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Encyclopedia > War on Drugs
A basic economic problem of unintended consequences: Large profits and markups associated with the very illegality of illicit drugs, helps fuel the business which the "war on drugs" was constructed to stop. In this way, the war on drugs assists illicit drug trade. UK Govt report
A basic economic problem of unintended consequences: Large profits and markups associated with the very illegality of illicit drugs, helps fuel the business which the "war on drugs" was constructed to stop. In this way, the war on drugs assists illicit drug trade. UK Govt report

The War on Drugs is a prohibition campaign undertaken by the United States government with the assistance of participating countries, intended to reduce the illegal drug trade—to curb supply and diminish demand for certain psychoactive substances deemed "harmful or undesirable" by the government. This initiative includes a set of laws and policies that are intended to discourage the production, distribution, and consumption of targeted substances. The term was first used by President Richard Nixon in 1972, and his choice of words was probably based on the War on Poverty, announced by President Lyndon Johnson in 1964. Barenaked Ladies (often abbreviated BNL or occasionally BnL) is a Canadian alternative rock band currently composed of Jim Creeggan, Kevin Hearn, Steven Page, Ed Robertson, Tyler Stewart, and formerly Andy Creeggan. ... Everything to Everyone is the eighth full-length album by Barenaked Ladies and their seventh studio album. ... Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Image File history File links Drugs-PriceMarkUp2. ... Image File history File links Drugs-PriceMarkUp2. ... For the general concept, see Prohibitionism. ... Panamanian motor vessel Gatun during the largest cocaine bust in United States Coast Guard history (20 tons), off the coast of Panama. ... A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical that alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness, or behaviour. ... Nixon redirects here. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ...

Contents

History

In the broadest sense, modern War on Drugs could be considered to have started in 1880, when the U.S. and China completed an agreement (see Opium wars and Lin Zexu) that prohibited the shipment of opium between the two countries. The United States alcohol prohibition from 1920–1933 is the most widely known historical period of drug prohibition. The term itself, however, was coined in 1971 by Richard Nixon to describe a new set of initiatives designed to enhance drug prohibition. Combat at Guangzhou during the Second Opium War The Opium Wars (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Anglo-Chinese Wars, lasted from 1839 to 1842 and 1856 to 1860 respectively,[1] the climax of a trade dispute between China and the United Kingdom. ... Lin Zexu Lin Zexu (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (August 30, 1785 - November 22, 1850) was a Chinese scholar and official during the Qing dynasty. ... This article is about the drug. ... Detroit police inspecting equipment found in a clandestine underground brewery during the prohibition era. ... Nixon redirects here. ...


Timeline

1911: United States first Opium Commissioner argues that of all the nations of the world, the United States consumes most habit-forming drugs per capita. [1]


The first recorded instance of the United States enacting a ban on the domestic distribution of drugs is the Harrison Narcotic Act [1] of 1914. This act was presented and passed as a method of regulating the production and distribution of opiate-containing substances under the commerce clause of the U.S. Constitution, but a section of the act was later interpreted by law enforcement officials for the purpose of prosecuting doctors who prescribe opiates to addicts. The Harrison Narcotics Tax Act was an American law that regulated and taxed the production, importation, distribution and use of opiates. ... Article I, Section 8, Clause 3 of the United States Constitution, known as the Commerce Clause, states that Congress has the exclusive authority to manage trade activities between the states and with foreign nations and Indian tribes. ...


In 1925 United States supported regulation of cannabis as a drug in the International Opium Convention.[2] and by the mid 1930s all member states had some regulation of cannabis. Opium article from The Daily Picayune, February 24, 1912, New Orleans, Louisiana. ...


Alcohol prohibition in the U.S. first appeared under numerous provincial bans and was eventually codified under a federal constitutional amendment in 1919, having been approved by 36 of the 48 U.S. states. The amendment remains the only major act of prohibition to be repealed, having been repealed by a later constitutional amendment in 1933. Detroit police inspecting equipment found in a clandestine underground brewery during the prohibition era. ... Amendment XVIII in the National Archives Prohibition agents destroying barrels of alcohol. ... Amendment XXI in the National Archives The Twenty-first Amendment (Amendment XXI) to the United States Constitution repealed the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which had mandated nationwide Prohibition. ...


In 1937, congress passed the Marijuana Tax Act. Presented as a $1 nuisance tax on the distribution of marijuana, this act required anyone distributing the drug to maintain and submit a detailed account of his or her transactions, including inspections, affidavits, and private information regarding the parties involved. This law, however, was something of a "Catch-22", as obtaining a tax stamp required individuals to first present their goods, which was an action tantamount to confession. This act was passed by Congress on the basis of testimony and public perception that marijuana caused insanity, criminality, and death. In the United States, the 1937 Marijuana Tax Act (strictly the 1937 Marihuana Tax Act) was one of the cornerstone bills that led to the criminalization of Cannabis. ... Catch-22 is a term coined by Joseph Heller in his novel Catch-22, describing a paradox in a law, regulation or practice in which one is a victim regardless of the choice one makes[1]. In probability theory, it refers a situation similar to Heads I win, tails you...


The 1951 Boggs Act increased penalties fourfold; five years later, the 1956 Daniel Act increased penalties by a factor of eight over those specified in the Boggs Act. Although by this time there was adequate testimony to refute the claim that marijuana caused insanity, criminality, or death, the rationalizations for these laws shifted in focus to the proposition that marijuana use led to the use of heroin, creating the gateway drug theory. The term gateway drug is used to describe a relatively benign drug that can lead to the use of harder, more dangerous drugs. ...


The Kennedy and Johnson Administrations adapted relatively liberal drug policies in the 1960s. The 1960s is remembered for its "Flower Power" culture and frequent and open use of marijuana and other drugs.


1969: Psychiatrist Dr. Robert DuPont conducts urinalysis of everyone entering the D.C. jail system in August of 1969. He finds 44% test positive for heroin.[3]


May, 1971: Congressmen Robert Steele (R-CT) and Morgan Murphy (D-IL) release an explosive report on the growing heroin epidemic among U.S. servicemen in Vietnam.[3]


June 17th, 1971: Nixon declares war on drugs.[3] He characterized the abuse of illicit substances as "public enemy number one in the United States". Under Nixon, the U.S. Congress passed the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. This legislation is the foundation on which the modern drug war exists. Responsibility for enforcement of this new law was given to the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs and then in 1973 to the newly formed Drug Enforcement Administration. During the Nixon era, for the only time in the history of the war on drugs, the majority of funding goes towards treatment, rather than law enforcement.[3] This box:      The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ... The Bureau of Narcotic and Dangerous Drugs directly preceded the Drug Enforcement Administration. ... The DEAs enforcement activities may take agents anywhere from distant countries to suburban U.S. homes. ...


June 1971. The U.S. military announces they will begin urinalysis of all returning servicemen. The program goes into effect in September and the results are favorable: "only" 4.5% of the soldiers test positive for heroin.[3]


March 22, 1972 At a press conferance, Nixon recommends legalizing possession and sales of small amounts of [4]


In 1988, towards the close of the Reagan administration, the Office of National Drug Control Policy was created for central coordination of drug-related legislative, security, diplomatic, research and health policy throughout the government. In recognition of his central role, the director of ONDCP is commonly known as the Drug Czar. The position was raised to cabinet-level status by Bill Clinton in 1993. The White House Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), a component of the Executive Office of the President of the United States, was established in 1988 by the Anti-Drug Abuse Act. ... The Director of the National Drug Control Policy (ubiquitously nicknamed the Drug czar) is the head of the United States Office of National Drug Control Policy. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ...


1989 The first drug court in the U.S. took shape in Miami-Dade County, Florida Drug courts are specialized courts designed to handle cases involving offenders who abuse addictive substances. ...


On December 7, 1993, Joycelyn Elders, the Surgeon General, said that the legalisation of drugs "should be studied", causing a stir among opponents. is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Joycelyn Elders Minnie Joycelyn Elders (born August 13, 1933) was the United States Surgeon General from September 8, 1993 to December 31, 1994, most famous for her outspokenness on sensitive issues of public health. ... US Public Health Service US Public Health Service Collar Device US Public Health Service Cap Device The Surgeon General of the United States is the head of the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps (PHSCC) and thus the leading spokesperson on matters of public health in the U.S...


Cost

The U.S. government estimates the cost of the War on Drugs by calculating the funds used in attempting to control the supply of illegal drugs, in paying government employees involved in waging the war on drugs, and to satisfy rehabilitation costs. This total was estimated by the federal U.S. government's cost report on drug control to be roughly $12 billion in 2005. Additionally, in a separate report, the U.S. government reports that the cost of incarcerating drug law offenders was $30.1 billion—$9.1 billion for police protection, $4.5 billion for legal adjudication, and $11.0 billion for state and federal corrections. In total, roughly $45.5 billion was spent in 2005 for these factors.[5] The socioeconomic costs, as well as the individual costs (i.e., the personal disadvantages in income and career), caused by the incarceration of millions of people are not included in this number. Nor are the many real wars fought in the name of the "War on Drugs" included.


In 1998 the total cost of drug abuse in America was estimated at $143.4 billion.[6] This number, however, includes indirect costs and includes some costs of drug policy enforcement, and so is not directly comparable.


Effects

Drug use has increased in all categories since prohibition [7] except that opium is a fraction of its peak level, although this is not an effect of the War on Drugs. Opium itself is not used as much because opium can be refined into more effective opiates such as heroin. President Richard Nixon stated that the increased drug use in the decade before 1971 was the cause for the war on drugs. This article is about the drug. ...


Since 1937, the use of marijuana, once an activity seemingly limited to Mexican immigrants and jazz musicians,[8] has become one undertaken by up to 50% of the youth of the United States.[7] The big growth in use of marijuana happened however in the 1960s,well before the start of the war on drugs in 1971.


Between 1972 and 1988 the use of cocaine increased more than fivefold.[9] The usage patterns of the current two most prevalent drugs, methamphetamine and ecstasy, have shown similar gains.[7]


It was, however, successful in reducing the amount of marijuana being illegally imported into the country. As an unintended consequence of the War, drug smugglers turned to cocaine, which was easier to move and gave a much higher profit margin for the weight and volume of their product. It also gave incentive to U.S. marijuana growers who moved to meet the demand by increasing domestic marijuana production and improving its quality. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


A number of economically-depressed Colombian farmers in several remote areas of their country began to turn to what became a new, illicit cash crop for its high resale value and cheap manufacturing process. Local coca cultivation, however, remained comparatively rare in Colombia until the mid-1990s. Drug traffickers originally imported most coca base from traditional producers in Peru and Bolivia for processing in Colombia, continuing to do so until eradication efforts in those countries resulted in a "balloon effect". In agriculture, a cash crop is a crop which is grown for money. ... For other uses, see Coca (disambiguation). ... The balloon effect is an often cited criticism of United States drug policy. ...

Legal system targetting of cocaine-trafficing has had no significant impact on retail or wholesale cocaine prices. areas/drugs/index.asp UK Govt report

Despite the Reagan administration's high-profile public pronouncements, secretly, many senior officials of the Reagan administration illegally trained and armed the Nicaraguan Contras, which they funded by the shipment of large quantities of cocaine into the United States using U.S. government aircraft and U.S. military facilities.[10][11] Funding for the Contras was also obtained through the illegal sale of weaponry to Iran.[12][13] When this practice was discovered and condemned in the media, it was referred to as the Iran-Contra affair. Image File history File links DrugWarEffectsOnPrices. ... Image File history File links DrugWarEffectsOnPrices. ... For other uses, see Contra. ... In the Iran-Contra Affair, United States President Ronald Reagans administration secretly sold arms to Iran, which was engaged in a bloody war with its neighbor Iraq from 1980 to 1988 (see Iran-Iraq War), and diverted the proceeds to the Contra rebels fighting to overthrow the leftist and...


In 1996, 56% of California voters voted for Proposition 215, legalizing the growing and use of marijuana for medical purposes. This created significant legal and policy tensions between the federal and state governments. Courts have since decided that state laws in conflict with a federal law about cannabis are not valid. Cannabis is restricted by federal law. (e.g., see Gonzales v. Raich). Proposition 215 was a proposition in the state of California on the November 5, 1996 ballot. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... A catalog page offering Cannabis sativa extract. ... Holding Congress may ban the use of marijuana even where states approve its use for medicinal purposes. ...


Regardless of public opinion, marijuana could be the single most targeted drug in the drug war. It constitutes almost half of all drug arrests, and between 1990–2002, out of the overall drug arrests, 82% of the increase was for marijuana. In this same time period, New York experienced an increase of 2,640% for marijuana possession arrests.[citation needed] Less than 1 % of all state prison inmates are serving time for just marijuana possession. [14]


As of 2006, marijuana has become the United States of America's biggest cash crop.[15]


United States domestic policy

For U.S. public policy purposes, drug abuse is any personal use of a drug contrary to law. The definition includes otherwise-legal pharmaceuticals if they are obtained by illegal means or used for non-medicinal purposes. This differs from what mental health professionals classify as drug abuse per the DSM-IV, which is defined as more problematic drug misuse, both of which are different from drug use. Image File history File links DEA_Operation_Mallorca,_2005. ... The DEAs enforcement activities may take agents anywhere from distant countries to suburban U.S. homes. ... Comparison of the perceived harm for various psychoactive drugs from a poll among medical psychiatrists specialized in addiction treatment[1] This article is an overview of the nontherapeutic use of alcohol and drugs of abuse. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, published by the American Psychiatric Association, is the handbook used most often in diagnosing mental disorders in the United States and other countries. ... Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational rather than medical or spiritual purposes, although the distinction is not always clear. ...


In 1994, it was reported that the War on Drugs results in the incarceration of one million Americans each year.[16] Of the related drug arrests, about 225,000 are for simple possession of marijuana, the fourth most common cause of arrest in the United States.[17] In the 1980s, while the number of arrests for all crimes was rising 28%, the number of arrests for drug offenses rose 126%.[18] The United States has a higher proportion of its population incarcerated than any other country in the world for which reliable statistics are available, reaching a total of 2.2 million inmates in the U.S. in 2005. The U.S. Dept. of Justice, reporting on the effects of state initiatives, has stated that, from 1990 through 2000, "the increasing number of drug offenses accounted for 27% of the total growth among black inmates, 7% of the total growth among Hispanic inmates, and 15% of the growth among white inmates." In addition, the United States provides for the deportation of many non-citizens convicted of drug offenses.[19] Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ...


United States foreign policy

The United States has also initiated a number of military actions as part of its War on Drugs, such as the 1989 invasion of Panama codenamed Operation Just Cause involving 25,000 American troops. The U.S. alleged that Gen. Manuel Noriega, head of government of Panama, was involved in drug trafficking in Panama. As part of Plan Colombia, the U.S. has funded coca eradication through private contractors such as DynCorp and helped train the Colombian armed forces to eradicate coca and fight left-wing guerrillas such as the FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia) and right-wing paramilitaries such as the AUC (United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia), both of which have been accused of participating in the illegal drug trade in their areas of influence. Private U.S. enterprises have signed contracts to carry out anti-drug activities as part of Plan Colombia. DynCorp, the largest private company involved, was among those contracted by the State Department, while others signed contracts with the Defense Department.[20] Plan Colombia is a controversial initiative aimed at resolving the ongoing, fifty-year civil war in Colombia. ... Plan Patriota is military plan developed by the Government of Colombia with the financial support and approval of the Government of the United States in an effort to uproot the guerrilla groups in Colombia, more specifically the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and the National Liberation Army (ELN). ... Combatants United States Panama Commanders General Carl W. Stiner Manuel Noriega Strength 27,684+ 3,000+ Casualties 23 Dead, 324 Wounded 450 Military, 200-4,000 Civilian U.S. Army 7th Infantry Division (light) soldiers prepare to take La Comandancia in the El Chorrillo neighborhood of Panama City, December 1989. ... For other persons named Noriega, see Noriega (disambiguation). ... Plan Colombia is a controversial initiative aimed at resolving the ongoing, fifty-year civil war in Colombia. ... Coca eradication is a controversial strategy strongly promoted by the United States government as part of its War on Drugs to eliminate the cultivation of coca, a plant whose leaves are not only traditionally used by indigenous cultures but also, in modern society, in the manufacture of cocaine. ... DynCorp International is a U.S.-based private military contractor (PMC). ... The FARC-EPs flag The Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia – Ejército del Pueblo (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia – Peoples Army, or FARC-EP) is a militant and revolutionary guerrilla group established in 1964-1966 as the military wing of the Colombian Communist Party, and is Colombias... AUC is a Latin abbreviation for calculation of dates. ... DynCorp International is a U.S.-based private military contractor (PMC). ...


In 2000, the Clinton administration initially waived all but one of the human rights conditions attached to Plan Colombia, considering such aid as crucial to national security at the time.[21] Subsequently, the U.S. government certified that the Colombian government had taken steps to improve respect for human rights and to prosecute abusers among its security forces.[22] The U.S. has later denied aid to individual Colombian military units accused of such abuses, such as the Palanquero Air Force base and the Army's XVII Brigade.[23][24] Opponents of aid given to the Colombian military as part of the War on Drugs argue that the U.S. and Colombian governments primarily focus on fighting the guerrillas, devoting less attention to the paramilitaries although these have a greater degree of participation in the illicit drug industry. Critics argue that Human Rights Watch, congressional committees and other entities have documented the existence of connections between members of the Colombian military and the AUC, and that Colombian military personnel have committed human rights abuses which would make them ineligible for U.S. aid under current laws. Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


In January 2007, U.S. Attorney General Alberto Gonzales met in Mexico with his counterpart Eduardo Medina-Mora Icaza to discuss ways to stem growing drug-related violence in Mexican border towns associated with the illegal drug trade to America. More than 2,000 Mexicans died in gangland-style killings in 2006, prompting a petition by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration to open new offices in Nuevo Laredo, Matamoros, and Nogales. The requested expansion would bring the total number of Mexican offices to 11 and increase the number of DEA agents from 81 to nearly 100.[25] Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Seal of the United States Department of Justice The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see 28 U.S.C. Â§ 503) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Alberto Gonzales (born August 4, 1955), is the 80th and current Attorney General of the United States. ... Eduardo Medina-Mora Icaza is a Mexican lawyer who is the current Secretary of Public Safety in Mexico. ... A border town is a town close to the boundary between two countries, states or regions. ... Panamanian motor vessel Gatun during the largest cocaine bust in United States Coast Guard history (20 tons), off the coast of Panama. ... Mara Salvatrucha suspect bearing gang tattoos is handcuffed. ... The DEAs enforcement activities may take agents anywhere from distant countries to suburban U.S. homes. ... Motto: Siempre Con La Patria Settled 1847 Government  - Presidente Municipal Daniel Peña Area  - City 1,334. ... Matamoros is a city in the north of the Mexican state of Tamaulipas. ... Mural on the Nogales, Sonora side of the US-Mexico border. ...


U.S. government alleged involvement in cocaine trafficking

A lawsuit filed in 1986 by two journalists represented by the Christic Institute, alleged that the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and other parties were engaged in criminal acts, including financing the purchase of arms with the proceeds of cocaine sales.[26] For other uses, see Journalist (disambiguation). ... The Christic Institute was a liberal public interest law firm founded in 1980 by Daniel Sheehan, his wife, Sara Nelson and their partner, William J. Davis, who was a Jesuit priest. ... CIA redirects here. ...


Senator John Kerry's 1988 U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations report on Contra drug links, which was released on April 20, 1989, concluded that members of the U.S. State Department "who provided support for the Contras were involved in drug trafficking...and elements of the Contras themselves knowingly received financial and material assistance from drug traffickers."[11] The report went on to say that "the Contra drug links included...payments to drug traffickers by the U.S. State Department of funds authorized by the Congress for humanitarian assistance to the Contras, in some cases after the traffickers had been indicted by federal law enforcement agencies on drug charges, in others while traffickers were under active investigation by these same agencies." The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts, in his fourth term of office. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations is a standing committee of the United States Senate. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


In 1996, journalist Gary Webb published reports in the San Jose Mercury News,[27] and later in his book Dark Alliance,[28] detailing how Contras had distributed crack cocaine into Los Angeles to fund weapons purchases. These reports were initially attacked by various other newspapers, which attempted to debunk the link, citing official reports that apparently cleared the CIA. Gary Webb Gary Webb (August 31, 1955 – December 10, 2004) was a controversial American investigative journalist, best known for his 1996 Dark Alliance investigative report series, written for the San Jose Mercury News. ... The Mercs sections vary by day of the week, but Business, Sports, and The Valley are standard daily fare. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... A pile of crack cocaine ‘rocks’. Crack cocaine is a solid, smokeable form of cocaine and is a highly addictive drug popular for its intense psychoactive high. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ...


In 1998, CIA Inspector General Frederick Hitz published a two-volume report[29] that substantiated many of Webb's claims, and described how 50 contras and contra-related entities involved in the drug trade had been protected from law enforcement activity by the Reagan-Bush administration, and documented a cover-up of evidence relating to these activities. The report also showed that the National Security Council was aware of these activities. A report later that same year by the Justice Department Inspector General also came to similar conclusions. Inspector General is a fact finding officer whose responsibility is to investigate charges of corruption, fraud, waste and abuse and other complaints regarding government officials. ... Frederick Hitz served as Inspector General of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) from 1990 until May 1998. ... For the band, see The Police. ... Headed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan from 1981 to 1989, the Reagan Administration was conservative, steadfastly anti-Communist and in favor of tax cuts and smaller government. ... Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building, Washington, D.C. For animal rights group, see Justice Department (JD) The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the...


U.S.-sponsored heroin production and smuggling

In the 1980s, top U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) officials believed that they would never be able to justify a multibillion-dollar budget from the U.S. government to fund the Afghan Muslim radicals, the mujahideen, in their fight against the Soviet army, which had occupied Afghanistan. As a result, the Mujahideen decided to generate funds through the poppy-rich Afghan soil and heroin production and smuggling to finance the Afghan war creating the notorious Pashtun Mafia. Ayub Afridi, a radical Pashtun Muslim leader and drug baron, was the kingpin of this plan.[30] The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ...


Criticism

Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ...

Legitimacy

We're playing with half a deck as long as we tolerate that the cardinals of government and science should dictate where human curiousity can legitimately send its attention and where it can not. It's an essentially preposterous situation. It is essentially a civil rights issue, because what we're talking about here is the repression of a religious sensibility. In fact, not a religious sensibility, the religious sensibility.

Terence McKenna in: Non-Ordinary States Through Vision Plants, Sound Photosynthesis, Mill Valley CA., 1988, ISBN 1-569-64709-7

For the Canadian writer, actor, producer & director, see Terence McKenna (film producer). ...

Legality

In his essay The Drug War and the Constitution,[31] Libertarian philosopher Paul Hager makes the case that the War on Drugs in the United States is an illegal form of prohibition, which violates the principles of a limited government embodied in the Constitution. Alcohol prohibition required amending the Constitution, because this was not a power granted to the federal government. Hager asserts if this is true, then marijuana prohibition should likewise require a Constitutional amendment. Detroit police inspecting equipment found in a clandestine underground brewery during the prohibition era. ... Amendment XVIII in the National Archives Prohibition agents destroying barrels of alcohol. ... For the general concept, see Prohibitionism. ...


Federalist argument

In her dissent in Gonzales v. Raich, Justice Sandra Day O'Connor argued that drug prohibition is an improper usurpation of the power to regulate interstate commerce, and the power to prohibit should be reserved by the states. In the same case, Justice Clarence Thomas wrote a stronger dissent expressing the similar idea. Holding Congress may ban the use of marijuana even where states approve its use for medicinal purposes. ... Sandra Day OConnor (born March 26, 1930) is an American jurist who was the first woman to serve as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. ... Article I, Section 8, Clause 3 of the United States Constitution, known as the Commerce Clause, states that Congress has the exclusive authority to manage trade activities between the states and with foreign nations and Indian tribes. ... In American politics and constitutional law, states rights are guaranteed by the Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, (i. ... Clarence Thomas (born June 23, 1948) is an American jurist and has been an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States since 1991. ...


Substantive due process

There is the argument that the War on Drugs in United States violates the implicit rights within the substantive due process doctrine, that the drug laws achieve no reasonable state interest while arbitrarily restrict a person's liberty under the Fifth and the Fourteenth Amendment. One proponent of this notion is attorney Warren Redlich.[32] Due process of law is a legal concept that ensures the government will respect all of a persons legal rights instead of just some or most of those legal rights, when the government deprives a person of life, liberty, or property. ...


The substantive due process is sometimes used in medical marijuana cases. NORML once wrote in an amicus brief on United States v. Oakland Cannabis Buyers' Cooperative that the right to use medical marijuana to save one's life is within the rights established by the substantive due process.[33] However, the Supreme Court, in an opinion by Justice Clarence Thomas did not accept the argument and ruled against the medical marijuana dispensaries. Cannabis sativa extract. ... The National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws or NORML (pronounced normal) is a US-based non-profit corporation founded in 1970 to, according to their most recent mission statement, move public opinion sufficiently to achieve the repeal of marijuana prohibition so that the responsible use of cannabis by... Definition and Explanation: Amicus curiæ (Latin for friend of the court; plural amici curiæ) briefs are legal documents filed by non-litigants in appellate court cases, which include additional information or arguments that those outside parties wish to have considered in that particular case. ... Holding There is no medical necessity defense to a charge under the Controlled Substances Act, 21 U.S.C. § 841 et seq. ... Cannabis sativa extract. ...


Some opponents of the substantive due process doctrine who support the War on Drugs have also noted that the doctrine can potentially lead to the invalidation of drug laws.[34][35]


Efficacy

USS Rentz (FFG-46) combats a fire set by drug smugglers trying to escape and destroy evidence.
USS Rentz (FFG-46) combats a fire set by drug smugglers trying to escape and destroy evidence.

Richard Davenport-Hines, in his book The Pursuit of Oblivion (W.W. Norton & Company, 2001), criticized the efficacy of the War on Drugs by pointing out: USS Rentz (FFG-46), an Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigate, is a ship of the United States Navy named for Commander George S. Rentz (1882–1942). ... Richard Davenport-Hines is a British writer best known for his biography of the poet W. H. Auden. ...

10–15% of illicit heroin and 30% of illicit cocaine is intercepted. Drug traffickers have gross profit margins of up to 300%. At least 75% of illicit drug shipments would have to be intercepted before the traffickers' profits were hurt.

Dr. V's Private Hell is popular in the community access audience advocating for the total legalization of all drugs with a libertarian reasoning. He also discusses how Cannabis sativa is considerably less dangerous to your health than most pharmaceuticals on that market.


Alberto Fujimori, president of Peru from 1990–2000, described U.S. foreign drug policy as "failed" on grounds that "for 10 years, there has been a considerable sum invested by the Peruvian government and another sum on the part of the American government, and this has not led to a reduction in the supply of coca leaf offered for sale. Rather, in the 10 years from 1980 to 1990, it grew 10-fold."[36] Alberto Kenya Fujimori (Spanish IPA: , Japanese IPA: ) (born in Lima, Peru on July 28, 1938), also known as Kenya Fujimori ) was President of Peru from July 28, 1990 to November 17, 2000. ...


Critics often note that during alcohol prohibition, alcohol use initially fell but began to increase as early as 1922. It has been extrapolated that even if prohibition hadn't been repealed in 1933, alcohol consumption would have quickly surpassed pre-prohibition levels [37]. They argue that the War on Drugs uses similar measures and is no more effective. In the six years from 2000–2006, the USA spent $4.7 billion on Plan Colombia, an effort to eradicate coca production in Colombia. The main result of this effort was to shift coca production into more remote areas and force other forms of adaptation. The overall acreage cultivated for coca in Colombia at the end of the six years was found to be the same, after the U.S. Drug Czar's office announced a change in measuring methodology in 2005 and included new areas in its surveys.[38] Cultivation in the neighboring countries of Peru and Bolivia actually increased.[39] Detroit police inspecting equipment found in a clandestine underground brewery during the prohibition era. ... Plan Colombia is a controversial initiative aimed at resolving the ongoing, fifty-year civil war in Colombia. ...


Similar lack of efficacy is observed in other countries pursuing similar[citation needed] policies. In 1994, 28.5% of Canadians reported having consumed illicit drugs in their life; by 2004, that figure had risen to 45%. 73% of the $368 million spent by the Canadian government on targeting illicit drugs in 2004–2005 went toward law enforcement rather than treatment, prevention or harm reduction.[40]


"War" as a propaganda term

The phrase "War on Drugs" has been condemned as being propaganda to justify military or paramilitary operations under the guise of a noble cause. [41] Noam Chomsky points out[citation needed] that the term is an example of synecdoche referring to operations against suspected producers, traders and/or users of certain substances. 1967 Chinese propaganda poster from the Cultural Revolution. ... Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. ... Synecdoche is a figure of speech in which: a term denoting a part of something is used to refer to the whole thing, or a term denoting a thing (a whole) is used to refer to part of it, or a term denoting a specific class of thing (a species... This page lists direct English translations of common Latin phrases, such as veni vidi vici and et cetera. ...


This form of language was previously used in Lyndon B. Johnson's "war on poverty", and later by George W. Bush's "War on Terrorism". The word "war" is used to invoke a state of emergency, although the target and methods of the campaign is largely unlike that of a regular war. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The War on Terrorism (also known as the War on Terror) is campaign begun by the Bush administration which includes various military, political, and legal actions taken to ostensibly curb the spread of terrorism following the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ...


Children involved in the illegal drug trade

The U.S. government's most recent 2005 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) reported that nationwide over 800,000 adolescents ages 12–17 sold illegal drugs during the 12 months preceding the survey. [2] The 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that nationwide 25.4% of students had been offered, sold, or given an illegal drug by someone on school property. The prevalence of having been offered, sold, or given an illegal drug on school property ranged from 15.5% to 38.7% across state CDC surveys (median: 26.1%) and from 20.3% to 40.0% across local surveys (median: 29.4%).[42]


Despite over $7 billion spent annually towards arresting[43] and prosecuting nearly 800,000 people across the country for marijuana offenses in 2005 (FBI Uniform Crime Reports), the federally-funded Monitoring the Future Survey reports about 85% of high school seniors find marijuana “easy to obtain.” That figure has remained virtually unchanged since 1975, never dropping below 82.7% in three decades of national surveys.[44]


Hindrance to legitimate research

The scientific community[citation needed] has criticized U.S. drug policy as being "outdated,"[45] and a hindrance to legitimate medical and scientific research efforts. For example, the U.S. government's classification of marijuana as a Schedule 1 drug (having no medicinal value) is contradicted by the journal Nature Medicine:[46] Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... Nature Medicine (Nat Med; ISSN 1078-8956) is an academic journal publishing research articles, reviews, news and commentaries in the biomedical area, including both basic research and early-phase clinical research. ...

the endocannabinoid system has an important role in nearly every important paradigm of pain, in memory, in neurodegeneration and in inflammation;" although this quote refers to endogenous cannabinoids (cannabinoids made from the body itself and not taken in from the outside of the body), research on cannabinoids from secondary sources such as the cannabis plant has shown them to have legitimate medical uses.

Cannabinoids are a group of chemicals which activate the bodys cannabinoid receptors. ...

Racial inequities in prosecution

The social consequences of the drug war have been widely criticized by such organizations as the American Civil Liberties Union as being racially biased against minorities and disproportionately responsible for the exploding United States prison population. According to a report commissioned by the Drug Policy Alliance, and released in March 2006 by the Justice Policy Institute, America's "Drug-Free Zones" are ineffective at keeping youths away from drugs, and instead create strong racial disparities in the judicial system.[47] The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is an American organization consisting of two separate entities: the ACLU Foundation, a non-profit organization that focuses on litigation and communication efforts, and the American Civil Liberties Union which focuses on legislative lobbying and does not have non-profit status. ... This article or section should be merged with Prisons in the United States The prison population of the United States is in a constant state of flux, increasing or decreasing based on a number of factors, including the number of arrests, length of prison sentences, parole, legislation to determine what... The Drug Policy Alliance is a New York City-based non-profit organization with the principal goal of ending the American War on Drugs. Its publicly-stated goals include nationwide availability of medicinal marijuana, the creation of drug-related public health measures, ending abuses of asset forfeiture, repealing non-violent... Drug-free school zone is a term used in the United States to denote an area within a certain distance, most commonly 1,000 feet, of the nearest school, park, or other public area. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota...


Environmental consequences

Environmental consequences of the drug war, resulting from US-backed aerial fumigation of drug-growing operations in third world countries, have been criticized as detrimental to some of the world's most fragile ecosystems;[48] the same aerial fumigation practices are further credited with causing health problems in local populations.[49]


Impact on growers

The US's coca eradication policy has been criticised for its negative impact on the livelihood of coca growers in South America. In many areas of South America the coca leaf has traditionally been chewed and used in tea and for religious, medicinal and nutritional purposes by locals. For this reason many insist that the illegality of traditional coca cultivation is unjust. In many areas the US government and military has forced the eradication of coca without providing for any meaningful alternate crop for farmers. The status of coca and coca growers has become an intense political issue in several countries, particularly in Bolivia, where the president, Evo Morales, a former coca growers' union leader, has promised to legalise the traditional cultivation and use of coca. South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Juan Evo Morales Ayma (born October 26, 1959 in Orinoca, Oruro), popularly known as Evo (pronounced ), is the President of Bolivia, and has been declared the countrys first fully indigenous head of state since the Spanish Conquest in 470 years. ...


In Afghanistan, the implementation of costly poppy eradication policies by the international community, and in particular the United States since their military intervention in 2001, have led[citation needed] to poverty and discontent on the part of the rural community, especially in the south of the country where alternative development policies have not been put in place to replace livelihoods lost through eradication. Furthermore, poppy cultivation has dramatically increased since 2003 as has support for anti-government elements. Although alternative policies such as controlled opium licensing have been suggested and are supported by many in Afghanistan and abroad, government leaders have still to move away from harmful eradication schemes. Opium licensing is a policy instrument used to counter illegal drug cultivation and production. ...


Government's war against the people

In their book Multitude, Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri oppose the view that the use of the term "war" is only metaphorical: they analyse the War on Drugs as part of a global war of a biopolitical nature. Like the War on Terrorism, the War on Drugs is a true war, waged by the US government against its own people.[50] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Antonio (Toni) Negri (born August 1, 1933) is an Italian Marxist political philosopher. ... Biopower was a term originally coined by French philosopher Michel Foucault to refer to the practice of modern states and their regulation of their subjects through an explosion of numerous and diverse techniques for achieving the subjugations of bodies and the control of populations. Foucault first used it in his...


Richard Lawrence Miller's Drug Warriors and Their Prey draws detailed comparisons of the War on Drugs in the United States today with events in 1930s Germany that led to Hitler's Third Reich and the attempted destruction of the Jewish people. Miller writes that "authoritarians are manufacturing and manipulating public fears about drug use in order to create a police state where a much broader agenda of social control can be implemented, using government power to determine what movies we may watch, determine who we may love and how we may love them, determine whether we may or must pray to a deity. I believe the war on drug users masks a war on democracy."[51] Hitler redirects here. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ...


Innocent Victims

Peter Guthier in his Drug War Victims blog posted at Salon lists dozens of people who have been killed by law enforcement and the DEA, without having been convicted of any crime. Many of them were not even suspects, nor had been using drugs at all. These include a 35-year-old Christian missionary and her seven-month-old infant daughter, both killed (and her husband and son seriously injured) in April of 2001 when the Cessna airplane carrying them and other missionaries was shot out of the sky over Peru due to faulty information from the DEA. Others include an eleven-year-old boy who was shot in the back by a SWAT team after following their instructions and lying on the ground, and an elderly woman frightened into a fatal heart attack when law enforcement officers burst into her home unannounced in the middle of the night, setting off flash grenades — they had the wrong address. Several were cases of people defending themselves and families against what they thought were burglars or rapists, but which were actually law enforcement, with the police killing them in retaliation. For the band, see The Police. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... This article is about the year. ... Cessna Aircraft Company, headquartered in Wichita, Kansas, is a manufacturer of general aviation aircraft, from small two-seat, single-engine aircraft to business jets. ...


War on drugs as cyclic creation of a permanent underclass

Since illegal drug use has been blamed for feeding the growth of the underclass, this has caused prohibitionists[citation needed] to call for further increases in certain drug-crime penalties, even though some of these disrupt opportunities for drug users to advance in society in socially acceptable ways. It has been argued by Blumenson and Nilsen that this causes a vicious cycle: since penalties for drug crimes among youth almost always involve semi-permanent removal from opportunities for education, and later involve creation of criminal records which make employment far more difficult, that the "war on drugs" has in fact resulted in the creation of a permanent underclass of people who have few education or job opportunities, often as a result of being punished for drug offenses which in turn have resulted from attempts to earn a living in spite of having no education or job opportunities.[52]


A different view on the War on Drugs - Nils Bejerot

The founder[53] of the present Swedish anti drug strategy, professor Nils Bejerot (1921-1988) argued that a war against illegal drugs could not be won by focusing only on advanced technology and actions against organized crime.[54] [55]. Nils Bejerot (born September 21, 1921 in Stockholm - died November 29, 1988) was a Swedish psychiatrist and criminologist, best known for several things: His role as a psychiatric advisor during the Norrmalmstorg robbery and coinage of the term Stockholm syndrome to refer to the way a hostage reacts in some...


Bejerot often compared the habit of using recreational drugs with an epidemic disease.[56]. One commonly used method to manage an epidemic disease is to identify the carriers, isolate them and treat them under controlled circumstances. Bejerot regretted that some of the US Judges and others in the US., like professor Alfred R. Lindesmith, in the 1960s had lost confidence on restrictive drug laws and forgotten the experiences from restrictive laws in the struggle against illegal use of opium; the number of addicts declined to one tenth of its former level between 1914 (the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act) and the 1940s. He argued early that a policy with liberal drug laws and permissive ideology in relation to the use of drugs like neglecting smaller amounts for personal use, will open the doors for a much larger epidemic outbreak of recreational drugs to a level not acceptable for the government. Then the society will rebound with much more restrictive laws (compare with the War on drugs). “A country can afford liberal narcotics laws as long as it has no widespread epidemic use of narcotics”[55]. Alfred R. Lindesmith was an Indiana University professor of sociology. ... The Harrison Narcotics Tax Act was an American law that regulated and taxed the production, importation, distribution and use of opiates. ... For the Barenaked Ladies song War on Drugs, see Everything to Everyone. ...


The Swedish system [57] combines very restrictive drug laws with very few citizens per capita imprisoned compared with the US, only about a tenth (about 1 in 1400).[58] Swedish laws concerning cannabis and other recreational drugs are arguably even more restrictive than in the US, however criminal punishment focuses more on drug dealing and less on drug addiction, which is treated as a health problem, a risk for spread to new users and a smaller crime. [53]. Maximum penalty for use is 6 months. Maximum penalty for drug sales is 10 years in prison[59] (14 years in extreme cases). Drug dealing to friends is not accepted, the minimum penalty is 6 months in prison. Cannabis is not seen as a soft or harmless drug.


A drug test showing that you have used cannabis in the last week is evidence of a crime. Zero tolerance [60] for illegal drugs is an official goal. The punishment for only one single use will probably be a fine but it will also result in a report to other local authorities and probably some kind of follow up by other local authorities than the police. There is no tolerance for smaller amounts of illegal drugs for personal use, rich or famous is no excuse. The follow up is very important. Suspected addicts are offered some kind of free drug treatment program, a right supported by law. For citizens with repeated offenses or young users it can be mandatory to cooperate.[61] The system can be seen as a cousin to drug courts in the USA. The system with follow up of other authorities than the police has a long tradition with roots in the temperance movement in the beginning of of 20th century. Support to families and parents and cooperation with different voluntary organizations is important.[57] Zero tolerance is a strict approach to rule enforcement. ... Drug courts are specialized courts designed to handle cases involving offenders who abuse addictive substances. ...


50% of the prisoners have used illegal drugs at least once the year before the crime, serving for drug offenses is common but their number is a lot lower than in US. Sweden has no three strike law. Many prisons have drug free departments[62] and drug treatment program inspired by cognitive therapy. Random drug tests are very frequent in prisons.[58] This article is about Becks Cognitive Therapy. ...


The basic idea is that the habit of using drugs often was introduced by friends or people well known to drug user[63] and it is effective to interfere at a very early stage[64] before the citizen has become an addict of any kind of drug or alcohol or introduced more people in the habit of using drugs; this will also lower the general crime level. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime reports that Sweden has one of the lowest drug usage rates in the Western world, and attributes this to a drug policy that invests heavily in prevention and treatment, as well as strict law enforcement [65]. More about Bejerots theory for addiction in Nils Bejerot. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is a United Nations agency which was founded in 1997 as the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention with the intent to fight drugs and crime on an international level. ... Nils Bejerot (born September 21, 1921 in Stockholm - died November 29, 1988) was a Swedish psychiatrist and criminologist, best known for several things: His role as a psychiatric advisor during the Norrmalmstorg robbery and coinage of the term Stockholm syndrome to refer to the way a hostage reacts in some...


Pharmaceuticals

In another regard, the war on drugs affects the US in the manner of its impact upon how health care providers employ psychoactive medications already extant in the U.S. Pharmacopoeia (many of which have the potential for abuse, or for use as chemical precursors to substances proscribed by the Controlled Substances Act). This box:      The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ...


To take as one example, patients with ADHD are commonly prescribed various stimulant medications in maintenance regimens to control the symptoms of the condition. Frequently used drugs are Ritalin (Methylphenidate), Dexedrine (Dextroamphetamine), Adderall (Amphetamine), and Desoxyn (Methamphetamine). All three of these products (and their congeners) are rated as Schedule II drugs which - per CDS-imposed regulations - can only be dispensed in amounts suitable for a month's medication at most, with the requirement that each month's supply can be renewed only with the auhorization of yet another written prescription. Licensed prescribers are not even permitted to telephone or fax an authorization for refill to the patient's pharmacy. DISCLAIMER Please remember that Wikipedia is offered for informational use only. ... Methylphenidate (C14H19NO2), or MPH, is an amphetamine-like prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children and adults. ... Vitamin R redirects here. ... Dextroamphetamine (also known as dextroamphetamine sulfate, dexamphetamine, dexedrine, Dexampex, Ferndex, Oxydess II, Robese, Spancap #1, and, informally, Dex), a stereoisomer of amphetamine, is an indirect-acting stimulant that releases norepinephrine from nerve terminals, thus promoting nerve impulse transmission. ... Dextroamphetamine is a powerful psychostimulant which produces increased wakefulness, energy and self-confidence in association with decreased fatigue and appetite. ... Adderall XR 15 mg capsule Adderall is a pharmaceutical psychostimulant comprised of mixed amphetamine salts. ... Amphetamine or Amfetamine(Alpha-Methyl-PHenEThylAMINE), also known as beta-phenyl-isopropylamine and benzedrine, is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ... Desoxyn® CII is a brand of methamphetamine hydrochloride (also known as desoxyephedrine, hence the name Desoxyn), indicated for treatment of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and exogenous obesity. ... This article is about the psychostimulant, d-methamphetamine. ...


This obliges patients on stable regimens of therapy to physically visit their health care providers for reasons of regulatory compliance rather than medical necessity, adding substantially to the aggregate burden in financial cost accruing nationally due to the incidence of ADHD in the population, and providing no substantive benefit to either the patient or the community.


Another example is found in the 2005 Combat Methamphetamine Act, which seeks to control the volume of retail purchase of pseudoephedrine, a safe and effective over-the-counter systemic decongestant, simply because the methods by which these pseudoephedrine products can be used to extract a chemical base for the illicit manufacture of methamphetamine has become widespread knowledge in the flourishing black market for drugs of abuse. Pseudoephedrine (commonly abbreviated as PSE) is a sympathomimetic amine commonly used as a decongestant. ... Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines that may be sold without a prescription, in contrast to prescription drugs. ... This article is about the psychostimulant, d-methamphetamine. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into underground economy. ...


This latter government grope in the War on (Some) Drugs serves to impose a major financial burden on the pharmaceuticals industry (forcing the reformulation of well-established products with the substitution of the demonstrably less effective decongestant phenylephrine) as well as substantially increased costs upon pharmacies and inconveniences upon patients on the dubious grounds that it poses a minor inconvenience to the hardened criminals running meth labs. Phenylephrine or Neo-Synephrine is an α-adrenergic receptor agonist used primarily as a decongestant, as an agent to dilate the pupil and to increase blood pressure. ...


See also

Above the Influence is an advertising campaign in the United States by the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign that advocates against recreational drug use, focusing explicitly on cannabis use by American teenagers. ... The prohibition of drugs is a subject of considerable controversy. ... Cognitive liberty is the freedom to be the absolute sovereign of one’s own consciousness. ... Cocaine Cowboys is a documentary film directed by Billy Corben and produced by Miami based rakontur. ... Plan Colombia is a controversial initiative aimed at resolving the ongoing, fifty-year civil war in Colombia. ... Decriminalization is the reduction or abolition of criminal penalties in relation to certain acts. ... Demand reduction is a term used by drug control authorities to refer to educational and other efforts aimed at stopping people from seeking drugs, as opposed to cutting off their supply. ... The Drug Policy Alliance is a New York City-based non-profit organization with the principal goal of ending the American War on Drugs. Its publicly-stated goals include nationwide availability of medicinal marijuana, the creation of drug-related public health measures, ending abuses of asset forfeiture, repealing non-violent... Harm reduction is a philosophy of public health, intended to be a progressive alternative to the prohibition of certain potentially dangerous lifestyle choices. ... Mara Salvatrucha suspect bearing gang tattoos is handcuffed. ... Gary Webb Gary Webb (August 31, 1955 – December 10, 2004) was a controversial American investigative journalist, best known for his 1996 Dark Alliance investigative report series, written for the San Jose Mercury News. ... The Golden Crescent is the name given to Asia’s principal area of illicit opium production, located at the crossroads of Central, South, and Western Asia. ... The Golden Triangle is one of Asia’s two main illicit opium-producing areas. ... Panamanian motor vessel Gatun during the largest cocaine bust in United States Coast Guard history (20 tons), off the coast of Panama. ... Mrs. ... Law Enforcement Against Prohibition, or LEAP, is a non-profit, international, educational organization comprised of former and current police officers, government agents and other law enforcement agents who oppose the current War on Drugs. ... The legal history of marijuana in the United States mainly involves the 20th and 21st centuries. ... World laws on cannabis possession (small amount). ... Lin Zexu Lin Zexu (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (August 30, 1785 - November 22, 1850) was a Chinese scholar and official during the Qing dynasty. ... Wars on concepts are high-resource efforts to eradicate a perceived problem that use a war metaphor to rally support. ... The Marijuana Policy Project, or MPP, is an organization in the United States working to minimize the harm associated with the drug cannabis[1]. MPP advocates taxing and regulating the possession and sale of cannabis, arguing that a regulated cannabis industry would separate purchasers from the street market for cocaine... Combatants Mexico Drug cartels Al-Queda (allegedly involved[1]) Strength 6,500+ 300,000+ Casualties About 2700 killed The Mexican Drug War is an armed conflict taking place between rival drug cartels and government forces in Mexico. ... Nancy Davis Reagan (born Anne Frances Robbins on July 6, 1921) is the widow of the former United States President Ronald Reagan and was First Lady of the United States from 1981 to 1989. ... Stacks of Cocaine. ... Neurolaw is an emerging field of study that seeks to explore the effects of discoveries in neuroscience on law and legal standards. ... The National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws or NORML (pronounced normal) is a US-based non-profit corporation founded in 1970 to, according to their most recent mission statement, move public opinion sufficiently to achieve the repeal of marijuana prohibition so that the responsible use of cannabis by... The White House Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), a component of the Executive Office of the President of the United States, was established in 1988 by the Anti-Drug Abuse Act. ... There were two Opium Wars between Britain and China. ... Organized crime or criminal organizations are groups or operations run by criminals, most commonly for the purpose of generating a monetary profit. ... The prison-industrial complex refers to interest groups that represent organizations that do business in correctional facilities, like prison guard unions, construction companies, and surveillance technology vendors, who become more concerned with making more money than actually rehabilitating criminals or reducing crime rates. ... For the general concept, see Prohibitionism. ... Nixon redirects here. ... Reagan redirects here. ... Students for Sensible Drug Policy (SSDP) is a Washington, DC-based non-profit advocacy organization founded in 1998 by a small group of students, including Shawn Heller of George Washington University, David Epstein of American University, and Kris Lotlikar. ... The United Nations International Drug Control Programme (UNDCP) and the United Nations Centre for International Crime Prevention (CICP) are part of the United Nations Office for Drug Control & Crime Prevention (ODCCP). ... Zero tolerance is a strict approach to rule enforcement. ...

References

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  50. ^ Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri (2005). Multitude: War and Democracy in the Age of Empire. Hamish Hamilton.
  51. ^ Miller, Richard Lawrence (1996). Drug Warriors and Their Prey: From Police Power to Police State (Greenwood Publishing Group). ISBN 0275950425
  52. ^ Blumenson, Eric; Eva S. Nilsen (2002-05-16). How to construct an underclass, or how the War on Drugs became a war on education (PDF). Drug Policy Forum of Massachusetts.
  53. ^ a b UNODC: Sweden's successful drug policy, 2007
  54. ^ Nits Bejerot Missbruk och missförstånd, 1981
  55. ^ a b Nils Bejerot: Narkotika och Narkomani, 1975
  56. ^ Nils Bejerot: The Swedish Addiction Epidemic in global perspective
  57. ^ a b Maria Larsson, Swedish minister of Health, 2007
  58. ^ a b Kriminalvården, Sweden overview
  59. ^ Swedish law on drugs
  60. ^ ABC News: Snoop Dogg Held Overnight in Sweden, 2007
  61. ^ Swedish law about treatment of addicts
  62. ^ Ann-Britt Grünevald, prison director: Prisons are Strategic in the War on Drugs the Swedish Experience
  63. ^ Nils Bjerot
  64. ^ Much to win on early interference(in Swedish)
  65. ^ UNODC: Sweden's successful drug policy, 2007

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Drug War Victims (2608 words)
Drugs, when abused, can be dangerous, but they are not nearly as lethal as the drug war itself.
When drug dealers fight it out over territory and they or their neighbors are killed in the process, it is a sympton of prohibition, much as when we suffered the scourge of alcohol prohibition many years ago.
Xavier was accidentally shot to death by officers in a pre-dawn drug raid during a gunfight with one of Xavier's relatives.
War on Drugs - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1077 words)
The War on Drugs is an initiative undertaken by the United States to carry out an "all-out offensive" (as President Nixon described it) against the prohibited use of certain legally controlled drugs.
The Congressional Research Service of the Library of Congress noted in a 1989 report that the nation's war on drugs could be considered to have started in public policy dating to November 1880, when the U.S. and China completed an agreement which prohibited the shipment of opium between the two countries.
The Drug War as a Socialist Enterprise by Milton Friedman
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