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Encyclopedia > War of the Fourth Coalition
War of the Fourth Coalition
Part of Napoleonic Wars

French Army marches through Berlin in 1806.
Date 1806 - 1807
Location Europe
Result French victory, Treaties of Tilsit
Combatants
Kingdom of Prussia
Russian Empire
United Kingdom
Sweden
Electorate of Saxony
Kingdom of Sicily
First French Empire:
- Kingdom of Italy
- Kingdom of Naples
- Kingdom of Holland
- Kingdom of Etruria
- Confederation of the Rhine
- Swiss Confederation
- Polish insurgents
Kingdom of Spain
Commanders
Duke of Brunswick
Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen
Count von Bennigsen

King Gustav IV Adolf Combatants Allies: Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Spain[3] Sweden United Kingdom[4] Ottoman Empire[5] French Empire Holland Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich Gebhard von Blücher Karl... Image File history File links Charles_Meynier_-_Napoleon_in_Berlin. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... The Treaties of Tilsit were two agreements signed by Napoleon I of France in the town of Tilsit in July, 1807. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Preussen_1701-1918. ... Flag of Prussia (1894 - 1918) The Kingdom of Prussia existed from 1701 until 1918, and from 1871 was the leading kingdom of the German Empire, comprising in its last form almost two-thirds of the area of the Empire. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saxony. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Image File history File links Flag of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies 1738-1848 Flag drawn by Jaume Ollé, from [Flags Of The World website] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Kingdom of Naples was born out of the division of the Kingdom of Sicily after the Sicilian Vespers rebellion of 1282. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and sattelite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804-1814/1815 Napoleon I Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French Consulate  - Established 18... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The flag of the Kingdom of Italy was a rectangular version of the flag of the Italian Republic, with Napoleons emblem on the green field. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... The Kingdom of Naples was born out of the division of the Kingdom of Sicily after the Sicilian Vespers rebellion of 1282. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... The Kingdom of Holland 1806 - 1810 (Koninkrijk Holland in Dutch, Royaume dHollande in French) was set up by Napoleon Bonaparte as a puppet kingdom for his third brother, Louis Bonaparte, in order to better control the Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Merchant flag of the Kingdom of Etruria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... The Confederation of the Rhine in 1812 Capital Frankfurt Political structure Confederation Protector Napoleon I Primate  - 1806-1813 Karl von Dalberg  - 1813 Eugène de Beauharnais Historical era Napoleonic Wars  - Formation 12 July, 1806  - Collapse 19 October, 1813 The Confederation of the Rhine or Rhine Confederation (German: ; French: ) lasted from... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Location Official languages Polish Established church Roman Catholic Capital Warsaw Largest City Warsaw Head of state Duke of Warsaw Area about 155,000 km² Population about 4. ... Image File history File links Spain1785. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Preussen_1701-1918. ... Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick (October 9, 1735 - November 10, German general, was born at Wolfenbüttel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Preussen_1701-1918. ... Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen Friedrich Ludwig Fürst zu Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen (en: Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen) (1746 - February 15, 1818), Prussian general, was the eldest son of Prince Johann Friedrich (d. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Levin August Gottlieb Theophil (Russian: Leonty Leontyevich), count von Bennigsen (February 10, 1745 - December 3, 1826) was a Russian general. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... A monarch (see sovereignty) is a type of ruler or head of state. ... Gustav IV Adolf (1778-1837), king of Sweden, of the house Holstein-Gottorp, was the son of Gustav III of Sweden and Sophia Magdalena of Denmark, and born at Stockholm on November 1, 1778. ...

Napoleon I of France
Louis Nicolas Davout
Guillaume Marie Anne Brune
French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars
First CoalitionInvasion of EgyptSecond CoalitionThird CoalitionFourth CoalitionGunboat WarPeninsular WarFifth CoalitionInvasion of RussiaSixth CoalitionHundred Days
War of the Fourth Coalition
MaidaSaalfeld – Jena-Auerstadt – Greater PolandGolymin – Pułtusk – Eylau – Danzig – HeilsbergFriedland

The Fourth Coalition against Napoleon's French Empire was defeated in a war spanning 18061807. Coalition partners included Prussia, Russia, Saxony, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Napoléon Bonaparte (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, became Napoléon I, Emperor of the French)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from 11 November 1799... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Davout, Marshal of France Louis Nicolas dAvout (May 10, 1770 – June 1, 1823), better known as Davout, duc dAuerstädt, prince dEckmühl, and a marshal of France. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Lithograph of Guillaume Marie Anne Brune by Delpech Guillaume Marie Anne Brune (March 13, 1763 – August 2, 1815) was a marshal of France. ... Combatants Great Britain Austria Prussia Spain[1] Russia Sardinia Ottoman Empire Portugal Dutch Republic[2] France The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of major conflicts, from 1792 until 1802, fought between the French Revolutionary government and several European states. ... Combatants Allies: Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Spain[3] Sweden United Kingdom[4] Ottoman Empire[5] French Empire Holland Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich Gebhard von Blücher Karl... The name First Coalition (1793–1797) designates the first major concerted effort of multiple European powers to contain Revolutionary France. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The name Second Coalition (1798 - 1800) designates the second major concerted effort of multiple European powers to contain Revolutionary France. ... In the Napoleonic Wars, the Third Coalition against Napoléon emerged in 1805, and consisted of an alliance of Britain, Austria, Russia, Naples, and Sweden against France. ... Battle between the frigate HMS Tartar and Norwegian gunboats near Bergen in 1808 The Gunboat War (1807-1814) was the naval conflict between Denmark-Norway against the British navy during the Napoleonic Wars. ... Combatants Kingdom of Spain, United Kingdom, Kingdom of Portugal French Empire The Peninsular War or Spanish War of Independence (Guerra de la Independencia Española) was a war in the Iberian Peninsula. ... The Fifth Coalition was an alliance between Austria and Great Britain formed in 1809 to fight Napoleon Bonapartes French Empire. ... Combatants First French Empire Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Confederation of the Rhine Kingdom of Bavaria Kingdom of Saxony Kingdom of Westphalia Swiss Confederation Austrian Empire Kingdom of Prussia Russian Empire Commanders Napoleon Eugène de Beauharnais Jérôme Bonaparte Jaques MacDonald Prince Schwarzenberg Alexander... The Sixth Coalition (1813-1814) was a coalition of the United Kingdom, Russia, Prussia, Sweden, Austria and a number of German States against the Napoleonic France. ... The Hundred Days (French Cent-Jours) or the Waterloo Campaign commonly refers to the period between 20 March 1815, the date on which Napoleon Bonaparte arrived in Paris after his return from Elba, and 8 July 1815, the date of the restoration of King Louis XVIII. The phrase Cent jours... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Maida. ... The Battle of Saafeld took place on October 10, 1806, between 7,000 Prussians under Prince Louis of Prussia and a division of Lannes corps under the Marshal himself. ... Combatants First French Empire Prussia Commanders Napoleon I Louis Nicolas Davout Duke of Brunswick Prince Hohenlohe Strength 90,000 (Jena); 27,000 (Auerstedt) 38,000 (Jena); 63,000 (Auerstedt) Casualties 5,000 dead and wounded (Jena); 7,000 killed, wounded, or missing (Auerstedt) 25,000 dead, wounded, or captured (Jena... The 1806 Greater Poland Uprising (Polish: powstanie wielkopolskie 1806 roku) was a military insurrection by Poles in Wielkopolska (Greater Poland) against the occupying Prussian forces after the Partitions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1772–1793). ... Combatants France Russia Commanders Marshal Murat General Golitsyn Strength 38,000 soldiers [1] 16,000-18,000 soldiers, 28 guns[2] Casualties 700 750 The Battle of Golymin took place on 26 December 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars at Golymin, Poland, between around 17,000 Russian soldiers with 28 guns... The Battle of PuÅ‚tusk took place on December 26, 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars near PuÅ‚tusk, Poland, between 60,000 Russian soldiers with 120 guns under General Bennigsen and 35,000 French soldiers under Marshal Lannes. ... The Battle of Eylau, fought on February 7–8, 1807, was a bloody and inconclusive contest between the forces of Napoléon and a mostly Russian army under General Bennigsen. ... The Battle of Heilsberg took place in 1807, during the Napoleonic Wars. ... Combatants First French Empire Russian Empire Commanders Napoléon Bonaparte General Bennigsen Strength 80,000 60,000 Casualties 8,000 killed and wounded[1] 20,000 killed and wounded[2] The Battle of Friedland, fought on June 14, 1807 about twenty-seven miles (43 km) southeast of the modern Russian... Napoléon Bonaparte (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, became Napoléon I, Emperor of the French)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from 11 November 1799... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and sattelite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804-1814/1815 Napoleon I Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French Consulate  - Established 18... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... Flag of Prussia (1894 - 1918) The Kingdom of Prussia existed from 1701 until 1918, and from 1871 was the leading kingdom of the German Empire, comprising in its last form almost two-thirds of the area of the Empire. ... The Kingdom of Saxony, lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Germany, finally being absorbed into the Weimar Republic in 1918. ...


Many members of the coalition had previously been fighting France as part of the Third Coalition, and there was no intervening period of peace. In 1806, Prussia joined the coalition fearing the rise in French power after the defeat of Austria. Prussia and Russia mobilized for a fresh campaign, and Prussian troops massed in Saxony. In the Napoleonic Wars, the Third Coalition against Napoléon emerged in 1805, and consisted of an alliance of the United Kingdom, Austria, Russia, Naples, and Sweden against France. ... Flag of Prussia (1894 - 1918) The Kingdom of Prussia existed from 1701 until 1918, and from 1871 was the leading kingdom of the German Empire, comprising in its last form almost two-thirds of the area of the Empire. ... The Kingdom of Saxony, lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Germany, finally being absorbed into the Weimar Republic in 1918. ...

Contents

Overview

Napoleon counterattacked, and decisively defeated the Prussians at the Jena-Auerstedt in October 1806. French forces under Napoleon occupied Prussia, capturing Berlin on October 25, 1806 and moving all the way to East Prussia and the Russian frontier, where they fought an inconclusive battle against the Russians at Eylau in February 1807; Napoleon's advance on the Russian frontier was briefly checked. Russian forces were crushed by Napoleon's army at Friedland on June 14, 1807, and three days later Russia asked for a truce. By the Treaties of Tilsit in July 1807, France made peace with Russia and forced Prussia to give up half of its territory to France, Jerome Bonaparte's Kingdom of Westphalia, and the new Duchy of Warsaw. Napoleon was virtually in control of western and central Europe. Combatants First French Empire Prussia Commanders Napoleon I Louis Nicolas Davout Duke of Brunswick Prince Hohenlohe Strength 90,000 (Jena); 27,000 (Auerstedt) 38,000 (Jena); 63,000 (Auerstedt) Casualties 5,000 dead and wounded (Jena); 7,000 killed, wounded, or missing (Auerstedt) 25,000 dead, wounded, or captured (Jena... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... The Battle of Eylau, fought on February 7–8, 1807, was a bloody and inconclusive contest between the forces of Napoléon and a mostly Russian army under General Bennigsen. ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... Combatants First French Empire Russian Empire Commanders Napoléon Bonaparte General Bennigsen Strength 80,000 60,000 Casualties 8,000 killed and wounded[1] 20,000 killed and wounded[2] The Battle of Friedland, fought on June 14, 1807 about twenty-seven miles (43 km) southeast of the modern Russian... June 14 is the 165th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (166th in leap years), with 200 days remaining. ... A railway bridge in Tilsit Sovetsk (Советск) is a town on the Neman River in the Russian Kaliningrad Oblast, which prior to 1945 was known by its German name, Tilsit, and was in East Prussia. ... Jérôme Bonaparte (November 15, 1784 - June 24, 1860) was the youngest brother of Emperor Napoleon I of France. ... The Kingdom of Westphalia is a historical state in present-day Germany that existed from 1807-1813. ... Location Official languages Polish Established church Roman Catholic Capital Warsaw Largest City Warsaw Head of state Duke of Warsaw Area about 155,000 km² Population about 4. ...


Origins

The Fourth Coalition (1806–1807) of Prussia, Russia, Saxony, Sweden and the United Kingdom against France formed within months of the collapse of the previous coalition. In July 1806 Napoleon formed the Confederation of the Rhine out of the many tiny German states which constituted the Rhineland and most other parts of western Germany. He amalgamated many of the smaller states into larger electorates, duchies and kingdoms to make the governance of non-Prussian Germany more efficient. Napoleon elevated the rulers of the two largest Confederation states, Saxony and Bavaria, to the status of kings. In the Napoleonic Wars, the Fourth Coalition was an alliance organized against Napoleons French Empire in 1806–1807. ... The Confederation of the Rhine in 1812 Capital Frankfurt Political structure Confederation Protector Napoleon I Primate  - 1806-1813 Karl von Dalberg  - 1813 Eugène de Beauharnais Historical era Napoleonic Wars  - Formation 12 July, 1806  - Collapse 19 October, 1813 The Confederation of the Rhine or Rhine Confederation (German: ; French: ) lasted from... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... The Free State of Saxony (German: Freistaat Sachsen; Sorbian: Swobodny Stat Sakska) is the easternmost federal state of Germany. ... The geographic region and Free State of Bavaria (German:  ), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ...


War with Prussia

In August 1806 the Prussian king, Friedrich Wilhelm III made the decision to go to war independently of any other great power, save the distant Russia. A more sensible course of action might have involved declaring war the previous year and joining Austria and Russia. This might have contained Napoleon and prevented the Allied disaster at Austerlitz. In any event, the Russian army, an ally of Prussia, still remained far away when Prussia declared war. In September Napoleon unleashed all French forces east of the Rhine. After Lannes defeated a Prussian detachment at Saalfeld, four days later Napoleon himself defeated a Prussian army at Jena (October 14, 1806), and Davout defeated another at Auerstädt on the same day. Some 160,000 French soldiers (increasing in number as the campaign went on) went against Prussia and moved with such speed that Napoleon was able to destroy as an effective military force the entire quarter of a million strong Prussian army — which sustained 25,000 casualties, lost a further 150,000 prisoners and 4,000 artillery pieces, and over 100,000 muskets stockpiled in Berlin. In the former battle Napoleon only fought a detachment of the Prussian force. The latter battle involved a single French corps defeating the bulk of the Prussian army. Napoleon entered into Berlin on 27 October 1806 and visited the tomb of Frederick the Great, there instructing his marshals to remove their hats, saying, "If he was alive we wouldn't be here today." In total, Napoleon had taken only 19 days from beginning his attack on Prussia until knocking it out of the war with the capture of Berlin and the destruction of its principal armies at Jena and Auerstadt. By contrast Prussia had fought for three years in the War of the First Coalition with little achievement. Frederick William III Frederick William III, known in German as Friedrich Wilhelm III, reigned as king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840. ... Jean Lannes Jean Lannes, Duke of Montebello (April 11, 1769 – May 31, 1809), marshal of France, was born at Lectoure (Gers). ... The Battle of Saafeld took place on October 10, 1806, between 7,000 Prussians under Prince Louis of Prussia and a division of Lannes corps under the Marshal himself. ... The Battle of Jena was fought on October 14, 1806, in Jena, in todays Germany, and resulted in a French victory under Napoleon Bonaparte against the Prussians under General Hohenlohe. ... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Louis Nicolas dAvout (May 10, 1770 - June 1, 1823), better known as Davout, was duke of Auerstädt, prince of Eckmühl, and a marshal of France. ... The Battle of Auerstädt was fought on 14 October 1806, and resulted in a French victory under marshall Davout against the Prussians under General Brunswick. ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... Frederick the Great Frederick II of Prussia (Friedrich der Große, Frederick the Great, January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was the Hohenzollern king of Prussia 1740–86. ...


In Berlin, Napoleon issued a series of decrees which, on November 21, 1806 brought into effect the Continental System. This policy aimed to eliminate the threat of the United Kingdom by closing French-controlled territory to its trade. The Berlin Decree was issued by Napoleon on November 21, 1806. ... November 21 is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Continental System was a foreign-policy cornerstone of Napoleon I of France in his struggle against the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland during the Napoleonic Wars. ...


War with Russia

The French drove Russian forces out of Poland and created a new Duchy of Warsaw. Napoleon then turned north to confront the remainder of the Russian army and to attempt to capture the temporary Prussian capital at Königsberg. A tactical draw at Eylau (February 78) forced the Russians to withdraw further north. Napoleon then routed the Russian army at Friedland (June 14). Following this defeat, Alexander had to make peace with Napoleon at Tilsit (July 7, 1807). By September, Marshal Brune completed the occupation of Swedish Pomerania, allowing the Swedish army, however, to withdraw with all its munitions of war. Location Official languages Polish Established church Roman Catholic Capital Warsaw Largest City Warsaw Head of state Duke of Warsaw Area about 155,000 km² Population about 4. ... Former German name of the city of Kaliningrad. ... The Battle of Eylau, fought on February 7–8, 1807, was a bloody and inconclusive contest between the forces of Napoléon and a mostly Russian army under General Bennigsen. ... February 7 is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants First French Empire Russian Empire Commanders Napoléon Bonaparte General Bennigsen Strength 80,000 60,000 Casualties 8,000 killed and wounded[1] 20,000 killed and wounded[2] The Battle of Friedland, fought on June 14, 1807 about twenty-seven miles (43 km) southeast of the modern Russian... June 14 is the 165th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (166th in leap years), with 200 days remaining. ... The Treaties of Tilsit were two agreements signed by Napoleon I of France in the town of Tilsit in July, 1807. ... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... Lithograph of Guillaume Marie Anne Brune by Delpech Guillaume Marie Anne Brune (March 13, 1763 – August 2, 1815) was a marshal of France. ... Swedish Pomerania (Swedish: Svenska Pommern) was a Dominion under the Swedish Crown from the 17th to the 19th century, situated on the German Baltic Sea coast. ...


Results

At the Congress of Erfurt (September–October 1808) Napoleon and Alexander agreed that Russia should force Sweden to join the Continental System, which led to the Finnish War of 1808–1809 and to the division of Sweden into two parts separated by the Gulf of Bothnia. The eastern part became the Russian Grand Duchy of Finland. The Congress of Erfurt was the meeting between Emperor Napoleon I of France and Tsar Alexander I of Russia in 1808 intended to reaffirm the alliance concluded the previous year with the Treaty of Tilsit which followed the end of the War of the Fourth Coalition. ... Combatants Russia France Denmark–Norway Sweden Commanders Friedrich Wilhelm von Buxhoeveden Wilhelm Mauritz Klingspor Carl Johan Adlercreutz Georg Carl von Döbeln The Finnish War was fought between Sweden and Russia from February 1808 to September 1809. ... The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Bothnia (Fin. ... The Grand Duchy of Finland was a state that existed 1809–1917 as part of the Russian Empire. ...


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