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Encyclopedia > Warlord

A warlord is a person with power who has de facto military control of a subnational area due to armed forces loyal to the warlord and not to a central authority. The term can also mean one who espouses the ideal that war is necessary, and has the means and authority to engage in war. The word has a strong connotation that the person exercises far more power than his official title or rank (if any) legitimately permits him. Under feudalism, in contrast, the local military leader may enjoy great autonomy and a personal army, but still derives legitimacy from formal fealty to a central authority. De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... General Augusto Pinochet (sitting) as head of the newly established military junta in Chile, September 1973. ... US 1979 and 2002 Reissue Cover Also known as paint spatter cover For the military meaning, see Armed forces. ... Look up war in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up war in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ...


Warlordism (also called a Warlordocracy) was coined to describe chaos at the birth of the Republic of China, especially after the death of Yuan Shikai, as the warlord era. It can however be used to describe similar periods in other countries or epochs such as in Japan during the Sengoku period, or in China during the Three Kingdoms, or in Somalia or other failed states today (2006). Motto none Anthem National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital Taipei (formerly and de jure Nanking) Largest city Taipei Official languages Standard Mandarin (GuóyÇ”) Government Semi-presidential system  -  President Chen Shui-bian  -  Vice President Annette Lu  -  Premier Chang Chun-hsiung Establishment Xinhai Revolution   -  Independence declared October 10, 1911... Yuan Shikai in military uniform Yuan Shikai (Courtesy Weiting 慰亭; Pseudonym: Rongan 容庵 Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Yüan Shih-kai) (September 16, 1859[1] – June 6, 1916) was a Chinese military official and politician during the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. ... The Warlord era represents the period in the history of the Republic of China from 1916 to the mid-1930s when the country was divided by various military cliques, and this division continued until the fall of the nationalist government in mainland China in many regions, such as in Sichuan... The Sengoku Period (戦国時代 Sengoku jidai) or warring-states period, is a period of long civil war in the History of Japan that spans through the middle 15th to the early 17th centuries. ... The Three Kingdoms period (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a period in the history of China, part of an era of disunity called the Six Dynasties. ... Failed state is a controversial term intended to mean a weak state in which the central government has little practical control over much of its territory. ...


The word "warlord" arose as a calque from the German word "Kriegsherr" with the same meaning. Today the Germans often use the English word, which has overtaken "Kriegsherr" in their language. // In linguistics, a calque (pronounced ) or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word (Latin: verbum pro verbo) or root-for-root translation. ...

Contents

Historical warlordism in Europe

Warlordism in Europe is usually connected to various mercenary companies and their chieftains, which often were de facto powerholders in the areas in which they resided. Such free companies would arise in a situation when the recognized central power had collapsed, such as in the Great Interregnum in Germany (1254-1278) or in France during the Hundred Years' War after the Battle of Poitiers. A mercenary is a person who takes part in an armed conflict who is not a national of a Party to the conflict and is motivated to take part in the hostilities essentially by the desire for private gain and, in fact, is promised, by or on behalf of a... An interregnum is a period between kings, or between popes of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Combatants France Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany England Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337 to 1453. ... Combatants Kingdom of England Gascony France Commanders Edward, the Black Prince Captal de Buch John II of France Strength 9,000 12,000 Casualties Minimal 2,500 killed or wounded The Battle of Poitiers was fought between the Kingdom of England and France on September 19, 1356, resulting in the...


Free company mercenary captains, such as Sir John Hawkwood, Roger de Flor of Catalan Company or Hugh Calveley could be considered as warlords. Several condottieri in Italy can also be classified as warlords. Sir John Hawkwood (1320-1394) was an English mercenary or condottiere in the 14th century Italy. ... Roger de Flor, also known as Rutger von Blum (1266 in Brindisi - April 4, 1306 in Adrianople), a military adventurer of the 13th and 14th century, was the second son of a German falconer named Richard Blum (Blum means flower in German) in the service of the Holy Roman Emperor... The Catalan Company,[1] short name for the Catalan Company of the East (Companyia Catalana dOrient in Catalan), was a free company of mercenaries founded by Roger de Flor in early 14th-century Europe. ... Sir Hugh Calveley (died 23 April 1394) was an English soldier and commander, who took part in the Hundred Years War. ... Condottieri (singular condottiere (in English) or condottiero (in Italian)) were mercenary leaders employed by Italian city-states from the late Middle Ages until the mid-sixteenth century. ...


Ygo Gales Galama was a famous Frisian warlord, and so was his descendant Pier Gerlofs Donia, who was also the leader of the legendary Arumer Black Heap. Donia's best known enemy and rival was a mercenary himself; the Count of Nychlenborch, a Burgundian-vassal. All these legendary warriors can be considered warlords. Ygo Gales Galama (abt 1443 – 25 Jan 1492) was a 15th century Frisian warlord and Galama-patriarch. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Imperial commanders-in-chief during the reign of Emperor Maximilian I did hold the title Kriegsherr of which the direct translation was "warlord", but they were not warlords in sense of the word defined. Maximilian I of Habsburg (March 22, 1459 – January 12, 1519) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death. ...


Historical warlordism in Japan

During most of the 16th century, before the Tokugawa era, Japan was tormented by repeated wars among rival warlords (see Sengoku Era). Each warlord had several castles, neighbouring land with peasants and a private army of samurai. (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... The Edo period ), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868. ... The Sengoku Period (戦国時代 Sengoku jidai) or warring-states period, is a period of long civil war in the History of Japan that spans through the middle 15th to the early 17th centuries. ... Pierrefonds Castle, France. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Powerful Japanese warlords

This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Uesugi Kenshin February 18, 1530—April 19, 1578) was a warlord who ruled Echigo province in the Sengoku Period of Japan. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Statue of Hōjō Sōun exists in front of Odawara station (Odawara, Japan) Hōjō Sōun 1432—September 8, 1519) was the first head of the late Hōjō clan, one of the major powers in Japans Sengoku period. ... Toyotomi Hideyoshi (Shinjitai (modern Japanese) writing: ; Kyūjitai (historical) writing: 豐臣秀吉; born Hiyoshi-maru ; coming of age (Genpuku) as Kinoshita Tōkichirō and later made Hashiba and martial nobility in the style of Hashiba Chikuzen no Kami Hideyoshi ;February 2, 1536 or March 26, 1537 – September 18, 1598), was a Sengoku...

Historical warlordism in China

Warlords exercised widespread rule in China several times in Chinese history — notably in the period from the Xinhai Revolution, when numerous provinces rebelled and declared their independence from the Qing Dynasty in 1911, and especially after Yuan Shikai's death, until the Northern Expedition in 1927. This was a period known as the Warlord Era, and was the time when the term "warlord" first appeared. Despite the superficial unification of China in 1927 under the rule of the Kuomintang under Chiang Kai-shek, warlordism remained a problem until the victory of the Communist Party of China in 1949.[citation needed] Combatants Qing Dynasty Chinese Revolutionary Alliance Commanders Feng Guozhang, Yuan Shikai, and local Qing governors. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Yuan Shikai in military uniform Yuan Shikai (Courtesy Weiting 慰亭; Pseudonym: Rongan 容庵 Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Yüan Shih-kai) (September 16, 1859[1] – June 6, 1916) was a Chinese military official and politician during the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Warlord era represents the period in the history of the Republic of China from 1916 to the mid-1930s when the country was divided by various military cliques, and this division continued until the fall of the nationalist government in mainland China in many regions, such as in Sichuan... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the 1925 death of Sun Yat-sen. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ...


The Chinese warlords are depicted in the computer game "Hearts of Iron" and its sequel "Hearts of Iron 2", which are both banned in mainland China. Another popular game with a similar plot is the "Dynasty Warriors" series. These feature many real historic warlords as generals in or leaders of their respective dynasties. Some main characters include prominent Three Kingdoms figures. A computer game is a game composed of a computer-controlled virtual universe that players interact with in order to achieve a defined goal or set of goals. ... Hearts of Iron (HoI) is a grand strategy computer game developed by Paradox Entertainment and Strategy First, set in the years 1936-1948. ... Hearts of Iron 2 is a grand strategy computer war game for the PC based upon its predecessor, Hearts of Iron. ... The Logo of Shin Sangoku Musou 4 (Dynasty Warriors 5) Dynasty Warriors ( 真・三國無双:Shin Sangokumusou in Japan; literally meaning True - Unrivaled (in the) Three Kingdoms) is a series of video games created by Koei based loosely around the Romance of the Three Kingdoms epic, and is a spinoff series of another... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Three Kingdoms period (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a period in the history of China, part of an era of disunity called the Six Dynasties. ...


Famous warlords during the Three Kingdoms (190-280)

Gongsun Zan (公孫瓚 gong1 sun1 zan4), courtesy name Bogui, was a warlord of northern China active toward the end of the second century AD. He was commander of a cavalry force and served on the northern and eastern frontiers of the Han Dynasty empire fighting against various non-Chinese peoples. ... Dong Zhuo (董卓; Pinyin: DÇ’ng Zhuō) (139 – 192) was a warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms Period in ancient China. ... Yuan Shao (? – 202) was a major warlord occupying the north of ancient China during the massive civil war towards the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty and the beginning of the Three Kingdoms era. ... Yuan Shu (袁术; style name Gonglu 公路) (?? - 199) was a major warlord of the Later Han Dynasty who rose to prominence following the collapse of the Han court in 189. ... SÅ«n Jiān (155 – 191) was a military general and minor warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. ... SÅ«n Cè (175 – 200) was a military general and warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. ... Sun Quan (孫權 pinyin: SÅ«n Quán) (182 - 252), son of Sun Jian, was the third ruler of the State of Wu and the founder of Kingdom of Wu, during the Three Kingdoms period, in China. ... Cáo Cāo (155 – March 15, 220, pronounced Tsau Tsau) was a regional warlord and the second last Chancellor of the Eastern Han Dynasty who rose to great power during its final years in ancient China. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is 劉 (Liu) Liú Bèi (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) (161 – 223), courtesy name Xuándé (玄徳), was a powerful warlord and the founding emperor of the Kingdom of Shu during the Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. ... Liú BiÇŽo (劉表 142 – 208) was the governor of the Jing province in China towards the end of the Han Dynasty. ... Ruler of the Yi province and kinsman to Liu Bei. ... Lü Bu (? – 198) was a military general and minor warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms period in ancient China. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Powerful warlords during the Jin Dynasty (1115-1234)

Puxian Wannu (蒲鮮萬奴) was a Jurchen warlord who established a short-lived kingdom in the 13th century. ...

Powerful warlords during the Republic of China

There were twelve warlords who served as Area Commanders officially:

Chang Tso-Lin (WG) (Chinese: 張作霖, pinyin: Zhāng Zuòlín) (1873 – June 4, 1928), nicknamed the Old Marshall or Mukden Tiger, was a Chinese warlord in Manchuria in the early 20th century. ... Zhang Xueliang Zhang Xueliang or Chang Hsüeh-liang (Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chang Hsüeh-liang; English occasionally: Peter Hsueh Liang Chang) (3 June 1901 (according to other accounts in 1898 or 1900) in Haicheng County, Fengtian province of China – 14 October 2001 in Hawaii, United States... Zhang Zongchang (pinyin) (Chinese: 張宗昌, WG: Chang Tsung-chang) (1881 – 1932), nicknamed the Dogmeat General, was a Chinese warlord in Shandong in the early 20th century. ... Feng Yü-hsiang (Traditional Chinese:馮玉祥, Simplified Chinese: 冯玉祥, pinyin: Féng Yùxíang; 1882-1948) was a warlord during the early years of the Republic of China. ... Bai Chongxi in uniform Bai Chongxi (Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Pai Chung-hsi) (18 March 1893 – 1 December 1966), also spelled Pai Chung-hsi, was a Chinese Muslim general in the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China (ROC). ... Yen Hsi-shan (閻錫山; pinyin: Yán Xíshān) (1883 - 1960) was a Chinese politician who served in the Republic of China government. ... Wu Peifu (吳佩孚) (1874–1939), was a major figure in the struggles between the warlords (軍閥) who dominated China during the years 1916 to 1927. ...

Historical Warlordism in Korea

During the last years of the Kingdom of Silla, also known as the Later Three Kingdoms, various warlords rebelled against the government and were in de facto control of the Korean Peninsula. The warlordism in Korea plagued the nation until Goryeo Dynasty finally defeated and merged all the warlords and united the country once again. Silla (also spelled Shilla, traditional dates 57 BCE - 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... The Later Three Kingdoms of Korea (892-936) consisted of Silla, Hubaekje (later Baekje), and Taebong (also known as Hugoguryeo, or Later Goguryeo). ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... The Korean Peninsula a. ... The Goryeo kingdom ruled Korea from the fall of Silla in 935 until the founding of Joseon in 1392. ...


Powerful Korean warlords

Taejo of Goryeo (877-943, r. ... gung ho is derived from the sunny king of ancient Korea known as Gung Ye. ... Gyeon Hwon (867?-936, reigned 900-935) was the king and founder of Hubaekje, one of the Later Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... Ajagae was a military leader in the Sangju area during the waning years of Unified Silla. ...

Warlordism in the world today

Warlordism appears in so-called failed states: states in which central government and nationwide authorities have collapsed or exist merely formally without actual control over the state territory. They are usually defined by a high level of clientelism, low bureaucratic control and a high motivation in prolonging war for the maintenance of their economic system, mainly based on the extraction of natural resources. Failed state is a controversial term intended to mean a weak state in which the central government has little practical control over much of its territory. ...


Examples:

The Chechen Republic (IPA: ; Russian: , Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: , Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (; Russian: ; Chechen: , Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Noxçiyn, is a federal subject of Russia. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
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With the release of the Warlords of the Accordlands RPG (June 12, 2006), AEG presents the Warlord-A-Week Project!
Each week, this project will bring to you the full RPG stats of one of the Warlords from the upcoming release of the Warlord CCG's new base set, Epic Edition.
Warlord - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (629 words)
Warlord is a term that refers to one who has de facto military control of a subnational area, due to armed forces which are personally obedient to — somewhat circularly — that "warlord." The term must be clearly differed from European feudalism during the Middle Ages.
Warlordism in Europe is usually connected to various mercenary companies and their chieftains, which often were de facto powerholders in the areas in which they resided.
Warlords exercised widespread rule in China several times in Chinese history, notably in the period from the Xinhai Revolution when numerous provinces rebelled and declared their independence from the Qing Dynasty in 1911, and especially after Yuan Shikai's death, until the Northern Expedition in 1927.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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