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Encyclopedia > War on Terrorism
War on Terrorism

U.S. Soldiers boarding a CH-47 Chinook helicopter in Afghanistan during Operation Anaconda in the Shahi-Kot Valley and Arma Mountains southeast of Zormat.
Date October 7, 2001[1] -present
Location Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Horn of Africa, United States, United Kingdom, Europe, more...
Result Conflict ongoing
Belligerents
Flag of the United States United States[2]
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom[2]
[3]
Flag of Canada Canada
Flag of Israel Israel
Flag of India India
Flag of Thailand Thailand

Flag of Denmark Denmark
Flag of Russia Russia[8]
Flag of Ethiopia Ethiopia[4]

Flag of the Philippines Philippines[9]
Flag of Pakistan Pakistan
Flag of Afghanistan Afghanistan
Flag of Germany Germany
Flag of Algeria Algeria
Flag of Australia Australia[10]
Flag of the Netherlands Netherlands [5] Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... The Global Struggle Against Violent Extremism (GSAVE), a term devised in May 2005 by the Bush administration|administration of US President George W. Bush to replace G.W.O.T (Global War On Terror) as the acrononym designating US military operations across the world against various governments and terrorist organisations. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2064x1504, 509 KB) Summary Soldiers quickly march to the ramp of the CH-47 Chinook helicopter that will return them to Kandahar Army Air Field on Sept. ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... The Boeing CH-47 Chinook is a versatile, twin-engine, tandem rotor heavy-lift helicopter. ... Combatants  United States,  Canada,  United Kingdom,  New Zealand,  Australia,  Denmark,  France,  Norway,  Germany Taliban insurgents, al-Qaeda Commanders Major General Franklin Hagenbeck Unknown Strength 2,000 500–1,500 Casualties 8 U.S. servicemen killed, 82 wounded, 7 Afghan soldiers killed 500–800 [1] A map showing the pre-operation... The Shahi-Kot Valley (also Shah-i-Kot, Shah-e-Kot and other variant spellings) is a valley located in Afghanistans Paktia province, southeast of the town of Zormat. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The Horn of Africa. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... // Military/diplomatic campaigns The War on Terror is broadly agreed to be taking place in the following theaters of operation. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Thailand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ethiopia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Algeria. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ...

al-Qaeda
al Qaeda in Iraq
Flag of Afghanistan Taliban
Islamic Courts Union[6]
Jemaah Islamiyah
Abu Sayyaf[7]
Moro Islamic Liberation Front[8]
Islamic Front of the Philippines
Muslim Brotherhood
Ba'ath Party
Flag of Iraq Baathist Iraq
Commanders
Flag of the United States Tommy Franks
Flag of the United Kingdom Jock Stirrup
Flag of Ethiopia Gabre Heard
Flag of the Netherlands Peter van Uhm [9]
Osama Bin Laden
Flag of Afghanistan Mohammed Omar
Casualties and losses
Military casualties
~27,700 dead
~51,600+ Injured
More...
Military casualties
~54,114 to 58,864+ dead
More...
Civilian casualties
More than 217,000 civilians killed worldwide (exact number unclear, many accidental resulting from bombings.

The War on Terrorism (also known as the War on Terror) is the common term for the various military, political and legal actions initiated by the United States government, stated to be a response to the September 11, 2001 attacks. The official objectives are to counter terrorist threats, prevent terrorist acts and curb the influence of terrorist organizations such as al-Qaeda.[1][10] Both the term and the policies it denotes have been a source of ongoing controversy, as critics argue it has been used to justify unilateral preemptive war, human rights abuses and other violations of international law.[11][12][13] Combatants NATO and allies, represented by Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand and Pakistan Operation Enduring Freedom - Horn of Africa is the official name used by the US government for a component of its response to the September 11, 2001 attacks on... Combatants NATO, represented by Denmark Germany Greece Italy Norway Spain Turkey  Russia  Ukraine  Israel  Egypt Morocco Commanders Vice Admiral Roberto Cesaretti, Italian Navy Strength 480 ships and 84 planes Operation Active Endeavour is a naval operation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. ... Combatants Saudi Security Forces al-Qaeda Casualties 44 killed 218 wounded 129 killed 3,106+ arrested[1] Civilians: 100 killed (foreigners, Saudis) 510 wounded[1] The Insurgency in Saudi Arabia is an armed conflict in Saudi Arabia between radical Khawarij fighters, believed to be associated with al-Qaeda, against the... Belligerents Hezbollah Amal[1] LCP[2] PFLP-GC[3] Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah Imad Mughniyeh Dan Halutz Moshe Kaplinsky[4] Udi Adam Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[5] Up to 10,000 ground troops. ... Combatants Hamas Fatah Commanders Ismail Haniya Khaled Meshaal Mohammed Deif Mahmoud Abbas Mohammed Dahlan Strength Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades: 15,000 Executive Force: 6,000[1][2] National Security: 30,000 Police and Preventive Security: 30,000 General Intelligence: 5,000 Presidential Guard: 4,200 Al Aqsa Martyrs... United States Government redirects here. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... Preemptive war (or preemptive attack) is waged in an attempt to repel or defeat a perceived imminent offensive or invasion, or to gain a strategic advantage in an impending (allegedly unavoidable) war. ... A human rights abuse is abuse of people in a way that violates any fundamental human rights. ... Providing a constitution for public international law, the United Nations was conceived during World War II International law is the term commonly used for referring to the system of implicit and explicit agreements that binds together nation-states in adherence to recognized values and standards, differing from other legal systems...

Contents

War on Terrorism

See also: Terrorism and List of terrorist incidents
Countries in which Islamist terrorist attacks have occurred on or after September 11, 2001.
Countries in which Islamist terrorist attacks have occurred on or after September 11, 2001.

Terrorist organizations carried out attacks on the U.S. and its allies throughout the latter part of the 20th century, prompting occasional military responses. Following the 1998 embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania,[14] United States President Bill Clinton launched Operation Infinite Reach, a bombing campaign in Sudan and Afghanistan against targets associated with al-Qaeda.[15][16] These targets included a civilian pharmaceutical plant in Sudan that produced 90% of the region's malaria drugs. In October of 2000 the USS Cole bombing occurred,[17] followed by the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks.[18] The latter attacks created an immediate demand throughout the United States for a decisive response. It has, however, been argued that the "decisive response" has caused still more deaths through the killing of civilians. The Bush administration's use of the War on Terrorism to justify the invasion of Iraq has been particularly controversial, as the link asserted between al-Qaeda and Saddam Hussein was subsequently dismissed by every investigative body to study the issue.[19] Terrorist redirects here. ... The following is a timeline of acts and failed attempts that can be considered non-state terrorism. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... Few words are as politically or emotionally chared States Army|US Army]][1] counted 109 definitions of terrorism that covered a total of 22 different definitional elements. ... The history of terrorism is a history of the various types of terrorism and terrorist individuals and groups. ... International conventions on terrorism set out obligations of states in respect to defining international counter terrorist offences, prosecuting individuals suspected of such offences, extraditing such persons upon request, and providing mutual legal assistance upon request. ... Anti-terrorism legislation designs all types of laws passed in the purported aim of fighting terrorism. ... Counter-terrorism refers to the practices, tactics, and strategies that governments, militaries, and other groups adopt in order to fight terrorism. ... The term Red Terror may refer to: The Russian 1918-1922 Red Terror Spanish Red Terror during the Civil War Red terror (Spain) The 1977-1978 Red Terror in Ethiopia The race horse Red Terror The Red Terror, a figure in the Warhammer 40,000 game. ... It has been suggested that The White Terror (France) be merged into this article or section. ... Many organizations that are accused of being a terrorist organization deny using terrorism as a military tactic to achieve their goals, and there is no international consensus on the bureaucratic definition of terrorism. ... The following is a timeline of acts and failed attempts that can be considered non-state terrorism. ... Communist terrorism (or Communist terror) is terrorism committed by Communist organizations or Communist states against civilians to achieve political or ideological objectives by creating fear [1] [2][3] After Islamic groups, Communist groups are the largest number of organizations on the U.S. State Department list of Foreign Terrorist Organizations. ... Eco-terrorism or ecoterrorism is the concept of terrorism conducted for the sake of ecological or environmental causes. ... Narcoterrorism is a term coined by former President Fernando Belaúnde Terry of Peru in 1983 when describing terrorist-type attacks against his nations anti-narcotics police. ... Nationalist terrorism is a form of terrorism through which participants attempt to form an independent state against what they consider an occupying, imperial, or otherwise illegitimate state. ... 15:40, 25 January 2007 (UTC)168. ... Religious terrorism refers to terrorism justified or motivated by religion and is a form of religious violence. ... The Ku Klux Klan with a fiery cross Christian terrorism is a form of militant extremism that attempts to spread fear and terror, to perpetrate ideological goals, through violent attacks against civilian populations. ... Islamist terrorism, sometimes called Islamic terrorism, is terrorism that is carried out to further the political and religious ambitions of a segment of the Muslim community. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... The definitions of state-sponsored terrorism, terrorism, and state terrorism are controversial. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The term Agro-terrorism is a controversial neologism used to describe threats by a terrorist act on the food chain. ... For the use of biological agents in warfare, see Biological warfare. ... For other uses, see Car bomb (disambiguation). ... Environmental terrorism is the unlawful destruction of resources in order to deprive others of its use. ... Hijackers inside flightdeck of TWA Flight 847 Aircraft hijacking (also known as skyjacking and aircraft piracy) is the take-over of an aircraft, by a person or group, usually armed. ... Nuclear terrorism denotes the use of nuclear weapons, radiological weapons (dirty bombs), or attacks against local facilities that handle nuclear material with mass destruction in mind. ... Propaganda of the deed (or propaganda by the deed, from the French propagande par le fait) is a concept of anarchist origin, which appeared towards the end of the 19th century, that promoted terrorism against political enemies as a way of inspiring the masses and catalyzing revolution. ... The Proxy Bomb (also known as a human bomb) was a tactic used by the Provisional IRA for a short time in 1990s, whereby people were forced to drive car bombs into military targets. ... A suicide attack is an attack on a military or civilian target, in which an attacker intends to kill others, knowing that he or she will either certainly or most likely die in the process (see suicide). ... A terrorist front organization is created to conceal activities or provide logistical or financial support to the illegal activities. ... This article is about acts of terrorism. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... Terrorism is a controversial term with multiple definitions. ... In the 1998 U.S. Embassy bombings (August 7, 1998), 257 people were killed and over 4,000 wounded in simultaneous car bomb explosions at the United States embassies in the East African capital cities of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Nairobi, Kenya. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Operation Infinite Reach was a US cruise missile strike on purported terrorist bases in Afghanistan and Sudan on August 20, 1998. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... The USS Cole bombing was a suicide bombing attack against the U.S. Navy guided missile destroyer USS Cole (DDG 67) on October 12, 2000 while it was harbored in the Yemeni port of Aden. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda were alleged by some U.S. Government officials to have established a highly secretive relationship between 1992 and 2003, specifically through a series of meetings reportedly involving the Iraqi Intelligence Service (IIS). ...


In 2001 the United Nations Security Council adopted resolution 1373 which obliges all States to criminalize assistance for terrorist activities, deny financial support and safe haven to terrorists and share information about groups planning terrorist attacks. In 2005 the Security Council also adopted resolution 1624 concerning incitement to commit acts of terrorism and the obligations of countries to comply with international human rights laws[20]. Although both resolutions require mandatory annual reports on counter terrorism activities by adopting nations the United States and Israel have both declined to submit reports.


Historical usage of phrase

The phrase "War on Terrorism" was first widely used by the Western press to refer to the attempts by Russian and European governments, and eventually the U.S. government, to stop attacks by anarchists against international political leaders. (See, for example, New York Times, April 2, 1881.) Many of the anarchists described themselves as "terrorists," and the term had a positive valence for them at the time. When Russian Marxist Vera Zasulich shot and wounded a Russian police commander who was known to torture suspects on 24 January 1878, for example, she threw down her weapon without killing him, announcing, "I am a terrorist, not a killer."[21] For other uses, see News (disambiguation). ... Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Vera Ivanovna Zasulich Vera Ivanovna Zasulich (July 27, 1849-May 8, 1919) (born August 8, New Style) was a Russian Marxist writer and revolutionary. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


The next time the phrase gained currency was when it was used to describe the efforts by the British colonial government to end a spate of Jewish attacks in the British Mandate of Palestine in the late 1940s. The British proclaimed a "War on Terrorism" and attempted to crack down on Irgun, Lehi, and anyone perceived to be cooperating with them. The Jewish attacks, Arab attacks and revolts, and the subsequent British crackdown hastened the British evacuation from Palestine. The phrase was also used frequently by U.S. President Ronald Reagan in the 1980s.[22] Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... Irgun emblem. ... For other uses, see Lehi. ... Reagan redirects here. ...


On September 20th, 2001, during an address to a joint session of congress and the American people, President George W. Bush formally declared war on terror when he said, "Our war on terror begins with al Qaeda, but it does not end there. It will not end until every terrorist group of global reach has been found, stopped and defeated."


Operative definition in U.S. foreign policy

The World Trade Center, one of three sites on which the September 11, 2001 attacks took place.
The World Trade Center, one of three sites on which the September 11, 2001 attacks took place.

The United States has defined terrorism under the Federal Criminal Code. Chapter 113B of Part I of Title 18 of the Code defines terrorism and lists the crimes associated with it.[23] In Section 2331 of Chapter 113b, terrorism is defined as: Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1276x1176, 1041 KB) Public domain image of WTC from NOAA. Taken from the west. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1276x1176, 1041 KB) Public domain image of WTC from NOAA. Taken from the west. ... For other uses, see World Trade Center (disambiguation). ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly...

"...activities that involve violent... <or life-threatening acts>... that are a violation of the criminal laws of the United States or of any State and... appear to be intended (i) to intimidate or coerce a civilian population; (ii) to influence the policy of a government by intimidation or coercion; or (iii) to affect the conduct of a government by mass destruction, assassination, or kidnapping; and ...<if domestic>...(C) occur primarily within the territorial jurisdiction of the United States...<if international>...(C) occur primarily outside the territorial jurisdiction of the United States..."

With respect to defining his policy known as the War on Terror, President Bush has stated that:

"...today's war on terror is like the Cold War. It is an ideological struggle with an enemy that despises freedom and pursues totalitarian aims....I vowed then that I would use all assets of our power of Shock and Awe to win the war on terror. And so I said we were going to stay on the offense two ways: one, hunt down the enemy and bring them to justice, and take threats seriously; and two, spread freedom."[24]

British objections to the phrase "war on terrorism"

The Director of Public Prosecutions and head of the Crown Prosecution Service in the UK, Ken McDonaldBritain's most senior criminal prosecutor — has stated that those responsible for acts of terror such as the 7 July 2005 London bombings are not "soldiers" in a war, but "inadequates" who should be dealt with by the criminal justice system. He added that a "culture of legislative restraint" was needed in passing anti-terrorism laws, and that a "primary purpose" of the violent attacks was to tempt countries such as Britain to "abandon our values." He stated that in the eyes of the UK criminal justice system, the response to terrorism had to be "proportionate, and grounded in due process and the rule of law": The Director of Public Prosecutions is the officer charged with the prosecution of criminal offences in several criminal jurisdictions around the world. ... The Crown Prosecution Service, or CPS, is a non-ministerial department of the Government of the United Kingdom responsible for public prosecutions of people charged with criminal offences in England and Wales. ... Sir Kenneth Donald John Macdonald, QC, is Director of Public Prosecutions of England and Wales [1]. In that office he is ex officio head of the Crown Prosecution Service. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... The 7 July 2005 London bombings (also called the 7/7 bombings) were a series of coordinated terrorist bomb blasts that hit Londons public transport system during the morning rush hour. ... The study of criminal justice traditionally revolves around three main components of the criminal justice system: police courts corrections Nowadays, it is sometimes argued that psychiatry is also a central part of the criminal justice system. ... Within law, the principle of proportionality is used to describe the idea that the punishment of a certain crime should be in proportion to the severity of the crime itself. ...

"London is not a battlefield. Those innocents who were murdered...were not victims of war. And the men who killed them were not, as in their vanity they claimed on their ludicrous videos, 'soldiers'. They were deluded, narcissistic inadequates. They were criminals. They were fantasists. We need to be very clear about this. On the streets of London there is no such thing as a war on terror. The fight against terrorism on the streets of Britain is not a war. It is the prevention of crime, the enforcement of our laws, and the winning of justice for those damaged by their infringement."[25]

This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ...

Stated U.S. objectives and strategies

The Bush Administration has defined the following objectives in the War on Terrorism: [26]

  1. Defeat terrorists and their organizations.
  2. Identify, locate and destroy terrorists along with their organizations.
  3. Deny sponsorship, support and sanctuary to terrorists.
    1. End the state sponsorship of terrorism.
    2. Establish and maintain an international standard of accountability with regard to combating terrorism.
    3. Strengthen and sustain the international effort to fight terrorism.
    4. Working with willing and able states.
    5. Enabling weak states.
    6. Persuading reluctant states.
    7. Compelling unwilling states.
    8. Interdict and disrupt material support for terrorists.
    9. Eliminate terrorist sanctuaries and havens.
  4. Diminishing the underlying conditions that terrorists seek to exploit.
    1. Partner with the international community to strengthen weak states and prevent (re)emergence of terrorism.
    2. Win the war of ideals.
  5. Defend U.S. citizens and interests at home and abroad.
    1. Implement the Nation Strategy for Homeland Security.
    2. Attain domain awareness.
    3. Enhance measures to ensure the integrity, reliability, and availability of critical physical and information-based infrastructures at home and abroad.
    4. Integrate measures to protect U.S. citizens abroad.
    5. Ensure an integrated incident management capability.

Timeline

Timeline of the War on Terrorism: // September 11 - September 11, 2001 attacks take place in New York City, Washington D.C., and Shanksville, United States and kill 2,993 people. ...

Campaigns and theaters of operation

Main article: War on Terrorism - Theaters of operation

// Military/diplomatic campaigns The War on Terror is broadly agreed to be taking place in the following theaters of operation. ...

Africa

Horn of Africa

Main article: Operation Enduring Freedom - Horn of Africa
Main article: War in Somalia (2006–present)

This extension of Operation Enduring Freedom, titled OEF-HOA, was initiated in response to the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States. Unlike other operations contained in Operation Enduring Freedom, OEF-HOA does not have a specific terrorist organization as a target. OEF-HOA instead focuses its efforts to disrupt and detect terrorist activities in the region and to work with host nations to prevent the reemergence of terrorist cells and activities. Combatants NATO and allies, represented by Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand and Pakistan Operation Enduring Freedom - Horn of Africa is the official name used by the US government for a component of its response to the September 11, 2001 attacks on... Combatants Islamic Courts Union Hizbul Shabaab al-Itihaad al-Islamiya Alleged: Foreign Mujahideen al-Qaeda  Eritrea  Ethiopia TFG Galmudug Puntland After the invasion: AMISOM United States Commanders Hassan Aweys Sharif Ahmed Hasan Hersi Adan Ayrow Abdikadir Adan Shire Abdi Hasan Awale Mohamud Muse Hersi Meles Zenawi Patrick M. Walsh Strength... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Combatants United States, Poland, France, Canada, Pakistan, India, Australia, United Kingdom, Germany, Netherlands, New Zealand, Philippines (in the Philippines theatre only), Northern Alliance, Italy, Czech Republic, Hungary, Ethiopia, Somalia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Croatia, Albania, Macedonia, Romania, Portugal, Bulgaria, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Georgia Taliban, al-Qaeda, Abu Sayyaf, Jemaah...


In October 2002, the Combined Joint Task Force, Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) was established in Djibouti at Camp Le Monier. It contains approximately 2,000 personnel including U.S. military and Special Operations Forces (SOF) and coalition force members, Coalition Task Force 150 (CTF-150). The coalition force members consist of ships from Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Pakistan, New Zealand, Spain and the United Kingdom. The primary goal of the coalition forces is to monitor, inspect, board and stop suspected shipments from entering the Horn of Africa region and areas of Operation Iraqi Freedom.[27] Included in the operation is the training of selected armed forces units of the countries of Djibouti, Kenya and Ethiopia in counterterrorism and counterinsurgency tactics. Humanitarian efforts conducted by CJTF-HOA include rebuilding of schools and medical clinics as well as providing medical services to those countries whose forces are being trained. The program expands as part of the Trans-Saharan Counter Terrorism Initiative as CJTF personnel also assist in training the forces of Chad, Niger, Mauritania and Mali.[27] However, the War on Terror does not include Sudan, where over 400,000 have died due to state-sponsored terrorism.[28] Camp Le Monier is a United States Marine Corps Base situated in Djibouti and is home to Combined Joint Task Force Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA). ... For other uses of the term, see Iraq war (disambiguation) The 2003 invasion of Iraq (also called the 2nd or 3rd Persian Gulf War) began on March 20, 2003, when forces belonging primarily to the United States and the United Kingdom invaded Iraq arguably without the explicit backing of the...


On July 1, 2006, a Web-posted message purportedly written by Osama bin Laden urged Somalis to build an Islamic state in the country and warned western states that his al-Qaeda network would fight against them if they intervened there.[29] is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ...


Somalia has been considered a "failed state" because its official central government was weak, dominated by warlords and unable to exert effective control over the country. Beginning in mid-2006, the Islamic Courts Union (ICU), an Islamist faction campaigning on a restoration of "law and order" through Sharia Law, had rapidly taken control of much of southern Somalia. On December 14, 2006, the U.S. Assistant Secretary of State Jendayi Frazer claimed al-Qaeda cell operatives were controlling the Islamic Courts Union, a claim denied by the ICU.[30] Motto: none Anthem: none Capital formerly Mogadishu and Kismayu Largest city n/a Official languages Somali and Arabic Government Sharia Krytocracy  - Executive Chairman Sharif Sheikh Ahmed  - Shura Chairman Hassan Dahir Aweys Civil War Faction Has not declared autonomy or independence   - Established June 6th 2006 in Mogadishu  Area  - Total not finalized... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr. Jendayi Frazer Jendayi E. Frazer is the U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs, heading the Bureau of African Affairs. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ...


By late 2006, the UN-backed Transitional Federal Government (TFG) of Somalia had seen its power effectively limited to Baidoa, while the Islamic Courts Union controlled the majority of Southern Somalia, including the capital of Mogadishu. On December 20, the Islamic Courts Union launched an offensive on the government stronghold of Baidoa, and saw early gains before Ethiopia intervened in favor of the government. By December 26, the Islamic Courts Union went into a "tactical retreat" towards Mogadishu, before again retreating as TFG/Ethiopian troops neared, leading them to take Mogadishu with no resistance. The ICU then fled to Kismayo, where they are currently fighting Ethiopian/TFG forces in the Battle of Jilib. The Prime Minister of Somalia claims that 3 terror suspects from the 1998 Embassy Bombings are being sheltered in Kismayo. [11] On 30 December 2006, al-Qaeda deputy leader Ayman al-Zawahiri called upon Muslims worldwide to fight against Ethiopia and the TFG in Somalia.[31] The Transitional Federal Parliament is an interim parliament of Somalia formed in neighbouring Kenya in 2004. ... Baidoa (Somali: Baydhabo) is a city in south-central Somalia, situated 256 kilometers (159 miles) by road northwest of the capital Mogadishu. ... Motto: none Anthem: none Capital formerly Mogadishu and Kismayu Largest city n/a Official languages Somali and Arabic Government Sharia Krytocracy  - Executive Chairman Sharif Sheikh Ahmed  - Shura Chairman Hassan Dahir Aweys Civil War Faction Has not declared autonomy or independence   - Established June 6th 2006 in Mogadishu  Area  - Total not finalized... Mogadishu (Somali: Muqdisho, popularly Xamar; Arabic: ; Italian: ) is the largest city in Somalia, and its capital. ... Combatants Islamic Courts Union Pro-Islamist Militias Foreign fighters Alleged:  Eritrea Transitional Federal Government Ethiopia[1] Casualties 700 dead or wounded (TFG claim) SomaliNet 400 killed (ICU claim) [1] The Battle of Baidoa began on December 20, 2006 when the Somali Transitional Federal Governments forces (TFG) allied with Ethiopian... Mogadishu (Somali: Muqdisho, popularly Xamar; Arabic: ; Italian: ) is the largest city in Somalia, and its capital. ... Combatants Islamic Courts Union Pro-Islamist Militias Foreign fighters Transitional Federal Government Ethiopia[1][2] The Fall of Mogadishu began on December 27, 2006, when the militaries of Somalias United Nations-approved Transitional Federal Government and Ethiopia surrounded the Somalian capital of Mogadishu after a swift string of TFG... Combatants Islamic Courts Union Pro-Islamist Militias Foreign fighters Transitional Federal Government (TFG) Ethiopia Commanders Sharif Sheik Ahmed Yusuf Hassan TFG: Barre Adan Shire Hiiraale Strength 3,000 Islamic militia and foreign mujahideen 60 technicals Ethiopian tanks, artillery, MiG fighter-bombers The Battle of Jilib was a battle in the... In the 1998 U.S. Embassy bombings (August 7, 1998), 257 people were killed and over 4,000 wounded in simultaneous car bomb explosions at the United States embassies in the East African capital cities of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Nairobi, Kenya. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ayman Muhammad Rabaie al-Zawahiri (Arabic: ) or closer to the original Arabic pronunciation al-Zawahri (born June 19, 1951) is an extremist Muslim leader and prominent member of al-Qaeda, and was the second and last emir of Egyptian Islamic Jihad, having succeeded Abbud al-Zummar in the latter role...


On January 8, 2007, the U.S. launched a strike in Somalia against the suspects using AC-130 gunships.[12] The AC-130 Gunship is an armed variant of the Lockheed C-130 Hercules. ...


Europe

Beginning in October 2001, Operation Active Endeavour is a naval operation of NATO started in response to the 9/11 attacks. It operates in the Mediterranean Sea and is designed to prevent the movement of terrorists or weapons of mass destruction as well as to enhance the security of shipping in general. The operation has also assisted Greece with the prevention of illegal immigration. Combatants NATO, represented by Denmark Germany Greece Italy Norway Spain Turkey  Russia  Ukraine  Israel  Egypt Morocco Commanders Vice Admiral Roberto Cesaretti, Italian Navy Strength 480 ships and 84 planes Operation Active Endeavour is a naval operation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. ... Naval redirects here. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... For the Xzibit album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ... Damaged package The Panama canal. ... Illegal alien and Illegal aliens redirect here. ...


Middle East

Iraq

Main articles: Iraq War and 2003 invasion of Iraq

Iraq had been listed as a State Sponsor of Terror by the United States since 1990,[32] and maintained poor relations with the United States since the Gulf War. Tensions were high throughout the 1990s, with the United States launching Operation Desert Fox against Iraq in 1998 after it failed to meet demands of "unconditional cooperation" in weapons inspections.[33] After the September 11 attacks, the U.S. government claimed that Iraq was a threat to the United States because Iraq could begin to use its alleged Weapons of Mass Destruction to aid terrorist groups. For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... The U.S. list of state sponsors of international terrorism is a list, compiled by the U.S. State Department, of countries that the United States sees as sponsoring terrorism. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States, UK Iraq Commanders General Tony Zinni Saddam Hussien Strength 30,500 unknown Casualties none 600-2,000 dead Operation Desert Fox was the military codename for a major four-day bombing campaign on Iraqi targets from December 16-December 19, 1998 by the United States and United...


The George W. Bush administration called for the United Nations Security Council to send weapons inspectors to Iraq to find and destroy alleged weapons of mass destruction and for a UNSC resolution.[34][35] UNSC Resolution 1441 was passed unanimously, which offered Iraq "a final opportunity to comply with its disarmament obligations" or face "serious consequences." Resolution 1441 did not authorize the use of force by member states, thus Resolution 1441 had no effect on the UN Charter's prohibition on the use of force by member states against fellow member states. Saddam Hussein subsequently allowed UN inspectors to access Iraqi sites, while the U.S. government continued to assert that Iraq was being obstructionist. [13] In October 2002, the United States Congress authorized the president to use force if necessary to disarm Iraq in order to "prosecute the war on terrorism."[36] After failing to overcome opposition from France, Russia, and China against a UNSC resolution that would sanction the use of force against Iraq, and before the UN weapons inspectors had completed their inspections which were deemed to be fruitless by the U.S. because of Iraq's alleged deception, the United States assembled a "Coalition of the Willing" composed of nations who pledged support for a war against Iraq. On March 20, 2003, the invasion of Iraq was launched in what the Bush Administration said were the "serious consequences" spoken of in UNSC Resolution 1441. George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1441 is a resolution by the UN Security Council, passed unanimously on November 8, 2002, offering Iraq a final opportunity to comply with its disarmament obligations that had been set out in several previous resolutions (resolution 660, resolution 661, resolution 678, resolution 686, resolution 687... The United Nations Charter is the constitution of the United Nations. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with multinational force in Iraq. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ...


Saddam Hussein's regime was quickly toppled and on May 1, 2003, George W. Bush stated major combat operations in Iraq had ended and claimed victory against it. [14] But the war continued on as an insurgency against the U.S.-led coalition forces and the Iraqi police units and governing structures they installed. Elements of the insurgency are led by Sunni loyalists, who are Iraqi nationalists and pan-Arabists. Some insurgency leaders Islamists and see themselves as fighting a religious war to liberate Iraq of foreign non-Muslim occupiers and their Iraqi collaborators. [15] Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... The Iraqi insurgency denotes groups using armed resistance against the US-led Coalition occupation of Iraq. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ...


Lebanon

In July 2006, following the killing of three Israeli soldiers and the taking prisoner of two more by Hezbollah, Israel invaded southern Lebanon, intent on the destruction of Hezbollah. The conflict lasted over a month and caused the deaths of between 845[37] and 1300[38] Lebanese and 163 Israelis (119 military and 44 civilian) and wounding thousands more Israelis and Lebanese.[39] Both the Lebanese government (including Hezbollah) and the Israeli government have agreed to the terms of the ceasefire agreement created by the United Nations that began at 0500 on August 14, 2006. While the conflict is associated with the longer running Arab-Israeli conflict, prior to the declaration of the ceasefire, Israel stated it was fighting a war against terror,[40] the U.S. government stated the conflict was also a front in the "War on Terror"[41] and President Bush reiterated it in a speech the day the ceasefire came into effect.[42] Combatants Hezbollah Amal LCP  Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah (Secretary General of Hezbollah) Imad Mughniyeh (Commander of Hezbollahs armed wing)[5] Dan Halutz (CoS) Moshe Kaplinsky[12] Udi Adam (Regional) Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[6] 30,000 ground troops (plus IAF & ISC)[13... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1701 is a resolution intended to resolve the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Belligerents Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the...

Main article: 2007 Lebanon conflict

In 2007 a conflict began in northern Lebanon after fighting broke out between Fatah al-Islam, an Islamist militant organization, and the Lebanese Armed Forces on May 20, 2007 in Nahr al-Bared, a Palestinian refugee camp near Tripoli. The conflict evolved mostly around the Siege of Nahr el-Bared, but minor clashes had also occurred in the Ain al-Hilweh refugee camp in southern Lebanon and several terrorist bombings took place in and around Lebanon's capital Beirut. The terrorist group has been described as a militant jihadist[43] movement that draws inspiration from al-Qaeda.[43] The U.S. provided military aid to Lebanon during the conflict. Belligerents Lebanese Armed Forces Fatah al-Islam Jund al-Sham Commanders Michel Sulaiman Francois al-Hajj Shaker al-Abssi Abu Youssef Sharqieh # Abu Hureira â€  Strength 72,100 troops 450 Fatah militants, 50 Jund militants, unknown number of al-Qaeda bombers Casualties and losses Northern casualties: 168 killed, 400-500 wounded... Not to be confused with Fatah or Fatah Revolutionary Council. ... This article is about political Islam For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ... Many organizations that are accused of being a terrorist organization deny using terrorism as a military tactic to achieve their goals, and there is no international consensus on the bureaucratic definition of terrorism. ... The Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) (Arabic: القوات المسلحة اللبنانية ) is the military of the Republic of Lebanon. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Nahr al-Bared, Palestinian refugee camp in northern Lebanon. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... List of Palestinian refugee camps with current population and year they were established: Gaza, 8 camps, 478,854 refugees 1948, Beach camp (Shati), 76,109 1949, Bureij, 30,059 1948, Deir el-Balah, 20,188 1948, Jabalia (Jabalyia, Abalyia), 103,646 1949, Khan Yunis, 60,662 1949, Maghazi, 22,536... This page refers to Tripoli, the city in Lebanon. ... Ain al-Hilweh (variously, Ayn al-Hilweh, Ein al-Hilweh, etc. ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ... Jihad (ǧihād جهاد) is an Arabic word which comes from the Arabic root word jahada, which means exerting utmost effort or to strive. The word connotes a wide range of meanings, from an inward spiritual struggle to attain perfect faith, to holy war. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ...

Main article: 2008 fighting in Lebanon

In May 2008, Lebanon's 17-month long political crisis spiralled out of control. The unrest saw fighters from Shi'a movements Hezbollah and Amal opposing pro-government gunmen, including fighters loyal to the Sunni Future Movement Party, in several areas of the capital. The government was U.S.-backed while the Shiite militants were armed and financed by Syria and Iran. The fighting led to the fall of Beirut and the eastern Aley area to opposition forces. The 2006–2007 Lebanese political protests were a series of protests and sit-ins that began on 1 December 2006, led by groups in Lebanon that opposed the Western-backed government of Prime Minister Fouad Siniora. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... For other uses of Amal, see the disambiguation page. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ...


Saudi Arabia

One of the Riyadh compounds bombing.

The resistance against Saudi government was started since the bombing in Riyadh on 12 May 2003 by al-Qaeda terrorists. The attacks are targeting the Saudi security forces, the foreign workers, and tourists (mostly Western). The Insurgency in Saudi Arabia is an armed conflict in Saudi Arabia between radical Sunni Muslim fighters, believed to be associated with al-Qaeda, against the Saudi monarchy. ... Image File history File links This picture is from this site, Rewardsforjustice, and is in the public domain. ... Image File history File links This picture is from this site, Rewardsforjustice, and is in the public domain. ... The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a country on the Arabian Peninsula. ... Riyadh (Arabic: ar-Riyāḍ) is the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ...


Gaza Strip/ West Bank

Main article: Fatah-Hamas conflict

The Fatah-Hamas conflict began in 2006 and has continued, in one form or another, into the middle of 2007. The conflict is between the two main Palestinian factions, Fatah and Hamas, with each vying to assume political control of the Palestinian Territories. The majority of the fighting is occurring in the Gaza Strip, which was taken over by Hamas in June 2007. Fatah is United States backed and, although it won the first free and democratic elections held in the Palestinian territories, Hamas is considered a terrorist organization by the United States, United Nations and the European Union. Combatants Hamas Fatah Commanders Ismail Haniya Khaled Meshaal Mohammed Deif Mahmoud Abbas Mohammed Dahlan Strength Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades: 15,000 Executive Force: 6,000[1][2] National Security: 30,000 Police and Preventive Security: 30,000 General Intelligence: 5,000 Presidential Guard: 4,200 Al Aqsa Martyrs... Not to be confused with Fatah Revolutionary Council or Fatah al-Islam. ... Ḥamas (; acronym: , or Ḥarakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement) is a democratically-elected Palestinian Sunni Islamist[1] militant organization and political party which currently holds a majority of seats in the legislative council of the Palestinian Authority. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... This article is about the Palestinian territories as a geopolitical phenomenon. ... ... UN redirects here. ...


Central Asia/South Asia

India

Main articles: 2001 Indian Parliament attack, Terrorism in India, Terrorism in Kashmir, and 2001-2002 India-Pakistan standoff

India has had to deal with a slow but steady rise in Islamist terrorism over the course of the 1990s and the 21st century. The recent rise in prominence of several terror groups, such as Lashkar-e-Toiba, Jaish-e-Mohammed, Hizbul Mujahideen and others in Kashmir has created grave problems for the country. Major terrorist incidents in India include the 1993 Mumbai bombings, as well as Terrorism in Kashmir such as Wandhama massacre, Kaluchak massacre, Chittisinghpura massacre and others. Terrorist attacks in the rest of the country include the 2001 Indian Parliament attack, Akshardham Temple attack, 29 October 2005 Delhi bombings, 2005 Ram Janmabhoomi attack in Ayodhya, 2005 Jaunpur train bombing,11 July 2006 Mumbai train bombings, 2006 Malegaon blasts, 2006 Varanasi bombings, and the 2007 Samjhauta Express bombings. The 2001 Indian Parliament attack was a high-profile attack by Pakistan based Kashmiri terrorists against the building housing the Parliament of India in New Delhi. ... Terrorism in India can be attributed to Indias many low intensity conflicts within its borders. ... Kashmir : Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... The 2001-2002 India-Pakistan standoff was a military standoff between India and Pakistan that resulted in the amassing of troops on either side of the International Border (IB) and along the Line of Control (LoC) in the region of Kashmir. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... Lashkar-e-Toiba (Urdu: لشكرِ طيبه laÅ¡kar-Ä• ṯaiyyiba, literally The Army of Pure, also transliterated as Lashkar-i-Tayyaba, Lashkar-e-Tayyaba, Lashkar-e-Tayyiba or Lashkar-i-Toiba) is one of the largest and most active Islamic terrorist organizations in South Asia. ... Jaish-e-Mohammed (Arabic:جيش محمد, literally The Army of Muhammad, transliterated as Jaish-e-Muhammed, Jaish-e-Mohammad or Jaish-e-Muhammad, often abbreviated as JEM) is a major Islamic militant organization in South Asia. ... The Hizbul Mujahideen (حزب المجاھدین) (created 1989) is a militant group active in Kashmir. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... The 1993 Mumbai bombings were a series of 15 bomb explosions that took place in Mumbai (Bombay), India on March 12, 1993. ... Kashmir : Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... The Hindu temple in Wandhama after it was desecrated and destroyed by the terorists . ... The Kaluchak Massacre refers to an incident on May 14, 2002 near the town of Kaluchak in the Indian state of Jammu when three terrorists attacked a tourist bus from the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. ... The Chittisinghpura massacre refers to the murder of 35 adherents of the religion of Sikhism (called Sikhs) by the Islamic Fundamentalist militant group Lashkar-e-Toiba on March,2000. ... The 2001 Indian Parliament attack was a high-profile attack by Pakistan based Kashmiri terrorists against the building housing the Parliament of India in New Delhi. ... The Akshardham Temple attack (or Akshardham Temple siege) occurred on September 24, 2002 when two heavily armed Muslim terrorists arrived at the Akshardham in Gandhinagar, the capital of Western Gujarat state in India at around 1630 hrs local time. ... India map showing Delhi The 29 October 2005 Delhi bombings occurred on October 29, 2005 in the Indian city of Delhi, killing 59 people and injuring at least 200 others [1] in three explosions. ... On July 5, 2005, five suspected Islamist militants attacked the site of the destroyed Babri Mosque and the Ram Janmabhoomi, in Ayodhya, India. ... The Jaunpur train bombing occurred on July 28, 2005, when an explosion destroyed a carriage of an express train near the town of Jaunpur in Uttar Pradesh. ... Map showing the Western line and blast locations. ... The 2006 Malegaon bombings were a series of bomb blasts that took place on 8 September in Malegaon, a town in the Nashik district of the Indian state of Maharashtra, located at some 290 km to the northeast of state capital Mumbai. ... Location of Varanasi in India Map of blast locations The 7 March 2006 Varanasi bombings were a series of bombings that occured across the Hindu holy city of Varanasi in India on 7 March 2006. ... The Samjhauta Express bombings were terrorist attacks that occurred just before midnight and into the early hours of February 19, 2007, on the Samjhauta Express, a twice-weekly train service connecting Delhi, India, and Lahore, Pakistan. ...


The international terrorist netowork al-Qaeda also lends ideological and financial support to terrorism in Kashmir, with Osama bin Laden constantly demanding that jihad be waged against India. [16] and Islamic Fundamentalist propaganda groups disseminating propaganda in many countries against India with rhetoric like "idol worshippers and Hindus" who "occupy Kashmir"[17] Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... The phrase Islamic fundamentalism is primarily used in the West to describe Islamist groups. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ...


The Indian Government and Military of India have taken numerous counter-terrorist measures to combat rising terrorism in the country[18][19]. Some of these measures stand criticized by Human rights groups as being too draconian, particularly in Kashmir. Similar allegations are levelled on the militants as well [20]. In the aftermath of the 2001 Indian Parliament attack, massive troop buildups occurred in the Kashmir region by both India and Pakistan and fire was exchanged. This incident is called the 2001-2002 India-Pakistan standoff. On January 12, 2002, Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf gave a speech intended to reduce tensions with India. He declared the Pakisan would combat extremism on its own soil, but said that Pakistan had a right to Kashmir.[44] Indian leaders reacted with skepticism. Minister of State for External Affairs Omar Abdullah said that the speech was nothing new, and others said that it would 'not make any change in the Indian stand'.[45] Still, tensions eased somewhat. The Indian President told his generals that there’d be no attack “for now.”[46] The military of India, officially known as the Indian armed forces, is the primary military organisation responsible for the territorial security and defense of India. ... The 2001 Indian Parliament attack was a high-profile attack by Pakistan based Kashmiri terrorists against the building housing the Parliament of India in New Delhi. ... The 2001-2002 India-Pakistan standoff was a military standoff between India and Pakistan that resulted in the amassing of troops on either side of the International Border (IB) and along the Line of Control (LoC) in the region of Kashmir. ... Pervez Musharraf (Urdu: ) (born 11 August 1943, Delhi) is the current President of Pakistan, Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army. ...


Afghanistan

Main article: War in Afghanistan (2001–present)
Soldiers in south-eastern Afghanistan check their coordinates during a combat patrol.
Soldiers in south-eastern Afghanistan check their coordinates during a combat patrol.

In October 2001, in the wake of the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States, NATO invaded Afghanistan to remove al-Qaeda forces and oust the Taliban regime which had control of the country. On September 20, 2001 George W. Bush delivered an ultimatum to the Taliban regime to turn over Osama bin Laden and al-Qaeda leaders operating in the country.[47] The Taliban demanded evidence of bin Laden's link to the September 11 attacks and, if such evidence warranted a trial, they offered to handle such a trial in an Islamic Court.[48] On October 7, 2001 the official invasion began with British and American forces conducting aerial bombing campaigns.[49] For other uses of War in Afghanistan, see War in Afghanistan. ... Image File history File links Army. ... Image File history File links Army. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... This article is about the military alliance. ... The Taliban (Pashto: - , also anglicised as Taleban) are a Sunni Islamist and Pashtun nationalist movement[2] that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the Northern Alliance and NATO countries. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...


Pakistan

The Saudi born Zayn al-Abidn Muhammed Hasayn Abu Zubaydah was arrested by Pakistani officials during a series of joint U.S. and Pakistan raids during the week of March 23, 2002. During the raid the suspect was shot three times while trying to escape capture by military personnel. Zubaydah is said to be a high-ranking al-Qaeda official with the title of operations chief and in charge of running al-Qaeda training camps.[21] Later that year on September 14, 2002, Ramzi Binalshibh was arrested in Pakistan after a three-hour gunfight with police forces. Binalshibh is known to have shared a room with Mohammad Atta in Hamburg, Germany and to be a financial backer of al-Qaeda operations. It is said Binalshibh was supposed to be another hijacker, however the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services rejected his visa application three times, leaving him to the role of financier. The trail of money transferred by Binalshibh from Germany to the United States links both Mohammad Atta and Zacarias Moussaoui.[22] Abu Zubaydah is the highest_ranking al-Qaida leader in U.S. custody Abu Zubaydah (1973 - present) (Arabic: ابو زبيدة) was a high_ranking member of al-Qaida and close associate of Osama bin Laden. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: CSRT Summary of Evidence memo for Ramzi Binalshibh Ramzi Binalshibh (Arabic: رمزي بن الشيبة; also transliterated as Ramzi bin al-Shibh, Ramzi bin al-Shaibah, and several other ways; born May 1, 1972[2]), is a citizen of Yemen and according to the United States... This photograph of Mohammed Atta was released by the FBI in the days following the attack. ... For other uses, see Hamburg (disambiguation). ... U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) is a part of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and performs some of the functions formerly carried out by the United States Immigration and Naturalization Service, which was part of the Department of Justice. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ...


On March 1, 2003, Khalid Shaikh Mohammed was arrested during CIA-led raids on the suburb of Rawalpindi, nine miles outside of the Pakistani capital of Islamabad. Mohammed at the time of his capture was the third highest ranking official in al-Qaeda and had been directly in charge of the planning for the September 11 attacks. Escaping capture the week before during a previous raid, the Pakistani government was able to use information gathered from other suspects captured to locate and detain Mohammed. Mohammed was indicted in 1996 by the United States government for links to the Oplan Bojinka, a plot to bomb a series of U.S. civilian airliners. Other events Mohammed has been linked to include: ordering the killing of Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl, the USS Cole bombing, Richard Reid's attempt to blow up a civilian airliner with a shoe bomb, and the terrorist attack at the El Ghriba synagogue in Djerba, Tunisia. Khalid Shaikh Mohammed has described himself as the head of the al-Qaeda military committee[23]. is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Khalid Sheikh Mohammed: Prosecution Exhibit from the trial of Zacarias Moussaoui Khalid Shaikh Mohammed (Arabic: خالد شيخ محمد; also transliterated as Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, Khalid Shaikh Mohammad, , commonly referred to as KSM and also known by as many as twenty-seven aliases[1] (b. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ...   (Urdu: راولپنڈی RāwalpindÄ«) is a city in the Potwar Plateau near Pakistans capital city of Islamabad, in the province of Punjab. ... Location within Pakistan Coordinates: , Country Pakistan Province Constructed 1960s Union Council 40 UC (District Govt. ... Oplan Bojinka was a planned large-scale attack on airliners in 1995. ... For other persons named Daniel Pearl, see Daniel Pearl (disambiguation). ... The USS Cole bombing was a suicide bombing attack against the U.S. Navy guided missile destroyer USS Cole (DDG 67) on October 12, 2000 while it was harbored in the Yemeni port of Aden. ... Richard Colvin Reid (born August 12, 1973), also known as the shoe bomber, is an individual convicted on charges of terrorism currently serving a life sentence in the United States. ... The Ghriba synagogue bombing was a deadly bombing carried out in Tunisia by the al-Qaeda terrorist group on the El Ghriba synagogue. ... Djerba [1] (also transliterated as Jerba, Jarbah or Girba جزيرة جربة) is the largest island off North Africa, located in the Gulf of Gabes off the coast of Tunisia. ...


Amidst all this, in 2006, Pakistan was accused by NATO commanding officers of aiding and abetting the Taliban in Afghanistan;[50] but NATO later admitted that there was no known evidence against the ISI or Pakistani government of sponsoring terrorism.[51] However in 2007, allegations of ISI secretly making bounty payments up to CDN$ 1,900 (Pakistani rupees. 1 lakh) for each NATO personnel killed surfaced.[52] The Afghan government also accuses the ISI of providing help to militants including protection to the recently killed Mullah Dadullah, Taliban's senior military commander, a charge denied by the Pakistani government.[53] India, meanwhile continues to accuse Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence of planning several terrorist attacks in Kashmir and elsewhere in the Indian repubic, including the 11 July 2006 Mumbai train bombings, which Pakistan attributes it to "homegrown" insurgencies.[54] Many other countries like Afghanistan and the UK have also accused Pakistan of State-sponsored terrorism and financing terrorism. The upswing in American military activity in Pakistan and neighboring Afghanistan corresponded with a drastic increase in American military aid to the Pakistan government. In the three years before the attacks of September 11, Pakistan received approximately $9 million in American military aid. In the three years after, the number increased to $4.2 billion, making it the country with the maximum funding post 9/11.[55]. Such a huge inflow of funds has raised concerns that these funds were given without any accountability, as the end uses not being documented, and that large portions were used to suppress civilians' human rights and to purchase weapons to contain domestic problems like the Balochistan unrest.[56][57] PKR redirects here. ... A lakh (Hindi/Nepali : लाख, Urdu: Ù„Ú©Ú¾, Bengali: , Telugu : లక్ష, Tamil : இலட்சம்) is a unit in the Indian numbering system, widely used both in official and other contexts in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Pakistan. ... This article is about the Pakistani intelligence agency. ... Map showing the Western line and blast locations. ... The definitions of state-sponsored terrorism, terrorism, and state terrorism are controversial. ... The neutrality of this section may be compromised by weasel words. ... Balochistan, or Ballsforchinstan, Balochi, Pashto, Urdu: بلوچستان) is a province in Pakistan, the largest in the country by geographical area. ...


Waziristan
Main article: Waziristan War

In 2004 the Pakistani Army launched a campaign in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan's Waziristan region, sending in 80,000 troops. The goal of the conflict was to remove the al-Qaeda and Taliban forces in the region. After the fall of the Taliban regime many members of the Taliban resistance fled to the Northern border region of Afghanistan and Pakistan where the Pakistani army had previously little control. With the logistics and air support of the United States, the Pakistani Army captured or killed numerous al-Qaeda operatives such as Khalid Shaikh Mohammed, wanted for his involvement in the USS Cole bombing, Oplan Bojinka plot and the killing of Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl. However, the Taliban resistance still operates in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas under the control of Haji Omar.[58] Combatants Pakistan, USA Waziristan tribesmen, al-Qaeda members Commanders Pervez Musharraf Ayman al-Zawahiri (probable) Strength 15,000? 8000-20,000? Casualties 500 Pakistanis, 50 Americans 2000 confirmed The Waziristan War (2004-present) is an ongoing armed conflict that began in 2004 when the Pakistani Army began its search for... Pakistan Army Coat of Arms Pakistan Army is the branch of the Pakistan Military responsible for land based military operations. ... The Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) in Pakistan are areas of Pakistan outside the four provinces, comprising a region of some 27,220 km² (10,507 sq mi). ... Location of North and South Waziristan inside Pakistan. ... Khalid Sheikh Mohammed: Prosecution Exhibit from the trial of Zacarias Moussaoui Khalid Shaikh Mohammed (Arabic: خالد شيخ محمد; also transliterated as Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, Khalid Shaikh Mohammad, , commonly referred to as KSM and also known by as many as twenty-seven aliases[1] (b. ... Oplan Bojinka was a planned large-scale attack on airliners in 1995. ... The Wall Street Journal is an influential international daily newspaper published in New York City, New York with an average daily circulation of 1,800,607 (2002). ... For other persons named Daniel Pearl, see Daniel Pearl (disambiguation). ... Haji Omar (Urdu: حاجی عمر ) is the amir (leader) of an Islamic political organization. ...


Southeast Asia

Indonesia

In 2002 and again in 2005, the Indonesian island of Bali has been struck by suicide and car bombings that killed over 200 people and injured over 300. The 2002 attack consisted of a bomb hidden in a backpack exploding inside of "Padds's Bar," a remote controlled car bomb exploding in front of the "Sari Club" and a third explosion in front of the American consulate in Bali. The 2005 attack consisted of 2 suicide bombings, the first near a food court in Jimbaran, the second in the main square of Kuta. The group Jemaah Islamiyah is suspected by Indonesian authorities of carrying out both attacks. The 2002 Bali bombing occurred on October 12, 2002 in the tourist district of Kuta on the Indonesian island of Bali. ... The Jakarta embassy bombing took place on September 9, 2004 in Jakarta, Indonesia. ... Wikinews has news related to this article: Explosions hit Bali Map showing Bali within Indonesia A series of explosions occurred on October 1, 2005 in Bali, Indonesia. ... This article is about the Indonesian island. ... Restaurants on the beach near Jimbaran Jimbaran is a fishing village and tourist resort in Bali, Indonesia. ... Kuta Beach Kuta Beach Kuta Beach Street Kuta is a town in southern Bali, Indonesia. ...


On September 9, 2004, a car bomb exploded outside of the Australian embassy in Jakarta, killing 10 Indonesians and injuring over 140 others; despite conflicting initial reports there were no Australian casualties.[59] Foreign Minister Alexander Downer reported that a mobile phone text message was sent to Indonesian authorities before the bombing warning of attacks if Abu Bakar Bashir was not released from prison.[60] Abu Bakar Ba'asyir was imprisoned on charged of treason for his support of the 2002 and 2005 Bali bombings.[61] Currently Jemaah Islamiyah is suspected of carrying out the attacks and Noordin Mohammed Top is a prime suspect. Top is a bomb maker and explosions expert for Jemaah Islamiyah.[62] is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... Alexander John Gosse Downer, MP (born 9 September 1951) was Foreign Minister of Australia from March 1996 to December 2007, the longest serving in Australian history. ... A received SMS being announced on a Nokia phone. ... Abu Bakar Bashir Abu Bakar Bashir (also Abubakar Baasyir, Abdus Somad, and Ustad Abu (Teacher Abu) (born August 17, 1938) is an Indonesian Muslim cleric and leader of the Indonesian Mujahedeen Council (MMI). ... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ...


Philippines

Main article: Operation Enduring Freedom - Philippines

In January 2002 the United States Special Operations Command, Pacific deployed to the Philippines to advise and assist the Armed Forces of the Philippines in combating terrorism. The operations were mainly focused on removing the Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) and Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) from their stronghold on the island of Basilan. The United States military has reported that they have removed over 80% of the Abu Sayyaf Group members from the region. The second portion of the operation was conducted as a humanitarian program called "Operation Smiles." The goal of the program was to provide medical care and services to the region of Basilan to prevent the ability for members of the terrorist groups to reestablish themselves. Combatants Philippines United States al-Qaeda, Jemaah Islamiyah, Abu Sayyaf, New Peoples Army (alleged collaboration) Commanders Hermogenes Esperon Jr. ... Emblem of the United States Special Operations Command. ... Seal of the Armed Forces of the Philippines Seal of the Philippine Army Seal of the Philippine Navy Seal of the Philippine Air Force Seal of the Philippine Marine Corps The Armed Forces of the Philippines or AFP (Filipino: Sandatahang Lakas ng Pilipinas; Spanish: Fuerzas Armadas Filipinas) originated in the... The Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG), or simply Abu Sayyaf, also known as Al Harakat Al Islamiyya, is a separatist group of islamist terrorists based in and around the southern islands of the Philippines, primarily Jolo, Basilan, and Mindanao. ... Jemaah Islamiyah[1] (JI, Arabic phrase meaning Islamic Group or Islamic Community) is a Southeast Asian militant Islamic organization dedicated to the establishment of a Daulah Islamiyah[2] (Islamic State) in Southeast Asia incorporating Indonesia, Malaysia, the southern Philippines, Singapore and Brunei[3]. JI was added to the United Nations... Basilan is an island province of the Philippines located in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM). ...


North America

United States of America

United States Customs and Border Protection officers.
United States Customs and Border Protection officers.
Further information: Detentions following the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attack

A $40 billion emergency spending bill was passed by the United States Congress, and an additional $20 billion bail-out of the airline industry was also passed. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2618x1925, 1390 KB) U.S. Customs and Border Protection counterterrorism officers. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2618x1925, 1390 KB) U.S. Customs and Border Protection counterterrorism officers. ... Soon after the September 11, 2001 attacks, the U.S. government began detaining people who fit the profile of the suspected hijackers: mostly male, Arabic or Muslim non-citizens. ... Congress in Joint Session. ...


The Justice Department launched a Special Registration procedure for certain male non-citizens in the U.S., requiring them to register in person at offices of the Immigration and Naturalization Service. The National Security Entry-Exit Registration System (NSEERS, INS Special Registration) is a system for registration of certain non-citizens within the United States, initiated in September 2002 as part of the War on Terrorism. ...


Several laws were passed to increase the investigative powers of law enforcement agencies in the United States, notably the USA PATRIOT Act. Many civil liberties groups have alleged that these laws remove important restrictions on governmental authority, and are a dangerous encroachment on civil liberties, possible unconstitutional violations of the Fourth Amendment. On July 30th, 2003, the ACLU filed the first legal challenge against Section 215 of the Patriot Act, claiming that it allows the FBI to violate a citizen's 1st Amendment rights, 4th Amendment Rights, and right to due process, by having the ability to search business, bookstore, and library records in a terrorist investigation - without disclosing to the individual that records were being searched. [24] Also, governing bodies in a number of communities have passed symbolic resolutions against the act. In the United States, the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (Public Law 107-56), known as the USA PATRIOT Act or simply the Patriot Act, is an Act of Congress which President George W. Bush signed into law... Constitutionality is the status of a law, a procedure, or an acts accordance with the laws or guidelines set forth in the applicable constitution. ... The Bill of Rights in the National Archives. ... In the United States, the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (Public Law 107-56), known as the USA PATRIOT Act or simply the Patriot Act, is an Act of Congress which President George W. Bush signed into law...


In a speech on June 9, 2005, Bush said that the USA PATRIOT Act had been used to bring charges against more than 400 suspects, more than half of whom had been convicted. Meanwhile the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) quoted Justice Department figures showing that 7,000 people have complained of abuse of the Act. The ACLU also maintains that many others do not know they have been subjected to a search because the law requires that searches be kept secret. is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is an American organization consisting of two separate entities: the ACLU Foundation, a non-profit organization that focuses on litigation and communication efforts, and the American Civil Liberties Union which focuses on legislative lobbying and does not have non-profit status. ...


DARPA began an initiative in early 2002 with the creation of the Total Information Awareness program, designed to promote information technologies that could be used in counterterrorism. This program, facing criticism, has since been defunded by Congress. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of new technology for use by the military. ... The Information Awareness Office is a branch of the United States Department of Defenses Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. ...


Various government bureaucracies which handled security and military functions were reorganized. Most notably, the Department of Homeland Security was created to coordinate "homeland security" efforts in the largest reorganization of the U.S. federal government since the consolidation of the armed forces into the Department of Defense. The Office of Strategic Influence was secretly created after 9/11 for the purpose of coordinating propaganda efforts, but was closed soon after being discovered. The Bush administration implemented the Continuity of Operations Plan (or Continuity of Government) to ensure that U.S. government would be able to continue in catastrophic circumstances. The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is a Cabinet department of the federal government of the United States that is concerned with protecting the American homeland and the safety of American citizens. ... The Office of Strategic Influence, or OSI, was a department created by the United States Department of Defense on October 30, 2001, to support the War on Terrorism through psychological operations in targeted countries. ... The U.S. Government has for some time had Continuity of Operations Plans (or Continuity of Government) plans. ...


Recently the House of Representatives passed a bill enacting many of the recommendations of the 9/11 Commission, something the Democrats campaigned on as part of their "100 hour plan." The bill passed in the House 299-128 and is currently still being considered in the U.S. Senate. So far funding has not been appropriated for the enactments. [25]


International military support

Main article: Operation Enduring Freedom - Afghanistan: Allies

The first wave of attacks were carried out solely by American and British forces. Since the initial invasion period, these forces were augmented by troops and aircraft from Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, New Zealand and Norway amongst others. In 2006, there were about 33,000 troops in Afghanistan. // In January 2006, NATO’s focus in southern Afghanistan was to form Provincial Reconstruction Teams with the British leading in Helmand Province and the Netherlands and Canada would lead similar deployments in Orūzgān Province and Kandahar Province respectively. ... Spc. ...


On September 12, 2001, less than 24 hours after the terrorist attacks in New York City and Washington, NATO invoked Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty and declared the attacks to be an attack against all 19 NATO member countries. Australian Prime Minister John Howard also declared that Australia would invoke the ANZUS Treaty along similar lines. is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... This article is about the military alliance. ... The North Atlantic Treaty is the treaty that brought NATO into existence, signed in Washington, DC on April 4, 1949. ... John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939) is an Australian politician and the 25th Prime Minister of Australia. ... The Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty (ANZUS or ANZUS Treaty) is the military alliance which binds Australia and New Zealand and, separately, Australia and the United States to cooperate on defence matters in the Pacific Ocean area, though today the treaty is understood to relate to attacks in...


In the following months, NATO took a wide range of measures to respond to the threat of terrorism. On November 22, 2002, the member states of the EAPC decided on a Partnership Action Plan against Terrorism which explicitly states that "EAPC States are committed to the protection and promotion of fundamental freedoms and human rights, as well as the rule of law, in combating terrorism."[63] NATO started naval operations in the Mediterranean Sea designed to prevent the movement of terrorists or weapons of mass destruction as well as to enhance the security of shipping in general called Operation Active Endeavour. is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC), a NATO institution, is a multilateral forum created to improve relations between NATO and non-NATO countries in Europe and those parts of Asia on the European periphery. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... For the Xzibit album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ... Damaged package The Panama canal. ... Combatants NATO, represented by Denmark Germany Greece Italy Norway Spain Turkey  Russia  Ukraine  Israel  Egypt Morocco Commanders Vice Admiral Roberto Cesaretti, Italian Navy Strength 480 ships and 84 planes Operation Active Endeavour is a naval operation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. ...


The invasion of Afghanistan is seen as the first action of this war, and initially involved forces from the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Afghan Northern Alliance. The Northern Alliance is a term used by the western media, Taliban and Al Qaida to identify the military coalition of various Afghan groups fighting the Taliban. ...


Support for the United States cooled when America made clear its determination to invade Iraq in late 2002. Even so, many of the "coalition of the willing" countries that unconditionally supported the U.S.-led military action have sent troops to Afghanistan, particular neighbouring Pakistan, which has disowned its earlier support for the Taliban and contributed tens of thousands of soldiers to the conflict. Pakistan was also engaged in the Waziristan War. Supported by U.S. intelligence, Pakistan was attempting to remove the Taliban insurgency and al-Qaeda element from the northern tribal areas.[64] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with multinational force in Iraq. ... Combatants Pakistan, USA Waziristan tribesmen, al-Qaeda members Commanders Pervez Musharraf Ayman al-Zawahiri (probable) Strength 15,000? 8000-20,000? Casualties 500 Pakistanis, 50 Americans 2000 confirmed The Waziristan War (2004-present) is an ongoing armed conflict that began in 2004 when the Pakistani Army began its search for...


The International Security Assistance Force

December 2001 saw the creation of the NATO led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) to assist the Afghan Transitional Administration and the first post-Taliban elected government. With a renewed Taliban insurgency, it was announced in 2006 that ISAF would replace the U.S troops in the province as part of Operation Enduring Freedom. The British 16th Air Assault Brigade (latter reinforced by Royal Marines) formed the core of the force in Southern Afghanistan, along with troops and helicopters from Australia, Canada and the Netherlands. The initial force consisted of roughly 3,300 British, 2,000 Canadian, 1,400 from the Netherlands and 240 from Australia, along with special forces from Denmark and Estonia (and small contingents from other nations).[65][66][67][68] Logo of ISAF. Pashto writing: کمک و همکاری (Komak wa Hamkari) means Help and Cooperation. International Security Assistance Force (10) (ISAF) is the name of a NATO-led security and development mission in Afghanistan which was established by the United Nations Security Council on 20 December 2001[1] and consists of about 35... Logo of ISAF. Pashto writing: کمک و همکاری (Komak wa Hamkari) means Help and Cooperation. International Security Assistance Force (10) (ISAF) is the name of a NATO-led security and development mission in Afghanistan which was established by the United Nations Security Council on 20 December 2001[1] and consists of about 35... Elections were held on 9th October 2004, to decide upon a leader of the new government. ... The 16 Air Assault Brigade (16 AAB) is a unit of the British Army. ... The Royal Marines (RM) are the marines and amphibious infantry of the United Kingdom and, along with the Royal Navy and Royal Fleet Auxiliary, form the Naval Service [2]. They are also the United Kingdoms amphibious force and specialists in mountain and Arctic warfare. ...


Criticisms of U.S. objectives and strategies

Criticism of the War on Terrorism addresses the issues, morals, ethics, efficiency, economics, and other questions surrounding the War on Terrorism. ...

The War on Terrorism as indefinite and indeterminate

Policy experts have criticized the “War on Terrorism” as an irresponsible metaphor, arguing that “war” must by definition be waged against nations—not against broad and controversial categories of activity such as “terrorism.” Cognitive linguist George Lakoff writes: This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ... In linguistics and cognitive science, cognitive linguistics (CL) refers to the currently dominant school of linguistics that views the important essence of language as innately based in evolutionarily-developed and speciated faculties, and seeks explanations that advance or fit well into the current understandings of the human mind. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

"Literal—not metaphorical—wars are conducted against armies of other nations. They end when the armies are defeated militarily and a peace treaty is signed. Terror is an emotional state. It is in us. It is not an army. And you can’t defeat it militarily and you can’t sign a peace treaty with it."[69]

Dr. David Kilcullen, a counterinsurgency and counterterrorism advisor to Gen. David Petraeus and U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, has asserted that: Dr David Kilcullen, Ph. ... Counter-insurgency is the combatting of insurgency, by the government (or allies) of the territory in which the insurgency takes place. ... Counter-terrorism refers to the practices, tactics, and strategies that governments, militaries, and other groups adopt in order to fight terrorism. ... David Howell Petraeus (born November 7, 1952) is a general in the United States Army and commander of Multi-National Force - Iraq (MNF-I), the four-star post that oversees all U.S. forces in the country. ... The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ...

"We must distinguish Al Qa'eda and the broader militant movements it symbolises – entities that use terrorism – from the tactic of terrorism itself. In practice, as will be demonstrated, the 'War on Terrorism' is a defensive war against a world-wide Islamist jihad, a diverse confederation of movements that uses terrorism as its principal, but not its sole tactic."[70]

Francis Fukuyama, a prominent former neoconservative, has made the similar point that "The term “war on terrorism” is a misnomer, resulting in distorted ideas of the main threat facing Americans today. Terrorism is only a means to an end; in this respect, a “war on terror” makes no more sense than a war on submarines."[71] Map of major attacks attributed to al-Qaeda Al-Qaeda (also al-Qaida or al-Qaida or al-Qaidah) (Arabic: ‎ , translation: The Base) is an international alliance of terrorist organizations founded in 1988[4] by Osama bin Laden and other veteran Afghan Arabs after the Soviet War in... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... A tactic is a method employed to help achieve a certain goal. ... Francis Fukuyama Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama (born October 27, 1952, Chicago, Illinois) is an American philosopher, political economist and author. ... Neoconservatism describes several distinct political ideologies which are considered new forms of conservatism. ...


The term "terrorism" has been also been characterized as unacceptably vague. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime observes: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is a United Nations agency which was founded in 1997 as the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention with the intent to fight drugs and crime on an international level. ...

"The lack of agreement on a definition of terrorism has been a major obstacle to meaningful international countermeasures. Cynics have often commented that one state's "terrorist" is another state's "freedom fighter."[72]

Opponents critical of this inherent subjectivity point out that governments such as Iran, Lebanon, and Venezuela consistently use the term "terrorism" to describe actions taken by the United States.[73]


Further criticism maintains that the War on Terrorism provides a framework for perpetual war; that the announcement of such open-ended goals produces a state of endless conflict, since "terrorist groups" can continue to arise indefinitely.[74]. President Bush has pledged that the War on Terrorism “will not end until every terrorist group of global reach has been found, stopped, and defeated.”[75] During a July 2007 visit to the United States, newly appointed British Prime Minister Gordon Brown defined the War on Terror, specifically the element involving conflict with Al Qaeda, as "a generational battle".[76] Perpetual war is a war with no clear ending conditions. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... For others with the same or similar names, see Gordon Brown (disambiguation). ...


The "War on Terror" is also a critized as complete fraud, and a casus belli for any imperial adventures into the Middle East and anywhere else "al-Qaeda" might turn up. Lately, this means Africa, where US/UK based corporations are clashing with Chinese interests.


The War on Terrorism as counterproductive

Significant numbers of security experts, politicians, and policy organizations have claimed that the War on Terrorism has been counterproductive: that it has consolidated opposition to the U.S., aided terrorist recruitment, and increased the likelihood of attacks against the U.S. and its allies. In a 2005 briefing paper, the Oxford Research Group reported that The Oxford Research Group is a think tank, NGO, and registered charity based in the United Kingdom. ...

"Al-Qaida and its affiliates remain active and effective, with a stronger support base and a higher intensity of attacks than before 9/11. ...Far from winning the 'war on terror', the second George W. Bush administration is maintaining policies that are not curbing paramilitary movements and are actually increasing violent anti-Americanism."[77]

The South African Mail & Guardian describes research commissioned by the British Ministry of Defence which concluded: The Bush administration includes President George W. Bush, Vice President Richard Cheney, Bushs Cabinet, and other select officials and advisors. ... The Mail & Guardian is a South African newspaper that was started by a group of journalists in 1985 after the closures of the two leading liberal newspapers, the Rand Daily Mail and Sunday Express. ... Main Building - The Headquarters of the Ministry of Defence, Whitehall, Westminster, London Tri-service badge of the UK armed forces The Ministry of Defence (MoD) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for implementation of government defence policy and the headquarters of the UK military. ...

  • "The war in Iraq ... has acted as a recruiting sergeant for extremists across the Muslim world ... Iraq has served to radicalise an already disillusioned youth and al-Qaeda has given them the will, intent, purpose and ideology to act."[78]

Peter Bergen and Paul Cruickshank, research fellows at the Center on Law and Security at the NYU School of Law, have argued that the "globalization of martyrdom" potentiated by the Iraq War “has generated a stunning sevenfold increase in the yearly rate of fatal jihadist attacks, amounting to literally hundreds of additional terrorist attacks and thousands of civilian lives lost.”[79] Peter Bergen (born December 12, 1962) is a print and television journalist and author who appears as a terrorism analyst on CNN. Bergen is known for conducting the first television interview with Osama Bin Laden in 1997. ... The New York University School of Law (or simply NYU Law) is one of eight law schools in New York City, USA. It is generally considered to be among the top six law schools in the United States, and is ranked fifth in the nation by . ...


The 2007 National Intelligence Estimate issued the following among its "key judgments": National Intelligence Estimates (NIEs), produced by the National Intelligence Council, express the coordinated judgments of the US Intelligence Community made up of 16 intelligence agencies, and thus represent the most authoritative assessment of the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) with respect to a particular national security issue. ...

  • "The Iraq conflict has become the —cause celebre“ for jihadists, breeding a deep resentment of US involvement in the Muslim world and cultivating supporters for the global jihadist movement. Should jihadists leaving Iraq perceive themselves, and be perceived, to have failed, we judge fewer fighters will be inspired to carry on the fight."[80]

Double standards

Others have criticized the U.S. for double standards in its dealings with key allies that are also known to support terrorist groups, such as Pakistan. Afghan President Hamid Karzai has repeatedly stated that in the "war against terrorism," “the central front is Pakistan"; Pakistan has also been alleged to provide Taliban operatives with covert support via the ISI.[81] These accusations of double dealing regard civil liberties[82] and human rights as well as terrorism. According to the Federation of American Scientists, "[i]n its haste to strengthen the "frontline" states' ability to confront transnational terrorist threats on their soil, and to gain the cooperation of regimes of geostrategic significance to the next phases of the "War on Terrorism", the administration is disregarding normative restrictions on U.S. aid to human rights abusers." [83] Amnesty International has argued that the Patriot Act gives the U.S. government free reign to violate the constitutional rights of citizens.[84] The Bush administration's alleged use of extraordinary rendition, secret prisons, and torture have all fueled opposition to the War on Terrorism. [85] [86][87] A double standard, according to the World Book Dictionary, is a standard applied more leniently to one group than to another. ... Hamid Karzai (Persian: حامد کرزى and Pashto: حامد کرزي) (b. ... The Taliban (Pashto: - , also anglicised as Taleban) are a Sunni Islamist and Pashtun nationalist movement[2] that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the Northern Alliance and NATO countries. ... This article is about the Pakistani intelligence agency. ... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ... The Federation of American Scientists (FAS)[1] is a non-profit organization formed in 1945 by scientists from the Manhattan Project who felt that scientists, engineers and other innovators had an ethical obligation to bring their knowledge and experience to bear on critical national decisions. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience... This article needs cleanup. ... Extraordinary rendition and irregular rendition are terms used to describe the extrajudicial transfer of a person from one state to another with the intent of legally torturing them outside of the jurisdiction of a state which prohibits it. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Detention, Treatment, and Trial of Certain Non-Citizens in the War Against Terrorism The Salt Pit in Afghanistan. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ...


Decreasing international support

In 2002, strong majorities supported the U.S.-led War on Terrorism in Britain, France, Germany, Japan, India, and Russia. By 2006, supporters of the effort were in the minority in Britain (49%), France (43%), Germany (47%), and Japan (26%). Although a majority of Russians still supported the War on Terrorism, that majority had decreased by 21%. Whereas 63% of the Spanish population supported the War on Terrorism in 2003, only 19% of the population indicated support in 2006. 19% of the Chinese population supports the War on Terrorism, and less than a fifth of the populations of Turkey, Egypt, and Jordan support the effort. Indian support for the War on Terrorism has been stable.[88] Andrew Kohut, speaking to the U.S. House Committee on Foreign Affairs, noted that, according to the Pew Research Center polls conducted in 2004, "majorities or pluralities in seven of the nine countries surveyed said the U.S.-led war on terrorism was not really a sincere effort to reduce international terrorism. This was true not only in Muslim countries such as Morocco and Turkey, but in France and Germany as well. The true purpose of the war on terrorism, according to these skeptics, is American control of Middle East oil and U.S. domination of the world."[89] The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... The U.S. House Committee on International Relations (also known as the House International Relations Committee, the House Foreign Relations Committee or the House Foreign Affairs Committee), is a standing committee of the United States House of Representatives which is in charge of bills and investigations related to the foreign... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Role of U.S. media

Researchers in the area of communication studies and political science have found that American understanding of the war on terror is directly shaped by how the mainstream news media reports events associated with the war on terror. In Bush’s War: Media Bias and Justifications for War in a Terrorist Age[90] political communication researcher Jim A. Kuypers illustrated “how the press failed America in its coverage on the War on Terror.” In each comparison, Kuypers “detected massive bias on the part of the press.” This researcher called the mainstream news media an “anti-democratic institution” in his conclusion. “What has essentially happened since 9/11 has been that Bush has repeated the same themes, and framed those themes the same whenever discussing the War on Terror,” said Kuypers. “Immediately following 9/11, the mainstream news media (represented by CBS, ABC, NBC, USA Today, New York Times, and Washington Post) did echo Bush, but within eight weeks it began to intentionally ignore certain information the president was sharing, and instead reframed the president's themes or intentionally introduced new material to shift the focus.” Jim A. Kuypers is an American Academic specializing in communication studies at Virginia Tech. ...


This goes beyond reporting alternate points of view, which is an important function of the press. “In short,” Kuypers explained, “if someone were relying only on the mainstream media for information, they would have no idea what the president actually said. It was as if the press were reporting on a different speech.” The study is essentially a “comparative framing analysis.” Overall, Kuypers examined themes about 9-11 and the War on Terror that the President used, and compared them to the themes that the press used when reporting on what the president said.


“Framing is a process whereby communicators, consciously or unconsciously, act to construct a point of view that encourages the facts of a given situation to be interpreted by others in a particular manner,” wrote Kuypers. These findings suggest that the public is misinformed about government justification and plans concerning the war on terror.


Others have also suggested that press coverage has contributed to a public confused and misinformed on both the nature and level of the threat to the U.S. posed by terrorism. In his book, Trapped in the War on Terror[91] political scientist Ian S. Lustick, claimed, “The media have given constant attention to possible terrorist-initiated catastrophes and to the failures and weaknesses of the government's response.” Lustick alleged that the War on Terror is disconnected from the real but remote threat terrorism poses, and that the generalized War on Terror began as part of the justification for invading Iraq, but then took on a life of its own, fueled by media coverage.


Media researcher Stephen D. Cooper’s analysis of media criticism Watching the Watchdog: Bloggers As the Fifth Estate[92] contains many examples of controversies concerning mainstream reporting of the War on Terror. Cooper found that bloggers’ criticisms of factual inaccuracies in news stories or bloggers’ discovery of the mainstream press’s failure to adequately check facts before publication caused many news organizations to retrack or change news stories.


Cooper found that bloggers specializing in criticism of media coverage advanced four key points: 1. Mainstream reporting of the war on terror has frequently contained factual inaccuracies. In some cases, the errors go uncorrected; moreover, when corrections are issued they usually are given far less prominence than the initial coverage containing the errors. 2. The mainstream press has sometimes failed to check the provenance of information or visual images supplied by Iraqi “stringers” (local Iraqis hired to relay local news). 3. Story framing is often problematic; in particular, “man-in-the-street” interviews have often been used as a representation of public sentiment in Iraq, in place of methodologically sound survey data. 4. Mainstream reporting has tended to concentrate on the more violent areas of Iraq, with little or no reporting of the calm areas.


Military decorations

Since 2002, the United States military, has created several military awards and decorations related to the "War on Terrorism" including: The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ...

The U.S. Department of Transportation created two awards related to the "War on Terrorism" which are authorized to be worn on U.S. military uniforms: The Global War on Terrorism Expeditionary Medal (GWOTEM) is a military decoration of the United States armed forces which was created by Presidential Order of George W. Bush in March 2003. ... Afghanistan Campaign Medal obverse (left) and reverse (right). ... The Iraq Campaign Medal is a decoration of the United States military which was created by Executive Order of President George W. Bush on May 28, 2004. ... The Global War on Terrorism Service Medal is a military decoration of the United States military which was created by Presidential Order of George W. Bush in March 2003. ... The United States Department of Transportation (DOT) is a Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with transport. ...

  • "9-11 Medal"
  • "9-11 Ribbon"

NATO has also created military decorations related to the "War on Terrorism": The 9-11 Medal is a special decoration of the Department of Transportation which was first created in 2002. ... The 9-11 Ribbon is a military decoration of the Department of Transportation that was issued to both civilians and military personnel who, through service with the United States Department of Transportation, contributed to the recovery of the September 11, 2001 attacks against the United States of America. ... This article is about the military alliance. ...

NATO Medals for Yugoslavia and Kosovo The NATO Medal is an international military decoration which is awarded to various militaries of the world under the authority of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. ... Logo of ISAF. Pashto writing: کمک و همکاری (Komak wa Hamkari) means Help and Cooperation. International Security Assistance Force (10) (ISAF) is the name of a NATO-led security and development mission in Afghanistan which was established by the United Nations Security Council on 20 December 2001[1] and consists of about 35... NATO Medals for Yugoslavia and Kosovo The NATO Medal is an international military decoration which is awarded to various militaries of the world under the authority of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. ...

Casualties

Number of Persons Killed in the "War on Terrorism" as defined

There is no widely agreed on figure for the number of people that have been killed so far in the "War on Terrorism" as it has been defined by the Bush Administration to include the war in Afghanistan, the war in Iraq, and operations elsewhere. Some estimates include the following:

  • Iraq — 62,570 to 1,124,000
  • Opinion Research Business (ORB) poll conducted August 12-19, 2007 estimated 1,033,000 violent deaths due to the Iraq War. The range given was 946,000 to 1,120,000 deaths. A nationally representative sample of approximately 2000 Iraqi adults answered whether any members of their household (living under their roof) were killed due to the Iraq War. 22% of the respondents had lost one or more household members. ORB reported that "48% died from a gunshot wound, 20% from the impact of a car bomb, 9% from aerial bombardment, 6% as a result of an accident and 6% from another blast/ordnance."[93][94][95][96]
  • Between 392,979 and 942,636 estimated Iraqi (655,000 with a confidence interval of 95%), civilian and combatant, according to the second Lancet survey of mortality.[97]
  • A minimum of 62,570 civilian deaths reported in the mass media up to 28 April 2007 according to IraqBodyCount.
  • 4000 U.S. military dead (2008 26 March). 22,401 wounded in action, of which 10,050 were unable to return to duty within 72 hours. 6,640 non-hostile injuries and 18,183 diseases (both requiring medical air transport).[98]
  • Afghanistan — between 1,300 and 49,600
  • According to Marc W. Herold,[99] up to 3,600 civilians were killed as a result of U.S. bombing.
  • Joshua Muravchik of the American Enterprise Institute and Carl Conetta of the Project on Defense Alternatives question Herold's heavy use of the Afghan Islamic Press, "suspicious" tallies of other news agencies, and statistical errors in Herold's study.[100] Conetta's study puts total civilian casualties between 1000 and 1300.[101]
  • A Los Angeles Times study put the number of collateral dead between 1,067 and 1,201.
  • According to Jonathan Steele of The Guardian between 20,000 and 49,600 people may have died of the consequences of the invasion.[102]
  • Somalia - 7,000+
  • In December 2007, The Elman Peace and Human Rights Organisation said it had verified 6,500 civilian deaths, 8,516 people wounded, and 1.5 million displaced from homes in Mogadishu alone during the year 2007.[103]

The medical journal, The Lancet, published two peer-reviewed studies on the effect of the 2003 invasion of Iraq and subsequent occupation on Iraqi mortality, the first in 2004, the second (by many of the same authors) in 2006. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Joshua Muravchik is a Jewish author and a scholar at the American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research. ... The American Enterprise Institutes Logo The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research (AEI) is a neoconservative think tank, founded in 1943. ... Afghan Islamic Press (AIP) is a private and independent news agency headquartered in Pakistan. ... This just IN !!!:paris hiltons new dog. ... A leftist British journalist of minor note, known principally for his anti-American views. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ...

Further reading

Brian Michael Jenkins is one of the world’s foremost authorities on terrorism and is considered by many to be the father of terrorism research in the United States. ... Unconquerable Nation: Knowing Our Enemy, Strengthening Ourselves (ISBN 0833038931) is a book written by Brian Michael Jenkins, one of the world’s foremost authorities on terrorism. ... Alternate meanings: See RAND (disambiguation) The RAND Corporation is an American think tank first formed to offer research and analysis to the U.S. military. ... Richard A. Clarke (born 1951) provided national security advice to four U.S. presidents: Ronald Reagan, George H.W. Bush, Bill Clinton and George W. Bush, consulting on issues of intelligence and terrorism, from 1973 to 2003. ... Michael F. Scheuer is a 22-year CIA veteran. ... Michelle Malkin (née Maglalang) (born October 20, 1970) is a socially and politically conservative American columnist, blogger, author and political commentator. ... Steven Emerson is an American investigative journalist specializing in national security, terrorism, and Islamic extremism. ... The Emerging System of International Criminal Law: Developments in Codification and Implementation by Lyal S Sunga Sponsored Links International Law Most comprehensive, authoritative resource of international law info www. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hans Köchler (born October 18, 1948 in Schwaz, Tyrol, Austria) is a professor of Philosophy at the University of Innsbruck, Austria. ... Hans Köchler (born October 18, 1948 in Schwaz, Tyrol, Austria) is a professor of Philosophy at the University of Innsbruck, Austria. ... Hans Köchler (born October 18, 1948 in Schwaz, Tyrol, Austria) is a professor of Philosophy at the University of Innsbruck, Austria. ... Hans Köchler (born October 18, 1948 in Schwaz, Tyrol, Austria) is a professor of Philosophy at the University of Innsbruck, Austria. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Mohsin Hamid (born 1971) is a Pakistani author. ... The Reluctant Fundamentalist is a novel by Mohsin Hamid that was published in 2007 by Hamish Hamilton in the UK, Harcourt in the US, and worldwide in 16 languages. ...

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2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda were alleged by some U.S. Government officials to have established a highly secretive relationship between 1992 and 2003, specifically through a series of meetings reportedly involving the Iraqi Intelligence Service (IIS). ... The University of California, Los Angeles, popularly known as UCLA, is a public, coeducational university situated in the neighborhood of Westwood within the city of Los Angeles. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Times. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Steve Coll (born October 8, 1958 in Washington, DC) is a Pulitzer Prize-winning American journalist and writer. ... For other uses, see New Yorker. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For followers of Hinduism, see Hindu. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Vancouver Sun is a daily newspaper first published in the Canadian province of British Columbia on February 12, 1912. ... The Belfast Telegraph is a daily evening newspaper published in Belfast, Northern Ireland by Independent News and Media. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Center for Public Integrity is a nonprofit news organization dedicated to producing investigative reporting on public officials, government policy and its effects[1]. // Located in Washington, DC, USA, the Center for Public Integrity produces reports aimed to provide transparent and insightful reporting. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Center for Public Integrity is a nonprofit news organization dedicated to producing investigative reporting on public officials, government policy and its effects[1]. // Located in Washington, DC, USA, the Center for Public Integrity produces reports aimed to provide transparent and insightful reporting. ... The News International (ISSN 1563-9479) is the largest English language newspaper in Pakistan, published simultaneously from Islamabad, Karachi and Lahore. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Baltimore Sun is the major newspaper in Baltimore, Maryland, with a daily press run of about 430,000 copies, and a Sunday run of 540,000 copies. ... This just IN !!!:paris hiltons new dog. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... MediaLens is a media analysis website based in the United Kingdom. ... The Lancet is one of the oldest and most respected peer-reviewed medical journals in the world, published weekly by Elsevier, part of Reed Elsevier. ...

See also

Box-cutter knives were apparently used in the September 11, 2001 attacks, though such knives are not usually considered weapons. ... For other uses, see Axis of evil (disambiguation). ... The United States of America has been accused of sponsoring state terrorism by various United Nations recognized governments and by various individuals. ... The Barbary Wars (or Tripolitan Wars) were two wars between the United States of America and Barbary States in North Africa in the early 19th century. ... The Biodefense and Pandemic Vaccine and Drug Development Act of 2005 (S. 1873), nicknamed Bioshield Two and sponsored by Senator Richard Burr (R-North Carolina), aims to shortcut safety testing for new vaccines and drugs in case of a pandemic, and to protect vaccine makers and the pharmaceutical industry from... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Detention, Treatment, and Trial of Certain Non-Citizens in the War Against Terrorism The Salt Pit in Afghanistan Black site is a military term that has been used by United States intelligence agencies to refer to any classified facility whose existence or... Many Muslims in the Middle East regard the American occupation of Iraq to be part of a long-standing Crusade of the West against Islam. ... This article is about political Islam For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ... Anti-Arabism or Arabophobia is a term that refers to prejudice or hostility against people of Arabic origin. ... Persecution of Muslims refers to the religious persecution inflicted upon Muslims. ... Islam - percentage by country Map showing distribution of Shia and Sunni Muslims in Africa, Asia and Europe. ... Islam in the world. ... Criticisms of the War on Terrorism addresses the issues, morals, ethics, efficiency, and other questions surrounding the War on Terrorism. Arguments are also made against the phrase itself, calling it a misnomer. ... The Department of Anti-terrorism Strategic Studies (Italian: Dipartimento Studi Strategici Antiterrorismo, DSSA) is an Italian organization set up in 2004. ... Executive Order 12333 extends the powers and responsibilities of US intelligence agencies and directs the leaders of other US federal agencies to co-operate fully with CIA requests for information. ... Extrajudicial execution and extrajudicial punishment are terms to describe death sentences and other types of punishment, respectively, executed without prior proper judicial procedure. ... Extraordinary rendition and irregular rendition are terms used to describe the extrajudicial transfer of a person from one state to another with the intent of legally torturing them outside of the jurisdiction of a state which prohibits it. ... This article is about the body of water. ... For the United States Cabinet department, see United States Department of Homeland Security. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... The Long War is a name for the U.S. Global War on Terrorism. ... NATO AWACS Eagle Assist badge Operation Eagle Assist began on October 9, 2001 following the North Atlantic Councils October 4 decision to take measures to operationalize Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty. ... For the related controversy about data-mining of domestic call records see NSA call database. ... The Proactive and Preemptive Operations Group (aka PPOG or P2OG), is reported to be a clandestine military intelligence agency established in 2002. ... Strategic reset is a policy framework designed to stop counterproductive U.S. engagement in a fragmenting Iraq and to strengthen the United States stance throughout the Middle East. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with NSA warrantless surveillance controversy. ... Targeted killing is a controversial strategy whereby anticipated acts of terrorism are prevented by killing a person deemed to be related to those acts. ... The term unlawful combatant (also unlawful enemy combatant or unprivileged combatant/belligerent) denotes a person denied the privileges of prisoner of war (POW) designation, in accordance with the Geneva Conventions; one to whom protection is recognised as due is a lawful or privileged combatant. ... U.S.-Pakistan relations are the transatlantic relations between the United States of America and Pakistan. ... In the United States, the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (Public Law 107-56), known as the USA PATRIOT Act or simply the Patriot Act, is an Act of Congress which President George W. Bush signed into law... The Ohio Patriot Act (SB 9) is an act passed in the U.S. state of Ohio. ... Charles Clarke as former Home Secretary held primary responsibility for the Terrorism Bill The Terrorism Act is a UK Act made law on March 30, 2006, after being introduced on October 12, 2005. ... The Prevention of Terrorism Act 2005 is a British Act of Parliament intended to deal with the Law Lords ruling of 16 December 2004, that the detention without trial of nine foreigners at HM Prison Belmarsh under Part IV of the Anti-terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001 was unlawful... Combatants Algerian government Islamic Armed Movement (MIA) Islamic Salvation Army (AIS) others. ... For other uses of War in Afghanistan, see War in Afghanistan. ... War on Islam is a critical term used by some Muslims and westerners to describe some military actions by Western powers (and nations like Russia and Pakistan) as being allegedly against Muslims, prior to and after 9/11. ... This is a list of wars and man-made disasters by death toll by strange diseases. ... War on Terror, The Boardgame is a satirical, strategic board game produced by TerrorBull Games. ... For other uses of the term, see Holy War. ...

External links

Official sites by governments and international organizations
  • CIA and the War on Terror
  • FBI Most Wanted Terrorists
  • Rewards for Justice — Most Wanted Terrorists
  • Whitehouse FAQ about the "War on Terrorism"
  • U.S. Dept. of Defense News on the "War on Terrorism"
  • NATO and the scourge of terrorism
  • UN action against terrorism
  • INTERPOL and fugitives
  • US Marshals Service
General "war on terrorism" news
  • Long War Journal - The Long War Journal is dedicated to providing original and accurate reporting and analysis of the Long War (also known as the Global War on Terror). This is accomplished through its programs of embedded reporters, news and news aggregation, podcasts, and other multimedia formats.
  • Iraq Status Report - The IraqStatusReport.com Web site provides the only “one-stop-shop” on the Internet for news, commentary and analysis related to the U.S. Mission in Iraq.
  • Insurgency Research Group - Multi-expert blog dedicated to the study of insurgency and the development of counter-insurgency policy.
  • Zbigniew Brzezinski, Terrorized by 'War on Terror' -- How a Three-Word Mantra Has Undermined America (The Washington Post, Sunday, March 25, 2007)
  • UK faces a long war Janes.com, January 2007
  • The Terrorism Index — The first comprehensive and regularly updated report card on the war on terrorism. Developed by Foreign Policy Magazine and the Center for American Progress
  • The Guardian — Gunned down to impress America
  • Killed in the name of Terror — Ansar Burney to sue Macedonian govt for killing 6 Pakistanis
  • BBC News In Depth: Investigating al-Qaeda
  • The Washington Post "War on terrorism" coverage
  • This war on terrorism is bogus by Michael Meacher
  • Bush at War Part II Independent news reports by Inter Press Service
Primary legal documents
  • Findlaw Special Coverage "War on Terrorism" (court documents in .pdf)
  • Authorization For Use of Military Force Against September 11 terrorists (AUMF) US Public Law 107-40, September 18, 2001, 115 Stat. 224
  • Report on Strategic Communication (pdf) Defense Science Board Task Force, September 2004
  • counter-terrorism-law.org
Specific articles
  • Counteracting Terrorism, LNTV, August 13, 2006
  • "Pakistanis Arrest Qaeda Figure Seen as Planner of 9/11", The New York Times, March 2, 2003
Other
  • Documenting and fighting torture used in the "War on Terror."
  • Read Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports regarding the "War on Terrorism"
  • And the Gloves Came Off Douglas C. McNabb and Matthew R. McNabb,The European Lawyer, October 2005.
  • The Power of Nightmares; A three-part BBC documentary
  • Extraordinary renditions: the playwright and the president; Jeff Sommers, Khaled Diab and Charles Woolfson explore the dynamics between playwright and president as America's 'war on terror' stands in the dock.
  • Richard Clarke Speech on Streaming Video; Speech by Richard Clarke, a former member of the National Security Council, US Department of State official, March 8, 2005
  • Seminar on the Global "War On Terrorism" by the Chairman of the Cold War Veterans Association — Vince Milum
  • The Quadrennial Defense Review of 2001 by the Project for Defense Alternatives
  • The War on Terror Board Game
Video
  • The Dark Side — After 9/11 Vice President Cheney initiated an expansion of executive power, took on George Tenet's CIA for control over intelligence and brought the War on Terrorism to Iraq.
  • Macedonia Killings Video — 2002 confrontation at the US embassy in Macedonia
  • The Long War — Colbert highlights the new name for "war on terror" that the pentagon is now using.
  • The Power of Nightmares
  • [26] Documentary on Radical Islam's War against the West
Recent events
  • NPR Coverage
  • Newspaper Article describing video and photographs

This is a list of countries spanning more than one continent. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
War on Terror - Global Issues (4038 words)
Some of the definitions of ‘terrorism’ under discussion are so broad that they could be used to criminalize anyone out of favour with those in power and criminalize legitimate peaceful exercise of the right to freedom of expression and association.
The Iraq war was one such example, where among other things, the concern of terrorism was used to justify a war against Iraq, even though the terrorism links were not real.
The “war on terror” and the war in Iraq has encouraged a new wave of human rights abuse and diverted attention from old ones … while many governments are openly pursuing repressive agendas.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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