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Encyclopedia > Warmia
Warmia in 1547
Warmia in 1547

Warmia (Polish: Warmia, German: Ermland, Latin: Varmia, also historically known as Ermeland) is a region between Pomerania and Masuria in northeastern Poland. Together with Masuria it forms the Warminsko-Mazurskie Voivodship. To the west of Warmia is Pomesania, to the south Chełmno Land, Sassinia and Galindia (later called Masuria) and to the east Sambia. In the north it borders the Vistula Bay. Because it is located in a border area, Warmia has been under the rule of various rulers over its history; the most notable include the Teutonic Order, Poland, and the Kingdom of Prussia. Image File history File links Warmia. ... Image File history File links Warmia. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Historic Western Pomerania (outlined in yellow) Pomerania (Polish: , German: , Pomeranian (Kashubian): Pòmòrze and Pòmòrskô, Latin: Pomerania, Pomorania) is a geographical and historical region in northern Poland and Germany on the south coasts of the Baltic Sea between and on both sides of the Vistula and Oder... Masuria (Polish: Mazury; German: Masuren) is an area in northeastern Poland. ... Masuria (Polish: Mazury; German: Masuren) is an area in northeastern Poland. ... Warmińsko-Mazurskie voivodship since 1999 Coat of Arms of Warmia-Masuria Warmia i Mazury (officially, the Warmińsko-Mazurskie Voivodship) is an administrative region or voivodship of north-eastern Poland. ... For the heavy metal music band see Voivod (band). ... Pomesania is the former name of an area now in northern Poland, in the vicinity of the cities of Elblag (Elbing) and Malbork (Marienburg), to the east of the lower Vistula river. ... CheÅ‚mno Land or Culmland (Polish: Ziemia CheÅ‚miÅ„ska, German: Kulmerland) is a historical region in central Poland bounded by the Vistula and DrwÄ™ca rivers. ... Image:Prussia. ... Masuria (Polish: Mazury; German: Masuren) is an area in northeastern Poland. ... Sambia or the Sambian Peninsula (Russian: semlyandskiy poluostrov, German: Samland) is the name of a peninsula in the Baltic Sea. ... Landsat photo Vistula Lagoon Vistula Lagoon (or Bay, Gulf) is the sweet water lagoon on the Baltic Sea that is cut off from Gdansk Bay by the Vistula Spit. ... Teutonic Knights, charging into battle. ... Flag of Prussia (1894 - 1918) The Kingdom of Prussia existed from 1701 until 1918, and from 1871 was the leading kingdom of the German Empire, comprising in its last form almost two-thirds of the area of the Empire. ...


The area is associated with the Old Prussian tribe of Warmians (a.k.a. Warms, Varms, Varmi, Warmians, Varmians, Latvian: Vārmieši) subdued by the Teutonic Knights. The Prussians kill Adalbert The Prussian people, or (old) Prussians, inhabited the area around the Curonian and Vistula Lagoons, (in what is now northern Poland), in the region roughly occupied by the Mazurian Lakes. ... Teutonic Knights, charging into battle. ...

Contents


History

The first traces of human settlement in the region come from ca. 14-15,000 years ago. They are many traces of settlements made by the Lusatian culture (13th-5th century BC), including above-ground water housings and artificially created islands. The Lusatian culture existed in the later Bronze Age and early Iron Age (1300-500 BC) in eastern Germany, most of Poland, parts of Czech Republic and Slovakia (in older articles described also as Czechoslovakia) and parts of Ukraine. ... This bronze ritual wine vessel, dating from the Shang Dynasty in the 13th century BC, is housed at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution. ... (6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) The 5th and 6th centuries BC are a period of philosophical brilliance among advanced civilizations. ...


In the early Middle Ages the area was inhabited by various Old Prussian tribes, such as the Pomesanians, Pogesanians, Warmians, Natangians, Bartians, Sambians, Nadrovians, Scalovians, Galindians and Sassinians. However, these tribes only began to coordinate after the 12th century when they were subject to crusade from Teutonic Order. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ...


As the Polish state grew in power, Poles tried to Christianize the Prussians, but this led to conflict and skirmishes, including the martyring of Adalbert of Prague. In the first centuries of its existence, the Polish nation was led by a series of strong rulers who converted the Poles to Christendom, created a strong Central European state, and integrated Poland into European culture. ... The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once (a political shift as much as a spontaneous mass shift in individual consciences), also includes the practice of converting pagan cult practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... Adalbert (Czech:   VojtÄ›ch?, Polish: Wojciech, Germanic equivalent Adalbert - the joy of warrior) (c. ...


Because of his inability to subdue the Prussians, in 1226 Konrad I of Masovia invited the Teutonic Knights to Christianise the pagan Prussians. They were given the small Chełmno Land as a fief for the duration of their crusade, but quickly acquired more land to the north and east. Their actions were considered violations of signed treaties, and the knights were also accused of forging land grants. By the end of the 13th century most of the Prussian region, including Warmia, was conquered by the Teutonic Order. The native Prussians were either killed off or reduced to serfdom. The Order received the reins of government from Emperor Frederick II in 1228. The grant was confirmed by a papal bull from Pope Gregory IX in 1234, although Poland never recognized the rights of the Order to rule the country. Events Carmelite Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II calls Imperial Diet of Cremona Births Deaths October 3 Saint Francis of Assisi founder of the Franciscan Order and patron Saint of animals and the environment Canonized by Pope Gregory IX in 1228 November 8 King Louis VIII of France... Konrad I Mazowiecki Konrad of Masovia (1187 - 1247, Polish: Konrad Mazowiecki) was Duke of Masovia, son of Casimir II of Poland (the Just) and Helen, princess of Moravia. ... Masovia (Polish: Mazowsze) is a geographical and historical region situated in central Poland with its capital in Warsaw. ... Teutonic Knights, charging into battle. ... CheÅ‚mno Land or Culmland (Polish: Ziemia CheÅ‚miÅ„ska, German: Kulmerland) is a historical region in central Poland bounded by the Vistula and DrwÄ™ca rivers. ... Under the system of feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud or fee, consisted of heritable lands or revenue-producing property granted by a liege lord in return for a vassal knights service (usually fealty, military service, and security). ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ... Frederick II (December 26, 1194 – December 13, 1250), Holy Roman Emperor of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212, unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 until his death in 1250. ... Events The Sixth Crusade is launched by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, after delays due to sickness and an excommunication from Pope Gregory IX. Conrad IV of Germany becomes titular King of Jerusalem, with Frederick II as regent. ... Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ... Gregory IX, né Ugolino di Conti (Anagni, ca. ... Events Canonization of Saint Dominic Collapse of the Jin Dynasty (1115-1234) Deaths Emperor Chukyo of Japan Emperor Go-Horikawa of Japan Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile - Ferdinand III, the Saint King of Castile and Leon (reigned...


The Bishopric of Warmia was one of four dioceses created in 1242 by the papal legate William of Modena. Between the 13th and 17th centuries Warmia as well as other parts of Prussia were colonised by Germans in the north and Poles in the south. The bishopric was part of a Polish province of the church. The Bishops of Warmia were usually Germans or Poles, although Enea Silvio Piccolomini, the later Pope Pius II, was an Italian bishop of the diocese. Bishopric of Warmia was one of the bishoprics found by Teutonic Order on the area of newly conquered Prussia. ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ... // Events April 5 - During a battle on the ice of Chudskoye Lake, Russian forces rebuff an invasion attempt by the Teutonic Knights. ... A Papal Legate -from the Latin, authentic Roman title Legatus- is a personal representative of the Pope to the nations, or rather to some part of the universal church. ... William of Modena, Bishop of Modena in 1221, was frequently appointed a legate, or papal ambassador by the popes Honorius III and Gregory IX, especially in Livonia in the 1220s and in the Prussian questions of the 1240s. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Prince Bishops / Bishops of Warmia: 1250-1274 Anselm of Meissen 1278-1300 Heinrich I Fleming 1301-1326 Eberhard of Neisse 1327-1328 Jordan 1329-1334 Heinrich II Wogenap 1337-1349 Herman of Prague 1350-1355 Joannes I of Meissen 1355-1373 Joannes II Stryprock 1373-1401 Heinrich III Sorbom 1401... Pius II, né Enea Silvio Piccolomini, in Latin Aeneas Sylvius (October 18, 1405 – August 14, 1464) was pope from 1458 to 1464. ...


The Second Treaty of Toruń in 1466 removed Warmia from the control of the Teutonic Knights and placed it under the sovereignty of the King of Poland as part of the province of Royal Prussia. This was confirmed in the Treaty of Piotrków Trybunalski (December 7, 1512), which conceded to the King of Poland a limited influence in the election of bishops. After the Union of Lublin in 1569 Warmia was directly included into the Polish crown within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Second Peace of ToruÅ„. (Discuss) Peace of Thorn 1466 (also Peace of ToruÅ„ 1466 or the Second Peace of Thorn) was a peace treaty signed on 19 October 1466 in Thorn (ToruÅ„) between Poland and the Teutonic Order... ToruÅ„ (pronounce: [], Kashubian: TorÅ„, German: Thorn, see also other names) is a city in northern Poland, on the Vistula river. ... Events Chimú Empire conquered by troops of the Inca End of term for Regent of Sweden Jöns Bengtsson Oxenstierna. ... Poland was ruled by dukes (c. ... Map of Royal Prussia Royal Prussia (Polish: Prusy Królewskie, German: Königliches Preussen) was a Polish province formed from the western part of the Lands of the Teutonic Order following the Thirteen Years War or War of the Cities. During the war, the Prussian Confederation, led by the cities... Piotrków Trybunalski is a town in central Poland with 81,200 inhabitants (2004). ... December 7 is the 341st day (342nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1512 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Union of Lublin, painted by Jan Matejko The Union of Lublin (Lithuanian: Liublino unija; Belarusian: Лю́блінская ву́нія; Polish: Unia lubelska) - signed on July 1, 1569 in Lublin, united the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania into a single state, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, with the official... Events January 11 - First recorded lottery in England. ... Crown of the Polish Kingdom, or just colloquially the Crown (Polish:Korona) is the archaic name for territories of Poland, distinguishing them from territories of Grand Duchy of Lithuania or vassal territories like Duchy of Prussia or Duchy of Courland, which had varying degrees of autonomy. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


During the Partitions of Poland Warmia was incorporated into the Kingdom of Prussia in 1772, while the property of the bishop was confiscated by the Prussian state. Ignacy Krasicki, the last prince-bishop as well as a Polish writer, was nominated to the Archbishopric of Gniezno. The Prussian census in 1772 showed a total population of 96,547 including an urban population of 24,612 in 12 towns. 17,749 houses were listed and the biggest city was Braniewo. The Partitions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, commonly known as the Partitions of Poland (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Padalijimas) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Flag of Prussia (1894 - 1918) The Kingdom of Prussia existed from 1701 until 1918, and from 1871 was the leading kingdom of the German Empire, comprising in its last form almost two-thirds of the area of the Empire. ... 1772 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Ignacy Krasicki Ignacy Krasicki (February 3, 1735, in Galicia — March 14, 1801, in Berlin) was a Polish prince of the Roman Catholic Church, a social critic, a leading writer, and the outstanding poet of the Polish Enlightenment, hailed by contemporaries as the Prince of Poets. ... Prince-Bishop was the title given bishops who held secular powers, beside their inherent clerical power. ... Motto: none Voivodship Greater Poland Municipal government Mayor Jaromir Dziel Area 40,9 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 71 040 none 1737/km² Founded City rights 8th century 1239 Latitude Longitude 52°32 N 17°36 E Area code +48 61 Car plates PGN Twin towns Anagni, Esztergom, Falkenberg, Saint... Braniewo (German: Braunsberg) is a city in northeastern Poland, in Warmia-Mazury voivodship, with a population of 17,800 (2000). ...


From 1772-1945 Warmia shared its history with Lutheran East Prussia, with the exception that the people of Warmia remained Catholic. The population of northern Warmia spoke standard German (as opposed to Low German used in the rest of East Prussia), while the south was populated by Polish-speaking Warmiaks. In 1873 the Polish language was forbidden in all schools in Warmia, including Polish schools founded in the 16th century. In 1900 Warmia's population was 240,000. 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... Low German (also called Plattdeutsch, Plattdüütsch or Low Saxon) is a name for the regional language varieties of the Low Germanic languages spoken mainly in northern Germany, southern Denmark and eastern Netherlands. ... The Warmiak are a Polish ethnic group from Warmia, mostly Roman Catholics. ... 1873 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calaber). ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... 1900 (MCM) is a common year starting on Monday. ...


After World War I, Poles were subject to persecution by the German government during the Weimar Republic. Polish children speaking their language were punished in schools and often had to wear signs with insulting name, such as "Pollack"[1]. Combatants Entente Powers Central Powers Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties > 5 million military deaths > 3 million military deaths {{{notes}}} World War I, also known as the First World War and (before 1939) the Great War, the War of the Nations, War to End All Wars was a world... The period of German history from 1919 to 1933 is known as the Weimar Republic (German Weimarer Republik, IPA: []). It is named after the city of Weimar where a national assembly convened to produce a new constitution after the German Monarchy and German Empire were abolished following the nations...


During the Nazi period, Poles in Warmia were subject to even harsher persecution by German authorities, and, with the outbreak of World War II, many prominent Polish cultural activists were murdered, such as Seweryn Pieniężny and Leon Włodarczak[2]. Peasants who showed interest in Polish culture were frequently murdered as well.[3] Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties 17 million military deaths 7 million military deaths {{{notes}}} World War II, also known as the Second World War (sometimes WW2 or WWII or World War Two), was a mid-20th century conflict that engulfed much of the...


In 1945 Warmia was de facto included within the borders of post-war Poland, as a result of the decisions of the Potsdam Conference; ethnic Germans were expelled from East Prussia to Germany. The governments of the two German states accepted Germany's post-war eastern border by treaties in 1950 and 1970 and finally de jure in the prelude to the 1990 reunification. Today Warmia is part of the administrative region Warmia-Masuria. 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Attlee, Truman, and Stalin at Potsdam The Potsdam Conference was a conference held at Cecilienhof in Potsdam, Germany (near Berlin), from July 17 to August 2, 1945. ... Ethnic Germans (usually simply called Germans, in German Volksdeutsche) are those who are considered, by themselves or others, to be ethnically German rather than anything else but who do not live within the Federal Republic of Germany nor hold its citizenship. ... The expulsion of Germans after World War II was the mass deportation of people considered Germans (both Reichsdeutsche and Volksdeutsche) from Soviet-occupied areas outside the Soviet occupation zone of Germany, and is a major part of the German exodus from Eastern Europe after World War II. The process, which... The Evacuation of East Prussia refers to the events that took place in East Prussia, especially the evacuation of German population from that area as well as from other Prussian lands in 1944 and 1945. ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... This article is about the year. ... German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) refers to the reunification of Germany from its constituent parts of East Germany and West Germany under a single government on October 3, 1990. ... Warmińsko-Mazurskie voivodship since 1999 Coat of Arms of Warmia-Masuria Warmia i Mazury (officially, the Warmińsko-Mazurskie Voivodship) is an administrative region or voivodship of north-eastern Poland. ...


Major towns

Polish names, followed by German names in italics:

Biskupiec (German: Bischofsburg) is a town in the voivodship Warmia-Masuria in Poland. ... Braniewo (German: Braunsberg) is a city in northeastern Poland, in Warmia-Mazury voivodship, with a population of 17,800 (2000). ... Frombork is a town in northern Poland, situated on Vistula Bay in the Warmia i Mazury voivodship with a population of 2700 (in 2000). ... Lidzbark WarmiÅ„ski (pronounce: [liÊ£barg varmiɲski], German Heilsberg) is a town in the Polish voivodship Warmia i Mazury. ... Motto: none Voivodship Warmia i Mazury Municipal government Rada Miasta Olsztyn Mayor CzesÅ‚aw Jerzy MaÅ‚kowski Area 87,89 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 173 850 - 1972/km² Founded City rights - -31. ... Reszel (  listen) is a city in Poland in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodship. ...

Famous Warmians

Rainer Candidus Barzel (born June 20, 1924) is a German CDU Politician. ... Nicolaus Copernicus Nicolaus Copernicus (February 19, 1473 – May 24, 1543) was an astrologer, astronomer, mathematician, administrator and economist. ... Hugo Haase (September 29, 1863 - November 7, 1919) was a German politician, jurist, and pacifist. ... Georg Cardinal Sterzinsky (born 1936) is a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and Archbishop of Berlin. ... Hans-Jürgen Wischnewski, (July 24, 1922-February 24, 2005), was a German Social Democrat politician who is best known for his involvement in negotiating with the Somalian government during the joint Baader-Meinhof Gang and PFLP hijacking of a Lufthansa aircraft in 1977. ...

See also

Bishopric of Warmia was one of the bishoprics found by Teutonic Order on the area of newly conquered Prussia. ... Prince Bishops / Bishops of Warmia: 1250-1274 Anselm of Meissen 1278-1300 Heinrich I Fleming 1301-1326 Eberhard of Neisse 1327-1328 Jordan 1329-1334 Heinrich II Wogenap 1337-1349 Herman of Prague 1350-1355 Joannes I of Meissen 1355-1373 Joannes II Stryprock 1373-1401 Heinrich III Sorbom 1401...

External links

  • Region of Warmia
  • Warmia and Masuria (in Polish)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Warmia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (902 words)
Warmia in 1547 in the borders of Prussia north of Kingdom of Poland
To the west of Warmia is Pomesania, to the south Chełmno Land, Sassinia and Galindia (later called Masuria) and to the east Sambia.
During the Partitions of Poland Warmia was incorporated into the Kingdom of Prussia in 1772, while the property of the bishop was confiscated by the Prussian state.
Warmia - definition of Warmia in Encyclopedia (500 words)
Warmia (Polish: Warmia or Warmija, Latin Warmia or Varmia, German Ermland or Ermeland) is a region between Pomerania and Masuria in north-eastern Poland.
To the west of Warmia is Pomesania, to the south Culmland (Ziemia Chelminska), Sassinia and Galindia (later called Masuria) and to the east Sambia.
Warmia was one of four dioceses created in 1242 by the papal legate William of Modena.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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