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Encyclopedia > War of the Austrian Succession
War of the Austrian Succession

The Battle of Fontenoy by Édouard Detaille. Oil on canvas.
Date December 16, 1740October 18, 1748
Location Europe, North America and India
Casus
belli
Rejection of the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 after the accession of Maria Theresa of Austria
Result Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
Combatants
Flag of Prussia Prussia
Flag of France France
Flag of Spain Spain
Flag of Bavaria Bavaria
Naples and Sicily
Flag of Sweden Sweden (17411743)
Flag of Austrian Empire Austria
Flag of the United Kingdom Great Britain
Hanover
Flag of the Netherlands Dutch Republic
Flag of Saxony Saxony
Flag of Sardinia Kingdom of Sardinia
Flag of Russia Russia
Commanders
Flag of Prussia Frederick II
Flag of Prussia Leopold I
Flag of Prussia Leopold II
Flag of France Maurice de Saxe
Flag of France François-Marie de Broglie
Flag of Bavaria Charles VII
Flag of Sweden Charles Emil Lewenhaupt
Flag of Austrian Empire Ludwig Khevenhüller
Flag of Austrian Empire Charles Alexander
Flag of the United Kingdom George II
Flag of Sardinia Charles Emmanuel III
Empress Maria Theresa, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia and Archduchess of Austria

The War of the Austrian Succession (17401748), also known as King George's War in North America, involved almost all the major European powers, but in the end only resulted in minor exchanges of territory. It began under the pretext that Maria Theresa of Austria was ineligible to succeed her father, Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor as ruler of the extensive Habsburg domains, because Salic law precluded royal inheritance by a woman. The Battle of Mollwitz was a Prussian victory over Austria on April 10, 1741. ... Combatants Austria Prussia Commanders Prince Charles of Lorraine Frederick the Great Strength unknown unknown Casualties 7,000 dead, 18 guns and 12,000 prisoners 7,000 dead, 1,000 prisoners The Battle of Chotusitz (or Chotusice) was fought on May 17, 1742 between the Austrians under Prince Charles of Lorraine... Combatants Britain, Hanover, Austria France Commanders George II duc de Noailles Strength 50,000 70,000 Casualties 750 8,000 The Battle of Dettingen (German: Schlacht bei Dettingen) took place on June 16 (June 27 according to the Gregorian calendar, which the English had not officially adopted), 1743 at Dettingen... The naval Battle of Toulon or Battle of Cape Sicié took place on 22 and 23 February 1744 (New Style) between 1:30 pm and 5:00 pm in the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Toulon, France. ... Combatants Britain United Provinces Hanover France Commanders Duke of Cumberland Maurice, comte de Saxe Strength 50,000[1] 101 guns 60,000 70 guns Casualties 9,000 dead or wounded 3,000 captured 5,600 dead or wounded 400 captured The Battle of Fontenoy (May 11, 1745) near Fontenoy in... Combatants Austria, Saxony Prussia Commanders Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine Frederick the Great Strength 58,700[1] 122 guns 58,500 192 guns Casualties 8,650 dead or wounded, 5,080 captured 4,800 War of the Austrian Succession Mollwitz – Chotusitz – Dettingen – Toulon – Pfaffenhofen – Fontenoy – Hohenfriedberg – Soor – Hennersdorf – Kesselsdorf – Rocoux... The Battle of Soor was fought on September 30, 1745 between Prussian and Austro-Saxon forces. ... The Battle of Kesselsdorf was fought on December 14, 1745, between Prussia and the combined forces of Austria and Saxony. ... The Battle of Rocoux was fought in 1746 between France and Austria. ... The First Battle of Cape Finisterre was a naval battle which took place on 14 May 1747 (3 May 1747 in the Julian calendar then in use in Britain) during the War of the Austrian Succession, in the Bay of Biscay off Cape Finisterre in northwest Spain, between a British... The Battle of Lauffeld took place on July 2, 1747 during the French conquest of the Netherlands (part of the War of the Austrian Succession. ... The Second Battle of Cape Finisterre was a naval battle which took place on 25 October 1747 (14 October 1747 in the Julian calendar then in use in Britain) during the War of the Austrian Succession, in the Bay of Biscay off Cape Finisterre in northwest Spain between a well... Combatants Britain Spain Commanders Charles Henry Knowles Andrés Reggio y Brachiforte Strength 7 ships of the line (428 guns) 6 ships of the line 1 frigate (420 guns) Casualties No ships lost 2 ships lost The Battle of Havana was an engagement between the British Caribbean squadron and a... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Battle of Casteldelfino (French: Château-Dauphin) was a famous French victory in the War of the Austrian Succession. ... Combatants Spain Kingdom of Naples Austria Commanders Don Carlos de Borbon Prince of Lobkowicz Strength 10,000 6,000 The Battle of Velletri occurred August 12, 1744 in the War of the Austrian Succession, between Austria and the Spanish-aligned Kingdom of Naples, defended by Spanish troops. ... Combatants France Spain Kingdom of Sardinia Commanders Prince of Conti Infante Philip Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties 2,100 dead or wounded 5,000 dead, wounded, or captured The Battle of Madonna dellOlmo (also Battle of Cuneo) yielded a major victory for the armies of... Combatants France Spain Kingdom of Sardinia Austria Commanders Marquis of Maillebois Infante Philip Comte de Gages Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia Strength 80,000 50,000 Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Bassignano was fought in the Italian campaign of the War of the Austrian Succession on September 27, 1745. ... The Battle of Piacenza was a pitched battle between a Franco-Spanish army and Austro-Savoyard defence near Piacenza on June 16, 1746. ... The Battle of Rottofreddo was fought on August 12, 1746 between a French army and a small Austrian force. ... Combatants France Kingdom of Sardinia Commanders Louis Charles Armand Fouquet Count of Bricherasio Casualties c. ... Image File history File links Kaiserin_Maria_Theresia_(HRR). ... Image File history File links Kaiserin_Maria_Theresia_(HRR). ... This page is about Maria Theresa of Austria (often only known as Empress Maria Theresa), ruler of the Habsburg Empire from 1740-1780. ... Download high resolution version (498x640, 28 KB) SOURCE: http://lcweb2. ... Download high resolution version (498x640, 28 KB) SOURCE: http://lcweb2. ... Frederick II (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740–1786) from the Hohenzollern dynasty. ... Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ... Events April 24 - A congress assembles at Aix-la-Chapelle with the intent to conclude the struggle known as the War of Austrian Succession - at October 18 - The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle is signed to end the war Adam Smith begins to deliver public lectures in Edinburgh Building of... Not to be confused with Maria Theresa of Austria (1816-1867). ... Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI Charles VI, (German Karl VI; in full Karl Josef Franz)Holy Roman Emperor (October 1, 1685 – October 20, 1740) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1711 to 1740 and the second son of Leopold I with his third wife, Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... The King of the Franks, in the midst of the military chiefs who formed his Treuste -- or armed court, dictates the Salic Law (Code of the Barbaric Laws). ...


In 1740, Maria Theresa attempted to succeed her father as Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, Archduchess of Austria, and Duchess of Parma, Piacenza, and Guastalla. This is a list of all rulers of Hungary since Árpád. ... The Lands of the Czech /Bohemian/ Crown (Czech zemÄ› Koruny české, Latin Corona regni Bohemiae) (e. ... This is a list of margraves, dukes, archdukes, and emperors of Austria. ... The Duchy of Parma was a small Italian state between 1545 and 1802, and again from 1814 to 1860. ... The Duchy of Parma was a small Italian state between 1545 and 1802, and again from 1814 to 1860. ... The Duchy of Parma was a small Italian state between 1545 and 1802, and again from 1814 to 1860. ...


The plan was for her to succeed to the hereditary Habsburg domains, and her husband, Francis I, Duke of Lorraine, to be elected Holy Roman Emperor. The complications involved in a female Habsburg ruler had been long foreseen, and Charles VI had persuaded most of the states of Germany to agree to the to the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713. Francis I Silver coin of Francis I, dated 1754. ... The Pragmatic Sanction of 1713, a legal mechanism designed to ensure that the Austrian throne and Habsburg lands would be inherited by Emperor Charles VIs daughter, Maria Theresa. ...


Problems began when King Frederick II of Prussia, having not himself agreed to the Pragmatic Sanction, invaded Silesia on 16 December 1740, using a variety of minor unsettled dynastic territorial claims as a pretext. Maria Theresa, as a woman, was perceived as weak, and some other princes (such as Charles Albert of Bavaria) alleged his own claim to the crown of Maria Theresa as someone who as a male with a clear genealogical basis, could inherit directly the elected dignities of the Holy Roman Emperor. Frederick II (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740–1786) from the Hohenzollern dynasty. ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... Holy Roman Emperor Charles VII Emperor Charles VII Albert (Brussels August 6, 1697 – January 20, 1745 in Munich), a member of the Wittelsbach family, was Prince-elector of Bavaria from 1726 and Holy Roman Emperor from January 24, 1742 until his death in 1745. ... An order of succession is a formula or algorithm that determines who inherits an office upon the death, resignation, or removal of its current occupant. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ...

Contents

The bigger picture

Consequent to that backdrop, by December 1741 nearly all the powers of Europe were involved in the struggle, but the most enduring military historical interest and importance of the war lies in the struggle of Prussia and the Habsburg monarchs for the region of Silesia. // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Ślůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ...


Southwest Germany, the Low Countries and Italy were, as usual, the battle-ground trampled by the armies of France and Austria. The habitual and constant allies of France and Prussia were the same Hapsburg relations in Spain and the Kingdom of Bavaria as had been teaming up for many issues and conflicts since the Thirty years' war and to an extent, long before. Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Free State of Bavaria (German: Bayern or Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Various other powers joined them at intervals, but what became the surprise was the quality of the Prussian forces which were a professional army, not a gaggle of mercenary companies as had been typical theretofore. Even Gustavus Adolphus, whom some credit with the invention of modern warfare method of combined arms had used mercenaries in large measure. Permanent professional armies, then as now, were expensive. Gustav II Adolph Gustav II Adolph (December 9, 1594 - November 6, 1632) (also known as Gustav Adolph the Great, under the Latin name Gustavus Adolphus or the Swedish form Gustav II Adolf) was a King of Sweden. ...


Austria was supported almost as a matter of course by Great Britain and by the United Provinces, the traditional enemies of France, as throughout the Second Hundred Years' War. Of Austria's intermittent allies, the Kingdom of Sardinia and Saxony were the most important. This article is about the Dutch United Provinces. ... The Second Hundred Years War is a phrase used by some historians to describe the series of military conflicts between the Kingdom of Great Britain and France that occurred from about 1689 to 1815. ... Kingdom of Sardinia, in 1839: Mainland Piedmont with Savoy, Nice, and Sardinia in the inset. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km...


The war ended with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748. The second Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) of 1748 ended the War of the Austrian Succession. ... Events April 24 - A congress assembles at Aix-la-Chapelle with the intent to conclude the struggle known as the War of Austrian Succession - at October 18 - The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle is signed to end the war Adam Smith begins to deliver public lectures in Edinburgh Building of...


Frederick Invades Silesia: 1740

Prussia in 1740 was a small and thoroughly organized emerging international power. While the only recent war experience of its army had been in the desultory War of the Polish Succession (Rhine campaign of 17331735), it therefore had a uninspiring reputation and was counted as one of the larger of very many minor armies of Europe of which there were a plentitude in The Germanies. Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... The War of the Polish Succession (1733-1738) was a European war and a Polish civil war, with considerable interference from other countries, to determine the succession to Augustus II, King of Poland, as well as an attempt by the Bourbon powers to check the power of Austria in western... Events February 12 - British colonist James Oglethorpe founds Savannah, Georgia. ... Events April 16 - The London premiere of Alcina by George Frideric Handel, his first the first Italian opera for the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden. ... The History of Germany begins with the birth of the nation from Ancient Roman times to the 8th century, and then continues into the Holy Roman Empire dating from the 9th century until 1806 . ...


Only few, and those counted as dreamers, thought that it could rival the modern forces of Austria and France. But King Frederick William I had drilled it to a perfection previously unknown, and the Prussian infantry soldier was so well-trained and well-equipped that he could fire five shots to an Austrian's three. Prussian cavalry and artillery were comparatively less efficient, but they were of somewhat better quality as well, for Prussia had contended with the excellent cavalry of Poland to its east and had felt the lash of the Swede's artillery in the early to middle seventeenth century. Frederick William I of Prussia (in German: Friedrich Wilhelm I), of the House of Hohenzollern (August 14, 1688 - May 31, 1740), often known as the Soldier-King, reigned as King of Prussia (1713 - 1740). ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, bicycles, or other means. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ...


The initial advantage of Frederick's army was that undisturbed by wars, it had developed the professional standing-army concept to full maturity and effect. This was telling in the early going while the Austrians had to wait for drafts to complete the field forces, Prussian regiments took the field at once, and thus Frederick was able to overrun Silesia almost unopposed. A standing army is an army composed of full time professional soldiers. ... “Conscript” redirects here. ... British regiment A regiment is a military unit, consisting of a variable number of battalions - commanded by a colonel. ...


In any event, his army had massed quietly along the Oder River during early December, and on 16 December 1740, without declaration of war, it crossed the frontier into Silesia. The extant forces available to the local Austrian generals could do no more than garrison a few fortresses, and they necessarily fell back to the mountain frontier of Bohemia and Moravia with only a small remnant of their available forces left in the garrisons. The Oder (or Odra) River (German: Oder, Polish/Czech: Odra, Ancient Latin: Viadua, Viadrus, Medieval Latin: Odera, Oddera) is a river in Central Europe (mostly in Poland). ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ... For people named Garrison, see Garrison (disambiguation) Garrison House, built by William Damm in 1675 at Dover, New Hampshire Garrison (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, to equip) is the collective term for the body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but... Table of Fortification, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ...


On their new territory, the organized Prussian army was soon able to go into winter quarters, holding all Silesia and investing the strong places of Glogau, Brieg and Neisse. In effect, in one step, Prussia had doubled its population and made huge gains in its industrial productivity for the minor cost of fair treatment of the people in the occupied territory—an atypical factor and effect in a day when relatively undisciplined mercenary forces (typically gangs of thugs in quasi uniforms organised under a "captain" or "colonel" who had little interest in protecting the populace, and every interest in accommodating his men's desires) were the rule rather than the exception with their habitual rapine, looting, and abuse of the various populations around themselves — which were generally forced to provide quarters. Motto: none Voivodship Lower Silesian Municipal government Rada Miejska GÅ‚ogowa Mayor Zbigniew Rybka Area 35 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 71,686 (2004) none 2120/km² Founded City rights 10th century 1253 Latitude Longitude 51°67 N 16°08 E Area code +48 76 Car plates DGL Twin towns... Brzeg (German: ) is a town in southwestern Poland with 42,00 inhabitants (2006), situated in the Opole Voivodship. ... Nysa (until 1946: German Neisse or Neiße; the current version is a Polish rendering of this) is a town in southwestern Poland on the Nysa KÅ‚odzka river with 52,000 inhabitants (2004), situated in the Opole Voivodeship. ...


Nationalism as we know it today, was not a factor but an evolving concept just coming into its early years. Prussia benefited greatly from the apolitical nature of the society of the time, as the masses in central Germany would correspondingly suffer as the contending armies rampaged through their plains yet again. Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ... An era is a long period of time with different technical and colloquial meanings, and usages in language. ...


Silesian Campaign of 1741

In February 1741 the Austrians collected a field army under Count Neipperg and made preparations to re-conquer Silesia. While the Austrian garrisons in Neisse and Brieg continued to hold out against Prussian forces, Glogau was stormed on the night of 9 March 1741. The Prussian besiegers under Prince Leopold (the younger) of Anhalt-Dessau executed their task in one hour with a mathematical precision which excited universal admiration. However, the Austrian army in Moravia took to the field at a time when Frederick's cantonments were dispersed over all Upper Silesia. Consolidating the army proved a difficult task for the ground was deep in snow; before it could be completed, Neisse was relieved and the Prussians cut off from their own country by the march of Neipperg from Neisse on Brieg. A few days of slow manoeuvring between the two armies ended in the Battle of Mollwitz (10 April 1741), the first pitched battle fought by Frederick and his army. The Austrians routed the Prussian right wing of cavalry, but Frederick's infantry held and won the battle. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Battle of Mollwitz was a Prussian victory over Austria on April 10, 1741. ... // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius... Leopold II Maximilian of Anhalt-Dessau (25 December 1700 - 16 December 1751), was a Prussian general. ... Anhalt is a historical region of Germany, which is now included in the state of Saxony-Anhalt. ... Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ... Map of Upper Silesia, 1746 Upper Silesia (Polish: Górny Śląsk, German: Oberschlesien, Czech: Horní Slezsko) is the south-eastern part of Silesia, a historical and geographical region of Poland (Opole Voivodship and Silesian Voivodship) and of the Czech Republic (Silesian-Moravian Region). ... The Battle of Mollwitz was a Prussian victory over Austria on April 10, 1741. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius...


Frederick himself was absent after the battle. He had fought in the cavalry mêlée, but when the battle seemed lost, he had been persuaded by Field Marshal Schwerin to ride away. Schwerin thus, like Marshal Saxe at Fontenoy, remained behind to win the victory, and the king narrowly escaped being captured by wandering Austrian hussars. Kurt Christoph, Graf von Schwerin (26 October 1684 - 6 May 1757) was a Prussian generalfeldmarschall, one of the leading commanders under Frederick the Great. ... Maurice, comte de Saxe (German Moritz Graf von Sachsen) (October 28, 1696 – November 30, 1750), Marshal General of France, the natural son of Augustus II of Poland and of the countess Aurora Königsmark, was born at Goslar. ... Combatants Britain United Provinces Hanover France Commanders Duke of Cumberland Maurice, comte de Saxe Strength 50,000[1] 101 guns 60,000 70 guns Casualties 9,000 dead or wounded 3,000 captured 5,600 dead or wounded 400 captured The Battle of Fontenoy (May 11, 1745) near Fontenoy in... A British Hussar from the Crimean War Hussar (original Hungarian spelling: huszár, plural huszárok, Polish: Husaria) refers to a number of types of cavalry used throughout Europe since the 15th century. ...


In the aftermath of the battle the Prussians secured Brieg, and Neipperg fell back to Neisse, where he maintained himself and engaged in a series of manoeuvres during the summer. Europe recognized the emergence of a new military power, and France sent Marshal Belle-Isle to Frederick's camp to negotiate an alliance, causing the "Silesian adventure" to become the War of the Austrian Succession. The Elector of Bavaria's candidacy for the imperial dignity was to be supported by a French "auxiliary" army, and other French forces were sent to observe Hanover. Saxony was already watched by a Prussian army under Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Dessau, the "old Dessauer", who had trained the Prussian army to its present perfection. Charles Louis Auguste Fouquet. ... A military alliance is an agreement between two, or more, countries; related to wartime planning, commitments, or contingencies; such agreements can be both defensive and offensive. ... Holy Roman Emperor Charles VII Emperor Charles VII Albert (Brussels August 6, 1697 – January 20, 1745 in Munich), a member of the Wittelsbach family, was Prince-elector of Bavaria from 1726 and Holy Roman Emperor from January 24, 1742 until his death in 1745. ... , Hanover(i) (German: , IPA: ), on the river Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany. ... Leopold I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau (July 3, 1676 - April 7, 1747), called the Old Dessauer (Alter Dessauer), general field marshal in the Prussian army, was the only surviving son of John George II, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau, and was born at Dessau. ...


During the Russo-Swedish War, 1741-1743, the task of Sweden was to prevent Russia from attacking Prussia, but her troops were defeated, on 3 September 1741, at Villmanstrand by a greatly superior Russian army. In 1742 another great defeat was sustained by the Franco-Prussian alliance in the capitulation of Helsinki to the Russians. In central Italy an army of Neapolitans and Spaniards was collected for the purpose of conquering the Milanese. The Russo-Swedish War of 1741-1743, known as the Hats Russian War in Sweden and the Lesser Wrath in Finland, was instigated by the Hats, a Swedish party which aspired to regain the territories lost to Russia during the Great Northern War, and by French diplomacy, which sought to... For the TV show, see F Troop. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius... Lappeenranta (Villmanstrand in Swedish) is a city and municipality that resides on the shore of the lake Saimaa in South-Eastern Finland, about 30 km from the Russian border. ... // Events January 24 - Charles VII Albert becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... Helsinki (pronounced with the stress on the first syllable in Finnish — think Helsin Ki), or Helsingfors in Swedish, is the capital of Finland. ... For other uses see, Naples (disambiguation) and Napoli (disambiguation) Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ...


Allies in Bohemia

The French duly joined the Bavarian Elector's forces on the Danube and advanced towards Vienna, but the objective was suddenly changed, and after many countermarches the anti-Austrian allies advanced, in three widely-separated corps, on Prague. A French corps moved via Amberg and Pilsen. The Elector marched on Budweis, and the Saxons (who had now joined the allies) invaded Bohemia by the Elbe valley. The Austrians could at first offer little resistance, but before long a considerable force intervened at Tábor between the Danube and the allies, and Neipperg was now on the march from Neisse to join in the campaign. He had made with Frederick the curious agreement of Klein Schnellendorf (9 October 1741), by which Neisse was surrendered after a mock siege, and the Austrians undertook to leave Frederick unmolested in return for his releasing Neipperg's army for service elsewhere. At the same time the Hungarians, moved to enthusiasm by the personal appeal of Maria Theresa, had put into the field a levée en masse, or "insurrection", which furnished the regular army with an invaluable force of light troops. A fresh army was collected under Field Marshal Khevenhüller at Vienna, and the Austrians planned an offensive winter campaign against the Franco-Bavarian forces in Bohemia and the small Bavarian army that remained on the Danube to defend the electorate. This article is about the Danube River. ... “Wien” redirects here. ... A corps (plural same as singular; a word that migrated from the French language, pronounced IPA: (cor), but originating in the Latin corpus, corporis meaning body) is either a large military unit or formation, an administrative grouping of troops within an army with a common function (such as artillery or... Nickname: Motto: Praga Caput Rei publicae Location within the Czech Republic Coordinates: , Country Czech Republic Region Capital City of Prague Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Pavel Bém Area  - City 496 km²  (191. ... Map of Germany showing Amberg (currently incorrect) Amberg is a city in Bavaria, Germany. ... Plzeň (Czech name) or Pilsen (German equivalent, sometimes used in English) is a city in western Bohemia in the Czech Republic. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... SW corner of the Žižka square as viewed from the church tower. ... In the military sciences, a military campaign encompasses related military operations, usually conducted by a defense or fighting force, directed at gaining a particular desired state of affairs, usually within geographical and temporal limitations. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius... Ludwig Andreas Khevenhüller, Graf von Aichelberg-Frankenburg (or Ludwig von Khevenhüller) (30 November 1683, Linz–26 January 1744, Vienna), Austrian field-marshal who came of a noble family that was originally from Franconia and had settled in Carinthia. ...


The French in the meantime had stormed Prague on 26 November 1741, the Grand-Duke Francis, consort of Maria Theresa, who commanded the Austrians in Bohemia, moving too slowly to save the fortress. The Elector of Bavaria, who now styled himself Archduke of Austria, was crowned King of Bohemia (9 December 1741) and elected to the imperial throne as Charles VII (24 January 1742), but no active measures were undertaken. is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius... Francis I Silver coin of Francis I, dated 1754. ... This is a list of margraves, dukes, archdukes, and emperors of Austria. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius... Holy Roman Emperor Charles VII Emperor Charles VII Albert (Brussels August 6, 1697 – January 20, 1745 in Munich), a member of the Wittelsbach family, was Prince-elector of Bavaria from 1726 and Holy Roman Emperor from January 24, 1742 until his death in 1745. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 24 - Charles VII Albert becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ...


In Bohemia the month of December was occupied in mere skirmishes. On the Danube, Khevenhüller, the best general in the Austrian service, advanced on 27 December, swiftly drove back the allies, shut them up in Linz, and pressed on into Bavaria. Munich itself surrendered to the Austrians on the coronation day of Charles VII. December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... The Poestlingberg church in Linz. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... A asses is a ceremony marking the investment of a monarch with regal power through, amongst other symbolic acts, the placement of a crown upon his or her head. ...


At the close of this first act of the campaign the French, under the old Marshal de Broglie, maintained a precarious foothold in central Bohemia, menaced by the main army of the Austrians, and Khevenhüller was ranging unopposed in Bavaria, while Frederick, in pursuance of his secret obligations, lay inactive in Silesia. In Italy the allied Neapolitans and Spaniards had advanced towards Modena, the duke of which state had allied himself with them, but the vigilant Austrian commander, Count Traun had out-marched them, captured Modena, and forced the duke to make a separate peace. François-Marie de Broglie, later 1st duc de Broglie (11 January 1671–22 May 1745), the third son of Victor-Maurice, comte de Broglie, was a French military leader. ... Modena (Mòdna in Modenese dialect) is a city and a province on the south side of the Po valley, in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. ... Otto Ferdinand Graf von Abensperg und Traun (Count Otto Ferdinand von Abensperg und Traun), (August 27, 1677 - February 18, 1748), Austrian Generalfeldmarschall, came of a noble family and was born at Oldenburg. ...


Campaign of 1742

Frederick had hoped by the truce to secure Silesia, for which alone he was fighting. But with the successes of Khevenhüller and the enthusiastic "insurrection" of Hungary, Maria Theresa's opposition became firmer, and she divulged the provisions of the truce, in order to compromise Frederick with his allies. The war recommenced. Frederick had not rested on his laurels. In the uneventful summer campaign of 1741 he had found time to begin that reorganization of his cavalry which was before long to make it even more efficient than his infantry. The Emperor Charles VII, whose territories were overrun by the Austrians, asked him to create a diversion by invading Moravia. In December 1741, therefore, Schwerin had crossed the border and captured Olomouc. Glatz also was invested, and the Prussian army was concentrated about Olomouc in January 1742. A combined plan of operations was made by the French, Saxons and Prussians for the rescue of Linz. But Linz soon fell. Broglie on the Vltava, weakened by the departure of the Bavarians to oppose Khevenhüller, and of the Saxons to join forces with Frederick, was in no condition to take the offensive, and large forces under Prince Charles of Lorraine lay in his front from Budweis to Jihlava (Iglau). Frederick's march was made towards Iglau in the first place. Brno was invested about the same time (February), but the direction of the march was changed, and instead of moving against Prince Charles, Frederick pushed on southwards by Znojmo and Mikulov. The extreme outposts of the Prussians appeared before Vienna. But Frederick's advance was a mere foray, and Prince Charles, leaving a screen of troops in front of Broglie, marched to cut off the Prussians from Silesia, while the Hungarian levies poured into Upper Silesia by the Jablunka Pass. The Saxons, discontented and demoralized, soon marched off to their own country, and Frederick with his Prussians fell back by Svitavy and Litomysl to Kutná Hora in Bohemia, where he was in touch with Broglie on the one hand and (Glatz having now surrendered) with Silesia on the other. No defence of Olomouc was attempted, and the small Prussian corps remaining in Moravia fell back towards Upper Silesia. A white flag is traditionally used to represent a truce. ... // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius... // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius... town hall with astronomical clock Olomouc (German Olmütz, Polish OÅ‚omuniec, Latin Eburum or Olomucium) is a city in Moravia, in the east of the Czech Republic. ... Motto: none Voivodship Lower Silesian Municipal government Rada Miejska w Kłodzku Mayor Roman Lipski Area 25 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 30. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... // Events January 24 - Charles VII Albert becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... This article is about real and historical warfare. ... The Vltava   (Moldau in German and many other Germanic languages, Moldva in Hungarian, unrelated to the Moldova river of Romania) is the longest river in the Czech Republic, draining into the north from its source in Å umava through ÄŒeský Krumlov, ÄŒeské BudÄ›jovice, and Prague (Praha), merging with the Elbe... Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine (December 12, 1712 – July 4, 1780) was the son of Leopold Joseph, Duke of Lorraine. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Jihlava â–¶(?) (German Iglau) is a city in the Czech Republic. ... Coordinates: Country Czech Republic Region South Moravia Founded 1146 Area  - city 230. ... Location of Znojmo in the Czech Republic Coordinates: Country Czech Republic Region South Moravia District Znojmo Founded 1055 Mayor Pavel Balík (KDU-ÄŒSL) Area    - City 65,93 km² Elevation 290 m Population    - City (2005) 35 177 Postal code 669 02 Website: http://www. ... Mikulov (German Nikolsburg) is a town in the Czech Republic, in South Moravian Region. ... “Conscript” redirects here. ... Map of Upper Silesia, 1746 Upper Silesia (Polish: Górny ÅšlÄ…sk, German: Oberschlesien, Czech: Horní Slezsko) is the south-eastern part of Silesia, a historical and geographical region of Poland (Opole Voivodship and Silesian Voivodship) and of the Czech Republic (Silesian-Moravian Region). ... Svitavy (German: Zwittau) is both a city and a district in the Pardubice Region of the Czech Republic. ... Litomyšl is a town and municipality in the Czech Republic, in the region of Pardubice. ... Kutná Hora (help· info) medieval Czech: Hory Kutné) is a city in the Czech Republic, in Central Bohemian Region of Bohemia. ...


Prince Charles, in pursuit of the king, marched by Jihlava and Teutsch (Deutsch) Brod on Kutna Hora, and on 17 May was fought the battle of Chotusice, in which after a severe struggle the king was victorious. His cavalry on this occasion retrieved its previous failure, and its conduct gave an earnest of its future glory not only by its charges on the battlefield, but by its vigorous pursuit of the defeated Austrians. Almost at the same time Broglie fell upon a part of the Austrians left on the Vltava and won a small, but morally and politically important, success in the action of Sahay, near Budweis (24 May 1742). Frederick did not propose another combined movement. His victory and that of Broglie disposed Maria Theresa to cede Silesia in order to make good her position elsewhere, and the separate peace between Prussia and Austria, signed at Breslau on 11 June, closed the First Silesian War. The War of the Austrian Succession continued. is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Austria Prussia Commanders Prince Charles of Lorraine Frederick the Great Strength unknown unknown Casualties 7,000 dead, 18 guns and 12,000 prisoners 7,000 dead, 1,000 prisoners The Battle of Chotusitz (or Chotusice) was fought on May 17, 1742 between the Austrians under Prince Charles of Lorraine... Battle of WoÅ‚odarka Polish infantry charging enemy positions during the Polish Defensive War A charge is a maneuver in battle in which soldiers advance towards their enemy at their best speed to engage in close combat. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 24 - Charles VII Albert becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... Motto: Miasto spotkaÅ„ (the meeting place) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lower Silesian Powiat city county Gmina WrocÅ‚aw Established 10th century City Rights 1262 Government  - Mayor RafaÅ‚ Dutkiewicz Area  - City 292. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


French at Prague

The return of Prince Charles, released by the Peace of Breslau, put an end to Broglie's offensive. The prince pushed back the French posts everywhere, and his army converged upon Prague, where, towards the end of June 1742, the French were to all intents and purposes surrounded. Broglie had made the best resistance possible with his inferior forces, and still displayed great activity, but his position was one of great peril. The French government realized at last that it had given its general inadequate forces. The French army on the lower Rhine, hitherto in observation of Hanover and other possibly hostile states, was hurried into Franconia. Prince Charles at once raised the siege of Prague (14 September), called up Khevenhüller with the greater part of the Austrian army on the Danube, and marched towards Amberg to meet the new opponent. // Events January 24 - Charles VII Albert becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... Franconia (German: Franken) is a historic region in modern Germany, which today forms three administrative regions of the German federal state of Bavaria: Lower Franconia (Unterfranken), Middle Franconia (Mittelfranken), and Upper Franconia (Oberfranken). ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of Germany showing Amberg (currently incorrect) Amberg is a city in Bavaria, Germany. ...


Marshal Maillebois, the French commander, then manoeuvred from Amberg towards the Eger valley, to make contact with Broglie. Marshal Belle-Isle, the political head of French affairs in Germany and a very capable general, had accompanied Broglie throughout, and it seems that Belle-Isle and Broglie believed that Maillebois' mission was to regain a permanent foothold for the army in Bohemia. Maillebois, on the contrary, conceived that his work was simply to disengage the army of Broglie from its dangerous position, and to cover its retreat. His operations were no more than a demonstration, and had so little effect that Broglie was sent for in haste to take over the command from him, Belle-Isle at the same time taking over charge of the army at Prague. Eger - Dobó square and the castle. ...


Broglie's command was now on the Danube, east of Regensburg, and the imperial (chiefly Bavarian) army of Charles VII under Seckendorf aided him to clear Bavaria of the Austrians. This was effected with ease, for Khevenhüller and most of his troops had gone to Bohemia. Prince Charles and Khevenhüller now took post between Linz and Passau, leaving a strong force to deal with Belle-Isle in Prague. This, under Prince Lobkowitz, was little superior in numbers or quality to the troops under Belle-Isle, under whom served Saxe and the best of the younger French generals, but its light cavalry swept the country clear of provisions. The French were quickly on the verge of starvation, winter had come, and the marshal resolved to retreat. On the night of 16 December 1742, the army left Prague to be defended by a small garrison under de Chevert, and took the route of Eger. The retreat (December 16-26) was accounted a triumph of generalship, but the weather made it painful and costly. The brave Chevert displayed such confidence that the Austrians were glad to allow him freedom to join the main army. The cause of the new emperor was now sustained only in the valley of the Danube, where Broglie and Seckendorf opposed Prince Charles and Khevenhüller, who were soon joined by the force lately opposing Belle-Isle. Regensburg (also Ratisbon, Latin Ratisbona) is a city (population 151. ... Passau (Latin: Batavis or Batavia, also Passavium; Italian: Passavia; Czech: Pasov) is a town in Niederbayern, Eastern Bavaria, Germany, known also as the Dreiflüssestadt (City of Three Rivers), because the Danube River is joined there by the Inn River from the South, and the Ilz River coming out of... A female child during the Nigerian-Biafran war of the late 1960s, shown suffering the effects of severe hunger and malnutrition. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 24 - Charles VII Albert becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... General Chevert François de Chevert (February 2, 1695, Verdun - January 24, 1769, Paris) was a French general. ...


In Italy, Traun held his own with ease against the Spaniards and Neapolitans. Naples was forced by a British squadron to withdraw her troops for home defence, and Spain, now too weak to advance in the Po valley, sent a second army to Italy via France. Sardinia had allied herself with Austria, and at the same time neither state was at war with France, and this led to curious complications, combats being fought in the Isère valley between the troops of Sardinia and of Spain, in which the French took no part. A Squadron is a small unit or formation of cavalry, aircraft (including balloons), or naval vessels. ... The Po (Latin: Padus, Italian: Po) is a river that flows 652 kilometers (405 miles) eastward across northern Italy, from Monviso (in the Cottian Alps) to the Adriatic Sea near Venice. ... “Fights” redirects here. ...


Campaign of 1743

1743 opened disastrously for the emperor. The French and Bavarian armies were not working well together, and Broglie and Seckendorf had actually quarrelled. No connected resistance was offered to the converging march of Prince Charles's army along the Danube, Khevenhüller from Salzburg towards southern Bavaria, and Prince Lobkowitz from Bohemia towards the Naab. The Bavarians suffered a severe reverse near Braunau (9 May 1743), and now an Anglo-allied army commanded by King George II, which had been formed on the lower Rhine on the withdrawal of Maillebois, was advancing southward to the Main and Neckar country. A French army, under Marshal Noailles, was being collected on the middle Rhine to deal with this new force. But Broglie was now in full retreat, and the strong places of Bavaria surrendered one after the other to Prince Charles. The French and Bavarians had been driven almost to the Rhine when Noailles and the king came to battle. George, completely outmaneuvered by his veteran antagonist, was in a position of the greatest danger between Aschaffenburg and Hanau in the defile formed by the Spessart Hills and the river Main. Noailles blocked the outlet and had posts all around, but the allied troops forced their way through and inflicted heavy losses on the French, and the Battle of Dettingen is justly reckoned as a notable victory of British arms (June 27). // Events February 14 - Henry Pelham becomes British Prime Minister February 21 - - The premiere in London of George Frideric Handels oratorio, Samson. ... The Naab is a river in Bavaria, Germany. ... Braunau am Inn is a city in the Innviertel (River Inn area) of Upper Austria (Ober sterreich), the north-western province of Austria. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February 14 - Henry Pelham becomes British Prime Minister February 21 - - The premiere in London of George Frideric Handels oratorio, Samson. ... George II (George Augustus; 10 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ... Map showing the position of the Main in Germany The Main (pronounced in German like the English word mine) is a river in Germany, 524 km long (including White Main 574 km), and one of the more significant tributaries of the Rhine river. ... The Neckar is a 367 km long river in Germany, a major right tributary of the River Rhine, which it joins at Mannheim. ... Adrien-Maurice, 3rd duc de Noailles (September 29, 1678–June 24, 1766) was a French aristocrat and soldier. ... Aschaffenburg (IPA: ; dialect: [ˈaʒəˌbɜːʃ]) is a large town in north west Bavaria, Germany. ... , Hanau is a town in the Main-Kinzig-Kreis, in Hesse, Germany. ... The Spessart is a hill chain in northwestern Bavaria and southern Hesse, Germany. ... Combatants Britain, Hanover, Austria France Commanders George II duc de Noailles Strength 50,000 70,000 Casualties 750 8,000 The Battle of Dettingen (German: Schlacht bei Dettingen) took place on June 16 (June 27 according to the Gregorian calendar, which the English had not officially adopted), 1743 at Dettingen... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Broglie, worn out by age and exertions, was soon replaced by Marshal Coigny. Both Broglie and Noailles were now on the strict defensive behind the Rhine. Not a single French soldier remained in Germany, and Prince Charles prepared to force the passage of the great river in the Breisgau while the king of Britain moved forward via Mainz to co-operate by drawing upon himself the attention of both the French marshals. The Anglo-allied army took Worms, but after several unsuccessful attempts to cross, Prince Charles went into winter quarters. The king followed his example, drawing in his troops to the northward, to deal, if necessary, with the army which the French were collecting on the frontier of the Southern Netherlands. Austria, Britain, Holland and Sardinia were now allied. Saxony changed sides, and Sweden and Russia neutralized each other (Peace of Åbo, August 1743). Frederick was still quiescent. France, Spain and Bavaria actively continued the struggle against Maria Theresa. François de Franquetot de Coigny, (Coigny, March 16, 1670 - December 18, 1759) was a Marshal of France, Count and since 1747 Duke of Coigny. ... Breisgau is the name of a landscape in southwest Germany, placed between the river Rhine and the foothills of the Black Forest near Freiburg im Breisgau in the state of Baden-Württemberg. ... Wormser Dom Worms (pronounced ) is a city in the southwest of Germany. ... The Southern Netherlands were a part of the Low Countries controlled by Spain (Spanish Netherlands, 1579-1713), Austria (Austrian Netherlands, 1713-1794) and France (1794-1815). ... The Treaty of Ã…bo or Treaty of Turku is a Peace Treaty between Imperial Russia and Sweden after the Hats Russian War 1741-43. ... // Events February 14 - Henry Pelham becomes British Prime Minister February 21 - - The premiere in London of George Frideric Handels oratorio, Samson. ...


In Italy, the Spaniards on the Panaro had achieved a Pyrrhic victory over Traun at Campo Santo (8 February 1743), but the next six months were wasted in inaction, and Lobkowitz, joining Traun with reinforcements from Germany, drove back the enemy to Rimini. The Spanish-Piedmontese war in the Alps continued without much result, the only incident of note being the Battle of Casteldelfino won by Charles Emmanuel of Sardinia in person. Bridge of Olina Panaro is an Italian river. ... A Pyrrhic victory is a victory with devastating cost to the victor. ... Campo Santo (Latin, campus sanctus, holy field) is an Italian and Spanish name for a burial-place or cemetery. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February 14 - Henry Pelham becomes British Prime Minister February 21 - - The premiere in London of George Frideric Handels oratorio, Samson. ... Rimini is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy and capital city of the Province of Rimini. ... For other uses, see Piedmont (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Battle of Casteldelfino (French: Château-Dauphin) was a famous French victory in the War of the Austrian Succession. ... Charles Emmanuel III (April 27, 1701 _ February 20, 1773) was the Duke of Savoy and King of Sardinia from 1730 to 1773. ...


Campaign of 1744

With 1744 began the Second Silesian War. Frederick of Prussia, disquieted by the universal success of the Austrians, secretly concluded a fresh alliance with Louis XV of France. France had posed hitherto as an auxiliary, its officers in Germany had worn the Bavarian cockade, and only with Britain was it officially at war. France now declared war direct upon Austria and Sardinia (April 1744). A corps was assembled at Dunkirk to support the cause of James Stuart in Great Britain, and Louis XV in person, with 90,000 men, prepared to invade the Austrian Netherlands, and took Menin and Ypres. His presumed opponent was the allied army previously under King George II and now composed of British, Dutch, Germans and Austrians. On the Rhine, Coigny was up against Prince Charles, and a fresh army under the Prince de Conti was to assist the Spaniards in Piedmont and Lombardy. This plan was, however, at once dislocated by the advance of Charles, who, assisted by the veteran Traun, skilfully manoeuvred his army over the Rhine near Philippsburg (July 1), captured the lines of Weissenburg, and cut off the French marshal from Alsace. Coigny, however, cut his way through the enemy at Weissenburg and posted himself near Strasbourg. Louis XV now abandoned the invasion of the Southern Netherlands, and his army moved down to take a decisive part in the war in Alsace and Lorraine. At the same time Frederick crossed the Austrian frontier (August). // Events The third French and Indian War, known as King Georges War, breaks out at Port Royal, Nova Scotia The First Saudi State founded by Mohammed Ibn Saud Prague occupied by Prussian armies Ongoing events War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Births January 10 - Thomas Mifflin, fifth President... Louis XV, called the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé) (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1715 until his death. ... The Tricolore cockade of France. ... // Events The third French and Indian War, known as King Georges War, breaks out at Port Royal, Nova Scotia The First Saudi State founded by Mohammed Ibn Saud Prague occupied by Prussian armies Ongoing events War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Births January 10 - Thomas Mifflin, fifth President... Location within France For the battleship, see Dunkerque Dunkirk (French: Dunkerque; Dutch: Duinkerke; German: Dünkirchen) is a harbour city and a commune in the northernmost part of France, in the département of Nord, 10 km from the Belgian border. ... James Francis Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender Prince James Francis Edward Stuart or Stewart, the Old Pretender, (10 June 1688 – 1 January 1766) was the son of the deposed King James II of England and VII of Scots, and as such laid claim to the English and Scottish thrones (as... Originally the term Netherlands referred to a much larger entity than the current Kingdom of the Netherlands. ... Menen (French: Menin) is a municipality located in the Belgian province of West Flanders. ... Ypres municipality and district in the province West Flanders Ypres (French, pronounced generally used in English1) or Ieper (official name in Dutch, pronounced ) is a Belgian municipality located in the Flemish province of West Flanders. ... Louis François I de Bourbon (August 13, 1717 - August 2, 1776) was Prince of Conti from 1727 to his death, following his father Louis Armand II. Louis François I, Prince of Conti Louis François adopted a military career, and when the war of the Austrian Succession broke... For the village of the same name in Ontario, Canada, see Lombardy, Ontario. ... Philippsburg is a small town in Germany, in the district of Karlsruhe in Baden-Württemberg. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wissembourg (German: Weißenburg) is a small town and commune situated on the border between France and Germany, in the Alsace région, approximately 60 km north of Strasbourg. ... (New region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Bas-Rhin Haut-Rhin Arrondissements 13 Cantons 75 Communes 903 Statistics Land area1 8,280 km² (??? mi) km² Population (Ranked 14th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Alsace Department Bas-Rhin (67) Intercommunality Urban Community of Strasbourg Mayor Fabienne Keller  (UMP) City Statistics Land area¹ 78. ... The Southern Netherlands were a part of the Low Countries controlled by Spain (Spanish Netherlands, 1579-1713), Austria (Austrian Netherlands, 1713-1794) and France (1794-1815). ... Lorraine coat of arms location of the Lorraine province Lorraine (French: Lorraine; German: Lothringen) is a historical area in present-day northeast France. ...


The attention and resources of Austria were fully occupied, and the Prussians were almost unopposed. One column passed through Saxony, another through Lusatia, while a third advanced from Silesia. Prague, the objective, was reached on 2 September. Six days later the Austrian garrison was compelled to surrender, and the Prussians advanced to Budweis. Maria Theresa once again rose to the emergency, a new "insurrection" took the field in Hungary, and a corps of regulars was assembled to cover Vienna, while the diplomats won over Saxony to the Austrian side. Prince Charles withdrew from Alsace, unmolested by the French, who had been thrown into confusion by the sudden and dangerous illness of Louis XV at Metz. Only Seckendorf with the Bavarians pursued him. No move was made by the French, and Frederick thus found himself isolated and exposed to the combined attack of the Austrians and Saxons. Marshal Traun, summoned from the Rhine, held the king in check in Bohemia, the Hungarian irregulars inflicted numerous minor reverses on the Prussians, and finally Prince Charles arrived with the main army. The campaign resembled that of 1742: the Prussian retreat was closely watched, and the rearguard pressed hard. Prague fell, and Frederick, completely outmanoeuvred by the united forces of Prince Charles and Traun, retreated to Silesia with heavy losses. At the same time, the Austrians gained no foothold in Silesia itself. On the Rhine, Louis XV, now recovered, had besieged and taken Freiburg, after which the forces left in the north were reinforced and besieged the strong places of Southern Netherlands. There was also a slight war of manoeuvre on the middle Rhine. Lusatia (German Lausitz, Upper Sorbian Łužica, Lower Sorbian Łužyca, Polish Łużyce, Czech Lužice) is a historical region between the Bóbr and Kwisa rivers and the Elbe river in the eastern German states of Saxony and Brandenburg, south-western Poland (Lower Silesian Voivodeship) and the northern... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Si paix dedans, paix dehors (French: If peace inside, peace outside) Cathedral St. ... This article refers to the city in Baden-Württemberg. ... The Southern Netherlands were a part of the Low Countries controlled by Spain (Spanish Netherlands, 1579-1713), Austria (Austrian Netherlands, 1713-1794) and France (1794-1815). ...


In 1744 the Italian war became serious. A grandiose plan of campaign was formed, and the French and Spanish generals at the front were hampered by the orders of their respective governments. The object was to unite the army in Dauphiné with that on the lower Po. The support of Genoa allowed a road into central Italy. But Lobkowitz had already taken the offensive and driven back the Spanish army of the Count de Gages towards the Neapolitan frontier, so the King of Naples had to assist the Spaniards. A combined army was formed at Velletri, and defeated Lobkowitz there on 11 August. The crisis past, Lobkowitz then went to Piedmont to assist the king against Conti, the King of Naples returned home, and de Gages followed the Austrians with a weak force. The war in the Alps and the Apennines was keenly contested. Villefranche and Montalban were stormed by Conti on 20 April, a desperate fight took place at Peyre-Longue on 18 July, and the King of Sardinia was defeated in a great battle at Madonna dell'Olmo (September 30) near Coni (Cuneo). Conti did not, however, succeed in taking this fortress, and had to retire into Dauphiné for his winter quarters. The two armies had, therefore, failed in their attempt to combine, and the Austro-Sardinians still lay between them. // Events The third French and Indian War, known as King Georges War, breaks out at Port Royal, Nova Scotia The First Saudi State founded by Mohammed Ibn Saud Prague occupied by Prussian armies Ongoing events War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Births January 10 - Thomas Mifflin, fifth President... Flag of the Dauphiné Dauphiné (Occitan : Daufinat, Arpitan : Dôfenâ, archaic English: ), usually referred to as the Dauphiné, is a former province in southeastern France, roughly corresponding to the present departments of the Isère (Isera), Drôme (Drôma), and Hautes-Alpes (Hiôtas-Arpes). ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... Charles III of Spain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Combatants Spain Kingdom of Naples Austria Commanders Don Carlos de Borbon Prince of Lobkowicz Strength 10,000 6,000 The Battle of Velletri occurred August 12, 1744 in the War of the Austrian Succession, between Austria and the Spanish-aligned Kingdom of Naples, defended by Spanish troops. ... The Apennine Mountains (Greek: Απεννινος; Latin: Appenninus--in both cases used in the singular; Italian: Appennini) is a mountain range stretching 1000 km from the north to the south of Italy along its east coast, traversing the entire peninsula, and forming, as it were, the backbone of the country. ... The Battle of Villafranca unfolded on April 20, 1744, during the War of the Austrian Succession. ... Rodriguez, previously known as Montalban, is a municipality in the province of Rizal located on Luzon in the Philippines. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Medal of Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia. ... Combatants France Spain Kingdom of Sardinia Commanders Prince of Conti Infante Philip Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties 2,100 dead or wounded 5,000 dead, wounded, or captured The Battle of Madonna dellOlmo (also Battle of Cuneo) yielded a major victory for the armies of... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Cuneo (Coni in Piedmontese), with a population of c. ...


Campaign of 1745

The interest of the next campaign centres in the three greatest battles of the war: Hohenfriedberg, Kesselsdorf and Fontenoy. The first event of the year was the Quadruple Alliance of Britain, Austria, Holland and Saxony, concluded at Warsaw on 8 January 1745. Twelve days later, the death of Charles VII submitted the imperial title to a new election, and his successor in Bavaria was not a candidate. The Bavarian army was again unfortunate. Caught in its scattered winter quarters (action of Amberg, January 7), it was driven from point to point, and the young elector Maximilian III Joseph had to abandon Munich once more. The Peace of Füssen followed on 22 April, by which he secured his hereditary states on condition of supporting the candidature of the Grand-Duke Francis, consort of Maria Theresa. The "imperial" army ceased ipso facto to exist, and Frederick was again isolated. No help was to be expected from France, whose efforts this year were centred on the Flanders campaign. In effect, on 10 May, before Frederick took the field, Louis XV and Saxe had besieged Tournay, and inflicted upon the relieving army of the Duke of Cumberland the great defeat of Fontenoy. Combatants Austria, Saxony Prussia Commanders Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine Frederick the Great Strength 58,700[1] 122 guns 58,500 192 guns Casualties 8,650 dead or wounded, 5,080 captured 4,800 War of the Austrian Succession Mollwitz – Chotusitz – Dettingen – Toulon – Pfaffenhofen – Fontenoy – Hohenfriedberg – Soor – Hennersdorf – Kesselsdorf – Rocoux... The Battle of Kesselsdorf was fought on December 14, 1745, between Prussia and the combined forces of Austria and Saxony. ... Combatants Britain United Provinces Hanover France Commanders Duke of Cumberland Maurice, comte de Saxe Strength 50,000[1] 101 guns 60,000 70 guns Casualties 9,000 dead or wounded 3,000 captured 5,600 dead or wounded 400 captured The Battle of Fontenoy (May 11, 1745) near Fontenoy in... The term Quadruple Alliance refers to several historical military alliances; none of which remain in effect. ... Motto: Contemnit procellas (It defies the storms) Semper invicta (Always invincible) Coordinates: , Country  Poland Voivodeship Masovia Powiat city county Gmina Warszawa Districts 18 boroughs City Rights turn of the 13th century Government  - Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (PO) Area  - City 516. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Maximilian III Joseph, Elector of Bavaria (28 March 1727-30 December 1777) was the eldest son of Emperor Karl VII. Upon his fathers death in 1745, he inherited a country in the process of being invaded by Austrian armies (see War of the Austrian Succession), and quickly abandoned his... Füssen is a town in Bavaria, Germany, in the district Ostallgäu. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Categories: Belgium-related stubs | Belgian towns | UN World Heritage Sites | Romanesque architecture ... Prince William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland (April 15, 1721–October 31, 1765), a younger son of King George II of Great Britain and Queen Caroline, was a noted military leader. ...


In Silesia the customary small war had been going on for some time, and the concentration of the Prussian army was not effected without severe fighting. At the end of May, Frederick, with about 65,000 men, lay in the camp of Frankenstein, between Glatz and Neisse, while behind the Karkonosze about Landshut Prince Charles had 85,000 Austrians and Saxons. On 4 June was fought the Battle of Hohenfriedberg or Striegau, the greatest victory as yet of Frederick's career, and, of all his battles, excelled perhaps by Leuthen and Rossbach only. Prince Charles suffered a complete defeat and withdrew through the mountains as he had come. Frederick's pursuit was methodical, for the country was difficult and barren, and he did not know the extent to which the enemy was demoralised. ZÄ…bkowice ÅšlÄ…skie (German Frankenstein) is a city in Silesia, Poland, capital of the ZÄ…bkowice ÅšlÄ…skie County. ... Motto: none Voivodship Lower Silesian Municipal government Rada Miejska w Kłodzku Mayor Roman Lipski Area 25 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 30. ... Aerial view over the Karkonosze The Karkonosze (Polish; pronounced kár-ko-no-she) or KrkonoÅ¡e (Czech; IPA: ) is a mountain range in the Sudetes in Central Europe. ... Landshut is a city in Bavaria in the south-east of Germany both belonging to Eastern and Southern Bavaria. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Prussia Austria Commanders Frederick the Great Charles of Lorraine Strength 39,000 167 guns 58,500 210 guns Casualties 1,141 dead 5118 wounded 85 captured 3000 dead 7,000 wounded 12,000 captured 51 flags 116 cannons The Battle of Leuthen was a battle fought on December 5... Combatants Prussia France Holy Roman / Austrian Empire Commanders Frederick II Charles, prince de Soubise Joseph Frederick William, duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen Strength 22,000 79 guns 42,000 45 guns Casualties 169 dead, 379 wounded 5,000 dead or wounded 5,000 captured The Battle of Rossbach (November 5, 1757...


The manoeuvres of both leaders on the upper Elbe occupied all the summer, while the political questions of the imperial election and of an understanding between Prussia and Britain were pending. The chief efforts of Austria were directed towards the valleys of the Main and Lahn and Frankfurt, where the French and Austrian armies manoeuvred for a position from which to overawe the electoral body. Marshal Traun was successful, and the Grand-Duke became the Emperor Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor on 13 September. Frederick agreed with Britain to recognise the election a few days later, but Maria Theresa would not conform to the Treaty of Breslau without a further appeal to the fortune of war. Saxony joined in this last attempt. A new advance of Prince Charles quickly brought on the Battle of Soor, fought on ground destined to be famous in the war of 1866. Frederick was at first in a position of great peril, but his army changed front in the face of the advancing enemy and by its boldness and tenacity won a remarkable victory (September 30). The river Lahn in Limburg The Lahn is a river in Germany. ... For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... Francis I Silver coin of Francis I, dated 1754. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of Soor was fought on September 30, 1745 between Prussian and Austro-Saxon forces. ... Combatants Austria, Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Hanover and some minor German States (formerly as the German Confederation) Prussia, Italy, and some minor German States Strength 600,000 Austrians and German allies 500,000 Prussians and German allies 300,000 Italians Casualties 20,000 dead or wounded 37,000 dead...


But the campaign was not ended. An Austrian contingent from the Main joined the Saxons under Field Marshal Rutowsky (17021764), and a combined movement was made in the direction of Berlin by Rutowsky from Saxony and Prince Charles from Bohemia. The danger was very great. Frederick hurried up his forces from Silesia and marched as rapidly as possible on Dresden, winning the actions of Katholisch-Hennersdorf (November 24) and Görlitz (November 25). Prince Charles was thereby forced back, and now a second Prussian army under the old Dessauer advanced up the Elbe from Magdeburg to meet Rutowsky. The latter took up a strong position at Kesselsdorf between Meissen and Dresden, but the veteran Leopold attacked him directly and without hesitation (December 14). The Saxons and their allies were completely routed after a hard struggle, and Maria Theresa at last gave way. In the Peace of Dresden (December 25) Frederick recognized the imperial election, and retained Silesia, as at the Peace of Breslau. Events March 8 - William III died; Princess Anne Stuart becomes Queen Anne of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... 1764 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Dresden (Sorbian: Drježdźany; etymologically from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the riverside forest, Czech: ) is the capital city of the German Federal Free State of Saxony. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... , House at Untermarkt (Lower Market) Görlitz ( , Upper Sorbian: , Czech: , Polish: ) is a town in Germany on the river Lusatian Neisse, in the Bundesland (Federal State) of Saxony, opposite the Polish town of Zgorzelec, which was a part of Görlitz until 1945. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the German city. ... Old town of Meißen. ... Dresden (Sorbian: Drježdźany; etymologically from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the riverside forest, Czech: ) is the capital city of the German Federal Free State of Saxony. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A rout is a disorderly withdrawal made by a military force following defeat , a collapse of discipline, or poor morale. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Operations in Italy, 1745–1747

The campaign in Italy this year was also no mere war of posts. In March 1745 a secret treaty allied the Genoese republic with France, Spain and Naples. A change in the command of the Austrians favoured the first move of the allies. De Gages moved from Modena towards Lucca, the French and Spaniards in the Alps under Marshal Maillebois advanced through the Italian Riviera to the Tanaro, and in the middle of July the two armies were at last concentrated between the Scrivia and the Tanaro, to the unusually large number of 80,000. A swift march on Piacenza drew the Austrian commander thither, and in his absence the allies fell upon and completely defeated the Sardinians at Bassignano (September 27), a victory which was quickly followed by the capture of Alessandria, Valenza and Casale Monferrato. Jomini calls the concentration of forces which effected the victory "le plus remarquable de toute la guerre". // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected... The Republic of Genoa, in full the Most Serene Republic of Genoa (known as the Ligurian Republic from 1798 to 1805) was an independent state in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast from ca. ... Chrono Trigger character, see Lucca (Chrono Trigger). ... Liguria and the Italian Riviera Portofino’s small harbour on the Italian Riviera The Italian Rivera ( ) is the narrow coastal strip which lies between the Ligurian Sea and the mountain chain formed by the Maritime Alps and the Apennines. ... The Tanaro (pronounced ‘Tànaro’), known as Tanarus in ancient times, is a 276 km-long river in north-western Italy. ... The Scrivia (88 km long) is a tributary of the Po River. ... Piacenza (Placentia in Latin and old-fashioned English, Piasëinsa in the local dialect of Emiliano-Romagnolo) is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. ... Combatants France Spain Kingdom of Sardinia Austria Commanders Marquis of Maillebois Infante Philip Comte de Gages Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia Strength 80,000 50,000 Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Bassignano was fought in the Italian campaign of the War of the Austrian Succession on September 27, 1745. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Alessandria meteorite of 1860, see Meteorite falls. ... Valenza is a town in the province of Alessandria, Piemonte, Italy. ... Casale Monferrato is a town in the Piedmont region of north-west Italy, part of the province of Alessandria. ... Antoine-Henri, baron Jomini (March 6, 1779 _ March 24, 1869), general in the French and afterwards in the Russian service, and one of the most celebrated writers on the art of war, was born at Payerne in the canton of Switzerland, where his father was syndic. ...


The complicated politics of Italy, however, brought it about that Maillebois was ultimately unable to turn his victory to account. Indeed, early in 1746, Austrian troops, freed by the peace with Frederick, passed through the Tyrol into Italy. The Franco-Spanish winter quarters were brusquely attacked, and a French garrison of 6000 men at Asti was forced to capitulate. At the same time Count Browne with an Austrian corps struck at the allies on the lower Po, and cut off their communication with the main body in Piedmont. A series of minor actions thus completely destroyed the great concentration. The allies separated, Maillebois covering Liguria, the Spaniards marching against Browne. The latter was promptly and heavily reinforced, and all that the Spaniards could do was to entrench themselves at Piacenza, the Spanish Infant as supreme commander calling up Maillebois to his aid. The French, skilfully conducted and marching rapidly, joined forces once more, but their situation was critical, for only two marches behind them the army of the King of Sardinia was in pursuit, and before them lay the principal army of the Austrians. The pitched Battle of Piacenza (June 16) was hard fought, and Maillebois had nearly achieved a victory when orders from the Infant compelled him to retire. That the army escaped at all was in the highest degree creditable to Maillebois and to his son and chief of staff, under whose leadership it eluded both the Austrians and the Sardinians, defeated an Austrian corps in the Battle of Rottofreddo (August 12), and made good its retreat on Genoa. // Events Catharine de Ricci (born 1522) canonized. ... Coat of arms of the Counts of Tyrol Austria-Hungary in 1914, showing Tirol–Vorarlberg as the left-most province, coloured cream Capital Meran (Merano), until 1848 Government Principality Historical era Middle Ages  - Created County 1140  - Bequeathed to Habsburgs 1363 or 1369  - Joined Council of Princes 1582  - Trent, Tyrol and... Asti is a city and comune in the Piemonte or Piedmont region, in north-western Italy, about 80 kilometres east of Turin in the plain of the Tanaro River. ... Maximilian Ulysses, Reichsgraf von Browne, Baron de Camus and Mountany (23 October 1705 – 26 June 1757) was an Austrian military leader during the middle of the 18th century. ... Liguria is a coastal region of north-western Italy, the third smallest of the Italian regions. ... The Battle of Piacenza was a pitched battle between a Franco-Spanish army and Austro-Savoyard defence near Piacenza on June 16, 1746. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of Rottofreddo was fought on August 12, 1746 between a French army and a small Austrian force. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


It was, however, a mere remnant of the allied army which returned, and the Austrians were soon masters of north Italy, including Genoa (September). But they met with no success in their forays towards the Alps. Soon Genoa revolted from the oppressive rule of the victors, rose and drove out the Austrians (December 5–11), and the French, now commanded by Belle-Isle, took the offensive (1747). Genoa held out against a second Austrian siege, and after the plan of campaign had as usual been referred to Paris and Madrid, it was relieved, though a picked corps of the French army under the Chevalier de Belle-Isle (16841747), brother of the marshal, was defeated in the almost impossible attempt (July 10) to storm the entrenched pass of Exilles (Colle dell'Assietta), the chevalier, and with him much of the elite of the French nobility, being killed at the barricades. Before the steady advance of Marshal Belle-Isle the Austrians retired into Lombardy, and a desultory campaign was waged up to the conclusion of peace. Year 1747 (MDCCXLVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events France under Louis XIV makes Truce of Ratisbon separately with the Empire and Spain. ... Year 1747 (MDCCXLVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Country Italy Region Piedmont Province Province of Turin (TO) Mayor  ? Elevation 870 m Area 44. ... Combatants France Kingdom of Sardinia Commanders Louis Charles Armand Fouquet Count of Bricherasio Casualties c. ...


Other theatres of operations

The war was also conducted in North America and India. In North America the conflict was known as King George's War, and the most remarkable incident was the capture of the French Fortress Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island (Île Royale) by a British expedition (April 29June 16, 1745) of colonial militia under Colonel William Pepperrell of Maine (then part of Massachusetts). Louisbourg was then regarded merely as a nest of privateers, but at the peace it was returned to France. In India, one of the major causes of the First Carnatic War (1746-1748), fought between the English and the French, was that both parties wanted to place their own royal candidates of the Austrian throne. North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... King Georges War is the name given to the duck operations in North America that formed part of the 1740–1748 War of the Austrian Succession. ... Fortress Louisbourg (in French, Forteresse de Louisbourg) is a Canadian National Historic Site and the location of a partial reconstruction of an 18th century French fortress at Louisbourg, Nova Scotia. ... For other uses, see Cape Breton. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected... Sir William Pepperrell, 1746, by John Smybert Sir William Pepperrell, 1st Baronet (June 27, 1696 – July 6, 1759) was a merchant and soldier in Colonial Massachusetts. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... A privateer was a private ship (or its captain) authorized by a countrys government by letters of marque to attack foreign shipping. ...


Later campaigns

The last three campaigns of the war in the Netherlands were illustrated by the now fully developed genius of Marshal Saxe. After Fontenoy the French carried all before them. The withdrawal of most of the British to aid in suppressing the ’Forty-Five rebellion at home left their allies in a helpless position. In 1746 the Dutch and the Austrians were driven back towards the line of the Meuse, and most of the important fortresses were taken by the French. The Battle of Roucoux (or Raucourt) near Liège, fought on 11 October between the allies under Prince Charles of Lorraine and the French under Saxe, resulted in a victory for the latter. Holland itself was now in danger, and when in April 1747 Saxe's army, which had now conquered the Austrian Netherlands up to the Meuse, turned its attention to the United Provinces. The old fortresses on the frontier offered but slight resistance. The Prince of Orange and the Duke of Cumberland underwent a severe defeat at Lauffeld (Lawfeld, also called Val) on 2 July 1747, and Saxe, after his victory, promptly and secretly despatched a corps under Marshal Lowendahl (17001755) to besiege Bergen op Zoom. On 18 September Bergen op Zoom was stormed by the French, and in the last year of the war Maastricht, attacked by the entire forces of Saxe and Lowendahl, surrendered on 7 May 1748. A large Russian army arrived to join the allies, but too late to be of use. The quarrel of Russia and Sweden had been settled by the Peace of Åbo in 1743, and in 1746 Russia had allied herself with Austria. Eventually a large army marched from Moscow to the Rhine, an event which was not without military significance, and in a manner preluded the great invasions of 18131814 and 1815. The general Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) was signed on 18 October 1748. Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, wearing the Jacobite blue bonnet Jacobitism was (and, to a very limited extent, remains) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland. ... Meuse is a département in northeast France, named after the Meuse River. ... Combatants France Austria Commanders Maurice de Saxe Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine The Battle of Rocoux was fought on 11 October 1746 outside the Belgian city of Liege during War of the Austrian Succession. ... Geography Country Belgium Community French Community Region Walloon Region Province Liège Arrondissement Liège Coordinates , , Area 69. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1747 (MDCCXLVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... Prince of Orange is a title of nobility, originally associated with the principality of Orange in southern France. ... The Battle of Lauffeld took place on July 2, 1747 during the French conquest of the Netherlands (part of the War of the Austrian Succession. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1747 (MDCCXLVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... 1755 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Bergen op Zoom is a municipality and a city in the southern Netherlands. ... Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province Limburg Area (2006)  - Municipality 60. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April 24 - A congress assembles at Aix-la-Chapelle with the intent to conclude the struggle known as the War of Austrian Succession - at October 18 - The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle is signed to end the war Adam Smith begins to deliver public lectures in Edinburgh Building of... The Treaty of Ã…bo or Treaty of Turku is a Peace Treaty between Imperial Russia and Sweden after the Hats Russian War 1741-43. ... // Events February 14 - Henry Pelham becomes British Prime Minister February 21 - - The premiere in London of George Frideric Handels oratorio, Samson. ... // Events Catharine de Ricci (born 1522) canonized. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Oche redirects here; in darts the oche is the line from which players must throw. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April 24 - A congress assembles at Aix-la-Chapelle with the intent to conclude the struggle known as the War of Austrian Succession - at October 18 - The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle is signed to end the war Adam Smith begins to deliver public lectures in Edinburgh Building of...


General character of the War

The triumph of Prussia was in a great measure due to its fuller application of principles of tactics and discipline universally recognized though less universally enforced. The other powers reorganised their forces after the war, not so much on the Prussian model as on the basis of a stricter application of known general principles. Prussia, moreover, was far ahead of all the other continental powers in administration, and over Austria, in particular, its advantage in this matter was almost decisive. Added to this was the personal ascendancy of Frederick, as opposed to generals who were responsible for their men to their individual sovereigns.


The special feature of the war of 1740 to 1748, and of other wars of the time, is the extraordinary disparity between the end and the means. The political schemes to be executed by the French and other armies were as grandiose as any of modern times. Their execution, under the then conditions of time and space, invariably fell short of expectation, and the history of the war proves, as that of the Seven Years' War was to prove, that the small standing army of the 18th century could conquer by degrees, but could not deliver a decisive blow. Frederick alone, with a definite end and proportionate means to achieve it, succeeded completely. The French, in spite of their later victories, obtained so little of what they fought for that Parisians could say to each other, when they met in the streets, "You are as stupid as the Peace". Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ... Events April 24 - A congress assembles at Aix-la-Chapelle with the intent to conclude the struggle known as the War of Austrian Succession - at October 18 - The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle is signed to end the war Adam Smith begins to deliver public lectures in Edinburgh Building of... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Great Britain Electorate of Hanover Iroquois Confederacy Kingdom of Portugal Electorate of Brunswick Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Philippines Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of France Empire of Russia Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and Sicily Kingdom of Sardinia...


Even less was to be expected when the armies were composed of allied contingents, sent to the war each for a different object. The allied national armies of 1813 co-operated loyally, for they had much at stake and worked for a common object. Those of 1741 represented the divergent private interests of the several dynasties, and achieved nothing. Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius...


Naval Operations

The naval operations of this war were languid and confused. They are complicated by the fact that they were entangled with the Spanish war, which broke out in 1739 in consequence of the long disputes between Britain and Spain over their conflicting claims in America. Until the closing years they were conducted with small intelligence or spirit. The Spanish government was nerveless, and sacrificed its true interest to the family ambition of the king Philip V of Spain, who wished to establish his younger sons as ruling princes in Italy. French administration was corrupt, and the government was chiefly concerned with its political interests in Germany. The British navy was at its lowest point of energy and efficiency after the long administration of Sir Robert Walpole. Therefore, although the war contained passages of vigour, it was neither interesting nor decisive on the sea. Planning, calculating, or the giving or receiving of information. ... Dotted line shows the route of Spanish treasure fleet. ... // About the number 1739 1739 is the smallest integer that can be written as sum of three perfect cubes, in two ways. ... King Philip V of Spain (December 19, 1683 – July 9, 1746) or Philippe of Anjou was king of Spain from 1700 to 1746, the first of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. ... Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, KG, KB, PC (26 August 1676 – 18 March 1745) was a British statesman who is generally regarded as having been the first Prime Minister of Great Britain. ...


War on Spain was declared by Great Britain on 23 October 1739, which has become known as the War of Jenkins' Ear. It was universally thought that the Spanish colonies would fall at once before attack. A plan was laid for combined operations against them from east and west. One force, military and naval, was to assault them from the West Indies under Admiral Edward Vernon. Another, to be commanded by Commodore George Anson, afterwards Lord Anson, was to round Cape Horn and to fall upon the Pacific coast of Latin America. Delays, bad preparations, dockyard corruption, and the unpatriotic squabbles of the naval and military officers concerned caused the failure of a hopeful scheme. On 21 November 1739 Admiral Vernon did indeed succeed in capturing the ill-defended Spanish harbour of Porto Bello (in the present republic of Panama)—a trifling success to boast of. But he did nothing to prevent the Spanish convoys from reaching Europe. is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // About the number 1739 1739 is the smallest integer that can be written as sum of three perfect cubes, in two ways. ... Dotted line shows the route of Spanish treasure fleet. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... George Anson, 1st Baron Anson (April 23, 1697 - 1762) was a British admiral and a wealthy aristocrat, noted for his circumnavigation of the globe. ... Cape Horn from the South. ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Small shipyard in Klaksvík (Faroe Islands), reparing fishing vessels Dockyards and shipyards are places which repair and build ships. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // About the number 1739 1739 is the smallest integer that can be written as sum of three perfect cubes, in two ways. ... This article is about the town in Panama. ...


Spanish privateers cruised with destructive effect against British trade both in the West Indies and in European waters. When Vernon had been joined by Sir Chaloner Ogle with naval reinforcements and a strong body of troops, an attack was made on Cartagena in what is now Colombia (March 9 - April 24, 1741). The delay had given the Spanish admiral, Don Blas de Lezo (16871741), time to prepare, and the siege failed with a dreadful loss of life to the assailants. Want of success was largely due to the incompetence of the military officers and the brutal insolence of the admiral. Sir Chalonor Ogle (1681-1750) was an Admiral of the Fleet in the British navy. ... Nickname: The Heroic City The Walled City The Diplomatic City The Key of the West Indies The Walled Kingdom Best Fortified City of the Americas Historical Heritage of Mankind The Stone Coral Region Caribbean Region (Colombia) Department Bolívar Department* Foundation 1533 Mayor Nicolás Francisco Curi Vergara Area    - City... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius... Blas de Lezo y Olavarrieta, aliases: Patapalo (Pegleg), and later as Mediohombre (Half-man) for the many wounds suffered in his long military life (Pasajes, Guipuzcoa, 1687 - Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, on September 7, 1741, Spanish admiral), was one of the greatest strategists and commanders in the history of the... Events March 19 - The men under explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle murder him while searching for the mouth of the Mississippi River. ... // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius...


The war in the West Indies, after two other unsuccessful attacks had been made on Spanish territory, died down and did not revive till 1748. The expedition under Anson sailed late, was very ill-provided, and less strong than had been intended. It consisted of six ships and left Britain on 18 September 1740. Anson returned alone with his flagship the Centurion on 15 June 1744. The other vessels had either failed to round the Horn or had been lost. But Anson had harried the coast of Chile and Peru and had captured a Spanish galleon of immense value near the Philippines. His cruise was a great feat of resolution and endurance. Events April 24 - A congress assembles at Aix-la-Chapelle with the intent to conclude the struggle known as the War of Austrian Succession - at October 18 - The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle is signed to end the war Adam Smith begins to deliver public lectures in Edinburgh Building of... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ... A flagship is the ship used by the commanding officer of a group of naval ships. ... HMS Centurion was a 60-gun ship of the line, 4th rate, of the Royal Navy, built in 1732 and was the third British naval vessel to carry the name. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events The third French and Indian War, known as King Georges War, breaks out at Port Royal, Nova Scotia The First Saudi State founded by Mohammed Ibn Saud Prague occupied by Prussian armies Ongoing events War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Births January 10 - Thomas Mifflin, fifth President...


While Anson was pursuing his voyage round the world, Spain was mainly intent on the Italian policy of the king. A squadron was fitted out at Cádiz to convey troops to Italy. It was watched by the British admiral Nicholas Haddock. When the blockading squadron was forced off by want of provisions, the Spanish admiral Don José Navarro put to sea. He was followed, but when the British force came in sight of him Navarro had been joined by a French squadron under de Court (December 1741). The French admiral announced that he would support the Spaniards if they were attacked and Haddock retired. France and Great Britain were not yet openly at war, but both were engaged in the struggle in Germany—Great Britain as the ally of the Queen of Hungary, Maria Theresa; France as the supporter of the Bavarian claimant of the empire. Navarro and de Court went on to Toulon, where they remained till February 1744. A British fleet watched them, under the command of Admiral Richard Lestock, till Sir Thomas Mathews was sent out as commander-in-chief and as Minister to the Court of Turin. // Path of the Centurion under the command of George Anson While Great Britain was at war with Spain in 1740, Commodore George Anson led a squadron of eight ships on a mission to disrupt or capture Spains Pacific possessions. ... Location Location of Cádiz Coordinates : Time Zone : General information Native name Cádiz (Spanish) Spanish name Cádiz Postal code – Website http://www. ... // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius... Panorama of Toulon area. ... // Events The third French and Indian War, known as King Georges War, breaks out at Port Royal, Nova Scotia The First Saudi State founded by Mohammed Ibn Saud Prague occupied by Prussian armies Ongoing events War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Births January 10 - Thomas Mifflin, fifth President... Thomas Mathews (1676-1751), British admiral, son of Colonel Edward Mathews (d. ... “Torino” redirects here. ...


Partial manifestations of hostility between the French and British took place in different seas, but avowed war did not begin till the French government issued its declaration of 30 March, to which Great Britain replied on 31 March. This formality had been preceded by French preparations for the invasion of England, and by a collision between the allies and Mathews in the Mediterranean in the Battle of Toulon. On 11 February a most confused battle was fought, in which the van and centre of the British fleet was engaged with the rear and centre of the allies. Lestock, who was on the worst possible terms with his superior, took no part in the action. He endeavoured to excuse himself by alleging that the orders of Mathews were contradictory. Mathews, a puzzle-headed and hot-tempered man, fought with spirit but in a disorderly way, breaking the formation of his fleet, and showing no power of direction. The mismanagement of the British fleet in the battle, by arousing deep anger among the people, led to a drastic reform of the British navy which bore its first fruits before the war ended. is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... The Battle of Toulon took place on 22 February 1744 (New Style) between 1:30 pm and 5:00 pm in the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Toulon, France. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The French invasion scheme was arranged in combination with the Jacobite leaders, and soldiers were to be transported from Dunkirk. But though the British government showed itself wholly wanting in foresight, the plan broke down. In. February 1744, a French fleet of twenty sail of the line entered the English Channel under de Roquefeuil, before the British force under Admiral John Norris was ready to oppose him. But the French force was ill-equipped, the admiral was nervous, his mind dwelt on all the misfortunes which might possibly happen, and the weather was bad. De Roquefeuil came up almost as far as the Downs, where he learnt that Sir John Norris was at hand with twenty-five sail of the line, and thereupon precipitately retreated. Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, wearing the Jacobite blue bonnet Jacobitism was (and, to a very limited extent, remains) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland. ... Location within France For the battleship, see Dunkerque Dunkirk (French: Dunkerque; Dutch: Duinkerke; German: Dünkirchen) is a harbour city and a commune in the northernmost part of France, in the département of Nord, 10 km from the Belgian border. ... // Events The third French and Indian War, known as King Georges War, breaks out at Port Royal, Nova Scotia The First Saudi State founded by Mohammed Ibn Saud Prague occupied by Prussian armies Ongoing events War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Births January 10 - Thomas Mifflin, fifth President... Satellite view of the English Channel The English Channel (French: , the sleeve) is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the island of Great Britain from northern France and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic. ... Portair by George Knapton cirka 1735. ... Downland, a geographical feature Down Syndrome or Downs Syndrome, a human hereditary/congenital/genetic disorder the Downs, sea area between Goodwin Sands and East Kent coast. ...


The military expedition prepared at Dunkirk to cross under cover of De Roquefeuil's fleet naturally did not start. The utter weakness of the French at sea, due to long neglect of the fleet and the bankrupt state of the treasury, was shown during the Jacobite rising of 1745, when France made no attempt to profit by the distress of the British government.


The Dutch, having by this time joined Great Britain, made a serious addition to the naval power opposed to France, though Holland was compelled by the necessity for maintaining an army in Flanders to play a very subordinate part at sea. Not being stimulated by formidable attack, and having immediate interests both at home and in Germany, the British government was slow to make use of its latest naval strength. Spain, which could do nothing of an offensive character, was almost neglected. During 1745 the New England expedition which took Louisburg (April 30 - June 16) was covered by a British naval force, but the operations were in a general way sporadic, subordinated to the supply of convoy, or to unimportant particular ends. In the East Indies, Mahé de la Bourdonnais made vigorous use of a small squadron to which no effectual resistance was offered by the British naval forces. He captured Madras (July 24 - September 9, 1746), a set-off for Louisburg, for which it was exchanged at the close of the war. In the same year a British combined naval and military expedition to the coast of France - the first of a long series of similar ventures which in the end were derided as "breaking windows with guineas" - was carried out during August and October. The aim was the capture of the French East India Company's dockyard at L'Orient, but it was not attained. // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bertrand-François Mahé de La Bourdonnais (comte de La Bourdonnais) (Saint-Malo, 11 February 1699 – Paris, 10 November 1753) was a French naval officer and administrator, in the service of the French East India Company. ... , “Madras” redirects here. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Catharine de Ricci (born 1522) canonized. ... French and other European settlements in India. ... Lorient is a commune and a seaport of Brittany, France, in the Morbihan département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ...


From 1747 until the close of the war in October 1748 the naval policy of the British government, without reaching a high level, was yet more energetic and coherent. A closer watch was kept on the French coast, and effectual means were taken to intercept communication between France and her American possessions. In the spring information was obtained that an important convoy for the East and West Indies was to sail from L'Orient. In the previous year the British government had allowed a French expedition under the Duc d'Anville to fail mainly by its own weakness. In 1747 a more creditable line was taken. An overwhelming force was employed under the command of Anson to intercept the convoy in the Channel. It was met, crushed and captured, or driven back, on 3 May, in the first Battle of Cape Finisterre. Year 1747 (MDCCXLVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events April 24 - A congress assembles at Aix-la-Chapelle with the intent to conclude the struggle known as the War of Austrian Succession - at October 18 - The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle is signed to end the war Adam Smith begins to deliver public lectures in Edinburgh Building of... The Indies, on the display globe of the Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois The Indies or East Indies (or East India) is a term used to describe lands of South and Southeast Asia, occupying all of the former British India, the present Indian Union, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, the Maldives... Year 1747 (MDCCXLVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The First Battle of Cape Finisterre was a naval battle which took place on 14 May 1747 (3 May 1747 in the Julian calendar then in use in Britain) during the War of the Austrian Succession, in the Bay of Biscay off Cape Finisterre in northwest Spain, between a British...


On 14 October another French convoy, protected by a strong squadron, was intercepted by a well-appointed and well-directed squadron of superior numbers - the squadrons were respectively eight French and fourteen British - in the Bay of Biscay. In the second Battle of Cape Finisterre which followed, the French admiral, Desherbiers de l'Etenduère (16811750), made a very gallant resistance, and the fine quality of his ships enabled him to counteract to some extent the superior numbers of Sir Edward Hawke, the British admiral. While the war-ships were engaged, the merchant vessels, with the small protection which Desherbiers could spare them, continued on their way to the West Indies. Most of them were, however, intercepted and captured in those waters. This disaster convinced the French government of its helplessness at sea, and it made no further effort. is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of the Bay of Biscay. ... The Second Battle of Cape Finisterre was a naval battle which took place on 25 October 1747 (14 October 1747 in the Julian calendar then in use in Britain) during the War of the Austrian Succession, in the Bay of Biscay off Cape Finisterre in northwest Spain between a well... Events March 4 - Charles II of England grants a land charter to William Penn for the area that will later become Pennsylvania. ... Events March 2 - Small earthquake in London, England April 4 - Small earthquake in Warrington, England August 23 - Small earthquake in Spalding, England September 30 - Small earthquake in Northampton, England November 16 – Westminster Bridge officially opened Jonas Hanway is the first Englishman to use an umbrella James Gray reveals her sex... Edward Hawke, 1st Baron Hawke, (February 21, 1705 - October 16, 1781) was an admiral in the Royal Navy. ...


The last naval operations took place in the West Indies, where the Spaniards, who had for a time been treated as a negligible quantity, were attacked on the coast of Cuba by a British squadron under Sir Charles Knowles. They had a naval force under Admiral Reggio at Havana. Each side was at once anxious to cover its own trade, and to intercept that of the other. Capture was rendered particularly desirable to the British by the fact that the Spanish homeward-bound convoy would be laden with the bullion sent from the American mines. In the course of the movement of each to protect its trade, the two squadrons met on 1 October 1748 in the Bahama Channel. The action was indecisive when compared with the successes of British fleets in later days, but the advantage lay with Sir Charles Knowles. He was prevented from following it up by the speedy receipt of the news that peace had been made in Europe by the powers, who were all in various degrees exhausted. That it was arranged on the terms of a mutual restoration of conquests shows that none of the combatants could claim to have established a final superiority. The conquests of the French in the Bay of Bengal, and their military successes in Flanders, enabled them to treat on equal terms, and nothing had been taken from Spain. This article is about the capital of Cuba. ... A precious metal is a rare metallic element of high, durable economic value. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April 24 - A congress assembles at Aix-la-Chapelle with the intent to conclude the struggle known as the War of Austrian Succession - at October 18 - The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle is signed to end the war Adam Smith begins to deliver public lectures in Edinburgh Building of... Look up Bay of Bengal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The war was remarkable for the prominence of privateering on both sides. It was carried on by the Spaniards in the West Indies with great success, and actively at home. The French were no less active in all seas. Mahé de la Bourdonnais's attack on Madras partook largely of the nature of a privateering venture. The British retaliated with vigour. The total number of captures by French and Spanish corsairs was in all probability larger than the list of British - as the French wit Voltaire drolly put it upon hearing his government's boast, namely, that more British merchants were taken because there were many more British merchant ships to take; but partly also because the British government had not yet begun to enforce the use of convoy so strictly as it did in later times. A privateer was a private ship (or its captain) authorized by a countrys government by letters of marque to attack foreign shipping. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A convoy is a group of vehicles traveling together for mutual support. ...


Conclusion of the war

The War of Austrian Succession concluded with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle of 1748. Maria Theresa and Austria survived status quo ante bellum, sacrificing only the territory of Silesia, which Austria conceded to Prussia. The end of the war also sparked the beginning of German Dualism between Prussia and Austria, which would ultimately bring about German Nationalism and the drive to unify Germany as a single entity. The second Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) of 1748 ended the War of the Austrian Succession. ... The term status quo ante bellum comes from Latin meaning literally, as things were before the war. ...


See also

The Hats Russian War (1741-1743) was the Swedish participation in the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748). ... King Georges War is the name given to the duck operations in North America that formed part of the 1740–1748 War of the Austrian Succession. ... Dotted line shows the route of Spanish treasure fleet. ...

Further reading

  • Reed Browning: The War of the Austrian Succession. New York: St Martin's Press, 1993   ISBN 0-312-09483-3 (Bibliography: pp.403-431)

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


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