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Encyclopedia > Warp Drive
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The concept of using spatial warping as a means of propulsion has been the subject of theoretical treatment by some physicists (such as Miguel Alcubierre, see Alcubierre drive), although no concrete technological approach has ever been proposed, nor is there any known way of inducing the effect described by Alcubierre. A remote camera captures a close-up view of a Space Shuttle Main Engine during a test firing at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Mississippi Spacecraft propulsion is any method used to change the velocity of spacecraft and artificial satellites. ... Miguel Alcubierre (Born 1964) is a Mexican theoretical physicist. ... This article is about the Alcubierre metric. ...

## Warp in Star Trek. GA_googleFillSlot("encyclopedia_square");

### Development of the backstory

Warp drive has been a feature of Star Trek since it started. The first pilot episode of Star Trek: The Original Series, "The Cage", calls it "time warp" drive, and notes that the "time barrier" had been broken, allowing a group of stranded interstellar travellers to get back to Earth much more quickly than they had been previously able to. The starship Enterprise as it appeared on Star Trek Star Trek is a culturally significant science fiction television series created by Gene Roddenberry in the 1960s. ... The Cage is the original pilot episode of the original Star Trek science fiction series and resulting franchise. ...

The episode "Metamorphosis", from the original series, establishes a backstory for the invention of warp drive, stating that it was invented by Zefram Cochrane of Alpha Centauri. Cochrane is repeatedly referred to afterwards, but the exact details of the first warp trials were not shown until the second Star Trek: The Next Generation movie, Star Trek: First Contact. The movie depicts Cochrane as inventing warp drive on Earth in 2063 (two years after the date speculated by the first edition of the Star Trek Chronology). He used a fission reactor to heat plasma to send through the warp coils to make a warp bubble, which he could use to move the ship into subspace to go faster than the speed of light. This directly led to the first contact with the Vulcans. Metamorphosis is a second season episode of Star Trek: The Original Series first broadcast November 10, 1967 and repeated July 19, 1968. ... Zefram Cochrane is a fictional character in the Star Trek universe created by Gene Roddenberry. ... Alpha Centauri (Î± Cen / Î± Centauri, also known as Rigil Kentaurus), is the brightest star system in the southern constellation of Centaurus. ... The title as it appeared in most episodes opening credits. ... Star Trek: First Contact (Paramount Pictures, 1996; see also 1996 in film), is the eighth feature film based on the popular Star Trek science fiction television series. ... This article is an attempt to list every Star Trek episode from every form of media in order by stardate. ... For the Vulcan homeworld, see Vulcan (Star Trek planet). ...

Exact speeds were only given in the Voyager episode The 37's where Tom Paris describes Voyager's maximum warp speed of Warp 9.975 as being about 4 billion kilometres a second. The tables referred to in this article are found in various technical manuals and other print media published, in at least the vast majority of cases, with the consent of the Star Trek copyright holders. The information in these technical manuals, though authoritative in terms of Star Trek canon, can be superseded by directly contradictory information presented in a movie or TV episode, and are frequently indirectly contradicted by events in movies and TV episodes (inasmuch as what is shown on screen cannot be reconciled with the technical-manual information without stretching suspension of disbelief beyond its breaking point). The 37s is the 17th episode of Star Trek: Voyager, the first episode of the second season. ... Thomas Eugene Paris, played by Robert Duncan McNeill, is a fictional character in the Star Trek television series Star Trek: Voyager. ...

### The Next Generation era

Plots involving the Enterprise going far too fast were a frequent feature in the original series (such as warp 14.1 in That Which Survives), and for The Next Generation, it was decided that these would no longer be featured. A new warp scale was drawn up, with warp 10 set as an unattainable maximum. This is described in some technical manuals as Eugene's Limit, in homage to creator/producer Gene Roddenberry. (The old and new formulas are explained in much greater detail below) That Which Survives is a third season episode of Star Trek: The Original Series, first broadcast January 24, 1969 and repeated July 29, 1969. ... Eugene Wesley Roddenberry (August 19, 1921 â€“ October 24, 1991) was an American scriptwriter and producer. ...

The warp factors above warp 10 in the TOS, such as the one above, were slower than warp 10 on the new scale. According to The Star Trek Encyclopedia, warp 6 (new scale) is equal to 392c (392 times the speed of light, c) and about warp 7.3 on the old scale, whereas warp 9.2 new, to about 1649c and warp 11.8 on the old scale. Under this new definition warp 9.2 translates to 307,179,672.653 miles/sec. Travel to Proxima Centuri from Earth would only take 22.53 hours. The starship Enterprise as it appeared on Star Trek Star Trek is a culturally significant science fiction television series created by Gene Roddenberry in the 1960s. ... The Star Trek Encyclopedia: A Reference Guide to the Future is an encyclopedia of all things related to Star Trek. ...

The limit of 10 did not entirely stop warp inflation. By the mid-24th century, the Enterprise-D could travel at warp 9.8 at extreme risk,[citation needed] while normal maximum operating speed was warp 9.6 and maximum rated cruise was warp 9.2. The Intrepid-class starship Voyager with a maximum sustainable cruising speed of warp 9.975. USS Enterprise NCC-1701-D The USS Enterprise (NCC-1701-D) (commissioned 2363) is the name of the Galaxy class Federation starship that is the principal setting of the series Star Trek: The Next Generation and the film Star Trek: Generations. ... The USS Voyager (NCC-74656), an Intrepid class starship. ... The USS Voyager (NCC-74656) is an Intrepid class starship in the Star Trek fictional universe. ...

### Transwarp

The term transwarp has been used a number of times, referring to an advanced form of warp drive most commonly used by the Borg, but also the subject of a Starfleet development project in Star Trek III: The Search for Spock. The Unicomplex, a huge Borg complex in the Delta Quadrant. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Star Trek III: The Search for Spock (Paramount Pictures, 1984; see also 1984 in film) is the third feature film based on the popular Star Trek science fiction television series. ...

Episodes of TNG and Voyager seem to indicate that transwarp is best described as a wormhole-style conduit through subspace: this suggests a subsuming into subspace, rather than warping normal space via subspace. For other uses, see Wormhole (disambiguation). ... In the Star Trek fictional universe, subspace is a feature of space-time which facilitates faster-than-light transit, in the form of interstellar travel or the transmission of information. ...

However, in the Voyager episode "Distant Origin", a species known as the Voth used a transwarp technology that didn't appear to be similar to Borg transwarp, but rather an enhanced warp technology. Distant Origin is an episode of Star Trek: Voyager, the 23rd episode of the third season. ... In the fictional Star Trek universe, the Voth are a humanoid species descended from Earths dinosaurs. ...

#### Federation experiments

The USS Excelsior (NX-2000) under command of Captain Styles was a Federation testbed for transwarp technology. Though not explained on-screen in Star Trek III, it is assumed that transwarp was a faster version of the conventional warp drive. Excelsior's first operational test failed due to sabotage by Captain Scott of the Enterprise, thus preventing Excelsior from pursuing them. The USS Excelsior in 2293 The USS Excelsior is a starship in the Star Trek fictional universe. ... Star Trek III: The Search for Spock (Paramount Pictures, 1984; see also 1984 in film) is the third feature film based on the popular Star Trek science fiction television series. ...

The actual command bridge readouts of Enterprise-A at the end of Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home illustrated in the spin-off reference work, Mr. Scott's Guide to the Enterprise published in 1987, suggests the project ultimately succeeded and the USS Enterprise was indeed fitted with transwarp. The USS Enterprise (NCC-1701-A) (or Enterprise-A), commissioned in 2286, is a Constitution class starship in the Star Trek fictional universe. ... Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home (Paramount Pictures, 1986; see also 1986 in film) is the fourth feature film based on the popular Star Trek science fiction television series. ... Mr. ...

Susan Sackett's memoirs attribute the lack of transwarp in Star Trek: The Next Generation to Gene Roddenberry's dislike of the concept.[1] Inside Trek book cover Susan Sackett was born in Connecticut and raised in Florida. ... The title as it appeared in most episodes opening credits. ... Eugene Wesley Roddenberry (August 19, 1921 â€“ October 24, 1991) was an American scriptwriter and producer. ...

#### Borg conduits

The Borg (in the The Next Generation two-part episode "Descent" and in the Voyager finale Endgame) have discovered the existence of transwarp conduits—regions in subspace that facilitate transwarp travel at up to 20 times faster than conventional warp drives. These episodes established that the Borg set up networks of these conduits between important areas in the galaxy. Borg transwarp conduits are activated by an encoded tachyon pulse. When a Borg vessel enters a transwarp conduit, it is subject to extreme gravimetric shear. To compensate, the Borg project a structural integrity field ahead of the vessel. Artificial conduits are linked together with transwarp hubs. Six hubs were known to exist, but in "'Endgame" one was destroyed, along with the Unicomplex due to the neurolytic pathogen with which Admiral Janeway infected herself. The Borg are a race of cyborgs in the fictional Star Trek universe, first introduced in the Star Trek: The Next Generation TV series. ... Descent is a two-part episode from the sixth/seventh season of the television series Star Trek: The Next Generation. ... Endgame is the title of the final episode in the Star Trek spin off series, Star Trek: Voyager. ... A tachyon (from the Greek (takhÃºs), meaning swift, fast) is any hypothetical particle that travels at superluminal velocity. ... Endgame is the title of the final episode in the Star Trek spin off series, Star Trek: Voyager. ... Spoiler warning: The Unicomplex is a location in the fictional Star Trek universe. ... Neurolysis is the destruction of nerves or nerve tissue or freeing a nerve from inflammatory adhesions by radio frequency, heat, cutting or by chemical injection. ... A pathogen (from Greek pathos, suffering/emotion, and gene, to give birth to), infectious agent, or more commonly germ, is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ...

#### Quantum slipstream

See Slipstream (science fiction) For the other meanings of slipstream, see Slipstream (disambiguation). ...

Quantum Slipstream Technology is presumed to be the standard interstellar propulsion method used by Species 116 (of which Arturis was a member) prior to their assimilation by the Borg. In the Voyager episode "Hope and Fear", Seven of Nine remarks that the technology involved is not dissimilar to Borg transwarp technology. Spoiler Warning: Arturis is a fictional character from the Star Trek universe, portrayed by Ray Wise. ... The starship Voyager (NCC-74656), an Intrepid-class starship. ... Hope and Fear is an episode of Star Trek: Voyager, from the programs fourth season. ... Seven of Nine, Tertiary Adjunct of Unimatrix Zero-One, often shortened to Seven of Nine or simply Seven, portrayed by American actress Jeri Ryan, is a character in the television series Star Trek: Voyager. ...

## Warp velocities

Warp travel velocity in Star Trek is generally described in "warp factor" units, which - according to the Star Trek Technical Manuals - correspond to the strength of the warp field. Achieving warp factor 1 is equivalent to breaking the light-speed barrier, while the actual speed of higher factors is determined according to an ambiguous "warp formula". Several episodes of the original series placed the Enterprise in peril by having it travel at high warp factors; in "That Which Survives", this factor was as high as 14.1. However, the actual speed of any given warp factor is rarely explicitly stated on screen, and travel times for specific interstellar distances are not consistent through the various series. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... That Which Survives is a third season episode of Star Trek: The Original Series, first broadcast January 24, 1969 and repeated July 29, 1969. ...

According to the Star Trek episode writer's guide for The Original Series, warp factors are supposedly converted to multiples of light speed with the cubic function s(w) = w3c. Accordingly, "warp 1" is equivalent to the speed of light, "warp 2" is eight times the speed of light, "warp 3" is 27 times the speed of light, and so on. However, this conflicts with the on-screen application of the technology, as it would make the Enterprise far too slow for the voyages depicted in the television series. These speeds do not even correlate with details presented in some of the episodes. For example, in "That Which Survives" (1969), the Enterprise travels at warp 8.4 for 11.33 hours and traverses 990.7 light years (as indicated in Spock's dialog), which makes the speed more than 600,000 times the speed of light. The Enterprise has also easily traveled to and from the edge of the Milky Way galaxy ("Is There in Truth No Beauty" and "By Any Other Name" (1968)), a journey which should take years at "warp 8" if the actual speed is merely a cube of the warp factor. Polynomial of degree 3 In mathematics, a cubic function is a function of the form where b is nonzero; or in other words, a polynomial of degree three. ... That Which Survives is a third season episode of Star Trek: The Original Series, first broadcast January 24, 1969 and repeated July 29, 1969. ... A light-year or lightyear (symbol: ly) is a unit of measurement of length, specifically the distance light travels in vacuum in one year. ... This article is about the Star Trek character. ... Is There in Truth No Beauty? is a third season episode of Star Trek: The Original Series, first broadcast October 18, 1968. ... By Any Other Name is a second season episode of Star Trek: The Original Series, first broadcast February 23, 1968 and repeated May 31, 1968. ...

The new warp scale and power usage

For Star Trek: The Next Generation and the subsequent series, Star Trek artist Michael Okuda devised a formula based on the original one but with important differences. For warp 1–9, if w is the warp factor, s(w) is the speed in km per second, and c is the speed of light, then $s(w) = w^{10 over 3}c$. In the half-open interval from warp 9 to warp 10, the exponent of w increases toward infinity. Thus, in the Okuda scale, warp speeds approach warp 10 asymptotically. There is no exact formula for this interval because the quoted speeds are based on a hand-drawn curve. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 Ã— 480 pixels Full resolution (886 Ã— 532 pixel, file size: 48 KB, MIME type: image/gif)(Adapted from Star Trek: The Next Generation Technical Manual) This original hand drawn chart, shows the asymptotic relationship of the speed curve. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 Ã— 480 pixels Full resolution (886 Ã— 532 pixel, file size: 48 KB, MIME type: image/gif)(Adapted from Star Trek: The Next Generation Technical Manual) This original hand drawn chart, shows the asymptotic relationship of the speed curve. ... The title as it appeared in most episodes opening credits. ... Michael Okuda is an graphic designer who is best known for his work on Star Trek. ... â€œkmâ€ redirects here. ... This article is about the unit of time. ... The speed of light in a vacuum is an important physical constant denoted by the letter c for constant or the Latin word celeritas meaning swiftness.[1] It is the speed of all electromagnetic radiation, including visible light, in a vacuum. ... In elementary algebra, an interval is a set that contains every real number between two indicated numbers, and possibly the two numbers themselves. ... For other uses, see Asymptote (disambiguation). ...

Warp speeds tend to warp 10 asymptotically, and at speeds greater than warp 9 the form of the warp function changes because of an increase in the exponent of the warp factor, w. Due to the resultant increase in the derivative, a small change in the warp factor corresponds to a large increase in speed. For other uses, see Asymptote (disambiguation). ... This article is about derivatives and differentiation in mathematical calculus. ...

The later series were better at keeping to calculated velocities than the original; however, they were still far from perfect. Later episodes of Star Trek: The Next Generation (such as "Descent" (1993)) contradicted these speeds and Star Trek: Deep Space Nine depicted Federation Starfleet strategic operations (fleet movements) which would have been impossible under the Okuda scale. Star Trek: Voyager, though its premise was generally based on the Okuda scale, had several notable instances, such as in the episode "Parallax" or "The '37s" (1995), where the stated warp velocities varied wildly from the Okuda standard. The title as it appeared in most episodes opening credits. ... Descent is a two-part episode from the sixth/seventh season of the television series Star Trek: The Next Generation. ... Space station Star Trek: Deep Space Nine (ST:DS9 or STDS9 or DS9 for short) is a science fiction television series produced by Paramount and set in the Star Trek universe. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The starship Voyager (NCC-74656), an Intrepid-class starship. ... Main Story Line Spoiler warning: As the Federation Starship Voyager is traveling at warp, an anomally forces voyager to drop to impulse near a black holes event horizon. ... An episode of the TV show Star Trek: Voyager, which posits that a number of people from Earth, including Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan, were captured by aliens in the year 1937 and brought to a planet in the Delta Quadrant as slave labor. ...

## Warp theory and technology

A visualization of a warp field. The ship rests in a bubble of normal space.

For a more in-depth discussion of warp propulsion systems, refer to the Star Trek: The Next Generation Technical Manual by Rick Sternbach and Michael Okuda. Chapter 5, "Warp Propulsion Systems", discusses the following topics: Richard Michael Sternbach (born in 1951 in Bridgeport Connecticut) is an illustrator who is best known for his space illustrations and his work on the Star Trek television series. ... Michael Okuda is an graphic designer who is best known for his work on Star Trek. ...

• Warp field theory and application, including warp measurement, velocities, and limits.
• Matter-antimatter reaction assembly, including reactant injectors, magnetic constriction segments, reaction chamber, the role of dilithium, and power transfer conduits.
• Warp field nacelles, including plasma injection system, warp field coils, and warp propulsive effect.
• Antimatter storage and transfer, warp propulsion system fuel supply, Bussard ramjet fuel replenishment, and onboard antimatter generation
• Engineering operations and safety, emergency shutdown procedures, and catastrophic emergency procedures

However, the shows often contradicted both the TNG and DS9 technical manuals. Depiction of a warp bubble. ... This article is about matter in physics and chemistry. ... For other senses of this term, see antimatter (disambiguation). ... In physics, magnetism is a phenomenon by which materials exert an attractive or repulsive force on other materials. ... It has been suggested that Trilithium be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Plasma. ... For other senses of this term, see antimatter (disambiguation). ... Artists conception of a Bussard ramjet. ... Engineering is the discipline of acquiring and applying knowledge of design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ...

#### Slingshot effect

A side effect of Warp travel which has been shown throughout Star Trek is the "Slingshot Effect." First discovered by accident in "Tomorrow Is Yesterday" (1967), one of the earlier episodes of the original Star Trek series, it is a method of using a warp drive to travel through time. Whereas the actual procedure is intentionally obscure, it involved travelling at high warp speed toward a star (established in Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home (1986) to be somewhere over Warp 9.8), on a precisely calculated "slingshot" path, and if successful it can allow for travel to the future or past. The same technique was used later in the episode "Assignment: Earth" (1968) intentionally for historic research (where it is given the technical name "light speed breakaway factor"), and again in Star Trek IV (where it was called "time warp"). The technique was mentioned as a viable method of time travel in the Next Generation episode "Time Squared" (1989). In orbital mechanics and aerospace engineering, a gravitational slingshot or gravity assist is the use of the gravity of a planet or other celestial body to alter the path and speed of a spacecraft. ... Tomorrow Is Yesterday is a first season episode of Star Trek: The Original Series. ... Time travel is a concept that has long fascinated humanity—whether it is Merlin experiencing time backwards, or religious traditions like Mohammeds trip to Jerusalem and ascent to heaven, returning before a glass knocked over had spilt its contents. ... Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home (Paramount Pictures, 1986; see also 1986 in film) is the fourth feature film based on the popular Star Trek science fiction television series. ... Time Squared redirects here. ...

### In the books

Some years after Star Trek: The Original Series (TOS), Pocket Books came out with a series of books based upon the Enterprise's encounters during both its first and second five year mission. In "The Wounded Sky" written by Diane Duane, the crew picks up a Hamalki engineer, which invents a new form of the Transwarp Drive. Even though such books are not considered canon, the theories proposed in the book lend to the idea of Warp and Transwarp, and further explain the properties of subspace. According to the book, Warp Drive does indeed create a bubble around the ship; however, it is explained that the ship is surrounded by a bubble of subspace--another universe where the speed of light is much faster than in ours. This lends to the theory that one cannot attain the speed of light, but it can be circumvented via alternate universes. The book further explains that the alternate universe is attuned with our own, such that planetary bodies are in exactly the same place, which makes navigation much simpler. The Transwarp Device invented by the Hamalki uses a different approach to the same idea. The Transwarp Drive in this case creates a field around the ship which allows it to enter De Sitter space--a space in which there is infinite energy, zero mass (with exceptions) and no absolute laws of physics or time. This essentially allows the Enterprise to enter De Sitter space and travel millions of times faster than light. In the book, the Enterprise manages to reach the Lesser Magellanic Cloud (385 years away at warp 8), a dwarf galaxy in orbit around the Milky Way Galaxy. Pocket Books is the name of a subdivision of Simon & Schuster publishers. ... The Wounded Sky is a 1983 Star Trek novel (Pocket Books #13) by Diane Duane, featuring James T. Kirk as captain of the USS Enterprise. ... Diane Duane (b. ... Screenshot (from SSCX Star Warzone). ... In mathematics and physics, n-dimensional de Sitter space, denoted , is the maximally symmetric, simply-connected, Lorentzian manifold with constant positive curvature. ... The Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC for short) is a dwarf galaxy in orbit around the Milky Way Galaxy. ... The Milky Way (a translation of the Latin Via Lactea, in turn derived from the Greek Galaxia Kuklos; or simply the Galaxy) is a barred spiral galaxy in the Local Group, and has special significance to humanity as the location of the solar system, which is located near the Orion...

## Warp core

In nature, when matter and antimatter come into contact, they annihilate each other and release large amounts of energy. In the Star Trek universe, fictional "dilithium crystals" are used to regulate this reaction. These crystals are described as being non-reactive to anti-matter when bombarded with high levels of radiation. The matter used in the reaction is usually deuterium, an isotope of hydrogen, and the antimatter is usually antideuterium, the corresponding antimatter to deuterium. The reaction chamber is surrounded by a magnetic field to contain the anti-matter. Dilithium is a fictional crystalline mineral in the universe of Star Trek. ... Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance in the oceans of Earth of approximately one atom in 6500 of hydrogen (~154 PPM). ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ...

The energy released in the reaction process is used to create a field called a "warp bubble". This field distorts space around the vessel, while acting as a barrier between the distortions. The bubble is accelerated while the space inside the bubble does not technically move, so the vessel does not experience time dilation, and time passes inside the bubble at the same rate as time in the other parts of the galaxy. Within the warp field, the starship does not exceed the local speed of light, and therefore does not violate the principal tenet of special relativity.[2] For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to special relativity. ...

## Is a nonfictional warp drive possible?

Artist's Impression of the compression of a viewer's perspective in front of a ship at warp drive

Many of the futuristic technologies featured in the series have actually been created (such as the hypospray) or are currently being researched (e.g., the VISOR). In 1996, NASA established the Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Program, which sponsored some speculative work on warp drives. This program was discontinued in 2002. NASA conceptual art by Les Bossinas for the Breakthrough Propulsion Physics project - File links The following pages link to this file: Spacecraft propulsion User:Patrick/w Categories: NASA images ... NASA conceptual art by Les Bossinas for the Breakthrough Propulsion Physics project - File links The following pages link to this file: Spacecraft propulsion User:Patrick/w Categories: NASA images ... The hypospray is a somewhat fictionalized version of a jet injector, in the Star Trek universe. ... A VISOR as worn by Geordi La Forge. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... The Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Program (BPP) is a research program which was funded from 1996 through 2002 by NASA, in the hope of studying various proposals for revolutionary methods of spacecraft propulsion which would require breakthroughs in physics before they could be realized, hence the name. ...

While thought experiments on the wilder shores of theoretical physics continue, no scheme that may allow "warp speed" travel has yet been devised that has been accepted by mainstream science. Some physicists have proposed a model of FTL travel, formulated in the context of Lorentzian manifolds, which are used in general relativity to construct spacetime models. However, contrary to a common misunderstanding, these models are in no sense solutions to the Einstein field equation, and they give absolutely no hint of how to actually make a warp bubble. These models do however show that while it is indeed impossible to go faster than the speed of light, in principle it might be possible to circumvent the problem by suitably "warping" spacetime itself. The best known theory, known as the Alcubierre drive, has the amusing feature that its terminology is in accord with Trek jargon: "warp factors" measure the warping of space (or rather spacetime), not actual speed. In philosophy, physics, and other fields, a thought experiment (from the German Gedankenexperiment) is an attempt to solve a problem using the power of human imagination. ... In differential geometry, a pseudo-Riemannian manifold or semi-Riemannian manifold is a smooth manifold equipped with a smooth, symmetric, tensor which is nondegenerate at each point on the manifold. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to general relativity. ... For other uses of this term, see Spacetime (disambiguation). ... For other topics related to Einstein see Einstein (disambig) In physics, the Einstein field equation or the Einstein equation is a tensor equation in the theory of gravitation. ... This article is about the Alcubierre metric. ...

The following formula (Einstein Field Equation), based on general relativity, theoretically permits the travel of an object faster than light provided that spacetime is curved:[3] For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to general relativity. ...

$G_{mu nu}=frac{8pi}{c^4} G T_{mu nu}$

Gμν is the Einstein curvature tensor, which describes the curvature in space, while the constant G without indices is Newton's gravitational constant. According to the law of universal gravitation, the attractive force between two bodies is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. ...

If spacetime is warped properly, then technically the object(s) are not moving faster than light, even though they appear in normal space to be moving faster than light.

In 2007, physicist Richard Obousy proposed that a warp drive could be created by directly manipulating the extra dimensions of string theory. His idea suggests the expansion of spacetime is a consequence of the vacuum ground-state of higher dimensional graviton fluctuations. In this model the vacuum energy equations can be expressed as:

$=-frac{pi^2}{R^4} left[ frac{(2+n)(3+n)}{2}-1 right] left[ zeta(0) right] ^{n-1} zeta'(4)$

In this model, it is the radius of the extra dimensions that directly controls the expansion of space. Obousy suggests that it is superstrings that wrap around the extra dimensions keeping them compact, but that a sufficiently advanced civilization might influence a string and locally adjust the size of the extra dimension creating a controlled expansion and contraction of the space surrounding an interstellar craft.

## Notes

• When Stephen Hawking guest starred on the Star Trek: The Next Generation episode "Descent", he was taken on a guided tour of the set. Pausing in front of the warp core set piece, he remarked, "I'm working on that".[4]
1. ^ Susan Sackett (2002). Inside Trek: My Secret Life With Star Trek Creator Gene Roddenberry. HAWK Publishing Group. ISBN 1-930709-42-0.
2. ^ http://www.star-trek-voyager.net/btshtm/bts_bormanis_primer.htm#ftl Star-trek-voyager.com Retrieved on 05-18-07
3. ^ http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect20/A10.html
4. ^ William Shatner; Chip Walter (2002). I'm Working on That: A Trek From Science Fiction to Science Fact. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-671047-37-X.

Stephen William Hawking, CH, CBE, FRS, FRSA, (born 8 January 1942) is a British theoretical physicist. ... Descent is a two-part episode from the sixth/seventh season of the television series Star Trek: The Next Generation. ... William Alan Shatner (born on March 22, 1931) is a Canadian actor who gained fame for playing James Tiberius Kirk of the USS Enterprise in the television show Star Trek from 1966 to 1969 and in seven of the subsequent movies. ... Jean-François Millet Le Semeur (The Sower) Simon & Schuster logo, circa 1961. ...

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