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Encyclopedia > War of the Grand Alliance
War of the Grand Alliance

Clockwise, starting top left:
James II, William III, Leopold I, Louis XIV
Date 24 September 168820 September 1697[1]
Location Continental Europe, Ireland, North America
Casus
belli
Dispute over Cologne succession.[2]
Result Indecisive, leading to the Treaty of Ryswick
Combatants
Flag of Denmark Denmark

Flag of the Netherlands Dutch Republic,
Flag of England England,[3]
Flag of Holy Roman Empire Holy Roman Empire,
Flag of Portugal Portugal
Flag of Savoy Duchy of Savoy,
Flag of Spain Spain,
Flag of Sweden Sweden Image File history File links James_II,_William_III,_Louis_XIV,_Leopold_I.JPG‎ Clockwise, starting top left: Image:James II of England. ... James II of England (also known as James VII of Scotland; 14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... William III of England (The Hague, 14 November 1650 – Kensington Palace, 8 March 1702; also known as William II of Scotland and William III of Orange) was a Dutch aristocrat and a Protestant Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28... Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor Silver coin of Leopold I, 3 Kreuzers, dated 1670. ... “Sun King” redirects here. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events September 11 - Battle of Zenta, Prince Eugene of Savoy crushed Ottoman army of Mustafa II September 20 - The Treaty of Ryswick December 2 – St Pauls Cathedral opened in London Peter the Great travels in Europe officially incognito as artilleryman Pjotr Mikhailov Use of palanquins increases in Europe Christopher... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Casus belli is a modern Latin language expression meaning the justification for acts of war. ... , For other uses, see Cologne (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links Prinsenvlag. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire around 1630, superimposed over modern European state borders Capital None Language(s) Latin, German, many others Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 962–967 Otto I  - 973–983 Otto II  - 996–1002 Otto III  - 1014– 1024 Henry II  - 1027–1039 Conrad II  - 1046... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Savoie_flag. ... For the earlier history of Savoy, see County of Savoy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Spain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ...

France,

Jacobites Image File history File links Bandera_de_Luis_XIV.gif‎ Bandera de la Francia de Luis XIV (siglo XVII) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): War of the Spanish Succession Battle of Almansa War of the Grand Alliance Battle... Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, wearing the Jacobite blue bonnet Jacobitism was (and, to a very limited extent, remains) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland. ...

Commanders
Flag of England Flag of the Netherlands William III,

Prince Waldeck,
Flag of Savoy Duke of Savoy,
Duke of Lorraine ,
Flag of Holy Roman Empire Elector of Bavaria,
Flag of Holy Roman Empire Prince of Baden Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... Image File history File links Prinsenvlag. ... William III of England (The Hague, 14 November 1650 – Kensington Palace, 8 March 1702; also known as William II of Scotland and William III of Orange) was a Dutch aristocrat and a Protestant Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28... Prince Georg Friedrich of Waldeck (* January 31, 1620 in Arolsen; † November 19, 1692 in Arolsen) was a German Field Marshal and a Dutch General. ... Image File history File links Savoie_flag. ... Victor Amadeus II. Victor Amadeus II, Italian Vittorio Amedeo II (May 14, 1666 - October 31, 1732) was the Duke of Savoy (1675-1730). ... Charles Léopold Nicolas Sixte (April 3, 1643 – April 18, 1690), was the titular Duke of Lorraine from 1675 to 1690, a time when Lorraine was occupied by France. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Maximilian II Emanuel Maximilian II Emanuel (July 11, 1662 - February 26, 1726) was a Wittelsbach ruler of Bavaria and an elector (Kurfürst) of the Holy Roman Empire. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Louis William, Margrave of Baden called the Türkenlouis or shield of the empire. ...

Louis XIV,

Duc de Luxembourg ,
Duc de Villeroi,
Duc de Lorge,
Duc de Boufflers,
Nicolas Catinat,
Duc de Noailles,
James II Image File history File links Bandera_de_Luis_XIV.gif‎ Bandera de la Francia de Luis XIV (siglo XVII) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): War of the Spanish Succession Battle of Almansa War of the Grand Alliance Battle... “Sun King” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Bandera_de_Luis_XIV.gif‎ Bandera de la Francia de Luis XIV (siglo XVII) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): War of the Spanish Succession Battle of Almansa War of the Grand Alliance Battle... Marshal Luxembourg. ... Temporary grave of an American machine-gunner during the Battle of Normandy. ... Image File history File links Bandera_de_Luis_XIV.gif‎ Bandera de la Francia de Luis XIV (siglo XVII) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): War of the Spanish Succession Battle of Almansa War of the Grand Alliance Battle... François de Neufville, duc de Villeroi, by Alexandre-François Caminade François de Neufville, duc de Villeroi (April 7, 1644 - July 18, 1730), French soldier, came of a noble family which had risen into prominence in the reign of Charles IX. His father Nicolas de Neufville, marquis de... Image File history File links Bandera_de_Luis_XIV.gif‎ Bandera de la Francia de Luis XIV (siglo XVII) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): War of the Spanish Succession Battle of Almansa War of the Grand Alliance Battle... Guy Aldonce de Durfort , duke de Lorges, marshal of France, (August 22, 1630 - October 22, 1702). ... Image File history File links Bandera_de_Luis_XIV.gif‎ Bandera de la Francia de Luis XIV (siglo XVII) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): War of the Spanish Succession Battle of Almansa War of the Grand Alliance Battle... Louis François, duc de Boufflers, comte de Cagny (January 10, 1644 - August 22, 1711) was a Marshal of France. ... Image File history File links Bandera_de_Luis_XIV.gif‎ Bandera de la Francia de Luis XIV (siglo XVII) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): War of the Spanish Succession Battle of Almansa War of the Grand Alliance Battle... Nicolas Catinat (1637 - 1712), marshal of France, entered the Gardes Françaises at an early age and distinguished himself at the siege of Lille in 1667. ... Image File history File links Bandera_de_Luis_XIV.gif‎ Bandera de la Francia de Luis XIV (siglo XVII) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): War of the Spanish Succession Battle of Almansa War of the Grand Alliance Battle... Anne-Jules, 2nd duc de Noailles (5 February 1650–2 October France towards the end of the reign of Louis XIV, and, after raising the regiment of Noailles in 1689, he commanded in Spain during the War of the Spanish Succession, and was made marshal of France in 1693. ... James II of England (also known as James VII of Scotland; 14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ...

Strength
~250,000,
275 ships[4]
~440,000,[5]
221 ships[6]

The War of the Grand Alliance (16881697) – often called the Nine Years’ War or occasionally, the War of the League of Augsburg or the War of the Palatinian Succession – was a major conflict fought primarily on Continental Europe, but which also encompassed secondary theatres in Ireland (often called the Williamite War), and North America (commonly known as King William's War). Combatants Dutch Republic, England,[1] Holy Roman Empire, Spain, Duchy of Savoy others France, others Commanders King William III, Prince Waldeck, Menno van Coehoorn, Duke of Savoy King Louis XIV, Marshal Luxembourg, Marshal Boufflers, Marquis de Vauban, Marshal Villeroi, Marshal Catinat Strength ~250,000 275 Ships[2] ~440,000[3... The first of the French and Indian Wars, King Williams War (1689–1697) , was the North American theater of the War of the Grand Alliance (1688–1697) fought principally in Europe between the armies of France under Louis XIV and those of a coalition of European powers including England. ... // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ... Events September 11 - Battle of Zenta, Prince Eugene of Savoy crushed Ottoman army of Mustafa II September 20 - The Treaty of Ryswick December 2 – St Pauls Cathedral opened in London Peter the Great travels in Europe officially incognito as artilleryman Pjotr Mikhailov Use of palanquins increases in Europe Christopher... William III (William of Orange) King of England, Scotland and Ireland, Stadtholder of the Netherlands. ... The first of the French and Indian Wars, King Williams War (1689–1697) , was the North American theater of the War of the Grand Alliance (1688–1697) fought principally in Europe between the armies of France under Louis XIV and those of a coalition of European powers including England. ...


Since the signing of the Treaty of Nijmegen, ending the Franco-Dutch War (16721678), France’s expansionist policies under Louis XIV had threatened to secure hegemony over Europe. However, by the 1680s the Holy Roman Empire under Leopold I was gaining ascendancy in its struggle with the Ottoman Turks in the Balkans – strengthening the Emperor’s position in central Europe. These advancements encouraged Leopold and his allies – the Protestant German princes, Spain, and Sweden – to form the defensive League of Augsburg in opposition to France on 9 July 1686. The Treaty of Nijmegen (1678) was signed in Nijmegen, and ended the Dutch War. ... The Dutch War (1672–1678) was a war fought between France and a quadruple alliance consisting of Brandenburg, the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, and the United Provinces. ... Events England, France, Munster and Cologne invade the United Provinces, therefore this name is know as ´het rampjaar´ (the disaster year) in the Netherlands. ... Events August 10 - Treaty of Nijmegen ends the Dutch War. ... “Sun King” redirects here. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire around 1630, superimposed over modern European state borders Capital None Language(s) Latin, German, many others Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 962–967 Otto I  - 973–983 Otto II  - 996–1002 Otto III  - 1014– 1024 Henry II  - 1027–1039 Conrad II  - 1046... Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor Silver coin of Leopold I, 3 Kreuzers, dated 1670. ... For other uses, see Ottoman (disambiguation). ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Grand Alliance was a European coalition, consisting (at various times) of Austria, Bavaria, Brandenburg, England, the Holy Roman Empire, the Palatinate of the Rhine, Portugal, Saxony, Spain, Sweden, and the United Provinces. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1686 (MDCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


In November 1688 William of Orange successfully invaded England leading to the ‘Glorious Revolution’ and the deposition of James II. With William as Stadtholder of the Dutch republic and now as King of England, he was able to form the coalition to oppose France that he had long since been striving for. On 12 May 1689, William and Leopold formed the Grand Alliance with the aim of forcing France back to her borders as designated in the Treaty of Westphalia. William III of England (The Hague, 14 November 1650 – Kensington Palace, 8 March 1702; also known as William II of Scotland and William III of Orange) was a Dutch aristocrat and a Protestant Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Revolution of 1688, commonly known as the Glorious Revolution, was the overthrow of James II of England in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange). ... James II of England (also known as James VII of Scotland; 14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... A stadtholder (Dutch: stadhouder meaning place holder, a Germanic parallel to Latin locum tenens or French lieutenant), means an official who is appointed by the legal ruling Monarch to represent him in a country, and may have a mandate to govern it in his name, in the latter case roughly... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ... The Grand Alliance was a European coalition, consisting (at various times) of Austria, Bavaria, Brandenburg, England, the Holy Roman Empire, the Palatinate of the Rhine, Portugal, Saxony, Spain, Sweden, and the United Provinces. ... Ratification of the Treaty of Münster The Peace of Westphalia refers to the pair of treaties (the Treaty of Münster and the Treaty of Osnabrück) signed in October and May 1648 which ended both the Thirty Years War and the Eighty Years War. ...


The war ended indecisively with the signing of the Treaty of Ryswick (Rijswijk, now a suburb of The Hague) on 20 September 1697 by the main powers, France, the Dutch Republic, England and Spain, with Leopold signing later on 30 October. But although the French influence had increased militarily on land – and the Dutch and English at sea – the conflict between the Habsburgs and Bourbon dynasties had yet to be resolved. [7] Jaagpad street in Rijswijk Rijswijk ( listen), also Ryswick in English (population: 47,693 in 2004) is a suburb of The Hague in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. ... Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province South Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 98. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events September 11 - Battle of Zenta, Prince Eugene of Savoy crushed Ottoman army of Mustafa II September 20 - The Treaty of Ryswick December 2 – St Pauls Cathedral opened in London Peter the Great travels in Europe officially incognito as artilleryman Pjotr Mikhailov Use of palanquins increases in Europe Christopher... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ...

Contents

Background

At the death of Philip IV in 1665, the Spanish throne passed on to his son from his second marriage, the infirm Charles II. Although Louis did not dispute Charles's accession to the Spanish throne, he did claim that according to local law, at least part of the Spanish Netherlands should devolve to his wife, Maria Theresa, a daughter of the late Philip IV from his first marriage.[8] Maria Theresa had renounced these claims when she married Louis, but the renunciation had been conditioned on Spain paying her dowry within eighteen months. The Spanish not only failed to pay in time, but failed to pay at all.[9] These inheritance claims led to Louis' first war, the War of Devolution (16671668). Philip IV (), (April 8, 1605 – September 17, 1665) was King of Spain from 1621 to 1665 and also King of Portugal until 1640. ... Charles II of Spain. ... The Southern Netherlands were a part of the Low Countries controlled by Spain (Spanish Netherlands, 1579-1713), Austria (Austrian Netherlands, 1713-1794) and France (1794-1815). ... Marie Thérèse redirects here. ... The War of Devolution (May 24, 1667 – May 2, 1668) was a war between Louis XIVs France and Habsburg Spain fought in the Spanish Netherlands. ... // Events January 20 - Poland cedes Kyiv, Smolensk, and eastern Ukraine to Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo that put a final end to the Deluge, and Poland lost its status as a Central European power. ... 1668 (MDCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Part of the Spanish Habsburg genealogy.

After an easy victory against Spanish forces, Louis decided to sue for peace after the Dutch Republic, England and Sweden formed the Triple Alliance in opposition. The subsequent peace of Aix-la-Chapelle rewarded Louis with minor gains, most notably of which was Lille, but the pressure from the Triple Alliance was not the only reason Louis accepted such easy terms. Earlier in January 1668, Louis had negotiated a secret partition treaty with the Austrian Habsburgs to divide up the substantial Spanish empire should the infirm Charles II die. The Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold I (or his children) would inherit the Spanish throne, the American empire, Milan and ports on the Tuscan coast; whereas Louis would inherit Spanish Navarre, the Spanish Netherlands, Franche-Comté, Naples, Sicily, and the Philippines. Although there was no formal signing between Louis and Leopold, the Spanish themselves tacitly accepted the partition to prevent any immediate major annexations.[10] However, Charles II did not die, and his survival through childhood made the succession issue far less immediate. Image File history File links Spanish_Habsburg_Genealogy. ... Image File history File links Spanish_Habsburg_Genealogy. ... During the reign of Emperor Charles V (Carlos I of Spain), who ascended the thrones of the kingdoms of Spain after the death of his grandfather Ferdinand, Habsburg Spain controlled territory ranging from Philippines to the Netherlands, and was, for a time, Europes greatest power. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Triple Alliance of 1668 consisted of England, Sweden, and the United Provinces. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | 1911 Britannica | Stub ... New city flag Traditional coat of arms Motto: – Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Nord-Pas de Calais Department Nord (59) Intercommunality Urban Community of Lille Métropole Mayor Martine Aubry  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area¹ 39. ... The House of Austrian Habsburgs came into being after the April 21, 1521 assignment of the Austrian lands to Ferdinand I from his brother Emperor Charles V (also King Charles I of Spain) (1516 - 1556). ... Capital Toledo (until 1561) Madrid (after 1561) Language(s) Spanish Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy Monarch  - 1516-1556 Charles I  - 1886-1898 Alfonso XIII¹ Regent  - 1886-1898 Maria Christina History  - Discovery of America 1402  - Conquest of the Aztec Empire 1519-1521  - Conquest of the Inca Empire 1532–1537  - Spanish-American... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... Tuscany (Italian: ) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... The Kingdom of Navarre (Basque: Nafarroako Erresuma) was a European state which occupied lands on either side of the Pyrenees alongside the Atlantic Ocean. ... (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Doubs Haute-Saône Jura Territoire de Belfort Arrondissements 8 Cantons 116 Communes 1,786 Statistics Land area1 16,202 km² Population (Ranked 20th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... For other uses see, Naples (disambiguation) and Napoli (disambiguation) Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ...


After French diplomacy brought about the dissolution of the Triple Alliance, Louis prepared for his first great conflict, the Franco-Dutch War (16721678). Louis’ war minister, Colbert, was keen to take much of the Dutch trade and to break certain Dutch trade monopolies – he believed France’s economic success could only be assured with the military destruction of the Dutch.[11] Louis’ motives though, were more personal. He saw the Dutch intervention in the War of Devolution as a betrayal and was determined to punish the Dutch.[12] However, despite Leopold having signed a neutrality agreement with Louis, the ease of France’s military successes in the Dutch Republic had concerned both the Emperor and the Elector of Brandenburg who, along with Spain (worried over the annexation of the Spanish Netherlands), formed an anti-French coalition on 30 August 1673. On 28 May 1674, the German Diet, also concerned about French ambition, declared war on France, summoning the German princes to assist the Emperor. But despite Louis losing his ally, Charles II of England – who had been starved of funds by his anti-French parliament – and being forced to withdraw from most of the territory of the Dutch Republic, France’s inherent military and economic strength ensured her successes continued. However by 1676, both sides were exhausted enough to be willing to negotiate a settlement.[13] The Dutch War (1672–1678) was a war fought between France and a quadruple alliance consisting of Brandenburg, the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, and the United Provinces. ... Events England, France, Munster and Cologne invade the United Provinces, therefore this name is know as ´het rampjaar´ (the disaster year) in the Netherlands. ... Events August 10 - Treaty of Nijmegen ends the Dutch War. ... Jean-Baptiste Colbert Jean-Baptiste Colbert (August 29, 1619 – September 6, 1683) served as the French minister of finance from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV. He achieved a reputation for his work of improving the state of French manufacturing and bringing the economy back from... Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1673 (MDCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 19 - England and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of Westminster. ... In politics, a Diet is a formal deliberative assembly. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... Events January 29 - Feodor III becomes Tsar of Russia First measurement of the speed of light, by Ole Rømer Bacons Rebellion Russo-Turkish Wars commence. ...


Prelude

Treaty of Nijmegen (Nymegen)

At the end the Franco-Dutch War, Louis had significant advantages over his opponents: his armies had been increasingly successful at the closing stages of hostilities and, unlike his adversaries – the Dutch, the German princes and the Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs – Louis had total control of his own policy-making, enabling him to exploit his enemies' differences.[14] William of Orange, the Dutch stadtholder, was determined to keep the allies together, but despite strengthening his hand by marrying Mary, the daughter of the heir to the English throne James Stuart, Duke of York, the financial pressure on the Dutch Republic was considerable.[15] Consequently the French and Dutch signed a peace treaty on 10 August 1678, resulting in the end of Dutch subsidies to their allies. Now with the prospect of the full weight of the French forces falling upon them, the Spanish and Austrians were compelled to follow suit on 17 September 1678 and 5 February 1679 respectively.[16] The three treaties are known collectively as the peace of Nijmegen.[17] William III of England (The Hague, 14 November 1650 – Kensington Palace, 8 March 1702; also known as William II of Scotland and William III of Orange) was a Dutch aristocrat and a Protestant Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28... A stadtholder (Dutch: stadhouder meaning place holder, a Germanic parallel to Latin locum tenens or French lieutenant), means an official who is appointed by the legal ruling Monarch to represent him in a country, and may have a mandate to govern it in his name, in the latter case roughly... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... James II of England (also known as James VII of Scotland; 14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events August 10 - Treaty of Nijmegen ends the Dutch War. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events August 10 - Treaty of Nijmegen ends the Dutch War. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 24 - King Charles II of England disbands Parliament August 7 - The brigantine Le Griffon, which was commissioned by René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, is towed to the southern end of the Niagara River, to become the first ship to sail the upper Great Lakes. ... The Treaty of Nijmegen (1678) was signed in Nijmegen, and ended the Dutch War. ...


Although the treaty ensured the survival of the Dutch Republic and its trade, Spain had lost under its terms. Besides losing Haiti in the Caribbean, Spain also ceded Franche-Comté, reinforcing Louis’ control of his territory in Alsace. Louis also made modest gains in the Spanish Netherlands (largely fort exchanges with Spain), strengthening Vauban's policy of building a defensive barrier of fortresses along France’s northern borders. Lorraine, on his eastern border, also remained in French hands, as did Freiburg, but although Louis had settled for moderate terms and relatively small gains, he had been able to break up the allied coalition.[18] However, convinced that the peace with France was only temporary, William was determined to create a permanent alliance to oppose future French ambition. “West Indian” redirects here. ... (New region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Bas-Rhin Haut-Rhin Arrondissements 13 Cantons 75 Communes 903 Statistics Land area1 8,280 km² (??? mi) km² Population (Ranked 14th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... Sébastien Le Prestre, Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban (May 15, 1633 - March 30, 1707), commonly referred to as Vauban, was a Marshal of France and the foremost military engineer of his age, famed for his skill in both designing fortifications and in breaking through them. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Lorraine (province). ... This article refers to the city in Baden-Württemberg. ...


Reunions

France’s military superiority after the Dutch War was never more apparent, but Louis was no longer interested in an adventurist, open-ended war policy as in 1672. The insistence on other powers accepting French supremacy still remained but Louis used threats and dubious legal means, rather than open war, to achieve his objectives. As well as maintaining a huge standing army after the Dutch war, Vauban’s fortress system was extended along France’s eastern border with Louis’ most dangerous foe, Germany. However, to construct a proper defensive system France required more land from her neighbours.[19] A standing army is an army composed of full time professional soldiers. ...


For this purpose special French courts, called the 'Chambers of Reunion', were set up to seek precedents for French suzerainty over the dependencies of land ceded to France since 1648 and 'reunite' them – unsurprisingly, the courts never failed to find these precedents.[20] The court’s judgments using these quasi-legal means allowed Louis to claim additional territory: more of the Spanish Netherlands, almost all Spanish Luxembourg, more of Lorraine, parts of the Saar valley, the duchy of Zweibrücken and the rest of Alsace. On 30 September 1681, the Imperial city of Strasbourg – which had not been claimed under the reunions policy – was also forced to submit to Louis after Louvois, Louis’ war minister, threatened that unless he received compliance – “All would be burnt and put to the sword." On the same day, Louis’ troops entered Casale in northern Italy, which he had bought from the Duke of Mantua.[21] Casale, together with Louis’ fort of Pinerolo, allowed France to pin down the Duchy of Savoy and threaten the Spanish Duchy of Milan. Louis’ troops also began the siege of Luxembourg to add to their acquisitions in the Moselle valley, but although this siege was abandoned in March 1682, French hostility continued.[16] The Chambers of Reunion were French courts established by King Louis XIV in the early 1680s. ... This article is about the country in western Europe. ... Saar loop at Mettlach The Saar (French: Sarre) is a river, that rises in the Vosges mountains in Alsace with two headstreams (Red and White Saar) at the Donon, running through Lorraine and the Saarland, which was named after it. ... Zweibrücken is a city of Germany in Rhineland-Palatinate, on the Schwarzbach river at the border of the Palatine Forest. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 4 - Charles II of England grants a land charter to William Penn for the area that will later become Pennsylvania. ... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Alsace Department Bas-Rhin (67) Intercommunality Urban Community of Strasbourg Mayor Fabienne Keller  (UMP) City Statistics Land area¹ 78. ... François Michel le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois (January 18, 1641 - July 16, 1691), was the French war minister under Louis XIV. He was born in Paris to Michel le Tellier. ... Casale Monferrato is a town in the Piedmont region of north-west Italy, part of the province of Alessandria. ... The Duchy of Mantua was ruled by the Gonzaga family from 1328 to 1708. ... Pinerolo is a town in Italy, 40 km southwest of Turin on the River Chisone. ... For the earlier history of Savoy, see County of Savoy. ... The Duchy of Milan was a state in northern Italy from 1395 to 1797. ... Mosel basin area The Moselle (French Moselle, German Mosel, Luxembourgish Musel, Dutch Moezel, from Latin Mosella, little Meuse) is a river flowing through France, Luxembourg and Germany. ...

Military reforms: The French army rapidly expanded during the 17th century. During the War of the Grand Alliance, the numbers in the French army, rose to about 440,000 troops (although its real wartime strength was probably nearer 350,000).[22] Previously it had been the practice to drastically reduce numbers between wars (rarely maintaining 10,000 men), but after the Dutch War, a standing army of about 150,000 men was kept in French service.[23] The military reforms of Richelieu and Louis XIII were accelerated by Louis XIV’s war minister Michel le Tellier and his son and successor, the Marquis de Louvois. Louis’ army no longer heavily relied on mercenary and private forces supplied by nobles, but instead consisted of royal regiments, directly responsible and obedient to the king.[22] The battalion constituted the French combat unit: one or more battalions (500 – 800 troops) formed a regiment, as did two or three cavalry squadrons (about 140 men per squadron). These forces were primarily volunteers although limited conscription could boost manpower needs.[24] Other European states began to copy the French model of professional armies, but despite Louis’ increasing financial problems, he was able to maintain the edge until the end of the century.[25]

To Louis, these acquisitions under the reunions claims were rational acts of stabilization along his borders (all the lands taken were important strategic entry points between France and her neighbours and all were immediately fortified by Vauban), but the bordering states considered them acts of aggression.[16] The Spanish and minor German states involved were all cowed by Louis’ standing army and could only appeal to the Dutch and the Emperor for help. Therefore, on the same day that Strasbourg fell and Casale was occupied, the Dutch signed an alliance with Charles XI of Sweden, who was angry over his territory of Zweibrucken. This was followed by an alliance with Emperor Leopold in February 1682 and with Spain in May, but six out of the eight electorsMainz, Trier, Cologne, Saxony, Bavaria and Brandenburg-Prussia – remained allied to France.[26] A standing army is an army composed of full time professional soldiers. ... Cardinal Richelieu was the French chief minister from 1624 until his death. ... Louis XIII (September 27, 1601 - May 14, 1643), called the Just (French: le Juste), was King of France from 1610 to 1643. ... Michel le Tellier (April 19, 1603 - October 30, 1685) was a French statesman. ... François Michel le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois (January 18, 1641 - July 16, 1691), was the French war minister under Louis XIV. He was born in Paris to Michel le Tellier. ... Symbol of the Austrian 14th Armoured Battalion in NATO military graphic symbols A battalion is a military unit usually consisting of between two and six companies and typically commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel. ... British regiment A regiment is a military unit, consisting of a variable number of battalions - commanded by a colonel. ... A Squadron is a grouping of aircraft, naval vessels, armoured fighting vehicles or soldiers. ... Charles XI, or Karl XI, (November 24, 1655 - April 5, 1697) was a King of Sweden (1660 - 1697). ... Leopold I Habsburg (June 9, 1640-May 5, 1705), Holy Roman emperor, was the second son of the emperor Ferdinand III and his first wife Maria Anna, daughter of Philip III of Spain. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... Mainz is a city in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. ... Trier (French: ; Luxembourgish Tréier) is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle River. ... , For other uses, see Cologne (disambiguation). ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... The Brandenburg-Prussian state was formed in 1618 when the Duchy of Prussia came under the control of the Elector of Brandenburg (part of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation). ...


Leopold though, was under pressure along his Hungarian border.[27] By 1683 the Turks, encouraged by the French, had besieged Vienna, defining the high water mark of Ottoman power. Although Vienna was rescued by John III Sobieski, King of Poland, and Charles V, Duke of Lorraine, Louis was able to take advantage of the Ottoman crisis in the east and renewed the siege of the Spanish city of Luxembourg.[27] But the Spanish, encouraged by the relief of Vienna and under the misapprehension that the Emperor and the Dutch would assist them, declared war on France in autumn 1683.[28] Louis reacted with a brief and devastating campaign; by June 1684 Spanish resistance had collapsed and Luxembourg had fallen to Vauban and Marshal Créqui, leading in August to the negotiations at Regensburg (Ratisbon). In return for a truce with Spain and the Emperor (allowing Leopold and the princes to concentrate on the Balkans), France was allowed to keep all her reunion claims as well as Strasbourg and Luxembourg for a period of 20 years. Louis hoped to make these acquisitions permanent, but William of Orange remained intent on building a coalition with Spain and the Emperor and retake all that had been won by Louis’ military intimidation.[28] “Wien” redirects here. ... For other monarchs with similar names, please see John of Poland. ... Charles Léopold Nicolas Sixte (April 3, 1643 – April 18, 1690), was the titular Duke of Lorraine from 1675 to 1690, a time when Lorraine was occupied by France. ... Events France under Louis XIV makes Truce of Ratisbon separately with the Empire and Spain. ... Regensburg (also Ratisbon, Latin Ratisbona) is a city (population 151. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The truce of Regensburg marked a high point of territorial expansion under Louis XIV.[29] The French king had reason to be satisfied: Vauban could complete his eastern and northern defences while the Austrian and German princes remained fully occupied in Hungary with the Turks. Further encouragement came in 1685 when the Catholic James II came to the English throne. Expecting James to ally himself with France, his son-in-law William of Orange became isolated and powerless, especially because Amsterdam’s powerful burghers wanted no further conflict with France.[28] Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ... James II of England (also known as James VII of Scotland; 14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... Burgher can refer to: A title. ...

Louis XIV (1638–1715), by René Antoine Houasse. Here seen at the height of his powers at about the age of 40. To Louis, wars were contests over glory, territory and sovereignty.
Louis XIV (16381715), by René Antoine Houasse. Here seen at the height of his powers at about the age of 40. To Louis, wars were contests over glory, territory and sovereignty.[30]

Image File history File links Louis_XIV.jpg‎ Louis XIV by René Antoine Houasse The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Image File history File links Louis_XIV.jpg‎ Louis XIV by René Antoine Houasse The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... “Sun King” redirects here. ... Events March 29 - Swedish colonists establish first settlement in Delaware, called New Sweden. ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...

League of Augsburg

In October 1685 Louis issued the Edict of Fontainebleau, revoking the Edict of Nantes, ending toleration of Protestants in France.[31] About 200,000 French Protestants (Huguenots) were forced to flee the country including many merchants, industrialists, soldiers and sailors. Although the Dutch benefited from the exodus with the increase of 9,000 sailors and 12,600 soldiers, the flight helped destroy the pro-French group in the Dutch Republic, not only because of their Protestant affiliations, but with the exodus of Huguenot merchants (who often acted as Dutch commercial agents), and the harassment of Dutch merchants living in France, it also greatly affected Franco-Dutch trade.[31] The Edict of Fontainebleau (October 1685) was an edict issued by Louis XIV of France, best known as the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes of 1598, which had granted to the Huguenots the right to worship their religion without persecution from the state. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name of Huguenots came to apply to members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France. ...


In England there was growing concern over James’ Catholicism but his treatment of the Huguenots within the country reflected the king’s principles: on a human level he sympathized with their persecution (realising also that it would be looked upon unfavourably by his mainly Protestant subjects if he did nothing), but on the other hand he distrusted them on political grounds.[32] Elsewhere, in Brandenburg-Prussia the horrified Calvinist Elector, Frederick William, allied himself with the Dutch, as did Brandenburg’s Baltic rival, the Swedes.[33] The persecution did not, in itself, lead to a Protestant coalition against France, but in July 1686 the states of southern and western Germany (including Bavaria and the Palatinate), together with the Emperor, Spain and Sweden (in their capacity as princes within the Empire) formed the League of Augsburg to defend the treaties of Westphalia, Nijmegen and Regensburg.[34] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      As a Christian ecclesiastical... Population density in the wider Baltic region. ... A palatinate is a territory administered by a count palatine, originally the direct representative of the sovereign, but later the hereditary ruler of the territory subject to the crowns overlordship. ... The Grand Alliance (known, prior to 1689, as the League of Augsburg) was a European coalition, consisting (at various times) of Austria, Bavaria, Brandenburg, England, the Holy Roman Empire, the Netherlands, the Palatinate of the Rhine, Saxony, Spain, Sweden, and the United Provinces. ... Ratification of the Treaty of Münster The Peace of Westphalia refers to the pair of treaties (the Treaty of Münster and the Treaty of Osnabrück) signed in October and May 1648 which ended both the Thirty Years War and the Eighty Years War. ... The Treaties of Peace of Nijmegen (Negotiations de Nimegue or Negotiations de la Paix de Nimegue) were a series of treaties, signed in the Dutch city of Nijmegen, August 1678 - December 1679, ending war between various countries, including France, United Provinces, Spain, Brandenburg, Sweden, Denmark, Münster, the Holy Roman...


Initially the League posed little threat to Louis, but during 1686/87 Leopold made substantial progress against the Turks at Buda and Mohács. The subsequent revolt within the Turkish army and deposition of Sultan Mehmed IV paralysed the Ottomans, enabling Leopold’s forces to move on Belgrade the following year.[34] These remarkable victories had a profound effect on Europe. In contrast to Louis who had refused to help, both Protestant and Catholic princes extolled Leopold as a champion of Christendom; almost overnight the French king’s support in Germany disintegrated and Louis was branded as the ‘Christian Turk’.[34] Buda (German: Ofen, Croatian: Budim, Slovak: Budín, Serbian: Будим or Budim, Turkish: Budin) is the western part of the Hungarian capital Budapest on the right bank of the Danube. ... Combatants Austria, Croatia, Hungary, Bavaria Ottoman Empire Commanders Duke of Lorraine Maximilian II Emanuel Süleyman PaÅŸa† (Grand Vizier) Strength 60,000[1] 40,000 Mameluk slaves, 40,000 Balkan mercenaries and 800 Ottoman Turks Casualties 15,000-18,000 killed or wounded ~40,000 killed or wounded The... Sultan Mehmed IV Mehmed IV (also known as Dördüncü, fourth, and Avci, hunter) (January 2, 1642–1693) (Arabic: محمد الرابع) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1648 to 1687. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ...


Archbishop of Cologne

By summer of 1688 it was clear to Louis and his principal advisors Louvois and Colbert de Croissey, that they had to act before the Emperor turned his attention from the Balkans to lead the Dutch, and a comparatively united German Empire, against France on the Rhine.[35] It was therefore imperative that the Turks were encouraged to continue fighting and tie down Leopold while Vauban finished his defences on their eastern border. François Michel le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois (January 18, 1641 - July 16, 1691), was the French war minister under Louis XIV. He was born in Paris to Michel le Tellier. ... Charles Colbert, marquis de Croissy Charles Colbert, marquis de Croissy (1625 - July 28, 1696), French diplomatist, like his elder brother Jean Baptiste Colbert, began his career in the office of the minister of war Le Tellier. ... It has been suggested that River Rhine Pollution: November 1986 be merged into this article or section. ...


The French king was concerned enough to take steps to perpetuate his influence at Cologne.[36] The pro-French Archbishop of Cologne held a number of strategically important bishoprics (they provided links for the Dutch with the Empire and the Spanish Netherlands), straddling the southern and eastern frontiers of the Dutch Republic. The existing Archbishop, Maximilian, was old and frail and Louis wanted to be sure of his successor. He therefore had his client, William Egon of Fürstenberg elected as coadjutor, and by implication, the next Archbishop.[36] After the incumbent Archbishop died in June 1688, and despite all the signs signifying victory for Fürstenberg, an inconclusive election for the position followed, after the brother of the Elector of Bavaria, Joseph Clement (supported by the Emperor and subsequently by Pope Innocent XI) stood against Fürstenberg. However, the disputed election at Cologne had aroused further fears in Germany of French aggression and helped further to unite the German princes. Moreover, the Dutch oligarchs and merchants, also more fearful of Louis’ ambitions, gave William their wholehearted support. From June 1688 the disputed election looked like it would provide the spark to ignite the war between Louis and the German princes.[37] , For other uses, see Cologne (disambiguation). ... The Archbishopric of Cologne was one of the major ecclesiastical principalities of the Holy Roman Empire. ... Maximilian Heinrich of Bavaria Maximilian Henry von Wittelsbach (October 8, 1621 - June 3, 1688) was the third son and fourth child of Albert VI, landgrave of Leuchtenberg and his wife, Mechthilde von Leuchtenberg. ... William Egon of Fürstenberg (1629 - April 10, 1704), bishop of Strassburg, began his career as a soldier in the French service. ... Archbishop Jerome Hanus of the Archdiocese of Dubuque, Dubuque, Iowa. ... Maximilian II Emanuel Maximilian II Emanuel (July 11, 1662 - February 26, 1726) was a Wittelsbach ruler of Bavaria and an elector (Kurfürst) of the Holy Roman Empire. ... Joseph Clemens of Bavaria. ... The Blessed Innocent XI, né Benedetto Odescalchi (May 16, 1611 – August 12, 1689) was pope from 1676 to 1689. ...


War of the Grand Alliance

Continental Europe (1688–89)

Siege warfare: Siege warfare was prevalent in 17th century. Amongst the chief practitioners of siege warfare and fortress design was Louis’ celebrated engineer Sébastien le Prestre de Vauban. Although Vauban did not originate the low-lying style of fortifications common to the period, he certainly greatly improved on the design.[30] Vauban considered a minimum of 20,000 men were essential to besiege a town successfully, but it was also important to defend one’s own territory from investment by the enemy; in 1688 the French committed almost half their army, 166,000 men, garrisoning 221 strongholds.[38] The Dutch engineer, Menno Van Coehoorn, was, like Vauban, employed in both fortification and siege warfare. In 1692 he defended the city of Namur against his great rival. Although Vauban eventually took the city, Coehoorn’s role was reversed three years later as he successfully conducted the attack on Namur in 1695. It was the last major military action of the War of the Grand Alliance in the Spanish Netherlands.[39]

Louis’ obsession of making France invulnerable led to the longest war to date of his reign – the War of the Grand Alliance.[16] Louis only planned a short campaign (similar to that against the Spanish in 1683/84), with the aim of encouraging the Turks to continue their war, and to frighten the Emperor and the Germans into accepting the Reunions claims (as confirmed at the peace of Regensberg), as permanent. By attacking across the Rhine to invest Philippsburg on 27 September 1688 (the only one of the three major fortresses in Alsace which Louis did not already control), Louis also hoped to resolve the Cologne election in favour of Fürstenberg and secure part of the Palatinate in favour of his sister-in-law. Combatants Dutch Republic, England,[1] Holy Roman Empire, Spain, Duchy of Savoy others France, others Commanders King William III, Prince Waldeck, Menno van Coehoorn, Duke of Savoy King Louis XIV, Marshal Luxembourg, Marshal Boufflers, Marquis de Vauban, Marshal Villeroi, Marshal Catinat Strength ~250,000 275 Ships[2] ~440,000[3... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... Sébastien Le Prestre, Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban (May 15, 1633 - March 30, 1707), commonly referred to as Vauban, was a Marshal of France and the foremost military engineer of his age, famed for his skill in both designing fortifications and in breaking through them. ... Menno, baron van Coehoorn (1641 - March 17, 1704), Dutch soldier and military engineer, of Swedish extraction. ... Namur (Nameûr in Walloon, Namen in Dutch) is a city and municipality, capital of the province of Namur and of the region of Wallonia in southern Belgium. ... Philippsburg is a small town in Germany, in the district of Karlsruhe in Baden-Württemberg. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ...


Philippsburg fell on 30 October to the Dauphin (aided by Marshal Duras and Vauban). Mannheim capitulated after a short siege on 11 November, followed by Frankenthal, Oppenheim, Kaiserslautern, Heidelberg, Speyer and Mainz. Although militarily successful, as well as strengthening the Turkish resolve in the Balkans, the gambit to bring the Germans to terms failed.[40] Just after the initial attack in October 1688, Brandenburg-Prussia, Saxony, Hanover and Hesse-Cassel had all agreed to fight Louis, and Maximillian Emmanuel of Bavaria was ready to lead an army formed by the Emperor and the German princes of the Rhine.[41] With this escalation, Louis, unprepared for a wider war, lay waste the lands of the Palatinate, Baden and Württemberg (lands immediately to the north and east of Alsace), to make it incapable of sustaining the enemy. Louvois drafted a list of towns for destruction: Heidelberg was torched on 2 March 1689 and Mannheim on 8 March; Speyer, Worms, Oppenheim and Bingen, as well as many surrounding villages, also suffered under Louis’ destructive policy. Once the French had created their Rhineland defensive barrier they fended off the Germans as best they could, but Marshal Duras lacked the troops to defeat the enemy. These early French victories were partly reversed when Mainz fell on 8 September 1689 to a German force commanded by Duke Charles of Lorraine while Kaiserwörth and Bonn fell to the Elector of Brandenburg.[42] But while Louis XIV was busy on the Rhine, William’s attention was turned towards England. is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Louis, Dauphin of France (known as The Great Dauphin, le Grand Dauphin in French) (1 November 1661 - 14 April 1711) was the eldest son and heir of King Louis XIV of France and Queen Maria Theresa of Spain. ... Jacques-Henri de Durfort, duke of Duras, marshal of France, (October 9, 1625 - October 12, 1704). ... Mannheim is a city in Germany. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... Political status Country: Germany Federal state: Rhineland-Palatinate Region: Rhine Neckar Area District: Independent municipality Facts Population: 47,564 (December 2003) Area: 43. ... Oppenheim is a small town (about 7000 inhabitants) on the Upper Rhine (Rheinhessen), between Mainz and Worms. ... This article is about the city. ... Heidelberg is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Speyer (English formerly Spires) is a city in Germany (Rhineland-Palatinate) with approx. ... Mainz is a city in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. ... The Brandenburg-Prussian state was formed in 1618 when the Duchy of Prussia came under the control of the Elector of Brandenburg (part of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation). ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... , Hanover(i) (German: , IPA: ), on the river Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany. ... Hesse-Kassel (Hessen-Kassel) was a German principality that came into existence when the Landgraviate of Hesse was divided in 1568 upon the death of Landgrave Philip of Hesse and his eldest son Wilhelm IV inherited the northern portion and established his capital in Kassel. ... A palatinate is a territory administered by a count palatine, originally the direct representative of the sovereign, but later the hereditary ruler of the territory subject to the crowns overlordship. ... Baden is a historical state in the southwest of Germany, on the right bank of the Rhine. ... Arms of the Kingdom of Württemberg The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Wuerttemberg. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wormser Dom Worms (pronounced ) is a city in the southwest of Germany. ... Bingen am Rhein, or Bingen, or Bingen on the Rhine is a modern-day city located at the junction of the rivers Rhine and Nahe in southwestern Germany near the city of Mainz. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ... Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany, located about 20 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia. ...


'Glorious Revolution' (1688–89)

Part of the House of Stuart genealogy. (The emblem shown is William and Mary's coat of arms). William III became James’ son-in-law when he married his daughter, Mary in 1677. Mary became joint sovereign with her husband in 1689 after the 'Glorious Revolution'.
Main article: Glorious Revolution

The openly Catholic James II’s ill-advised attempts to Catholicise the army, government and other institutions had proved increasingly unpopular with his (mainly Protestant) subjects. By royal prerogative James suspended the operation of various statutes such as the Act of Uniformity and the Test Act; he also suspended penal legislation against religious nonconformity, permitting Dissenters to worship in meeting-houses, and Catholics to worship in private.[43] Image File history File links Detail_of_the_House_of_Stuart_Genealogy. ... Image File history File links Detail_of_the_House_of_Stuart_Genealogy. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... William III of England (The Hague, 14 November 1650 – Kensington Palace, 8 March 1702; also known as William II of Scotland and William III of Orange) was a Dutch aristocrat and a Protestant Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... The Revolution of 1688, commonly known as the Glorious Revolution, was the overthrow of James II of England in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange). ... The Revolution of 1688, commonly known as the Glorious Revolution, was the overthrow of James II of England in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange). ... The Royal Prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognised in common law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy as belonging to the Crown alone. ... The Act of Uniformity was an Act of the Parliament of England, 14 Charles II c. ... The several Test Acts were a series of English penal laws that imposed various civil disabilities on Roman Catholics and Nonconformists. ... English Dissenters were dissenters from England who opposed State interference in religious matters and founded their own communities over the 16th to 18th century period. ...


James’ open Catholicism and his dealings with Catholic France had also strained relations between England and the Dutch Republic, but because his wife Mary was the Protestant heir to the English throne, William had been reluctant to act against James in case it ruined her succession prospects.[44] However, on 10 June 1688 James’s second wife, Mary of Modena, gave birth to a male heir, threatening a Catholic dynasty to which neither the English public nor William would countenance.[42] Prominent English statesmen – Whigs, Tories and Protestant churchmen – secretly invited William to invade England and assume the throne. The Dutch oligarchs, worried about Anglo-French alliance, gave the Stadtholder a free hand to use Dutch troops; William also had the tacit approval of the Emperor and even the anti-French Pope Innocent XI in return for assurances that Catholics would be tolerated in Britain.[44] is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ... Mary of Modena (October 5, 1658 – May 7, 1718) was the queen consort of King James II of England. ... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... The term Tory derives from the Tory Party, the ancestor of the modern UK Conservative Party. ...


Louis did little to stop William’s invasion of England (his principal concern was with the German powers in the Rhineland, dispelling fears in the Dutch Republic of a possible French attack upon them). This enabled William to land his forces unhindered at Torbay on 15 November (5 November O.S) 1688. French diplomats had calculated that William's invasion would plunge England into a protracted civil war which would absorb Dutch resources or draw England closer to France;[45] however, there was no civil war and William was welcomed by the people. The revolution that shortly followed, commonly know as the ‘Glorious Revolution’, ended James’ reign; William and Mary became joint sovereigns on 13 February 1689 while James became a refugee in France.[46] Torbay (IPA: ) is an east-facing bay, at the western most end of Lyme Bay in the south-west of England, situated roughly midway between the cities of Exeter and Plymouth. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Revolution of 1688, commonly known as the Glorious Revolution, was the overthrow of James II of England in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange). ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ...

The Arrival of William III by Sir James Thornhill. William III landed in England on 5 November (Guy Fawkes day); a day already special in the Protestant calendar.
The Arrival of William III by Sir James Thornhill. William III landed in England on 5 November (Guy Fawkes day); a day already special in the Protestant calendar.

William had come to England to use her power in the struggle against French expansion. But although English troops were used extensively on the continent (almost as many as the Dutch), English politicians and generals played little part in the War; only at sea was command given to English rather than Dutch admirals.[47] Image File history File links The_Arrival_of_William_III.jpg‎ http://www. ... Image File history File links The_Arrival_of_William_III.jpg‎ http://www. ... William III of England (The Hague, 14 November 1650 – Kensington Palace, 8 March 1702; also known as William II of Scotland and William III of Orange) was a Dutch aristocrat and a Protestant Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A Guy Fawkes Night firework display Guy Fawkes Night, also called Bonfire Night, is an annual celebration (but not a public holiday) on the evening of the 5th of November primarily in the United Kingdom, but also in former British colonies New Zealand, South Africa, the island of Newfoundland (Canada...


William’s success rapidly led to the formation of the European coalition he had long desired. On 12 May 1689 the Dutch and Emperor Leopold signed the Grand Alliance (the aim of which was to force the French back to their borders of 1648 and 1659); this meant for the Emperor and the German princes the re-conquest of Lorraine, Strasbourg, parts of Alsace and some fortresses on the Rhine.[47] The Emperor also insisted that the other allies should promise to support his claims to the Spanish succession if the present incumbent, the childless Charles II, died during the war.[47] William, as King William III of England, signed in December. Spain and Savoy joined the coalition in June 1690; Sweden and the major German Princes also associated themselves with the coalition. France was to fight alone, save for the loose relationship with the Turks who were still fighting against Leopold in the Balkans – a war that would last until 1699.[48] is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ... Flag of Savoy This article is about the historical region of Savoy. ...


The German princes proved willing to co-operate in the war against Louis and accepting of Leopold as their leader (although they had no intention of sacrificing their own independence). Since the Swedes were part of the coalition, Frederick of Brandenburg–Prussia put aside his differences with them over Pomerania, and the Emperor himself acted for the Empire rather than just his own dynastic and hereditary lands in Austria. Pommern redirects here. ...


Ireland (1689–91)

Technology: The flintlock musket (fusil), was perfected as a sporting weapon by 1630, but because of manufacturing costs, and traditional conservatism of military leaders, the matchlock musket dominated the battlefield throughout most of the 17th century.[49] Infantrymen still carried the pike, but both the pike and the matchlock were superseded by bayonets and flintlock muskets later in the century, becoming standard in European armies by 1699. The effective range of both the matchlock and flintlock was between 45 – 90 m (50 – 100 yards) against large formations, resulting in close-quarter actions and high casualty rates.[50] The plug bayonet (inserted into the muzzle of the musket), was itself further developed and replaced by the socket bayonet in the 1680s, enabling the musket to be fired while the bayonet was still attached: the musketeer had become his own pikeman.[51]
Cavalry had shed much of its armour and relied primarily on the sword.[30] However, many cavalry regiments added picked companies of carabineers (troopers armed with rifled carbines), while the French substantially increased the number of dragoons.[52] French artillery became standardised and the numbers of mortars used in siege warfare increased;[52] a 24-pound siege canon was highly effective at 550 m (600 yards), and capable of inflicting casualties at 1,830 m (2,000 yards).[30] Mortar attacks promised to destroy a town without requiring an army to occupy it, but these attacks were indiscriminate. The moral injustice of attacking women and children were problematic to some, including Vauban.[53]

The war in Ireland was an extension of the continental struggle. After leaving France, the exiled James II, together with Count d’Avaux, the French ambassador to James’ court (and various other supporters), landed in Ireland at Kinsale in March 1689. Along with the Catholic Lord Deputy of Ireland, Richard Talbot, the Duke of Tyrconnell, James hoped first to establish control in Ireland before proceeding on to Scotland, and thence England, in an attempt to regain his throne.[54] For the context of this war see Jacobitism and Glorious Revolution. ... Flintlock of an 18th Century hunting rifle, with piece of flint missing. ... Events February 22 - Native American Quadequine introduces Popcorn to English colonists. ... The Matchlock was the first firearm to have a trigger mechanism for firing. ... A modern recreation of a mid-17th century company of pikemen. ... The US Marine Corps OKC-3S bayonet A bayonet (from French baïonnette) is a knife- or dagger-shaped weapon designed to fit on or over the muzzle of a rifle or similar weapon. ... Events January 26 - Treaty of Karlowitz signed March 30 - the tenth Sikh Master, Guru Gobind Singh created the Khalsa. ... For other uses of this term, see Musketeer (disambiguation). ... A carbine is a firearm, similar to but shorter than an ordinary rifle or musket in barrel and stock. ... A light dragoon from the American Revolution A dragoon is a soldier trained to fight on foot, but transport himself on horseback. ... US soldier loading a M224 60-mm mortar. ... Market Street in Kinsale, one of the towns oldest thoroughfares Kinsale (Cionn tSáile in Irish) is a town in County Cork, Ireland. ... Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnel (1630 – 14 August 1691), the youngest of sixteen children of Sir William Talbot, Bart. ... This article is about the country. ...


Several obstacles lay in James' way. Most influential Irish supporters were reluctant to ‘liberate’ England and Scotland from William – a number wished to break the English connection altogether; secondly, Louis held all the purse-strings and was reluctant to supply troops to Ireland; and thirdly, total success depended on pacifying the parts of Ulster – including Protestant strongholds of Londonderry and Enniskillen – that remained hostile to the old Catholic king.[55] This article is about the nine-county Irish province. ... Derry or Londonderry (in Irish , Doire Cholm Chille or Doire), often called the Maiden City, is a city in Northern Ireland. ... Enniskillen (from the Irish: Inis Ceithleann meaning Kathleens Island) is the county town (and largest town) of County Fermanagh in Northern Ireland. ...


The subjugation of Ulster however proved a forlorn hope. The 105 days siege of Londonderry was abandoned on 10 August (31 July O.S) and, on the same day, James’ forces under Viscount Mountcashel were routed at Newtownbutler. Further bad news arrived for the Jacobite cause from Britain. Although William’s army in Scotland under the command of General Hugh Mackay was defeated by Dundee at the Battle of Killiecrankie on 6 August (27 July O.S) 1689, the Jacobite Highlanders were themselves defeated at Dunkeld on 31 August (21 August O.S) leading to the dispersion of the clans and the end, for now at least, of the Jacobite struggle in Scotland.[56] is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The battle of Newtownbutler in 1689 was part of the Williamite war in Ireland. ... Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, wearing the Jacobite blue bonnet Jacobitism was (and, to a very limited extent, remains) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland. ... Hugh Mackay Hugh Mackay (c. ... The Viscount Dundee John Graham, 1st Viscount Dundee (c. ... Combatants Jacobite Royalists (Highlanders & Irish) Orange Royalists (Covenanters, Lowlanders) Commanders Viscount Dundee† Hugh Mackay Strength 2400 foot 3500 foot Casualties 800, inc. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Lowland-Highland divide Highland Sign with welcome in English and Gaelic The Scottish Highlands (A Ghàidhealtachd in Gaelic) include the rugged and mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ... Dunkeld (Dùn Chailleann in Scottish Gaelic) is a small town in Strathtay, Perth and Kinross, Scotland, approximately 15 miles north of Perth on the A9 road into the Scottish Highlands and on the opposite (north) side of the River Tay from the Victorian village of Birnam. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On 23 August (13 August O.S), 15,000 Dutch, English and Danish troops of William’s army, commanded by Marshal Schomberg, landed near Bangor. However, after taking Carrickfergus and Belfast Schomberg’s army stalled at Dundalk, suffering through the winter months from sickness and desertion.[57] James and d’Avaux were confident that with a little French help they could drive Schomberg out of Ireland the following year, but the signs were ominous; James’ army lacked provisions and supplies and worryingly, William, realising reinforcements would be needed for a successful outcome announced in January he would come to Ireland in person with a substantial army.[57] Louis and his war minister Louvois were reluctant to supply men that were badly needed on the continent;[58] although 6,000 troops from the Savoy front, commanded by Count Lauzun, were eventually sent to Kinsale in March 1690.[59] On 24 June (14 June O.S), William landed at Carrickfergus with 15,000 troops, bringing the total of the Williamite forces to almost 44,000; (James could muster 39,000 in all).[60] No French fleet attempted to stop them – it was in France’s interest that William directed his attention and resources to Ireland. is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Friedrich Hermann (or Frédéric-Armand), 1st Duke of Schomberg (originally Schönberg) (December 1615 or January 1616—July 11, 1690), was both a marshal of France and an English general of all his Majestys Forces. Descended from an old family of the Palatinate, he was born at... This article is about the town in Northern Ireland. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Ulster County: District: Carrickfergus Borough UK Parliament: East Antrim European Parliament: Northern Ireland Dialling Code: 028, +44 28 Post Town: Carrickfergus Postal District(s): BT38 Population (2005) 32,668 Carrickfergus (from the Irish: Carraig Fhearghais meaning Rock of Fergus) is a large town in... This article is about the city in Northern Ireland. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ... Antoine Nompar de Caumont, marquis de Puyguilhem, duc de Lauzun (1632 - November 19, 1723), was a French courtier and soldier. ... Events Giovanni Domenico Cassini observes differential rotation within Jupiters atmosphere. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... June 14 is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Map of Ireland. To Louis XIV the Irish campaign was more of an attempt to occupy William III than it was to maintain James II and assist him in regaining his throne.[61]

Meanwhile the epicentre of the war on the Continent had moved from the Rhine to the Spanish Netherlands and the French–Flanders border where, on 1 July (21 June O.S) 1690, the theatre’s French commander Marshal Luxembourg defeated Prince Waldeck at Fleurus. Later on 10 July (30 June O.S) Louis’ navy, under Tourville, defeated the Anglo-Dutch fleet under Torrington at Beachy Head, giving France control of the English Channel. These French successes threatened not only the prospect of limitless reinforcements to Ireland but also a possible invasion of England.[62] But despite William’s victory at the Battle of the Boyne on 11 July (1 July O.S) – leading to James’ hastened flight back to France – Louis still had a clear strategic advantage. However, James’ appeals for assistance to Louis were not heeded; with his attention drawn towards the Continent, the French king would neither send more troops to Ireland nor, for the moment, invade England.[63] Image File history File links Map_of_Ireland_-_Williamite_War. ... Image File history File links Map_of_Ireland_-_Williamite_War. ... “Sun King” redirects here. ... William III of England (The Hague, 14 November 1650 – Kensington Palace, 8 March 1702; also known as William II of Scotland and William III of Orange) was a Dutch aristocrat and a Protestant Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28... James II of England (also known as James VII of Scotland; 14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... François Henri de Montmorency-Bouteville, duc de Piney, called de Luxembourg (January 8, 1628 - January 4, 1695), marshal of France, the comrade and successor of the great Condé, was born at Paris, France. ... Prince Georg Friedrich of Waldeck (* January 31, 1620 in Arolsen; † November 19, 1692 in Arolsen) was a German Field Marshal and a Dutch General. ... Combatants France England United Provinces Spain Holy Roman Empire Commanders Duc de Luxembourg Prince of Waldeck Strength 35,000 38,000 Casualties 3,000 dead 3,000 wounded 6,000 dead 5,000 wounded 8,000 captured The Battle of Fleurus took place on July 1, 1690. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Anne Hilarion de Contentin, comte de Tourville Anne Hilarion de Contentin, comte de Tourville Anne Hilarion de Contentin, comte de Tourville (1642–1701) was a French naval commander who served under King Louis XIV. Aged 17, a Knight of Malta, he fought his first naval fight on a frigate of... Arthur Herbert, 1st Earl of Torrington (c. ... Combatants France England United Provinces Commanders Anne Hilarion de Tourville Earl of Torrington Strength 75 ships 56 ships Casualties None 7 Dutch ships lost The naval Battle of Beachy Head or Bataille de Béveziers took place on 30 June 1690 near Beachy Head, a promontory near Eastbourne, on the... Satellite view of the English Channel The English Channel (French: , the sleeve) is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the island of Great Britain from northern France and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic. ... Combatants Jacobite Forces -6000 French troops, 19,000 Irish Catholic troops Williamite Forces -English, Scottish, Dutch, Danish, Huguenot and Ulster Protestant troops Commanders James VII and II William III of England Strength 25,000 36,000 Casualties ~1,500 ~750 William III (William of Orange) King of England, Scotland and... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Dublin and Waterford were occupied by the Williamite forces, but after an unsuccessful siege of Limerick William returned to London in September 1690 leaving Godert de Ginkell, 1st Earl of Athlone in charge.[64] Lauzun and his French troops also returned home, but although Tryconnel was successful in obtaining arms and a new general he failed to get new French troops – the Boyne had caused Louis to think again, sapping his enthusiasm for supporting James.[65] Louis was also running out of Irish ports; the Earl of Marlborough took Cork and Kinsale in southern Ireland in October (isolating the Jacobite forces from further supplies), ready for the coup de grâce the following year. Dublin city centre at night WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Leinster County: Dáil Éireann: Dublin Central, Dublin North Central, Dublin North East, Dublin North West, Dublin South Central, Dublin South East European Parliament: Dublin Dialling Code: +353 1 Postal District(s): D1-24, D6W Area: 114. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference S604123 Statistics Province: Munster County: Area: 41. ... Combatants Jacobite Forces - French and Irish Catholic toops Williamite Forces - English, Scottish Dutch, Danish, Ulster troops Commanders French general Lauzun, Irish commanders Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell, Patrick Sarsfield William III of England Strength 14,500 Jacobite infantry in Limerick, 2500 cavalry in Clare 25,000 men Casualties ~400... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Godert de Ginkell, 1st Earl of Athlone or Godart van Ginkel (Utrecht, 1630 – February 11, 1703, Utrecht) was a Dutch general in the service of England. ... Antoine Nompar de Caumont, marquis de Puyguilhem, duc de Lauzun (1632 - November 19, 1723), was a French courtier and soldier. ... John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough (26 May 1650 – 16 June 1722) (O.S)[1] was an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs throughout the late 17th and early 18th centuries. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Munster County: Area: 37. ... Market Street in Kinsale, one of the towns oldest thoroughfares Kinsale (Cionn tSáile in Irish) is a town in County Cork, Ireland. ... Look up coup de grâce in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Together with the successful Williamite siege of Athlone in June – July, and Ginkell’s victory over the Jacobite forces at Aughrim on 22 July (12 July O.S) 1691, James’ aspirations in Ireland were all but over.[66] Limerick was besieged for a second time on 4 September leading to the Treaty of Limerick. The treaty, signed by Ginkell and the Irish commander, Patrick Sarsfield on 13 October (3 October O.S) 1691, finally ended Louis’ Irish diversion and James’ hopes, for now at least, of regaining his kingdom. Athlone in central Ireland, was besieged twice during the Williamite war in Ireland (1689-91). ... The Battle of Aughrim was the decisive battle of the Williamite war in Ireland. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 5 - French troops under Marshal Louis-Francois de Boufflers besiege the Spanish-held town of Mons March 20 - Leislers Rebellion - New governor arrives in New York - Jacob Leisler surrenders after standoff of several hours March 29 - Siege of Mons ends to the city’s surrender May 6... Combatants Jacobite Forces - French and Irish Catholic toops Williamite Forces - English, Scottish Dutch, Danish, Ulster troops Commanders Patrick Sarsfield Godert de Ginkell Strength c 14,000 20,000 men Casualties ~800 killed in action ~low, though likely some deaths from disease Limerick in western Ireland was besieged twice during the... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Treaty of Limerick ended the Williamite war in Ireland between the Jacobites and the supporters of William of Orange. ... Patrick Sarsfield, 1st Earl of Lucan Patrick Sarsfield (b. ... October 13 is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Continental Europe continued (1691–97)

Revenue: In 1692 and 1693 there were massive harvest failures leading to acute famine and epidemics in France; from 1693 to 1694 over 2 million people died.[67] The burden of financing the war fell upon this depleted economic base inducing finance raising measures including taxing every conceivable commodity and transaction, and in 1695, creating a poll tax from which even the nobility were not exempt.[67] England had often played a minor role in foreign affairs due to its relative lack of money, but the continental policy of William forced a reorganisation of its credit and finances.[68] Parliament created a permanent, funded national debt that paid annual interest to private financiers. The Bank of England (Influenced by the Dutch National Bank) was established to manage the debt which by 1698 had reached £17m.[69] Because the war was so expensive and increasingly unpopular, Parliament demanded greater control over the expenditures, allowing it an increased influence in military and foreign policy.[69] The English called this overlapping of Parliament and crown ‘King-in-Parliament’. In stark contrast to France, England had built a fiscal-military state without submitting to absolutist monarchy.[69]

The pacification of Ireland had released thousands of troops for William’s war on the continent but Louis also benefited from 12,000 Irish troops (the so-called Wild Geese) ceded to him under the terms of the Treaty of Limerick. William had returned to the Spanish Netherlands in early 1691, but despite the death of Louis’ talented War Minister, Louvois, the campaign in the Spanish Netherlands was a military failure for the Allies.[70] Marshal Boufflers took Mons on 10 April followed by Marshal Luxembourg’s victory against Prince Waldeck at Leuze on 19 September. This success was followed in 1692 at Namur (which capitulated on 2526 May) – by the middle of the year the French were ready for an invasion of England. The English parliament in front of the King, c. ... Government debt (public debt, national debt) is money owed by government, at any level (central government, federal government, national government, municipal government, local government, regional government). ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Governor Mervyn King Central Bank of United Kingdom Currency Pound Sterling ISO 4217 Code GBP Base borrowing rate 5. ... Events January 4 - Palace of Whitehall in London is destroyed by fire. ... The Queen-in-Parliament (or King-in-Parliament when there is a male monarch) is a British constitutional law term for the British Crown in its legislative role, acting with the advice and consent of the House of Commons and House of Lords. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... The Flight of the Wild Geese refers to the departure of an Irish army under the command of Patrick Sarsfield from Ireland to France, as agreed in the Treaty of Limerick on October 3, 1691, following the Williamite war in Ireland with the Jacobites. ... Louis François, duc de Boufflers, comte de Cagny (January 10, 1644 - August 22, 1711) was a Marshal of France. ... Geography Country Belgium Community French Community Region Walloon Region Province Hainaut Arrondissement Mons Coordinates , , Area 146. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants France England United Provinces Commanders Marshal Luxembourg Friedrich of Waldeck Strength 28 squadrons 72 squadrons Casualties 400 dead or wounded 1,500 - 2,000 dead or wounded The Battle of Leuze took place on September 18, 1691, and was a famous French cavalry victory in the War of the... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Namur (Nameûr in Walloon, Namen in Dutch) is a city and municipality, capital of the province of Namur and of the region of Wallonia in southern Belgium. ... (Redirected from 25 May) May 25 is the 145th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (146th in leap years). ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


At Saint-Germain the court of the exiled King James had for two years insisted with the French War Office that England was ready for a restoration.[71] For this purpose, an army 20,000 troops assembled around Cherbourg, while the French fleet concentrated in the Norman and Breton ports. Reminiscent of 1588 and the threat from the Spanish Armada all England was alerted and its defences prepared to resist the invasion. But the coming battle for the control of the channel would be a very uneven struggle; Tourville’s fleet of 44 vessels were soon scattered by Admirals Russell’s and Rooke’s fleet of 99 rated ships, eventually cornering, and destroying 12 French vessels in anchorage at La Hogue.[72] The battle not only ended serious French invasion plans but now, starved of funds, it also spelt the end of France’s Atlantic navy.[73] The Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye. ... Cherbourg is a city of Normandy, in northwestern France, in the Manche département, of which it is a sous_préfecture. ... Flag of Normandy Normandy (in French: Normandie, and in Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region in northern France. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... For the modern navy of Spain, see Armada Española. ... Anne Hilarion de Contentin, comte de Tourville Anne Hilarion de Contentin, comte de Tourville Anne Hilarion de Contentin, comte de Tourville (1642–1701) was a French naval commander who served under King Louis XIV. Aged 17, a Knight of Malta, he fought his first naval fight on a frigate of... Categories: People stubs | 1653 births | 1727 deaths | Peers | Royal Navy admirals | Lords of the Admiralty ... Admiral Sir George Rooke, 1650–1709 by Michael Dahl, painted c. ... Combatants France England United Provinces Commanders Anne Hilarion de Tourville Edward Russell Strength 44 ships (3,142 guns) 98 ships (8,980 guns) Casualties 15 ships burnt 2 ships sunk The related naval battles of Barfleur and La Hogue took place between 27 May and 3 June 1692 (17-23... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ...


Other fronts were less active; operations along the Moselle and Rhine had declined since the initial clashes of 1688/89. The German forces outnumbered Marshal de Lorge’s French forces (who throughout 1692 had continued their modest campaign of ravaging and raiding in the area), but although by 1693 Marshal de Lorge’s army totaled 45,000 men (enabling them to capture Heidelberg on 2122 May), no decisive campaign in the east was forthcoming.[74] Meanwhile, in the Spanish Netherlands, despite Louis falling ill and having to retire to Versailles (never again to take to the battlefield with his army), Marshal Luxembourg defeated William’s army at the bloody Battle of Landen. The battle though, had little effect beyond attrition; despite suffering enormous casualties, William was able to maintain himself in the field.[75] Moselle is a département in the northeast of France named after the Moselle River. ... It has been suggested that River Rhine Pollution: November 1986 be merged into this article or section. ... Guy Aldonce de Durfort , duke de Lorges, marshal of France, (August 22, 1630 - October 22, 1702). ... Events February 13 - Massacre of Glencoe March 1 - The Salem witch trials begin in Salem Village, Massachusetts Bay Colony with the charging of three women with witchcraft. ... Heidelberg is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... (Redirected from 21 May) May 21 is the 141st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (142nd in leap years). ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Battle of Landen (or Neerwinden), in the current Belgian province of Flemish Brabant, was a battle in the War of the Grand Alliance, fought in the Netherlands on July 29, 1693 between the French army of Marshal Luxembourg and the Allied army of King William III of England. ...

Naval developments: (Image: The Battle of Barfleur by Richard Paton.) Louis’ naval minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert, greatly expanded France’s navy, but although France could handle a naval war with the Dutch Republic, it was overwhelmed with the combined English and Dutch fleets.[30] By 1688 the Dutch navy numbered 102 warships (69 ships of the line), the English 173 (including 100 ships of the line), and the French 221 (including 93 ships of the line).[76] However, as the English navy grew from 173 ships with 6,930 guns and a total displacement of 102,000 tons in 1688 to 323 ships with 9,912 guns and a total displacement of 160,000 tons by the end of the century,[77] the French navy rapidly declined in favour of the army.[78] Because of financial pressures, the French turned from fleet warfare, guerre d’escadre, to commerce raiding, guerre de course as epitomised by Jean Bart, the French sailor who terrorised the English coast during the war. These privateers (privately financed commerce raiders) carried letters of marque that officially recognised them as fighting in the name of the king - distinguishing them from common pirates - causing serious damage to the commerce of England and the Dutch Republic. 5,700 enemy vessels were taken in the course of the war, but this policy produced no great victories that Louis relished in his pursuit of gloire.[79]

Famine had exhausted the protagonists in 1694 and the year saw no great battles or sieges. Although William was able to take the small fortress of Huy in September, neither side wanted a repetition of the bloodbath at Landen.[80] At sea, the Anglo-Dutch fleets were sent to help the Allied war effort in Italy and Spain. With the French fleet largely confined to port the rapidly increasing Royal Navy had gained the upper hand, forcing a strategic re-think in France – the French navy switched from fleet warfare to privateering against Anglo-Dutch shipping. This caused serious damage to the commerce of the maritime powers, and together with the Anglo-Dutch fleets enforcing the blockade, the Allies were unable to use their navies in an offensive way against either Europe or French possessions overseas; Louis could only be defeated on the Continent.[73] Combatants France England United Provinces Commanders Anne Hilarion de Tourville Edward Russell Strength 44 ships (3,142 guns) 98 ships (8,980 guns) Casualties 15 ships burnt 2 ships sunk The related naval battles of Barfleur and La Hogue took place between 27 May and 3 June 1692 (17-23... The Battle of Barfleur, 19 May 1692 by Richard Paton, painted 18th century The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Jean-Baptiste Colbert Jean-Baptiste Colbert (August 29, 1619 – September 6, 1683) served as the French minister of finance from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV. He achieved a reputation for his work of improving the state of French manufacturing and bringing the economy back from... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... Ships of the line were 1st, 2nd, or 3rd-rated ships in the rating system of the Royal Navy. ... Jean Bart (October 21, 1651 - April 27, 1702) was a French naval commander of the 17th century. ... Pirates may refer to: A group of people committing any of these activities: Piracy at sea or on a river/lake. ... Huy (Walloon: Hu; French: Huy, Dutch: Hoei) is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ...


In January 1695, Louis’ undefeated commander Marshal Luxembourg died; with his passing, Marshal Villeroi became French commander in the Spanish Netherlands. Because Villeroi’s talents fell short of Luxembourg’s, the defensive nature of the war was further emphasised. However, the Allies achieved the last great victory of the War of the Grand Alliance in the Spanish Netherlands – the retaking of Namur. Coehoorn, in a role reversal of 1692, led the attack on the town which finally capitulated on 5 September. François de Neufville, duc de Villeroi, by Alexandre-François Caminade François de Neufville, duc de Villeroi (April 7, 1644 - July 18, 1730), French soldier, came of a noble family which had risen into prominence in the reign of Charles IX. His father Nicolas de Neufville, marquis de... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Elsewhere, in northern Italy, the French forces commanded by Marshal Catinat had earlier defeated Victor Amadeus, the Duke of Savoy at the Battle of Staffarda on 18 August 1690. The following year Catinat took Nice between 24 March and 2 April and, while campaigning along the Po, he also captured Carmagnola just south of Turin. However, after Savoy was reinforced with imperial forces, raising their number to 45,000, Catinat was forced to pull back, losing Carmagnola in October. Despite a large numerical disadvantage throughout 1692 the French commander was able to hold on to Susa and Pinerolo and, in the following year (after French reinforcements were sent to aid Catinat), he defeated Amadeus at the Battle of Marsaglia on 4 October.[81] Throughout 1694 the theatre was relatively quiet, but although Amadeus had been badly bruised by the French, by 1695 both he and Louis were keen to cut a deal. Nicolas Catinat (1637 - 1712), marshal of France, entered the Gardes Françaises at an early age and distinguished himself at the siege of Lille in 1667. ... Victor Amadeus II. Victor Amadeus II, Italian Vittorio Amedeo II (May 14, 1666 - October 31, 1732) was the Duke of Savoy (1675-1730). ... Combatants France Piedmont Spain Austria Commanders Nicolas Catinat Duke of Savoy Strength 18,000 17,000 Casualties 2,000 6,700 The Battle of Staffarda, was a battle in the War of the Grand Alliance, fought in Italy on August 18, 1690 between the French army of Marshal Catinat and... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... PO may stand for: Pareto optimality Parole Officer Per os, Latin for by mouth or orally Perfect Orange a third wave ska based in Knoxville, TN from 2002-2005 Petty Officer, a Non-Commissioned Officer Rank in many Navies Pilkington Optronics, now Thales Optronics Pilot Officer, a junior commissioned rank... Francesco Bussone da Carmagnola (1390 - May 5, 1432), Italian soldier of fortune, was born at Carmagnola near Turin, and began his military career when twelve years old under Facino Cane, a condottiere then in the service of Gian Galeazzo Visconti, duke of Milan. ... “Torino” redirects here. ... Events February 13 - Massacre of Glencoe March 1 - The Salem witch trials begin in Salem Village, Massachusetts Bay Colony with the charging of three women with witchcraft. ... Susa is a city in Piedmont, Italy. ... Pinerolo is a town in Italy, 40 km southwest of Turin on the River Chisone. ... Combatants France Piemont Spain Commanders Nicolas Catinat Duke of Savoy Strength 35,000 30,000 Casualties 1,800 dead or wounded 10,000 dead, wounded, or captured The Battle of Marsaglia, was a battle in the War of the Grand Alliance, fought in Italy on October 4, 1693 between the... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1696, Victor Amadeus and Louis concluded peace by signing the Treaty of Turin on 29 August. The Duke of Savoy was the first major partner to abandon the Allied coalition but Louis had agreed to substantial concessions; he surrendered Nice and the fortress of Pinerolo to Savoy and abandoned the fortress of Casale. However, the peace undermined the Spanish and Austrian troops who had been sent to aid Victor Amadeus, and furthermore, opened Spanish Milan to possible French invasion. The two powers therefore made an armistice with France in northern Italy, which, to William’s consternation, allowed Louis to transfer 30,000 men to the hard-pressed fronts in the Spanish Netherlands.[82] is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Casale Monferrato is a town in the Piedmont region of north-west Italy, part of the province of Alessandria. ... The Duchy of Milan was a state in northern Italy from 1395 to 1797. ... This article or section should be merged with Seventeen Provinces The Spanish Netherlands was a portion of the Low Countries controlled by Spain from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. ...

Unlike the fighting elsewhere, Savoy witnessed battles of manoeuvre. The French commander, Catinat, was unusual amongst other commanders in that he did not hail from the upper reaches of the aristocracy.
Unlike the fighting elsewhere, Savoy witnessed battles of manoeuvre. The French commander, Catinat, was unusual amongst other commanders in that he did not hail from the upper reaches of the aristocracy.[83]

Throughout 1696 and 1697 the main theatre of the war saw little action. Villeroi in Flanders and Boufflers on the Meuse commanded a total of 125,000 men against which William III, the Prince of Baden and the Landgrave of Hesse could muster a similar number. At the start of the campaign season in 1697 the French took Ath on 5 June and the Prince of Baden was able to take Ebernberg in September just before the end of the war. Behind the scenes however, William’s and Louis’ representatives were bargaining hard for peace.[84] The Dutch Republic, England and France alike, were facing economic and financial exhaustion.[85] Image File history File links Savoy_and_Catalonia. ... Image File history File links Savoy_and_Catalonia. ... Flag of Savoy This article is about the historical region of Savoy. ... Nicolas Catinat (1637 - 1712), marshal of France, entered the Gardes Françaises at an early age and distinguished himself at the siege of Lille in 1667. ... Louis William, Margrave of Baden called the Türkenlouis or shield of the empire. ... This article is about the Belgian municipality. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The only decisive theatre on the continent was in Spain. The Spanish could offer nothing more than token resistance and the Allies were unable to provide enough support.[86] However, the war in Spain was a sideshow for Louis. The theatre was dominated by amphibious warfare where naval assistance was necessary to seize coastal towns, of which Barcelona was the greatest prize.[87] The French forces, commanded by Duke de Noailles, numbered 12,000 in 1690 dropping to 10,000 in 1691; only in 1694 when other fronts were relatively quiet did the Spanish front grow in importance, (but even then Louis invested only 26,000 troops). After Rosas fell in 1693, the French drove deeper into Catalonia, defeating the Spanish at the Battle of Torroella (Ter) on 27 May 1694 and taking Palamos on 10 June; Gerona fell on 29 June. The arrival in August of an Allied fleet under Admiral Russell forestalled an intended French siege of Barcelona in 1694/95. However, after the Allied fleet departed from Cadiz and sailed north in 1696, Vendôme, with the assistance of French fleet under Victor-Marie d'Estrées, took Barcelona in 1697, the final major action of the war. Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... Anne-Jules, 2nd duc de Noailles (5 February 1650–2 October France towards the end of the reign of Louis XIV, and, after raising the regiment of Noailles in 1689, he commanded in Spain during the War of the Spanish Succession, and was made marshal of France in 1693. ... Roses (Spanish: Rosas in Spanish) is a municipality in the comarca of the Alt Empordà in Catalonia, Spain. ... Anthem: Capital Barcelona Official language(s) Catalan,Spanish and Aranese. ... Combatants France Spain Commanders Duc de Noailles Marquis of Villena-Escalona Strength 24,000 16,000 - 24,000 Casualties 500 dead or wounded 3,000 - 9,000 dead, wounded, or captured Battle of Torroella : battle in the War of the Grand Alliance, fought on the 27th of May 1694 along... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Palamós is a town in the Mediterranean Costa Brava, located in the comarca of Baix Empordà, in the province of Girona, Catalonia, Spain. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Spanish city. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Categories: People stubs | 1653 births | 1727 deaths | Peers | Royal Navy admirals | Lords of the Admiralty ... This article is about the Spanish city. ... Louis Joseph, Duc de Vendôme on campaign, 1706. ... Victor Marie dEstrées, count then duke (1723) dEstrées (Paris November 30, 1660 - Paris december 27 1737) was a Marshal of France. ...


North America (1689–97)

Main article: King William's War

The European war was reflected in North America – albeit very different in meaning and scale. Notwithstanding a formal agreement between France and England to preserve peace, French policy in North America and the West Indies (the crown jewels of the English empire) had been aggressive towards the English colonies.[88] Actions by Louis include the invasion of English West Indies, in particular the divided island (half French, half English) of St Kitts; in the west down the Mississippi; in the north-east from Acadia into Maine, and in the north among the Indian tribes between Canada, New York and New England.[89] Moreover Hudson Bay was a focal point of dispute between the Protestant English and Catholic French colonists, both of whom claiming a share of its occupation and trade. It was with this background that in April 1689 William informed his colonists of his intention to declare war on France. The first of the French and Indian Wars, King Williams War (1689–1697) , was the North American theater of the War of the Grand Alliance (1688–1697) fought principally in Europe between the armies of France under Louis XIV and those of a coalition of European powers including England. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... Saint Kitts and Nevis is an island nation in the Caribbean. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... The national flag of Acadia, adopted in 1884. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... “NY” redirects here. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Hudson Bay, Canada. ...

19th century print showing Quebec batteries firing on Phip’s ships during October 1690.
19th century print showing Quebec batteries firing on Phip’s ships during October 1690.

Although important to the colonists of England and France, the North American theatre of the War of the Grand Alliance, commonly called King William's War, was of secondary importance to European statesmen. Despite numerical superiority, the English colonists suffered repeated defeats as New France effectively organised its French troops, Canadian militia and Indian allies to attack frontier settlements.[90] Image File history File links Quebec_1690. ... Image File history File links Quebec_1690. ... , Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... Sir William Phips (or Phipps) (February 2, 1651 – February 18, 1695) was a colonial governor of Massachusetts. ... The first of the French and Indian Wars, King Williams War (1689–1697) , was the North American theater of the War of the Grand Alliance (1688–1697) fought principally in Europe between the armies of France under Louis XIV and those of a coalition of European powers including England. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty...


The conflict began in 1689 with a series of Indian massacres (the first of which was the destruction of Dover, New Hampshire) instigated by the governor of Canada, Louis de Buade de Frontenac. This was followed in August by Pemaquid, Maine, and in February 1690, the town of Schenectady on the Mohawk; massacres at Casco, and Salmon Falls shortly followed.[91] In response, on 1 May 1690 at the Albany Conference, colonial representatives elected to invade Canada. In August a land force commanded by Colonel Winthrop set off for Montreal, and a naval force, commanded by Sir William Phips (who earlier on 11 May had seized the capital of French Acadia, Port Royal), set sail for Quebec via the Saint Lawrence River. Both the expeditions against Quebec and St Lawrence were humiliating and financial disasters for the English, made worse for them when the French were retook Port Royal. Phips sailed for England to request support, but William, whose navy was busy in the English Channel and whose troops were required in Ireland and the Spanish Netherlands, could provide little help for his distant colony; the colonists were left largely to defend themselves.[92] Nickname: Location within New Hampshire Coordinates: , Country United States State New Hampshire County Strafford Settled 1623 Incorporated 1623 (town) Incorporated 1855 (city) Government  - City Manager Mike Joyal  - Mayor Scott Myers  - City Council Robert Keays David Scott Catherine Cheney Dennis Ciotti Douglas DeDe Dean Trefethen Harvey Turner Area  - City  29. ... Official language(s) English Capital Concord Largest city Manchester Area  Ranked 46th  - Total 9,359 sq mi (24,239 km²)  - Width 68 miles (110 km)  - Length 190 miles (305 km)  - % water 3. ... Frontenac Louis de Buade, Comte de Frontenac et de Palluau (May 22, 1622 – November 28, 1698) was a French courtier and Governor of New France from 1672 to 1682 and from 1689 to his death in 1698. ... Bristol is a town located in Lincoln County, Maine. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... Union Colleges Nott Memorial, one of the most recognized buildings in Schenectady Schenectady (IPA ) is a city in Schenectady County, New York, United States, of which it is the county seat. ... The Mohawk River is a major waterway in north-central New York, United States. ... Casco is a town in Cumberland County, Maine, United States. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Location in Albany County and the State of New York Coordinates: , Country United States State New York County Albany Founded 1614 Incorporated 1686 Government  - Mayor Gerald D. Jennings (D) Area  - City  21. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... Sir William Phips (or Phipps) (February 2, 1651 – February 18, 1695) was a colonial governor of Massachusetts. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The national flag of Acadia, adopted in 1884. ... Port Royal is a small rural community in the western part of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. ... , Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... TheSaint Lawrence River (In French: fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ...


The Quebec expedition was the last major offensive of King William’s War; for the remainder of the war the English colonists were reduced to defensive operations and skirmishes. However, the Iroquois Five Nations suffered from the ineptitude of their English allies.[93] In 1693 and 1696, the French and their Indian allies ravaged Iroquois towns and destroyed crops while New York colonists remained passive. After the English and French made peace with the signing of the Treaty of Ryswick in 1697, the Iroquois, now abandoned by the English colonists, remained at war with New France until 1701.[94] Languages Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca, Tuscarora, English, French Religions Christianity, Longhouse religion The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the League of Peace and Power; the Five Nations; the Six Nations; or the People of the Long house) is a group of First Nations/Native Americans that originally consisted of...


Aftermath

Map of European borders as they stood after the Treaty of Ryswick and just previous to King Louis XIV's last great war, the War of the Spanish Succession in 1701.

There was considerable pressure from politicians in both England and the Dutch Republic for peace. Commerce in both countries was suffering, and the continual disruption of trade was now undermining their resolve to continue the war – the financial and economic exhaustion felt by the maritime powers was also being felt by France.[95] By the end of the 1696 campaigning season, both William III and Louis XIV were determined on peace. Louis’ aggressive stance had become increasingly moderate, but above all, he felt it essential to break up the Allied coalition before the infirm Charles II of Spain died – France would have far less chance of gaining the Spanish succession if it was still at war with Spain and if Austria’s allies were still committed to support Leopold’s claims.[96] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1677x1311, 383 KB) Summary Courtesy of the University of Texas Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1677x1311, 383 KB) Summary Courtesy of the University of Texas Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin. ... “Sun King” redirects here. ... Combatants Habsburg Empire, England (1701-1706) Great Britain (1707-1714),[1] Dutch Republic, Kingdom of Portugal, Crown of Aragon, Others[2] Kingdom of France, Kingdom of Spain, Electorate of Bavaria, Hungarian Rebels Others[3] Commanders Eugene of Savoy, Margrave of Baden, Count Starhemberg, Duke of Marlborough, Marquis de Ruvigny, Count... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... William III of England (The Hague, 14 November 1650 – Kensington Palace, 8 March 1702; also known as William II of Scotland and William III of Orange) was a Dutch aristocrat and a Protestant Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28... “Sun King” redirects here. ... Charles II of Spain. ... For other uses, see Austria (disambiguation). ... Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor Silver coin of Leopold I, 3 Kreuzers, dated 1670. ...


A peace congress opened in May 1697 at William's palace in Ryswick (now the town of Rijswijk) near The Hague. The Swedes were the official mediators but in fact it was Williams' advisor William Bentinck, Earl of Portland, and Louis' general, Marshal Boufflers, who found it easier to come to a settlement in private. William himself had no intention of continuing the war or for pressing Leopold’s claims in the Rhineland or Spanish succession – to him it was more important for the security of England and the Dutch Republic to obtain Louis’ recognition of the 1688 revolution.[97] Therefore, on 20 September 1697, France, the Dutch Republic, England and Spain signed the Treaty of Ryswick. Emperor Leopold though, desperate for a continuation of the war so as to strengthen his own claims to the Spanish succession, was reluctant to seek peace with Louis. However, because he was still at war with the Turks, and could not face fighting France alone, Leopold also sought terms and signed the treaty on 30 October.[98] Jaagpad street in Rijswijk Rijswijk ( listen), also Ryswick in English (population: 47,693 in 2004) is a suburb of The Hague in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. ... Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province South Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 98. ... William Bentinck (1645-1709), the son of Hendrick Bentinck of Diepenheim, was born in 1645. ... Louis François, duc de Boufflers, comte de Cagny (January 10, 1644 - August 22, 1711) was a Marshal of France. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events September 11 - Battle of Zenta, Prince Eugene of Savoy crushed Ottoman army of Mustafa II September 20 - The Treaty of Ryswick December 2 – St Pauls Cathedral opened in London Peter the Great travels in Europe officially incognito as artilleryman Pjotr Mikhailov Use of palanquins increases in Europe Christopher... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


By the peace terms the French retained the whole of Alsace and Strasbourg, but Louis returned Luxembourg to Spain and other areas seized under the reunions claims in the Spanish Netherlands. As well as returning territory captured during the war along the Rhine, Lorraine was also handed back to its duke, though France retained enough of it to ensure effective military control. Louis also evacuated Catalonia (to curry favour with Madrid regarding the question of the Spanish succession) and gave way regarding the Palatinate and Cologne issues.[99] In North America, territorial gains made by the protagonists in the English and French colonies were returned to the original holders, establishing the status quo ante bellum. However in the Caribbean, Spain formally ceded Saint-Domingue to France.[100] (New region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Bas-Rhin Haut-Rhin Arrondissements 13 Cantons 75 Communes 903 Statistics Land area1 8,280 km² (??? mi) km² Population (Ranked 14th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Alsace Department Bas-Rhin (67) Intercommunality Urban Community of Strasbourg Mayor Fabienne Keller  (UMP) City Statistics Land area¹ 78. ... This article or section should be merged with Seventeen Provinces The Spanish Netherlands was a portion of the Low Countries controlled by Spain from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. ... It has been suggested that River Rhine Pollution: November 1986 be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Lorraine (province). ... Anthem: Capital Barcelona Official language(s) Catalan,Spanish and Aranese. ... Motto: (Spanish for From Madrid to Heaven) Location Coordinates: , Country Spain Autonomous Community Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid Province Madrid Administrative Divisions 21 Neighborhoods 127 Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón Jimémez (PP) Area  - Land 607 km² (234. ... A palatinate is a territory administered by a count palatine, originally the direct representative of the sovereign, but later the hereditary ruler of the territory subject to the crowns overlordship. ... , For other uses, see Cologne (disambiguation). ... The term status quo ante bellum comes from Latin meaning literally, as things were before the war. ... Saint-Domingue was a French colony from 1697 to 1804 that is today the independent nation of Haiti. ...


Neither Leopold nor the German princes had achieved their aim of pushing France back to the Westphalian borders, but Louis’ more extensive ambitions in the Rhineland had been curtailed. Austria would also gain influence after their peace with the Turks in 1699 – under the Treaty of Karlowitz the Emperor gained all of Hungary and Transylvania.[101] Although Louis continued to shelter James II, he now recognised William as King of Protestant England – Jacobitism had been suppressed and Scotland and Ireland were now firmly under direct control. French naval power had also been destroyed, paving the way for English naval supremacy in the following century – Britain had emerged as a European power in her own right.[102] Ratification of the Treaty of Münster The Peace of Westphalia refers to the pair of treaties (the Treaty of Münster and the Treaty of Osnabrück) signed in October and May 1648 which ended both the Thirty Years War and the Eighty Years War. ... The Treaty of Karlowitz was signed in 1699 in Sremski Karlovci (a city in modern-day Serbia and Montenegro) (German: Karlowitz, Turkish:Karlofça), concluding the Austro-Ottoman War of 1683–1697 in which the Ottoman side was defeated. ... James II of England (also known as James VII of Scotland; 14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, wearing the Jacobite blue bonnet Jacobitism was (and, to a very limited extent, remains) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland. ... This article is about the country. ...


Both the French and the Grand Alliance considered the agreements regarding France’s borders, as stipulated in the treaty, as little more than interim ones – the disputes over who would succeed the infirm Charles II had yet to be resolved. Within four years, both James II and William III would be dead, and Louis XIV and the Grand Alliance would plunge into an even more ferocious struggle – the War of the Spanish Succession. The Grand Alliance was a European coalition, consisting (at various times) of Austria, Bavaria, Brandenburg, England, the Holy Roman Empire, the Palatinate of the Rhine, Portugal, Saxony, Spain, Sweden, and the United Provinces. ... Combatants Habsburg Empire, England (1701-1706) Great Britain (1707-1714),[1] Dutch Republic, Kingdom of Portugal, Crown of Aragon, Others[2] Kingdom of France, Kingdom of Spain, Electorate of Bavaria, Hungarian Rebels Others[3] Commanders Eugene of Savoy, Margrave of Baden, Count Starhemberg, Duke of Marlborough, Marquis de Ruvigny, Count...


Notes

  1. ^ All dates in the article are New Style (unless otherwise stated). The Old Style calendar as used in England differed by ten days. Thus, the Battle of the Boyne is 11 July N.S or 1 July O.S.
  2. ^ Bromley, The Cambridge Modern History VI, p.224
  3. ^ Includes Scottish, Welsh and Irish troops. The term Great Britain was used only after the Act of Union 1707
  4. ^ Parker et al: The Cambridge Illustrated History of Warfare, p.128. This number includes both the maritime powers of England and the Dutch republic. Of the figure England had 100 ships of the line, and the Dutch, 69 ships of the line.
  5. ^ Dupuy: The Collins Encyclopaedia of Military History 4th ed. p.580. This figure is its peak in 1693. However, this was only a paper figure; the actual wartime strength was a bit over 350,000.
  6. ^ Parker et al: The Cambridge Illustrated History of Warfare, p.128. This number includes 93 ships of the line.
  7. ^ Some see the war as the beginning of the Second Hundred Years' War, a persistent conflict between the new Kingdom of Great Britain and France that would only end with the Battle of Waterloo.Tombs: That Sweet Enemy, p. 3-24.
  8. ^ Lynn: The French wars 1667–1714: The Sun King at War, p.35
  9. ^ Carsten: The Cambridge Modern History V, p.210
  10. ^ McKay & Scott: The Rise of the Great Powers 1648–1815, p.22
  11. ^ McKay & Scott: The Rise of the Great Powers 1648–1815, p.25
  12. ^ Lynn: The French wars 1667–1714: The Sun King at War, p.35
  13. ^ McKay & Scott: The Rise of the Great Powers 1648–1815, p.33
  14. ^ McKay & Scott: The Rise of the Great Powers 1648–1815, p.34
  15. ^ McKay & Scott: The Rise of the Great Powers 1648–1815, p.34. William became stadtholder and captain general for life in 1672
  16. ^ a b c d Lynn: The French wars 1667 – 1714: The Sun King at War, p.48. The word of the Franco-Dutch peace did not reach the armies in the field, leading to the unnecessary Battle of St Denis on 14 August.
  17. ^ Doyle: Short Oxford History of France – Old Regime France, p181. Although Nijmegen was a triumph for Louis, peace disappointed him and he had dismissed Pomponne, the minister who had negotiated it.
  18. ^ McKay & Scott: The Rise of the Great Powers 1648–1815, p.35
  19. ^ McKay & Scott: The Rise of the Great Powers 1648–1815, p.36
  20. ^ Doyle: Short Oxford History of France – Old Regime France, p.182
  21. ^ McKay & Scott: The Rise of the Great Powers 1648–1815, p.37
  22. ^ a b Lynn: The French wars 1667–1714: The Sun King at War, p.28
  23. ^ McKay & Scott: The Rise of the Great Powers 1648–1815, p.39. States 200,000
  24. ^ Lynn: The French wars 1667–1714: The Sun King at War, p.29
  25. ^ McKay & Scott: The Rise of the Great Powers 1648–1815, p.42
  26. ^ McKay & Scott: The Rise of the Great Powers 1648–1815, p.38. Louis thought that the support of the German states was so strong that if Leopold died, they may even support a French candidate as emperor.
  27. ^ a b McKay &Scott: The Rise of the Great Powers 1648–1815, p.38
  28. ^ a b c McKay & Scott: The Rise of the Great Powers 1648–1815, p.39
  29. ^ Doyle: Short Oxford History of France – Old Regime France, p.183
  30. ^ a b c d e Lynn: The French wars 1667–1714: The Sun King at War, p.32
  31. ^ a b Miller: James II, p.143
  32. ^ Miller: James II, p.145. As early as July 1685 he had suspected the Huguenots had been mixed up in Monmouth’s (Protestant) rebellion.
  33. ^ McKay & Scott: The Rise of the Great Powers 1648–1815, p.40. The Elector’s son Frederick, proved to be William’s most loyal ally against the French.
  34. ^ a b c McKay & Scott: The Rise of the Great Powers 1648–1815, p.41
  35. ^ McKay & Scott: The Rise of the Great Powers 1648–1815, p.42
  36. ^ a b Miller: James II, p.189
  37. ^ Miller: James II, p.191
  38. ^ Parker: The Cambridge Illustrated History of Warfare, p.114
  39. ^ Lynn: The French wars 1667–1714: The Sun King at War, p.56
  40. ^ Lynn: The French wars 1667–1714: The Sun King at War, p.81
  41. ^ McKay & Scott: The Rise of the Great Powers 1648–1815, p.44
  42. ^ a b Lynn: The French wars 1667–1714: The Sun King at War, p.50
  43. ^ Miller: James II, p.156
  44. ^ a b McKay & Scott: The Rise of the Great Powers 1648–1815, p.44
  45. ^ Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.30
  46. ^ Miller: James II, p.209
  47. ^ a b c McKay & Scott p.47: The Rise of the Great Powers 1648–1815
  48. ^ McKay & Scott: The Rise of the Great Powers 1648–1815, p.45
  49. ^ Dupuy: The Collins Encyclopaedia of Military History 4th ed. p.572
  50. ^ Lynn: The French wars 1667–1714: The Sun King at War, p.31
  51. ^ Dupuy: The Collins Encyclopaedia of Military History 4th ed. p.572. The socket bayonet was possibly invented by Vauban.
  52. ^ a b Parker: The Cambridge Illustrated History of Warfare, p.167
  53. ^ Lynn: The French wars 1667–1714: The Sun King at War, p.49
  54. ^ McNally: Battle of the Boyne 1690, p.13
  55. ^ Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.34
  56. ^ Kinross: The Boyne and Aughrim: The War of the Two Kings, p.17
  57. ^ a b Miller: James II, p.228
  58. ^ Kinross: The Boyne and Aughrim: The War of the Two Kings, p.14
  59. ^ Kinross: The Boyne and Aughrim: The War of the Two Kings, p.23. Six thousand Irish troops were sent to Europe in exchange.
  60. ^ Kilpatrick: William of Orange: A dedicated Life 1650-1702, p.57. The strength of the Williamite army varies from 35,000 to 44,000, depending on the source.
  61. ^ Lynn: The French wars 1667–1714: The Sun King at War, p.50
  62. ^ Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.35
  63. ^ Kilpatrick: William of Orange: A dedicated Life 1650-1702, p.64
  64. ^ Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.37
  65. ^ Kinross: The Boyne and Aughrim: The War of the Two Kings, p.74
  66. ^ Dupuy: The Collins Encyclopaedia of Military History 4th ed. p.613
  67. ^ a b Doyle: Short Oxford History of France – Old Regime France, p.184
  68. ^ Churchill: A History of the English-Speaking Peoples: Age of Revolution, p.16
  69. ^ a b c Taylor: American Colonies: The Settling of North America, p.289
  70. ^ Chandler: Marlborough as Military Commander, p.43
  71. ^ Churchill: A History of the English-Speaking Peoples: Age of Revolution, p.13
  72. ^ Lynn: The Wars of Louis XIV, p.230
  73. ^ a b Mackay & Scott: The Rise of the Great Powers 1648–1815, p.48
  74. ^ Lynn: The French wars 1667–1714: The Sun King at War, p.57
  75. ^ Churchill: A History of the English-Speaking Peoples: Age of Revolution, p.16. Churchill states the battle was unmatched in its slaughter except for Malplaquet or Borodino for over 200 years.
  76. ^ Parker: The Cambridge Illustrated History of Warfare, p.128
  77. ^ Parker: The Cambridge Illustrated History of Warfare, p.128
  78. ^ Lynn : The French wars 1667–1714: The Sun King at War, p.33
  79. ^ Doyle: Short Oxford History of France – Old Regime France, p.185
  80. ^ Kilpatrick: William of Orange: A dedicated Life 1650-1702, p.73
  81. ^ Lynn: The French wars 1667–1714: The Sun King at War, p.60
  82. ^ McKay & Scott: The Rise of the Great Powers 1648–1815, p.51
  83. ^ Lynn: The French wars 1667–1714: The Sun King at War, p.60
  84. ^ Lynn: The French wars 1667–1714: The Sun King at War, p.60
  85. ^ McKay & Scott: The Rise of the Great Powers 1648–1815, p.51
  86. ^ McKay & Scott: The Rise of the Great Powers 1648–1815, p.49
  87. ^ Lynn: The French wars 1667–1714: The Sun King at War, p.57
  88. ^ Guttridge: The Colonial Policy of William III in America and the West Indies, p.45
  89. ^ Guttridge: The Colonial Policy of William III in America and the West Indies, p.45
  90. ^ Taylor: American Colonies: The Settling of North America, p.290
  91. ^ Elson: History of the United States of America, p.163
  92. ^ Taylor: American Colonies: The Settling of North America, p.290
  93. ^ Taylor: American Colonies: The Settling of North America, p.290
  94. ^ Taylor: American Colonies: The Settling of North America, p.291
  95. ^ McKay & Scott: The Rise of the Great Powers 1648–1815, p.51
  96. ^ McKay & Scott: The Rise of the Great Powers 1648–1815, p.51
  97. ^ McKay & Scott: The Rise of the Great Powers 1648–1815, p.52
  98. ^ McKay & Scott: The Rise of the Great Powers 1648–1815, p.52
  99. ^ McKay & Scott: The Rise of the Great Powers 1648–1815, p.52
  100. ^ Parker: Times Atlas of World History, p.156
  101. ^ McKay & Scott: The Rise of the Great Powers 1648–1815, p.76
  102. ^ McKay & Scott: The Rise of the Great Powers 1648–1815, p.53

The Second Hundred Years War is a phrase used by some historians to describe the series of military conflicts between the Kingdom of Great Britain and France that occurred from about 1689 to 1815. ... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... Combatants First French Empire Seventh Coalition: United Kingdom Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of the United Netherlands Kingdom of Hanover Duchy of Nassau Duchy of Brunswick Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte, Michel Ney Duke of Wellington, Gebhard von Blücher Prince William of Orange Strength 73,000 67,000 Coalition 60,000 Prussian...

References

  • Carsten, F.L. (editor) The New Cambridge Modern History V: The Ascendancy of France 1648-88. Cambridge University Press, (1961).
  • Chandler, David G. Marlborough as Military Commander. Spellmount Ltd, (2003). ISBN 1-86227-195-X
  • Churchill, Winston. A History of the English-Speaking Peoples: Age of Revolution. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, (2002). ISBN 0-304-36393-6
  • Bromley, J.S. (editor) The New Cambridge Modern History VI: The Rise of Great Britain and Russia 1668-1715. Cambridge University Press, (1970). ISBN 0-521-07524-6
  • Doyle, William. Short Oxford History of France – Old Regime France. Oxford University Press, (2001). ISBN 0-19-873129-9
  • Dupuy, R. E & Dupuy, T. N. The Collins Encyclopaedia of Military History 4th ed. HarperCollins Publishers, (1995). ISBN 0-06-270056-1.
  • Elson, Henry William. History of the United States of America. The MacMillan Company (1904) [1]. Retrieved on 24 September 2006.
  • Guttridge, G. H. The Colonial Policy of William III in America and the West Indies. Cambridge University Press, (1922) [2]. Retrieved on 24 September 2006.
  • Kilpatrick, Cecil. William of Orange: A dedicated Life 1650-1702. GOLI Publications, (1998). ISBN 0-9501444-7-9
  • Kinross, John. The Boyne and Aughrim: The War of the Two Kings. The Windrush Press, (1998). ISBN 1-900624-07-9
  • Lynn, John A. The French wars 1667–1714: The Sun King at War. Osprey Publishing, (2002). ISBN 1-84176-361-6
  • Lynn, John A. The Wars of Louis XIV, 1667–1714. Longman, (1999). ISBN 0-582-05629-2
  • McKay, Derek & Scott, H. M. The Rise of the Great Powers 1648–1815. Longman, (1984). ISBN 0-582-48554-1
  • McNally, Michael. Battle of the Boyne 1690. Osprey Publishing, (2005). ISBN 1-84176-891-X
  • Miller, John. James II. Yale University Press, (2000). ISBN 0-300-08728-4
  • Taylor, Alan. American Colonies: The Settling of North America. Penguin Books, (2002). ISBN 0-14-200210-0
  • Tombs, Robert and Isabelle. That Sweet Enemy: The French and the British from the Sun King to the Present. London: William Heinemann, 2006.
  • Parker, Geoffrey (editor). The Cambridge Illustrated History of Warfare. Cambridge University Press, (1995). ISBN 0-521-79431-5
  • Parker, Geoffrey (editor). The Times Atlas of World History. Times Books Limited, (1994)

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