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Encyclopedia > Warring States Period
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History of China
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The Spring and Autumn Period (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was a period in Chinese history, which roughly corresponds to the first half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty (from the second half of the 8th century BC to the first half of the 5th century). ... Qin Dynasty in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded by the... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... 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The territories of Cao Wei (in yellow), AD 262 Capital Luoyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 220 - 226 Cao Pi  - 226 - 239 Cao Rui  - 239 - 254 Cao Fang  - 254 - 260 Cao Mao  - 260 - 265 Cao Huan Historical era Three Kingdoms  - Cao Pi taking over the throne of the Later... The Kingdom of Shu (蜀 shǔ) (221 – 263) was one of the Three Kingdoms competing for control of China after the fall of the Han Dynasty. ... The territories of Eastern Wu (in green), AD 262 Capital Jianye Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 222 - 252 Sun Quan  - 252 - 258 Sun Liang  - 258 - 264 Sun Xiu  - 264 - 280 Sun Hao Historical era Three Kingdoms  - Establishment 222  - Sun Quan declares himself emperor 229  - Conquest of Wu by Jin... The Jìn Dynasty (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; 265–420), one of the Six Dynasties, followed the Three Kingdoms period and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin jìn, 265-420) followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin jìn, 265-420) followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... The Sixteen Kingdoms, or less commonly the Sixteen States, were a collection of numerous short-lived sovereignities in the China proper and neighboring areas from AD 304 to 439 after the retreat of the Jin Dynasty (265-420) to South China and before the establishment of the Northern Dynasties. ... This article is about China. ... The Sui Dynasty of China amongst the Asian, African, and European spheres of the world, 600 AD. The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-618 AD[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... 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Warring States
Chu
Han
Qi
Qin
Shu
Song
Wei
Yan
Yue
Zhao
Zhou Dynasty

The Warring States Period (traditional Chinese: 戰國時代; simplified Chinese: 战国时代; pinyin: Zhànguó Shídài), also known as the Era of Warring States, covers the period from some time in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by the Qin Dynasty in 221 BC. It is nominally considered to be the second part of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, following the Spring and Autumn Period, although the Zhou dynasty itself ended in 256 BC, 35 years earlier than the end of the Warring States period. As with the Spring and Autumn Period, the king of Zhou acted merely as a figurehead. The name Warring States Period was derived from the Record of the Warring States, a work historically compiled early in the Han Dynasty. The date for the beginning of the Warring States Period is somewhat in dispute. While it is frequently cited as 475 BC (following the Spring and Autumn Period), 403 BC — the date of the tripartition of the Jin — is also sometimes considered as the beginning of the period. The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese history. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Chinese historiography refers to the study of methods and assumptions made in studying Chinese history. ... Chinese art is art that, whether ancient or modern, originated in or is practiced in China or by Chinese artists or performers. ... The Chinese education was accompanied with the birth of Chinese civilization. ... The history of science and technology in China is both long and rich with science and technological contribution. ... The origin of the current law of the Peoples Republic of China can be traced back to the period of the early 1930s, during the establishment of the Chinese Soviet Republic. ... Chinese or the Sinitic language(s) (汉语/漢語, Pinyin: HànyÇ”; 华语/華語, HuáyÇ”; or 中文, Zhōngwén) can be considered a language or language family. ... ... There was archieve dating back very early about the ancient navy of China. ... The following is a timeline of the history of China. ... State of Chu (small seal script, 220 BC) Chu (楚) was a kingdom in what is now southern China during the Spring and Autumn period (722-481 BCE) and Warring States Period (481-212 BCE). ... The Han (simplified Chinese: 韩, traditional Chinese: 韓) was a state during the Warring States Period in China. ... State of Qi (small seal script, 220 BC) See Qi (disambiguation) for other meanings of Qi. Qi (齊; pinyin: qi2) was a relatively powerful state during the Spring and Autumn Period and Period of the Warring States. ... Qin or Chin (Wade-Giles) (秦), pronounced something like Shin, (778 BC-207 BC) was a state during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of China. ... Shu (蜀) was an ancient state in Sichuan, China. ... Sòng (宋國) was a state during the Eastern Zhou Spring and Autumn Period (770 - 476 BC). ... State of Wei (small seal script, 220 BC) The Wei (Chinese: 魏; pinyin: Wèi) was a state during the Warring States Period in China. ... Yan State knife money Yan (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was a state during the Western Zhou, Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods in China. ... Yue was a state in China which existed during the Spring and Autumn Period. ... State of Zhao (small seal script, 220 BC) Zhao (pinyin: zhao4, simplified Chinese: 赵, traditional Chinese: 趙) was a Chinese state during the Warring States Period. ... This article is about the ancient Chinese dynasty. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... The 5th century BC started the first day of 500 BC and ended the last day of 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... Qin Dynasty in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded by the... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 226 BC 225 BC 224 BC 223 BC 222 BC - 221 BC - 220 BC 219 BC... This article is about the ancient Chinese dynasty. ... The Spring and Autumn Period (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was a period in Chinese history, which roughly corresponds to the first half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty (from the second half of the 8th century BC to the first half of the 5th century). ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC - 250s BC - 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC Years: 261 BC 260 BC 259 BC 258 BC 257 BC - 256 BC - 255 BC 254 BC... Forecastle with figurehead Grand Turk Figurehead is a carved wooden decoration, often female or bestiary, found at the prow of ships of the 16th to the 19th century. ... Zhanguoce (simplified Chinese: 战国策, traditional Chinese: 戰國策, pinyin: Zhànguócè) (ZGC) was a renowned ancient Chinese historical work on the Warring States Period compiled in late Western Han Dynasty by Liu Xiang (劉向). ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... Centuries: 4th century BC - 5th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC Years: 480 BC 479 BC 478 BC 477 BC 476 BC - 475 BC - 474 BC 473 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC Years: 408 BC 407 BC 406 BC 405 BC 404 BC - 403 BC - 402 BC 401 BC... Categories: Ancient Chinese states | China-related stubs ...

Warring States period
Warring States period

The Warring States Period, in contrast to the Spring and Autumn Period, was a period when regional warlords annexed smaller states around them and consolidated their rule. The process began in the Spring and Autumn Period, and by the 3rd century BC, seven major states had risen to prominence. These Seven Warring States (戰國七雄/战国七雄 Zhànguó Qīxióng, literally "Seven Hegemonial among the Warring States"), were the Qi (齊/齐), the Chu (楚), the Yan (燕), the Han (韓/韩), the Zhao (趙/赵), the Wei (魏) and the Qin (秦). Another sign of this shift in power was a change in title: warlords still considered themselves dukes (公 gōng) of the Zhou dynasty king; but now the warlords began to call themselves kings (王 wáng), meaning they were equal to the Zhou king. During the Warring States period competition between states became more intense. ... During the Warring States period competition between states became more intense. ... The Spring and Autumn Period (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was a period in Chinese history, which roughly corresponds to the first half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty (from the second half of the 8th century BC to the first half of the 5th century). ... The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... Map showing the Seven Warring States; there were other states in China at the time, but the Seven Warring States were the most powerful and significant The Seven Warring States or Seven Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: 戰國七雄; Simplified Chinese: 战国七雄; pinyin: ; literally Warring States [period] seven great powers) refers to the seven warring... State of Qi (small seal script, 220 BC) See Qi (disambiguation) for other meanings of Qi. Qi (齊; pinyin: qi2) was a relatively powerful state during the Spring and Autumn Period and Period of the Warring States. ... State of Chu (small seal script, 220 BC) Chu (楚) was a kingdom in what is now southern China during the Spring and Autumn period (722-481 BCE) and Warring States Period (481-212 BCE). ... Yan State knife money Yan (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was a state during the Western Zhou, Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods in China. ... The Han (simplified Chinese: 韩, traditional Chinese: 韓) was a state during the Warring States Period in China. ... State of Zhao (small seal script, 220 BC) Zhao (pinyin: zhao4, simplified Chinese: 赵, traditional Chinese: 趙) was a Chinese state during the Warring States Period. ... State of Wei (small seal script, 220 BC) The Wei (Chinese: 魏; pinyin: Wèi) was a state during the Warring States Period in China. ... Qin or Chin (Wade-Giles) (秦), pronounced something like Shin, (778 BC-207 BC) was a state during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of China. ...


The Warring States Period saw the proliferation of iron working in China, replacing bronze as the dominant metal used in warfare. Areas such as Shu (modern Sichuan) and Yue (modern Zhejiang) were also brought into the Chinese cultural sphere during this time. Different philosophies developed into the Hundred Schools of Thought, including Confucianism (elaborated by Mencius), Taoism (elaborated by Lao Zi and to a lesser extent Zhuang Zi, in that it is possible to see the philosophy espoused in the text of the Zhuang Zi as separate from what could be considered "classical Daoism"), Legalism (formulated by Han Feizi) and Mohism (formulated by Mozi). Trade also became important, and some merchants had considerable power in politics. Military tactics also changed. Unlike the Spring and Autumn Period, most armies in the Warring States Period made combined use of infantry and cavalry, and the use of chariots gradually fell into disfavor. Thus from this period on, the nobles in China remained a literate rather than warrior class, as the kingdoms competed by throwing masses of soldiers against each other. Arms of soldiers gradually changed from bronze to unified iron arms. Dagger-axes were an extremely popular weapon in various kingdoms, especially for the Qin who produced eighteen-foot long pikes. General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... This article is about the metal alloy. ... Shu (蜀) was an ancient state in Sichuan, China. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: SzÅ­4-chuan1; Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in the central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ... Yue was a state in China which existed during the Spring and Autumn Period. ... Zhejiang (also spelled Chehkiang or Chekiang) is an eastern coastal province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Hundred Schools of Thought (諸子百家 Pinyin: zhÅ« zǐ bÇŽi jiā) was an era of great cultural and intellectual expansion in China that lasted from 770 BCE to 222 BCE. Coinciding with the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods, and also known as the Golden Age of Chinese thought... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... Mencius (Romanization; 孟子, pinyin: Mèng Zǐ; Wade-Giles: Meng Tzu; most accepted dates: 372 – 289 BCE; other possible dates: 385 – 303/302 BCE) was a Chinese philosopher who was arguably the most famous Confucian after Confucius himself. ... Taoism (or Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical traditions and concepts. ... Lao Zi (Chinese 老子, also spelled Laozi, Lao Tzu, or Lao Tse) is a major figure in Chinese philosophy whose historical existence is debated. ... // The Person Zhuāng Zǐ (pinyin), Chuang Tzu (W-G), or Chuang Tse (Chinese 莊子, literally meaning Master Zhuang) was a famous philosopher in ancient China who lived around the 4th century BC during the Warring States Period, corresponding to the Hundred Schools of Thought philosophical summit of Chinese thought. ... Legalism, in the Western sense, is an approach to the analysis of legal questions characterized by abstract logical reasoning focusing on the applicable legal text, such as a constitution, legislation, or case law, rather than on the social, economic, or political context. ... Traditional Chinese: 韓非子 Simplified Chinese: 韩非子 Pinyin: Hán FÄ“izǐ Wade-Giles: Han Fei-tzu Han Feizi (韓非子) (d. ... Mohism (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally School of Mo) or Moism is a Chinese philosophy founded by Mozi. ... Mozi (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Mo Tzu, Lat. ... This article is about economic exchange. ...


This was also around the time the legendary military strategist Sun Tzu (Sun Zi) wrote The Art of War which is recognized today as the most influential, and oldest known military strategy guide. Along with this are other military writings that make up the Seven Military Classics of ancient China: T'ai Kung's Six Secret Teachings, The Methods of the Sima, Sun Bin's Art of War, Wu Qi, Wei Liaozi, Three strategies of Huang Shigong, and The Questions and Replies of Tang Taizong and Li Weigong (the last being made ±800 years after this era ended). Once China was unified, these seven military classics were locked away and access was restricted due to their tendency to promote revolution. Sun Tzu (孫子 also commonly written in pinyin: Sūn Zǐ) was the author of The Art of War, an influential ancient Chinese book on military strategy (for the most part not dealing directly with tactics). ... For other uses, see The Art of War (disambiguation). ... The Seven Military Classics of China were seven important military texts of ancient China which included Sun-tzus The Art of War. ... Jiang Ziya (姜子牙;姜子牙) (a. ... The Six Secret Teachings was a treatise on military strategy attributed to the legendary figure Jiāng Zǐyá, a confederate of King Wen of Zhou, founder of the Zhou Dynasty. ... Sun Bin (孫臏; pinyin: SÅ«n Bìn; d. ...

Contents

Partition of Jin

Bronze Music Bell Set (bianzhong) Zenghouyi (曾侯乙) dated Warring States, 433 BC. The largest bell weighs over 200 kg (440 pounds).
Bronze Music Bell Set (bianzhong) Zenghouyi (曾侯乙) dated Warring States, 433 BC. The largest bell weighs over 200 kg (440 pounds).

In the Spring and Autumn Period, the State of Jin (晉) was arguably the most powerful state in China. However, near the end of the Spring and Autumn Period, the power of the ruling family weakened, and Jin gradually came under the control of six ministers belonging to six different families (六卿). By the beginning of the Warring States Period, after numerous power struggles, there were four families left: the Zhi (智) family, the Wei (魏) family, the Zhao (趙) family, and the Han (韓) family, with the Zhi family being the dominant power in Jin. Zhi Yao (智瑶), the last head of the Zhi family, attempted a coalition with the Wei family and the Han family to destroy the Zhao family. However, because of Zhi Yao's arrogance and disrespect towards the other families, the Wei family and Han family secretly allied with the Zhao family, and the three families launched a surprise attack at Jinyang, which was besieged by Zhi Yao at the time, and annihilated the Zhi. Bianzhong (編鐘) is an ancient Chinese musical instrument consisting of a set of bronze bells. ... The Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng (曾侯乙墓) is a an important archaeological site in Suizhou, Hubei, China, dated sometime after 433 BC. The tomb contained the remains of Marquis Yi of Zeng. ... The Spring and Autumn Period (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was a period in Chinese history, which roughly corresponds to the first half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty (from the second half of the 8th century BC to the first half of the 5th century). ... Categories: Ancient Chinese states | China-related stubs ... The Spring and Autumn Period (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was a period in Chinese history, which roughly corresponds to the first half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty (from the second half of the 8th century BC to the first half of the 5th century). ... Categories: Ancient Chinese states | China-related stubs ... Categories: Ancient Chinese states | China-related stubs ... Taiyuan (太原, pinyin: Tàiyuán, Wade-Giles:Tai-yüan) is a city in China, capital of the Shanxi province. ...


In 403 BC, the three major families of Jin, with the approval of the Zhou king, partitioned Jin into three states, which was historically known as 'The Partition of Jin of the Three Families' (三家分晉). The new states were: the State of Han, the State of Zhao, and the State of Wei. The three family heads were given the title of Marquis (侯), and because the three states were originally part of Jin, they are also referred to as the Three Jins (三晉). The State of Jin continued to exist with a tiny piece of territory until 376 BC when the rest of the territory was partitioned by the Three Jins. Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC Years: 408 BC 407 BC 406 BC 405 BC 404 BC - 403 BC - 402 BC 401 BC... Categories: Ancient Chinese states | China-related stubs ... The Han (simplified Chinese: 韩, traditional Chinese: 韓) was a state during the Warring States Period in China. ... State of Zhao (small seal script, 220 BC) Zhao (pinyin: zhao4, simplified Chinese: èµµ, traditional Chinese: 趙) was a Chinese state during the Warring States Period. ... The following details the state of Wei of the Warring States Period. ... Categories: Ancient Chinese states | China-related stubs ... Categories: Ancient Chinese states | China-related stubs ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC - 370s BC - 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 381 BC 380 BC 379 BC - 378 BC - 377 BC - 376 BC - 375 BC 374 BC 373...


Change of government in Qi

In 389 BC, the Tian (田) family seized control of the State of Qi, and was given the title of Duke. The old Jiang (姜) family's State of Qi continued to exist with a small piece of territory until 379 BC, when it was finally absorbed into Tian family's State of Qi. Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC - 380s BC - 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 394 BC 393 BC 392 BC 391 BC 390 BC 389 BC 388 BC 387 BC 386... State of Qi (small seal script, 220 BC) See Qi (disambiguation) for other meanings of Qi. Qi (齊; pinyin: qi2) was a relatively powerful state during the Spring and Autumn Period and Period of the Warring States. ... State of Qi (small seal script, 220 BC) See Qi (disambiguation) for other meanings of Qi. Qi (齊; pinyin: qi2) was a relatively powerful state during the Spring and Autumn Period and Period of the Warring States. ... Events The occupying Spartan garrison at Thebes is driven out by Pelopidas and Epaminondas. ... State of Qi (small seal script, 220 BC) See Qi (disambiguation) for other meanings of Qi. Qi (齊; pinyin: qi2) was a relatively powerful state during the Spring and Autumn Period and Period of the Warring States. ...


Early strife in the Three Jins, Qi, and Qin

A jade-carved dragon garment ornament from the Warring States period.
A jade-carved dragon garment ornament from the Warring States period.

In 371 BC, Marquess Wu of Wei died without specifying a successor, causing Wei to fall into an internal war of succession. After three years of civil war, Zhao and Han, sensing an opportunity, invaded Wei. On the verge of conquering Wei, the leaders of Zhao and Han fell into disagreement on what to do with Wei and both armies mysteriously retreated. As a result, King Hui of Wei (still a Marquess at the time) was able to jump onto the throne of Wei. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 600 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Jade Gragon, Warring states, by Mountain at Shanghai Mesuem File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 600 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Jade Gragon, Warring states, by Mountain at Shanghai Mesuem File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert... A selection of antique, hand-crafted Chinese jade (jadeite) buttons Unworked Jade Jade is used as an ornamental stone, the term jade is applied to two different rocks that are made up of different silicate minerals. ... Japanese name Hiragana: KyÅ«jitai: Shinjitai: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Thai name Thai: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: The Chinese dragon is a Chinese mythical creature, depicted as a long, scaled, snake-like creature with four claws. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC - 370s BC - 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 376 BC 375 BC 374 BC 373 BC 372 BC - 371 BC - 370 BC 369 BC 368... The following details the state of Wei of the Warring States Period. ... State of Zhao (small seal script, 220 BC) Zhao (pinyin: zhao4, simplified Chinese: èµµ, traditional Chinese: 趙) was a Chinese state during the Warring States Period. ... The Han (simplified Chinese: 韩, traditional Chinese: 韓) was a state during the Warring States Period in China. ... The following details the state of Wei of the Warring States Period. ... The following details the state of Wei of the Warring States Period. ... State of Zhao (small seal script, 220 BC) Zhao (pinyin: zhao4, simplified Chinese: èµµ, traditional Chinese: 趙) was a Chinese state during the Warring States Period. ... The Han (simplified Chinese: 韩, traditional Chinese: 韓) was a state during the Warring States Period in China. ... The following details the state of Wei of the Warring States Period. ... King Hui of Wei (simplified Chinese and traditional Chinese: 魏惠王) or King Hui of Liang (simplified Chinese and traditional Chinese: 梁惠王) was the third ruler of the state of Wei during the Warring States Period. ... The following details the state of Wei of the Warring States Period. ...


In 354 BC, King Hui of Wei initiated a large scale attack at Zhao, which some historians believe was to avenge the earlier near destruction of Wei. By 353 BC, Zhao was losing the war badly, and one of their major cities — Handan (邯鄲/邯郸), a city that would eventually become Zhao's capital — was being besieged. As a result, the neighbouring State of Qi decided to help Zhao. The strategy Qi used, suggested by the famous tactician Sun Bin (孫臏/孙膑), a descendant of Sun Tzu, who at the time was the Qi army advisor, was to attack Wei's territory while the main Wei army is busy sieging Zhao, forcing Wei to retreat. The strategy was a success; the Wei army hastily retreated, and encountered the Qi midway, culminating into the Battle of Guiling (Pinyin: guì líng) (桂陵之戰/桂陵之战) where Wei was decisively defeated. The event spawned the idiom "圍魏救趙/围魏救赵", meaning "Surrounding Wei to save Zhao", which is still used in modern Chinese to refer to attacking an enemy's vulnerable spots in order to relieve pressure being applied by that enemy upon an ally. Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC - 350s BC - 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 359 BC 358 BC 357 BC 356 BC 355 BC 354 BC 353 BC 352 BC 351... King Hui of Wei (simplified Chinese and traditional Chinese: 魏惠王) or King Hui of Liang (simplified Chinese and traditional Chinese: 梁惠王) was the third ruler of the state of Wei during the Warring States Period. ... State of Zhao (small seal script, 220 BC) Zhao (pinyin: zhao4, simplified Chinese: èµµ, traditional Chinese: 趙) was a Chinese state during the Warring States Period. ... The following details the state of Wei of the Warring States Period. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC - 350s BC - 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 358 BC 357 BC 356 BC 355 BC 354 BC 353 BC 352 BC 351 BC 350... State of Zhao (small seal script, 220 BC) Zhao (pinyin: zhao4, simplified Chinese: èµµ, traditional Chinese: 趙) was a Chinese state during the Warring States Period. ... Handan (Simplified: 邯郸; Traditional: 邯鄲; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city located in the southwestern part of Hebei Province of China. ... State of Zhao (small seal script, 220 BC) Zhao (pinyin: zhao4, simplified Chinese: èµµ, traditional Chinese: 趙) was a Chinese state during the Warring States Period. ... State of Qi (small seal script, 220 BC) See Qi (disambiguation) for other meanings of Qi. Qi (齊; pinyin: qi2) was a relatively powerful state during the Spring and Autumn Period and Period of the Warring States. ... State of Zhao (small seal script, 220 BC) Zhao (pinyin: zhao4, simplified Chinese: èµµ, traditional Chinese: 趙) was a Chinese state during the Warring States Period. ... State of Qi (small seal script, 220 BC) See Qi (disambiguation) for other meanings of Qi. Qi (齊; pinyin: qi2) was a relatively powerful state during the Spring and Autumn Period and Period of the Warring States. ... Sun Bin (孫臏; pinyin: SÅ«n Bìn; d. ... State of Qi (small seal script, 220 BC) See Qi (disambiguation) for other meanings of Qi. Qi (齊; pinyin: qi2) was a relatively powerful state during the Spring and Autumn Period and Period of the Warring States. ... The following details the state of Wei of the Warring States Period. ... The following details the state of Wei of the Warring States Period. ... State of Zhao (small seal script, 220 BC) Zhao (pinyin: zhao4, simplified Chinese: èµµ, traditional Chinese: 趙) was a Chinese state during the Warring States Period. ... The following details the state of Wei of the Warring States Period. ... The following details the state of Wei of the Warring States Period. ... State of Qi (small seal script, 220 BC) See Qi (disambiguation) for other meanings of Qi. Qi (齊; pinyin: qi2) was a relatively powerful state during the Spring and Autumn Period and Period of the Warring States. ... The Battle of GuìLíng (桂陵之戰) was fought between the states of Qí and Wèi in the Warring States period of Chinese history. ... The following details the state of Wei of the Warring States Period. ... The following details the state of Wei of the Warring States Period. ... State of Zhao (small seal script, 220 BC) Zhao (pinyin: zhao4, simplified Chinese: èµµ, traditional Chinese: 趙) was a Chinese state during the Warring States Period. ...


In 341 BC, Wei attacked Han, and Qi interfered again. The two generals from the previous Battle of Guiling met again, and due to the brilliant strategy of Sun Bin, Wei was again decisively defeated at the Battle of Maling (馬陵之戰/马陵之战). Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC - 340s BC - 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 346 BC 345 BC 344 BC 343 BC 342 BC 341 BC 340 BC 339 BC 338... The following details the state of Wei of the Warring States Period. ... The Han (simplified Chinese: 韩, traditional Chinese: 韓) was a state during the Warring States Period in China. ... State of Qi (small seal script, 220 BC) See Qi (disambiguation) for other meanings of Qi. Qi (齊; pinyin: qi2) was a relatively powerful state during the Spring and Autumn Period and Period of the Warring States. ... The Battle of GuìLíng (桂陵之戰) was fought between the states of Qí and Wèi in the Warring States period of Chinese history. ... Sun Bin (孫臏; pinyin: SÅ«n Bìn; d. ... The following details the state of Wei of the Warring States Period. ... The Battle of Maling was a battle between the states of Qi and Wei in the warring states period. ...


The situation for Wei took an even worse turn when Qin, taking advantage of Wei series of defeats by Qi, attacked Wei in 340 BC under the advice of famous Qin reformer Shang Yang (商鞅). Wei was devastatingly defeated and was forced to cede a large portion of its territory to achieve a truce. This left their capital Anyi vulnerable, so Wei was also forced to move their capital to Daliang. The following details the state of Wei of the Warring States Period. ... State of Qin (small seal script, 220 BC) Qin or Chin (Wade-Giles) (秦) (778 BC-207 BC) was a state during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of China. ... The following details the state of Wei of the Warring States Period. ... State of Qi (small seal script, 220 BC) See Qi (disambiguation) for other meanings of Qi. Qi (齊; pinyin: qi2) was a relatively powerful state during the Spring and Autumn Period and Period of the Warring States. ... The following details the state of Wei of the Warring States Period. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC - 340s BC - 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC Years: 345 BC 344 BC 343 BC 342 BC 341 BC - 340 BC - 339 BC 338 BC... Shang Yang (商鞅; Wade-Giles: Kung-sun Yang) (d. ... The following details the state of Wei of the Warring States Period. ... This article is about the Anyi language. ... The following details the state of Wei of the Warring States Period. ... Kaifeng (开封/開封, pinyin: kāi fēng) is a city in the Henan province of the Peoples Republic of China, located along the Huang He, 70 km from Zhengzhou, the provincial capital. ...


After these series of events, Wei became severely weakened, and the Qi and Qin states became the two dominant states in China. The following details the state of Wei of the Warring States Period. ... State of Qi (small seal script, 220 BC) See Qi (disambiguation) for other meanings of Qi. Qi (齊; pinyin: qi2) was a relatively powerful state during the Spring and Autumn Period and Period of the Warring States. ... State of Qin (small seal script, 220 BC) Qin or Chin (Wade-Giles) (秦) (778 BC-207 BC) was a state during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of China. ...


Shang Yang's reforms in Qin

Main article: Shang Yang
A jade-carved huang with two dragon heads, Warring States, Shanghai Museum.
A jade-carved huang with two dragon heads, Warring States, Shanghai Museum.

Around 359 BC, Shang Yang (商鞅), a minister of the State of Qin, initiated a series of reforms based on the political doctrine of Legalism that transformed Qin from a backward state into one that surpasses the other six states. It is generally regarded that this is the point where Qin started to become the most dominant state in China. Shang Yang (商鞅; Wade-Giles: Kung-sun Yang) (d. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 554 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Huang with two dragon heads, Warring states, by Mountain at Shanghai Museum. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 554 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Huang with two dragon heads, Warring states, by Mountain at Shanghai Museum. ... Shanghai Museum The Shanghai Museum (Chinese:上海博物館) is a museum of ancient Chinese art, situated on the Peoples Square in the Huangpu District of Shanghai, Peoples Republic of China. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 364 BC 363 BC 362 BC 361 BC 360 BC 359 BC 358 BC 357 BC 356... Shang Yang (商鞅; Wade-Giles: Kung-sun Yang) (d. ... State of Qin (small seal script, 220 BC) Qin or Chin (Wade-Giles) (秦) (778 BC-207 BC) was a state during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of China. ... Legalism has several meanings. ... State of Qin (small seal script, 220 BC) Qin or Chin (Wade-Giles) (秦) (778 BC-207 BC) was a state during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of China. ... State of Qin (small seal script, 220 BC) Qin or Chin (Wade-Giles) (秦) (778 BC-207 BC) was a state during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of China. ...


Ascension of the Kingdoms

In 334 BC, the rulers of Wei and Qi agreed to recognize each other as Kings (王), formalizing the independence of the states and the powerlessness of the Zhou throne since the beginning of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty. The King of Wei and the King of Qi joined the ranks of the King of Chu, whose predecessors had been Kings since the Spring and Autumn Period. From this point on, all the other states eventually declare their Kingship, signifying the beginning of the end of the Zhou Dynasty. Events Alexander the Great crosses the Bosporus, invading Persia. ... The following details the state of Wei of the Warring States Period. ... State of Qi (small seal script, 220 BC) See Qi (disambiguation) for other meanings of Qi. Qi (齊; pinyin: qi2) was a relatively powerful state during the Spring and Autumn Period and Period of the Warring States. ... This article is about the ancient Chinese dynasty. ... The following details the state of Wei of the Warring States Period. ... State of Qi (small seal script, 220 BC) See Qi (disambiguation) for other meanings of Qi. Qi (齊; pinyin: qi2) was a relatively powerful state during the Spring and Autumn Period and Period of the Warring States. ... State of Chu (small seal script, 220 BC) Chu (楚), originally known as Jing (荆) and then Jingchu (荆楚), was an independent state that existed during Chinas Spring and Autumn period and, subsequently, the Warring States period. ... The Spring and Autumn Period (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was a period in Chinese history, which roughly corresponds to the first half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty (from the second half of the 8th century BC to the first half of the 5th century). ... This article is about the ancient Chinese dynasty. ...


In 325 BC, the ruler of Qin declared himself as King. Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 330 BC 329 BC 328 BC 327 BC 326 BC - 325 BC - 324 BC 323 BC 322... State of Qin (small seal script, 220 BC) Qin or Chin (Wade-Giles) (秦) (778 BC-207 BC) was a state during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of China. ...


In 323 BC, the rulers of Han and Yan declared themselves as King. On his way from Ecbatana to Babylon, Alexander the Great fights and crushes the Cossaeans. ... The Han (simplified Chinese: 韩, traditional Chinese: 韓) was a state during the Warring States Period in China. ... State of Yan (small seal script, 220 BC) Yan (pinyin: yan1, simplified Chinese/traditional Chinese: 燕) was a state during the Western Zhou, Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods in China. ...


In 318 BC, the ruler of Song, a relatively minor state, declared himself as King. Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 323 BC 322 BC 321 BC 320 BC 319 BC 318 BC 317 BC 316 BC 315... We dont have an article called State of Song Start this article Search for State of Song in. ...


The ruler of Zhao held out until around 299 BC, and was the last to declare himself as King. State of Zhao (small seal script, 220 BC) Zhao (pinyin: zhao4, simplified Chinese: 赵, traditional Chinese: 趙) was a Chinese state during the Warring States Period. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 304 BC 303 BC 302 BC 301 BC 300 BC 299 BC 298 BC 297 BC 296...


Chu expansion and defeats

A lacquer coffin decorated with birds and dragons, from the State of Chu, 4th century BC.

Early in the Warring States Period, Chu was one of the strongest states in China. The state rose to a new level of power around 389 BC when the King of Chu named the famous reformer Wu Qi (吳起) to be his prime minister. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 370 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1200 pixel, file size: 338 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 370 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1200 pixel, file size: 338 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... In a general sense, lacquer is a clear or coloured coating, that dries by solvent evaporation only and that produces a hard, durable finish that can be polished to a very high gloss, and gives the illusion of depth. ... For people named Coffin, see Coffin (surname). ... State of Chu (small seal script, 220 BC) Chu (楚), originally known as Jing (荆) and then Jingchu (荆楚), was an independent state that existed during Chinas Spring and Autumn period and, subsequently, the Warring States period. ... State of Chu (small seal script, 220 BC) Chu (楚), originally known as Jing (荆) and then Jingchu (荆楚), was an independent state that existed during Chinas Spring and Autumn period and, subsequently, the Warring States period. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC - 380s BC - 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 394 BC 393 BC 392 BC 391 BC 390 BC 389 BC 388 BC 387 BC 386... State of Chu (small seal script, 220 BC) Chu (楚), originally known as Jing (荆) and then Jingchu (荆楚), was an independent state that existed during Chinas Spring and Autumn period and, subsequently, the Warring States period. ... Wu Qi (died 381 BC) was a Chinese military leader and politician in the warring states period. ...


Chu rose to its peak in 334 BC, when it gained vast amounts of territory. The series of events leading up to this began when Yue (越) prepared to attack Qi. The King of Qi sent an emissary who persuaded the King of Yue to attack Chu instead. Yue initiated a large scale attack at Chu, but was devastatingly defeated by Chu's counter-attack. Chu then proceeded to conquer the State of Yue. This campaign expanded the Chu's borders to the coasts of the Pacific Ocean. State of Chu (small seal script, 220 BC) Chu (楚), originally known as Jing (荆) and then Jingchu (荆楚), was an independent state that existed during Chinas Spring and Autumn period and, subsequently, the Warring States period. ... Events Alexander the Great crosses the Bosporus, invading Persia. ... Yue was a state in China which existed during the Spring and Autumn Period. ... State of Qi (small seal script, 220 BC) See Qi (disambiguation) for other meanings of Qi. Qi (齊; pinyin: qi2) was a relatively powerful state during the Spring and Autumn Period and Period of the Warring States. ... State of Qi (small seal script, 220 BC) See Qi (disambiguation) for other meanings of Qi. Qi (齊; pinyin: qi2) was a relatively powerful state during the Spring and Autumn Period and Period of the Warring States. ... Yue was a state in China which existed during the Spring and Autumn Period. ... State of Chu (small seal script, 220 BC) Chu (楚), originally known as Jing (荆) and then Jingchu (荆楚), was an independent state that existed during Chinas Spring and Autumn period and, subsequently, the Warring States period. ... Yue was a state in China which existed during the Spring and Autumn Period. ... State of Chu (small seal script, 220 BC) Chu (楚), originally known as Jing (荆) and then Jingchu (荆楚), was an independent state that existed during Chinas Spring and Autumn period and, subsequently, the Warring States period. ... State of Chu (small seal script, 220 BC) Chu (楚), originally known as Jing (荆) and then Jingchu (荆楚), was an independent state that existed during Chinas Spring and Autumn period and, subsequently, the Warring States period. ... Yue was a state in China which existed during the Spring and Autumn Period. ...


The Domination of Qin and the resulting Grand Strategies

King Goujian's bronze sword, about 500 BC. Goujian was the king of the Yue State in the late Spring and Autumn Period.

Towards the end of the Warring States Period, the State of Qin became disproportionately powerful compared to the other six states. As a result, the policies of the six states became overwhelmingly oriented towards dealing with the Qin threat, with two opposing schools of thought: Hezong (合縱/合纵 pinyin: hézòng, "vertically linked"), or alliance with each other to repel Qin expansionism; and Lianheng (連橫/连横 pinyin: liánhéng, "horizontally linked"), or alliance with Qin to participate in its ascendancy. There were some initial successes in Hezong, though it eventually broke down. Qin repeatedly exploited the Lianheng strategy to defeat the states one by one. During this period, many philosophers and tacticians travelled around the states recommending the rulers to put their respective ideas into use. These "lobbyists" were famous for their tact and intellect, and were collectively known as Zonghengjia (縱橫家), taking its name from the two main schools of thought. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 264 × 598 pixel Image in higher resolution (399 × 904 pixel, file size: 32 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) // Made by Tang, self-processed Original sword is in the Museum of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 264 × 598 pixel Image in higher resolution (399 × 904 pixel, file size: 32 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) // Made by Tang, self-processed Original sword is in the Museum of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou. ... The famed 2500-year-old Sword of Goujian, a first-level protected artifact of the Peoples Republic of China The Sword of Goujian (Traditional Chinese:越王勾踐劍 , Simplified Chinese: 越王勾践剑) is an archaeological artifact of the Spring and Autumn Period found in 1965 in Hubei, China. ... Yue was a state in China which existed during the Spring and Autumn Period. ... The Spring and Autumn Period (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was a period in Chinese history, which roughly corresponds to the first half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty (from the second half of the 8th century BC to the first half of the 5th century). ... State of Qin (small seal script, 220 BC) Qin or Chin (Wade-Giles) (秦) (778 BC-207 BC) was a state during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of China. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ...


In 316 BC, Qin conquered the Shu area. Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 321 BC 320 BC 319 BC 318 BC 317 BC 316 BC 315 BC 314 BC 313... State of Qin (small seal script, 220 BC) Qin or Chin (Wade-Giles) (秦) (778 BC-207 BC) was a state during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of China. ...


Around 300 BC, Qi was almost totally annihilated by a coalition of five states led by Yue Yi of Yan (Qin were among those five). Although under General Tian Dan Qi managed to recover their lost territories, it would never be a great power again. Yan was also too exhausted afterwards to be of much importance in international affairs after this campaign. Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC - 300s BC - 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC Years: 305 BC 304 BC 303 BC 302 BC 301 BC - 300 BC - 299 BC 298 BC... Yue Yi was an officer of the Warring States period. ...


In 293 BC the Battle of Yique against Wei and Han resulted in victory for Qin. This effectively removed Wei and Han threat to further Qin aspirations. Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 298 BC 297 BC 296 BC 295 BC 294 BC 293 BC 292 BC 291 BC 290... Battle of Yique(伊阙之战)(293BC),levied by King Nai of Qin against the alliance of Wei(魏) and Han(韩) at Yique(now as Longmen,city of Luoyang,Henan province),commanded by Qins well known General Bai Qi. ...


In 278 BC, Qin attacked Chu and managed to capture their capital city, Ying, forcing the Chu king to move eastwards to Shouchun. This campaign virtually destroyed Chu's military might, although they recovered sufficiently to mount serious resistance against Qin 50 years later. Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC - 270s BC - 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 283 BC 282 BC 281 BC 280 BC 279 BC - 278 BC - 277 BC 276 BC 275... Shou County (寿县) is a county in Anhui under the jurisdiction of Luan. ...


In 260 BC, the Battle of Changping was fought between Qin and Zhao, resulting in a catastrophic defeat for the latter. Although both sides were utterly exhausted after the titanic clash, Zhao, unlike Qin, could not recover after the event. Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC - 260s BC - 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC Years: 265 BC 264 BC 263 BC 262 BC 261 BC - 260 BC - 259 BC 258 BC... Combatants State of Zhao State of Qin Commanders Lian Po Zhao Kuo† Wang He () Bai Qi Strength 650,240 men+ 500,000 Casualties 450,000+ killed 250,000 The Battle of Changping () in 260 BC was a decisive victory of the state of Qin of China over Zhao during the...


In about 50 years Qin superiority was secure, thanks to its powerful military and, in part, constant feuding between the other states.


Military developments

The Warring States Period saw the introduction of many new innovations to the art of warfare in China, such as the use of iron and cavalry.


The various states fielded massive armies of infantry, cavalry and chariots. Complex logistical systems maintained by efficient government bureaucracy, was needed to supply, train, and control such large forces. The size of the armies ranged from tens of thousands to several hundred thousand men.


Iron became more widespread and began to replace bronze. Most armour and weapons of this period were made from iron.


The first official native Chinese cavalry unit was formed in 307 BC by King Wuling of Zhao. But the war chariot still retained its prestige and importance, despite the tactical superiority of cavalry. This article needs to be wikified. ...


Crossbow was the preferred long range weapon of this period due to many reasons. The crossbow could be mass-produced easily, and mass training of crossbowmen was possible. These qualities made it a powerful weapon against the enemy.


Infantrymen deployed a varieties of weapons, but the most popular was the dagger-axe. The dagger-axe came in various length from 9–18 ft, the weapon comprising a thrusting spear with a slashing blade appended to it.


Zhao's military reforms

In 307 BC, King Wuling of Zhao adopted superior non-Chinese horse-riding clothing (trousers) to better facilitate cavalry fighting tactics (胡服騎射). This article needs to be wikified. ... Germanic trousers of the 4th century found in the Thorsberg moor, Germany Early use of trousers in France: a sans-culotte by Louis-Léopold Boilly. ...


Qin's conquest of China

In 230 BC, the State of Qin conquers the State of Han when it, being the weakest state of the total seven Warring States and also being one of the neighbours to the much more stronger Qin and was being continuously assaulted by Qin in earlier years during Warring states period. This went on until Emperor Qin Shi Huang sent the famed general Wang Jian to attack the state of Zhao. King An of Han (韓廢王), frightened by the possibility that the State of Qin was going to target them right after Zhao, immediately sent diplomats to the state of Qin to surrender the entire kingdom without a fight. Although Qin had conquered Han without a fight, it also saved a lot of people from the potential devastation if the State of Han was to resist its massive invasions. Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC - 230s BC - 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC Years: 235 BC 234 BC 233 BC 232 BC 231 BC - 230 BC - 229 BC 228 BC... State of Qin (small seal script, 220 BC) Qin or Chin (Wade-Giles) (秦) (778 BC-207 BC) was a state during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of China. ... The Han (simplified Chinese: 韩, traditional Chinese: 韓) was a state during the Warring States Period in China. ... Alternative meaning: Warring States Period (Japan) The Warring States Period (traditional Chinese: 戰國時代, simplified Chinese: 战国时代 pinyin Zhànguó Shídài) takes place from sometime in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by Qin in 221 BC. It is nominally considered to be the second part of the Eastern... The monarch known now as Qin Shi Huang (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Shih-huang) (259 BCE – September 10, 210 BCE),[1] personal name Yíng Zhèng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE (officially still under the Zhou Dynasty), and... There are a number of Chinese historical personalities whose names are rendered Wang Jian in pinyin: Wang Jian (王翦) was a Qin Dynasty general. ...


In 225 BC, Qin conquers Wei. The Qin army led a direct invasion into the state of Wei by besieging its capital Kaifeng (大梁) but soon the Qin army realized that the city walls were too tough to break into and so they devised a new strategy in which they utilized the power of a local river which was linked to the Yellow River. The river was then used to flood the city's walls, causing massive devastation to the city. Upon realizing the situation, King Jia of Wei (王假) hurriedly came out of the city and surrendered its city to the Qin army in order to avoid further bloodshed of his people. Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 230 BC 229 BC 228 BC 227 BC 226 BC - 225 BC - 224 BC 223 BC... State of Qin (small seal script, 220 BC) Qin or Chin (Wade-Giles) (秦) (778 BC-207 BC) was a state during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of China. ... The following details the state of Wei of the Warring States Period. ... Kaifeng (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: KāifÄ“ng; Wade-Giles: Kai-feng), formerly known as Bianliang (汴梁; Wade-Giles: Pien-liang), is a prefecture-level city in eastern Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... For other Yellow Rivers, see Yellow River (disambiguation). ...


In 223 BC, Qin conquers Chu. The King of Qin, Ying Zheng, decided to first defeat the strongest state, Chu. However, the first invasion was doomed to utter disaster when northern style Qin troops were defeated by 500,000 Chu troops in the unfamiliar territory of Huaiyang, modern-day northern Jiangsu and Anhui provinces. The Qin general was Li Xing, who was inexperienced. Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 228 BC 227 BC 226 BC 225 BC 224 BC - 223 BC - 222 BC 221 BC... State of Qin (small seal script, 220 BC) Qin or Chin (Wade-Giles) (秦) (778 BC-207 BC) was a state during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of China. ... State of Chu (small seal script, 220 BC) Chu (楚), originally known as Jing (荆) and then Jingchu (荆楚), was an independent state that existed during Chinas Spring and Autumn period and, subsequently, the Warring States period. ...


In 224 BC., the famed conqueror of the state of Zhao, Wang Jian, was recalled to lead a second invasion with 600,000 men. Chu's morale was greatly increased after their success in defeating the seemingly invincible army of Qin the year before. The Chu forces were content to sit back and defend and believed it was Qin's intention to besiege Chu. However, Wang Jian tricked the Chu army by appearing to be idle in his fortifications whilst secretly training his troops to fight in Chu territory. After a year, Chu decided to disband due to inaction. Wang Jian invaded at the best moment with full force to overrun Huaiyang and the remaining Chu forces. Chu lost the initiative and could only sustain local guerrilla-style resistance until it too was fully conquered in 223 BCE. During their peak sizes, both armies of Chu and Qin combined numbered over 1,000,000 troops, more than the massive battle of Changping between Qin and Zhao 35 years before but which the Qin was able to conquer the state of Chu at last.


In 222 BC, Qin conquers Yan and Zhao. After the conquest of Zhao the Qin army then turned its attention towards the state of Yan. Realizing the danger & gravity of this situation, Yan Prince Dan had sent an assassin Jing Ke to kill the Qin emperor but this failure only helped to fuel the rage & determination of Qin Shi Huang and he increased the number of troops to conquer the state of Yan. Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 227 BC 226 BC 225 BC 224 BC 223 BC - 222 BC - 221 BC 220 BC... State of Qin (small seal script, 220 BC) Qin or Chin (Wade-Giles) (秦) (778 BC-207 BC) was a state during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of China. ... State of Yan (small seal script, 220 BC) Yan (pinyin: yan1, simplified Chinese/traditional Chinese: 燕) was a state during the Western Zhou, Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods in China. ... State of Zhao (small seal script, 220 BC) Zhao (pinyin: zhao4, simplified Chinese: èµµ, traditional Chinese: 趙) was a Chinese state during the Warring States Period. ... Crown Prince Dan of Yan (Chinese: 燕太子丹) was the crown prince of the state of Yan during the Warring States Period in China. ... Jing Ke (Chinese: 荊軻; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching Ko) was a guest residing in the estates of Dan, crown prince of Yan and renowned for his failed assassination of the Chinese emperor Qin Shi Huang who reigned from 221 BC to 210 BC. His story is told in the chapter...


In 221 BC, Qin conquers Qi. Qi previously did not contribute or helped other states when Qin was conquering the other states and as soon as Qin was aiming for its final target the Qi quickly made the same decision as the Han did some nine years earlier and surrendered all its cites to Qin, completing the unification of China, and ushering in the Qin Dynasty. Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 226 BC 225 BC 224 BC 223 BC 222 BC - 221 BC - 220 BC 219 BC... State of Qin (small seal script, 220 BC) Qin or Chin (Wade-Giles) (秦) (778 BC-207 BC) was a state during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of China. ... State of Qi (small seal script, 220 BC) See Qi (disambiguation) for other meanings of Qi. Qi (齊; pinyin: qi2) was a relatively powerful state during the Spring and Autumn Period and Period of the Warring States. ... Chinese reunification is a goal of Chinese nationalism which is the unification of all of China under a single political entity. ... Qin Dynasty in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded by the...

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References

  • Ebrey, Walthall, Palais (2006). East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin Company.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Warring States Period - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1768 words)
The Warring States Period (Traditional Chinese: 戰國時代; Simplified Chinese: 战国时代; Pinyin: Zhànguó Shídài) covers the period from sometime in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by the Qin in 221 BC.
These Seven Warring States (戰國七雄/战国七雄 Zhànguó Qīxióng, literally "Seven Hegemonial among the Warring States"), were the Qi (齊), the Chu (楚), the Yan (燕), the Han (韓), the Zhao (趙), the Wei (魏) and the Qin (秦).
Early in the Warring States Period, Chu was one of the strongest states in China.
The Warring States Period of Ancient China (596 words)
The Warring States period is usually interpreted as a time of endless brutal wars that came as a result of friction among the seven states and that this unfortunate state of affairs could end only with one state bringing all into one empire.
The wars that occured were not generally ones due to diplomatic or territorial frictions among the seven states but instead were wars stemming from one state attempting to conquer and control all of the states.
The wasteful and bloody conquest of the separate states was justified as an unfortunate necessity to end the era of anarchy, but the wars were primarily those of empire-building.
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