation operating during World War II in the area of Warsaw Ghetto and fighting during Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. ...


The final battle started on the eve of Passover, April 19, 1943, when the large Nazi force entered the ghetto. After initial setbacks, the Germans under the field command of Jürgen Stroop systematically burned and blew-up the ghetto block by block, rounding up or killing any Jew they could capture. Significant resistance ended on April 23, 1943, and the German operation officially ended in mid-May, symbolically culminated with the demolition of the Great Synagogue of Warsaw on May 16, 1943. This article is about the Jewish holiday. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jürgen Stroop in custody Jürgen Stroop, (born Josef Stroop, September 26, 1895 in Detmold – March 6, 1952 in Warsaw), was an SS-Gruppenführer und Generalleutnant der Waffen-SS und Polizei, who served as the SS and Police Leader of the Poland-Warsaw area during the Warsaw Ghetto... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Great Synagogue of Warsaw was the largest synagogue of pre-war Warsaw and one of the largest in the world at the time. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


According to the official report, at least 56,000 people were killed on the spot or deported to Nazi concentration and death camps, mostly to Treblinka.


Map

War-time area of the Ghetto in Warsaw and the routes to the extermination camps

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

People

Casualties

  • Tosia Altman - Resistance fighter, killed in Warsaw in 1943
  • Mordechaj Anielewicz - Resistance leader, committed suicide in 1943
  • Adam Czerniaków - Engineer and senator, head of the Warsaw Judenrat, committed suicide in 1942
  • Itzhak Katzenelson - Teacher, poet and dramatist, killed at Auschwitz in 1944
  • Janusz Korczak - Children's author, pediatrician, and child pedagogist, killed at Treblinka in 1942
  • Simon Pullman - Conductor of the Warsaw Ghetto symphony orchestra, killed at Treblinka in 1942
  • Emanuel Ringelblum - Historian, politician and social worker, and leader of the Ghetto chroniclers, killed in Warsaw in 1944

Tova (Tosia) Altman (1918-1943) worked with Mordechai Anielewicz as a member of the ZOB during the Warsaw ghetto uprising. ... [[Image:aniel. ... Adam Czerniaków (1880 – July 23, 1942) was a Polish-Jewish engineer and senator, born in Warsaw, Poland. ... For the mathematician, see Yitzhak Katznelson. ... Janusz Korczak Janusz Korczak, real name Henryk Goldszmit (July 22, 1878 or 1879 – August, 1942) was a Polish-Jewish childrens author, pediatrician, and child pedagogist, known as Old Doctor (Stary Doktor). ... Simon Pullman Simon Pullman (c. ... Emanuel Ringelblum (1900 Buchach-1944 Warsaw) was a Polish-Jewish historian, politician and social worker, known for his Notes from the Warsaw Ghetto, Notes on the Refugees in Zbąszyn chronicling the deportation of Jews from the town of Zbąszyn, and the so-called Ringelblums Archives of the...

Survivors

Icchak Cukierman testifies for the prosecution during the trial of Adolf Eichmann.
Icchak Cukierman testifies for the prosecution during the trial of Adolf Eichmann.
  • Icchak Cukierman - Resistance leader
  • Marek Edelman - Political and social activist, cardiologist, and the last living leader of the uprising
  • Bronisław Geremek - Social historian and politician
  • Ludwik Hirszfeld - Microbiologist and serologist
  • Zivia Lubetkin - Resistance leader
  • Marcel Reich-Ranicki - Literary critic
  • Simcha Rotem - Resistance fighter, Nazi hunter
  • Władysław Szpilman - Pianist, composer, and memoirist

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Icchak Cukierman (1915–1981), also known by his nom de guerre Antek, or by the anglicised spelling Yitzhak Zuckerman, was one of the leaders of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising and the commander of a small Jewish troop fighting in the Warsaw Uprising during World War II. World War II Cukierman... Otto Adolf Eichmann (known as Adolf Eichmann; March 19, 1906 – June 1, 1962) was a high-ranking Nazi and SS Obersturmbannführer (equivalent to Lieutenant Colonel). ... Icchak Cukierman (1915–1981), also known by his nom de guerre Antek, or by the anglicised spelling Yitzhak Zuckerman, was one of the leaders of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising and the commander of a small Jewish troop fighting in the Warsaw Uprising during World War II. World War II Cukierman... Marek Edelman, Warsaw University, Warsaw (Poland), April 26, 2005 Marek Edelman (b. ... Professor Bronisław Geremek (IPA: [], born on March 6, 1932 in Warsaw) is a Polish social historian and politician of Jewish origin. ... Ludwik Hirszfeld (1884-1954) was a Polish microbiologist. ... Zivia Lubetkin(1914-1976), also known as her nom de guerre Celina, was one of the leaders of the Jewish Underground in Warsaw and the only woman in the High Command of its fighting organization, the ZOB, (Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa). ... Marcel Reich-Ranicki (born 2 June 1920, at Włocławek, Poland) is a famous German literary critic, and a member of the literary group Gruppe 47. ... Simcha Rotem (1924-) also known as Kazik, the name he used as a member of the Jewish Underground in Warsaw, he served as the head courier of the Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB), which planned and executed the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising against the Nazis. ... Władysław Szpilman (1942) Władysław Szpilman (also spelled Vladislav Szpilman in English) (December 5, 1911–July 6, 2000) was a Polish pianist, composer, and memoirist. ...

Associated people

  • Władysław Bartoszewski - Polish resistance activist of the Żegota organization in Warsaw
  • Henryk Iwański - Polish resistance officer in the charge of support for the Ghetto
Before a wall map of the Warsaw Ghetto at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Jan Karski recalls his secret 1942 missions into the Warsaw Ghetto.
Before a wall map of the Warsaw Ghetto at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Jan Karski recalls his secret 1942 missions into the Warsaw Ghetto.
  • Jan Karski - Polish resistance courier who reported on the Ghetto for the Allies
  • Szmul Zygielbojm - Polish-Jewish socialist politician, committed suicide in London in the protest of the Allied indifference

Władysław Bartoszewski Władysław Bartoszewski (b. ... Żegota (pronounced [ʒε:gɔta], also spelled Zhegota, Zegota) was the codename for the Council to Aid the Jews (Rada Pomocy Żydom), an underground organisation in German-occupied Poland from 1942 to 1945. ... Henryk Iwański (1902-1978), codename Bystry was a member of the Polish resistance during WWII. He is known for leading one of the most daring action of Armia Krajowa in support of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Interior of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Exterior of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum viewed from Raoul Wallenberg Place (15th St. ... Before a wall map of the Warsaw Ghetto at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Jan Karski recalls his secret 1942 missions into the Nazi prison-city-within-a-city. ... Before a wall map of the Warsaw Ghetto at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Jan Karski recalls his secret 1942 missions into the Nazi prison-city-within-a-city. ... Szmul Zygielbojm (Zygelbojm) (1895 – May 12, 1943) was a Jewish-Polish socialist politician, leader of Bund and a member of the Warsaw and Łódź city councils in interwar Poland. ...

See also

A boy working in the Warsaw Ghetto cemetery drags a corpse to the edge of the mass grave where it will be buried. ... The Great Synagogue of Warsaw was the largest synagogue of pre-war Warsaw and one of the largest in the world at the time. ... Jewish Ghetto Police (German: Jüdische Ghetto-Polizei, Jüdischer Ordnungsdienst) were a notorious Jewish ghetto police units organized in the Ghettos by the Jewish Judenrat councils under German Nazi orders. ... Spoiler warning: Mila 18 is a stirring novel set is in German occupied Warsaw during World War II. Leon Uriss work is about the Nazi atrocities of systematically dehumanising and eliminating the Jewish People from the face of the earth. ... Leon Uris (August 3, 1924 - June 21, 2003) was an American novelist, known for his historical fiction and the deep research that went into his novels. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Pianist is a 2002 film directed by Roman Polanski and starring Adrien Brody. ... Warsaw concentration camp (German: , short KL Warschau) was the German concentration and extermination camp in Warsaw, in the ruins of the Warsaw Ghetto and in other parts of the city. ... Warschauer Kniefall is a German term meaning Warsaw Genuflection (kneeling), referring to an event on December 7th, 1970 where the social democratic Chancellor of Germany Willy Brandt, very surprisingly and to all appearences spontaneously, knelt at a monument to the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in what was then the communist Peoples... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... Willy Brandt, born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm (December 18, 1913 - October 8, 1992), was a German politician, Chancellor of West Germany 1969 – 1974, and leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) 1964 – 1987. ... Other languages FAQs | Table free Welcome to Wikipedia, the free-content encyclopedia that anyone can edit. ... Å»ydowski ZwiÄ…zek Wojskowy (Å»ZW, Polish for Jewish Military Union) was an underground organisation operating during World War II in the area of Warsaw Ghetto and fighting during Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. ...

References

  1. ^ See the US Holocaust Museum "Warsaw Ghetto Uprising"
  • Israel Gutman, Resistance: The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, Houghton Mifflin, 1998, trade paperback, ISBN 0-395-90130-8, hardcover, 1994, 277 pages, ISBN 0-395-60199-1
  • Martin Gray, For Those I Loved, Little Brown Company, 1984, 351 pages, hardcover, ISBN 0-316-32576-7
  • Władysław Szpilman, The Pianist: The Extraordinary True Story of One Man's Survival in Warsaw, 1939-1945, 2002, ISBN 0-312-31135-4

Martin Gray is an anthropologist and photographer. ... Władysław Szpilman (1942) Władysław Szpilman (also spelled Vladislav Szpilman in English) (December 5, 1911–July 6, 2000) was a Polish pianist, composer, and memoirist. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Warsaw Ghetto - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1575 words)
The Warsaw Ghetto was the scene of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, one of the first mass uprisings against Nazi occupation in Europe.
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising and the destruction of the Ghetto
Simon Pullman conductor of the Warsaw Ghetto symphony orchestra
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1172 words)
The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising was a Jewish insurgency against Nazi Germany's attempt to liquidate the remains of the Warsaw Ghetto in Poland during World War II.
The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of 1943 is sometimes confused with the Warsaw Uprising of 1944.
A number of survivors of the Warsaw Ghetto uprising, known as the "Ghetto Fighters", including Icchak Cukierman/Yitzhak Zuckerman (ŻOB deputy commander), and his wife, Zivia Lubetkin who was also one of the commanders of the fighting units, went on to found Kibbutz Lohamey ha-Geta'ot in Israel.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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