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Encyclopedia > War of Attrition
War of Attrition
Part of the Arab-Israeli conflict

The Israeli-Egyptian war of Attrition was centered largely on the Suez Canal
Date June 1968 – August 7, 1970 (ceasefire)
Location Sinai Peninsula (Israeli control)
Casus
belli
Arab defeat from 1967 War and Egyptian refusal to recognize Israel under the terms of the Khartoum Resolution
Result Egypt and Israel each considered themselves victorious
Combatants
Israel
Egypt
Soviet Union
Strength
unknown Egyptian: unknown
Soviet advisors: 10,700–12,300
Casualties
594 soldiers and >127 civilians killed
2,000 soldiers and 700 civilians wounded[1][2]
15–16 aircraft lost[3]
10,000 Egyptian soldiers and civilians killed¹
3 Soviet pilots killed

101–113 aircraft lost[3]

The War of Attrition (Hebrew: מלחמת ההתשה‎, Arabic: حرب الاستنزاف) was a limited war fought between the Israeli military and forces of the Egyptian Republic, the USSR and the Palestine Liberation Organization from 1967 to 1970. It was initiated by the Egyptians as a way of recapturing the Sinai from the Israelis, who had been in control of the territory since the mid-1967 "Six-Day War". The hostilities ended with a ceasefire signed between the countries in 1970 with frontiers remaining in the same place as when the war began. War of Attrition may refer to: War of Attrition, a limited war fought between Israeli military, and the forces of Egypt and the Palestine Liberation Organization and from 1968 to 1970 Attrition warfare, the military strategy of wearing down the enemy by continual losses in personnel and material War of... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel and the United... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A ceasefire is a temporary stoppage of a war or any armed conflict, where each side of the conflict agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... Casus belli is a modern Latin language expression meaning the justification for acts of war. ... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Saudi Arabia Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... The Khartoum Resolution of September 1, 1967 was issued at the conclusion of a meeting between the leaders of eight Arab countries in the wake of the Six-Day War. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_United_Arab_Republic. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... “CCCP” redirects here. ... Operation Rooster 53 was an Israeli military operation during the War of Attrition to kidnap an Egyptian P-12 radar system. ... Operation Bulmus 6, also known as the Green Island Raid, was a military raid conducted by special operations units of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) against an Egyptian early warning radar and ELINT station located on a small island in the Gulf of Suez on the night of July 19... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel and the United... This article describes violent events in the Old City of Jerusalem from April 4-7, 1920. ... On May 1, 1921, a scuffle began in Tel Aviv-Jaffa between rival groups of Jewish Bolsheviks, carrying Yiddish banners demanding Soviet Palestine, and Socialists parading on May Day. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine was an uprising during the British mandate by Palestinian Arabs in Palestine which lasted from 1936 to 1939. ... Combatants Palestine Jews Palestine Arabs United Kingdom The 1947-48 Palestinian Civil War lasted from 30 November 1947 to 14 May 1948. ... Combatants  Israel Haganah Irgun Lehi Palmach Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially rising... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Saudi Arabia Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria, br/>  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul... Combatants Israel South Lebanon Army PLO Strength 25,000 10,000 Casualties 20 9,800 The 1978 South Lebanon conflict (code-named Operation Litani by Israel) was the name of the Israel Defense Forces 1978 invasion of Lebanon up to the Litani River. ... Combatants Israel South Lebanon Army LF (nominally neutral) PLO Syria Amal (switched sides) LCP Commanders Menachem Begin (Prime Minister) Ariel Sharon, (Ministry of Defence) Rafael Eitan, (CoS) Yasser Arafat Strength Israel: 76,000 troops 800 tanks 1,500 APCs 634 aircraft Syria: 22,000 troops 352 tanks 300 APCs 450... Combatants Hezbollah Israel South Lebanon Army Casualties 8000+ 1600+ During the 1982–2000 South Lebanon conflict Hezbollah waged a guerrilla campaign against Israeli forces occupying Southern Lebanon. ... Combatants  Israel Unified National Leadership ot the Uprising Commanders Yitzhak Shamir Yasser Arafat Casualties 160 (5 children) 1,162 (241 children) The First Intifada (1987 - 1993) (also intifada and war of the stones) was a mass Palestinian uprising against Israeli rule[1] that began in Jabalia refugee camp and quickly... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ... Combatants Hezbollah Lebanon Amal[2] LCP[3] PFLP-GC[4]  Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah Dan Halutz Moshe Kaplinsky[11] Udi Adam Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[5] Up to 10,000 ground troops. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... For other uses of War, see War (disambiguation). ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic: ;   or Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah) is a multi-party confederation and is the organization regarded since 1974 as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Saudi Arabia Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Egyptian Front

The Israel Defense Force's (IDF) unanticipated victory and the Egyptian army's rout during the "Six-Day War" put the Sinai peninsula, up to the eastern bank of the Suez Canal, in Israeli hands. Egypt's humiliated army, the most powerful in the Arab world, yearned for retaliation. Sporadic clashes were taking place along the cease-fire line, and Egyptian missile boats sank the Israeli destroyer Eilat on October 21st of the same year. Egypt began shelling Israeli positions along the Bar Lev Line, making use of heavy artillery, MiG aircraft and various other forms of assistance from the Soviets with the hope of forcing a war-weary Israeli government into making concessions.[4] Israel responded with bombardment and ground raids on Egyptian military positions, aerial raids on strategic facilities in Egypt itself, and the complete razing of Egyptian cities on the west bank of the Suez Canal, sending hundreds of thousands of refugees in full flight to Cairo and other Egyptian cities, further burdening the Egyptian economy and thereby, exhausting the Egyptian government. The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: צבא ההגנה לישראל Tsva Ha-Haganah Le-Yisrael ([Army] Force [for] the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels armed forces... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... Languages Arabic and other minority languages Religions Islam, Christianity, Druzism and Judaism An Arab (Arabic: , arabi) is a member of a complexly defined ethnic group who identifies as such on the basis of one or more of either genealogical, political, or linguistic grounds. ... // Z class destroyers INS Eilat (K-40) - Formerly HMS Zealous (R39) - Sunk INS Yaffo (K-42) - Formerly HMS Zodiac (R54) - Retired Hunt class escort destroyers INS Haifa (K-38) - Formerly HMS Mendip (L60) - Retired River class frigates INS Mivtach (K-28) (adopted in 1949) - Formerly HMCS Orkney (K448) - Retired INS... The Bar Lev Line (arabic: خط برليف, Hebrew: קו בר לב) was a chain of fortifications built by Israel along the eastern coast of the Suez Canal after it captured the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt during the 1967 Six-Day War. ... Mikoyan, formerly Mikoyan-Gurevich (Russian: ), is a Russian military aircraft design bureau, primarily for fighter aircraft. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ...


The rationale of the Egyptian President, Gamal Abdel Nasser, was explained by journalist Mohamed Hassanein Heikal: Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: - ; Masri: جمال عبد الناصر - also transliterated as Jamal Abd al-Naser, Jamal Abd an-Nasser and other variants; January 15, 1918 – September 28, 1970) was the President of Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970. ... Mohamed Hassanein Heikal (born 1923) is a leading Egyptian journalist. ...

"If the enemy succeeds in inflicting fifty-thousand casualties in this campaign, we can go on fighting nevertheless, because we have manpower reserves. If we succeed in inflicting ten-thousand casualties, he will unavoidably find himself compelled to stop fighting, because he has no manpower reserves."

The international community and both countries attempted to find a diplomatic solution to the conflict. The Jarring Mission of the United Nations was supposed to ensure that the terms of UN Security Council Resolution 242 would be observed, but by late 1970, it was clear that this mission had been a failure. Fearing the escalation of the conflict into an "East vs. West" confrontation during the tensions of the mid-Cold War, the American President, Richard Nixon, sent his Secretary of State, William Rogers, to formulate the Rogers Plan in view of obtaining a ceasefire. In August of 1970, Israel, Jordan, and Egypt agreed to a ceasefire under the terms proposed by the Rogers Plan. The plan contained restrictions on missile deployment by both sides, and required the cessation of raids as a precondition for peace. The Egyptians and their Soviet allies rekindled the conflict by violating the agreement shortly thereafter, moving their missiles near to the Suez Canal, and constructing the largest anti-aircraft system yet implemented at that point in history.[4][1] Wikisource has original text related to this article: Jarring Mission report (1970) The Jarring Mission refers to efforts undertaken by Gunnar Jarring on behalf of the United Nations Secretary General, U Thant, to ensure progress on implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 242 following the Six-Day War in 1967. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 (S/RES/242) was adopted unanimously by the UN Security Council on November 22, 1967 in the aftermath of the Six Day War. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... There are several men named William Rogers (and similar spellings), among them: William P. Rogers, U.S. Attorney General under Dwight Eisenhower and Secretary of State under Richard Nixon. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Rogers Plan (1969) The Rogers Plan was a term to describe a framework proposed by United States Secretary of State William P. Rogers to achieve an end to belligerency in the Arab-Israeli conflict following the Six-Day War. ...


The Israelis responded with a policy which their Prime Minister, Golda Meir, dubbed “asymmetrical response,” wherein Israeli retaliation was disproportionately large in comparison to any Egyptian attacks. Strategically, this was a necessary policy for her government, as the Israeli military was significantly numerically smaller than the Egyptian.[4] The strategy worked, as it showed Israel's willingness to sustain losses, and its ability to inflict greater casualties, proportionally, against Egypt and its Soviet allies. Israel received further aid from the United States, and led some Egyptians to lose their taste for conflict. Following Nasser’s death in September of 1970, his successor, Anwar al-Sadat, ceased open hostilities with Israel, focusing instead on the prospect of a partial Israeli pull-out from the Sinai, a prospect not realized for many years.[4] A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Golda Meir (‎, born Golda Mabovitz, May 3, 1898 - December 8, 1978), known as Golda Meyerson from 1917-1956, was one of the founders of the State of Israel. ... Field Marshal Muhammad Anwar al-Sadat (محمد أنورالسادات in Arabic) (December 25, 1918 – October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian soldier and politician, who served as the third President of Egypt from October 15, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ...


Jordan and the PLO

Following the Six-Day War of 1967, a wave of Palestinian refugees entered Jordan, further strengthening the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) which was already powerful in Jordan at the time. King Hussein’s agreement to the Rogers Plan upset the PLO, as it constituted official recognition of the State of Israel, in breach of the terms of a prior arrangement, the Khartoum Resolution. Consequently, the PLO began fighting against the Jordanian government, and engaged in a series of terrorist attacks against Israel, including plane hijackings and the infamous "Munich Massacre" during the 1972 Summer Olympics. The Syrian Arab Republic provided aid to the PLO against the Jordanian government, but Israel, by positioning troops along the Jordan River, appeared to preempt a Syrian incursion into Jordanian territory by threatening a retaliatory invasion. This is believed by many to have averted direct Syrian involvement in the conflict.[4][2] With American and Israeli assistance, the Jordanian King expelled the PLO from Jordan during 1970, in what would become known as "Black September". With the PLO expelled to Lebanon, the Jordanian front of the War of Attrition was closed. [4] The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old Kingdoms of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi... Hussein bin Talal (Arabic: حسين بن طلال) (November 14, 1935 - February 7, 1999) was the King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan from 1952 to 1999. ... The Khartoum Resolution of September 1, 1967 was issued at the conclusion of a meeting between the leaders of eight Arab countries in the wake of the Six-Day War. ... The Munich massacre occurred during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany, when members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage by the Palestinian terrorist group Black September, a group with ties to Yasser Arafat’s Fatah organization. ... The 1972 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, were held in Munich, West Germany, from 26 August to 11 September 1972. ... The Jordan River runs along the border between the West Bank and the Kingdom of Jordan Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River Road sign In spring The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest... The expression Black September may refer to: Black September in Jordan, the conflict between Palestinian guerrilla organizations and King Hussein of Jordan that began in September 1970 and ended in July 1971 with the expulsion of the PLO to Lebanon. ...


Timeline

July 1, 1967: Egyptian Army artillery fires on an Israeli armored infantry company near the Suez Canal. The Israeli unit commander is killed and thirteen Israeli troops are wounded [5]. is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... The Egyptian Army is the largest service within the Egyptian military establishment. ...


October 21, 1967: Egyptian naval forces sink the Israeli “The Eilat,” killing forty-seven.[1] is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Although the Egyptian Navy was the smallest branch of the military, it is large by Middle Eastern standards. ...


June of 1968: The war "officially" begins, with sparse Egyptian artillery bombardment of the Israeli front line on the east bank of the Suez Canal. More artillery bombardments in the following months kill Israeli soldiers.[4] For other uses, see June (disambiguation). ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


October 30, 1968: Israeli heli-borne commandos ("Sayeret Matkal") destroy Egypt's main electricity supply. The blackout causes Nasser to cease hostilities for a few months while fortifications around hundreds of important targets are built. Simultaneously, Israel re-enforces its position on the east bank of the Suez Canal by construction of "the Bar Lev Line".[6] is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Helicopter (disambiguation). ... Sayeret Matkal (Hebrew: סיירת מטכל, translation: General Staff Reconnaissance unit) is the elite special forces unit of the Israeli Defence Force (IDF). ...


March 3, 1969: Nasser officially voids the ceasefire of June 1967.[7] is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ...


March 8, 1969: Egyptian artillery begins massive shelling of the Bar Lev Line resulting in many Israeli casualties. Soviet MiG-21 fighters are employed in the attack. The IDF retaliates with deep raids into Egyptian territory, causing severe damage.[4] is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 (NATO reporting name Fishbed) is a fighter aircraft, originally built by the Mikoyan and Gurevich Design Bureau in the Soviet Union. ...


May-July of 1969: Forty-seven IDF soldiers are killed and one-hundred and fifty-seven wounded. Although Egypt suffers many times more casualties than Israel, it continues its aggressive stance. Israel manages to sustain the high casualty rate but is hard-pressed to find a definite solution to the conflict. For other uses, see May (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


July 20, 1969 and July 24, 1969: Nearly the entire Israeli Air Force (IAF) bombs the northern Canal sector, destroying anti-aircraft positions, tanks and artillery. The aerial offensive continues until December and reduces the Egyptian anti-aircraft defense to almost nothing. It also manages to reduce the artillery bombardment somewhat. However, shelling with lighter weapons, particularly mortars, continues. is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Israeli Air Force (IAF; Hebrew: זרוע האויר והחלל, Zroa HaAvir VeHaḤalal, Air and Space Division, commonly known as חיל האוויר Hel HaAvir) is the air force of the Israel Defense Forces. ... Mortar has several meanings: Mortar (weapon) fires shells at a much lower velocity and higher ballistic arc than other ordnance Paintball mortar fires paintballs or water balloons filled with paint Mortar (masonry), material used in masonry to fill the gaps between bricks and bind them together Mortar (firestop), hydraulic cementitious...


October 17, 1969: The USA and USSR begin diplomatic talks to end the conflict. is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


December 9, 1969: The Rogers Plan is publicized. It calls for Egyptian "commitment to peace" in exchange for the Israeli withdrawal from the Sinai. Both parties strongly reject the plan. President Nasser instead opts to plead for more sophisticated weaponry from the Soviet Union to withstand the IAF bombings. The Soviets initially refuse to deliver the requested weapons.[8] is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


January 22, 1970: President Nasser secretly flies to Moscow to discuss the situation. His request for new SAM batteries (including the 3M9 Kub and Strela-2) is approved. Their deployment requires qualified personnel along with squadrons of aircraft to protect them. In effect, he needs Soviet troops in large numbers, something the Kremlin did not want to provide. Nasser then threatens to resign, implying that Egypt might turn to Washington for help in the future. The Soviets had Invested heavily in President Nasser's regime, and so, the Soviet leader, General Secretary Brezhnev, finally obliged. The Soviet presence was to increase from 2,500–4,000 in January to 10,600–12,150 (plus 100–150 Soviet pilots) by June 30. is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Akash Missile Firing French Air Force Crotale battery Bendix Rim-8 Talos surface to air missile of the US Navy A surface-to-air missile (SAM) is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft. ... 2P25 TEL with missiles erected. ... A soldier posing with a Strela launcher. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Moscow Kremlin in the 19th century. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Joseph Stalin, first General Secretary The General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (First Secretary in 1953-1966) was the title synonymous with leader of the Soviet Union after Vladimir Lenins death in 1924. ... Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (Russian: , Leonid Ilič Brežnev) December 19, 1906 [O.S. December 19, 1906] – November 10, 1982) was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (and thus de facto ruler of the USSR) from 1964 to 1982, serving in that position longer than anyone... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


March 15, 1970: The first fully-operational Soviet SAM site in Egypt is completed. It is part of three brigades which the USSR sends to Egypt.[3] is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


June 30, 1970: Following the Soviets' direct intervention, known as "Operation Kavkaz"[3], Washington fears an escalation and redoubles efforts toward a peaceful resolution to the conflict. is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


April 8, 1970: Israeli bombardment kills forty-seven Egyptian schoolchildren at an elementary school inside a military compound, putting a definite end to the campaign, the Israelis instead then concentrate upon Canal-side installations. The respite gives the Egyptians time to reconstruct its SAM batteries closer to the canal. Soviet flown MiG-fighters provide the necessary air cover. Soviet pilots also begin approaching IAF aircraft during April of 1970, but Israeli pilots have orders not to engage these aircraft, and break off whenever Soviet-piloted MiGs appear. April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


June 25, 1970: An Israeli A-4 "Skyhawk", in an attack sortie against Egyptian forces on the Canal, is pursued by a pair of Soviet-piloted MiG-21s into the Sinai. The "Skyhawk" is shot down or, according to the Israelis, hit and forced to land at a nearby air base. In response, Israel plans and executes an ambush of Soviet-piloted MiGs.[3] is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The A-4 Skyhawk was an attack aircraft originally designed to operate from United States Navy aircraft carriers. ... Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 (NATO reporting name Fishbed) is a fighter aircraft, originally built by the Mikoyan and Gurevich Design Bureau in the Soviet Union. ...


July 30, 1970: A large-scale dogfight, involving eight to twenty MiG-21s (besides the initial eight, other MiGs are "scrambled", but it is unclear if they reach the battle in time), eight Mirage III and eight F-4 Phantom II jets takes place, west of the Suez Canal. Ambushing their opponents, the Israelis down four Soviet-piloted MiGs, and, according to some sources, a fifth is hit and crashes en route back to its base. Three Soviet pilots are killed, while the IAF suffers no casualties except a damaged Mirage.[3] is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Former South African Air Force Mirage IIICZ The Dassault Mirage III is a supersonic fighter aircraft designed in France during the 1950s, and manufactured both in France and a number of other countries. ... “F-4” redirects here. ...


Early August, 1970: Despite these losses the Soviets and Egyptians manage to press the air defenses closer and closer to the canal. The Soviet operated SAMs shoot down a number of Israeli aircraft. Israelis do not respond effectively. The SAM batteries allow the Egyptians to move in artillery which in turn threatens the Bar Lev Line. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


August 7, 1970: A cease-fire agreement is reached, forbidding either side from changing "the military status quo within zones extending 50 kilometers to the east and west of the cease-fire line." Minutes after the cease-fire, Egypt begins moving SAM batteries into the zone even though the agreement explicitly forbids new military installations. By October there are approximately one-hundred SAM sites in the zone. is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


September 28, 1970: President Nasser dies of a heart attack, and his Vice President, Anwar al-Sadat, takes the reins. Sadat agrees to end the War of Attrition and almost immediately begins planning for the Yom Kippur War which would take place three years later. is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Acute myocardial infarction (AMI or MI), more commonly known as a heart attack, is a disease state that occurs when the blood supply to a part of the heart is interrupted. ... Field Marshal Muhammad Anwar al-Sadat (محمد أنورالسادات in Arabic) (December 25, 1918 – October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian soldier and politician, who served as the third President of Egypt from October 15, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ... (Redirected from 1973 Yom Kippur War) The Yom Kippur War (also known as the 1973 Arab-Israeli War, the October War and Ramadan War), was fought from October 6 (the day of Yom Kippur) to October 22/24, 1973, between Israel and a coalition of Egypt and Syria. ...


Bibliography

  • Benny Morris. (1999). Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881–1999. Knopf. ISBN 0-679-42120-3. 
  • Bar-Simon Tov, Yaacov. The Israeli-Egyptian War of Attrition, 1969–70. New York: Columbia University Press, 1980.
  • Chaim Herzog and Shlomo Gazit. The Arab-Israeli Wars: War and Peace in the Middle East. New York: Vintage Books, 2004.

See also

Operation Bulmus 6, also known as the Green Island Raid, was a military raid conducted by special operations units of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) against an Egyptian early warning radar and ELINT station located on a small island in the Gulf of Suez on the night of July 19... (Redirected from 1978 Camp David Peace Accords between Egypt and Israel) Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on September 17, 1978, following twelve days of secret negotiations at Camp David. ... The Israel-Egypt peace treaty (Arabic: معاهدة السلام المصرية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: Muahadat as-Salam al-Masriyah al-Israyliyah) (Hebrew: הסכם שלום ישראל-מצרים; transliterated: Heskem Shalom Yisrael-Mizraim) was signed in Washington, DC, United States, on March 26, 1979, following the Camp David Accords (1978). ... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel and the United...

People

Ahmad Ismail Ali (Arabic: أحمد إسماعيل علي) (October 14, 1917 - December 26, 1974) was the Commander-in-Chief of Egypts army and minister of war during the Yom Kippur War. ... Chaim Kidoni Bar-Lev (November 16, 1924 - May 7, 1994) was a Jewish army officer during Israels pre-state and early statehood eras. ... Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (Russian: , Leonid Ilič Brežnev) December 19, 1906 [O.S. December 19, 1906] – November 10, 1982) was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (and thus de facto ruler of the USSR) from 1964 to 1982, serving in that position longer than anyone... Moshe Dayan (‎, born 20 May 1915, died 16 October 1981) was an Israeli military leader and politician. ... Gunnar Jarring (12 October 1907-29 May 2002) was a Swedish turkologist and diplomat. ... Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: - ; Masri: جمال عبد الناصر - also transliterated as Jamal Abd al-Naser, Jamal Abd an-Nasser and other variants; January 15, 1918 – September 28, 1970) was the President of Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970. ... Nikolay Viktorovich Podgorny (Никола́й Ви́кторович Подго́рный) (February 18, 1903–January 12, 1983) was a politician and President of the USSR from 1965 to 1977. ... For other persons named Rabin, see Rabin (disambiguation). ... Abdul Munim Riad was a general and chief-of-staff of the Egyptian Armed Forces. ... There are several men named William Rogers (and similar spellings), among them: William P. Rogers, U.S. Attorney General under Dwight Eisenhower and Secretary of State under Richard Nixon. ... Muhammad Anwar Al-Sadat (محمد أنورالسادات in Arabic) (December 25, 1918 – October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian politician and served as the third President of Egypt from September 28, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ...   (Hebrew: , also known by his diminutive Arik אָרִיק) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c Gard, Mitchell. Myths & Facts Online: The War of Attrition, 1967–1970. Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved on 2007-03-03.
  2. ^ a b Lorch, Netanel. The Arab-Israeli Wars. Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved on 2007-03-03.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Cooper, Tom (2003-09-24). War of Attrition. Air Combat Information Group. Retrieved on 2007-03-07.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Israel: The War of Attrition. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved on 2007-03-03.
  5. ^ Herzog and Gazit, p. 196
  6. ^ Book Review: At Noon The Myth Was Shattered. Egyptian State Information Service. Retrieved on 2007-03-04.
  7. ^ Palestine Facts: What was the War of Attrition during 1969-1970?.
  8. ^ 9 Statement by Secretary of State Rogers- 9 December 1969. Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved on 2007-03-04.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • War of Attrition, 1969–1970, ACIG, retrieved January 2, 2007
  • Jewish Virtual Library
  • The Three Year War, General Mohamed Fawzi

  Results from FactBites:
 
War of Attrition: Information from Answers.com (1607 words)
A war of attrition is a protracted conflict in which one side attempts to wear down its enemy by continuously engaging in battle.
The War of Attrition (Hebrew: מלחמת ההתשה)(Arabic: حرب الاستنزاف‎) was a limited war fought between Egypt and Israel from 1968 to 1970.
The war began in June 1968 with sparse Egyptian artillery bombardment of the Israeli front line on the east bank of the canal.
attrition warfare: Information from Answers.com (452 words)
Attrition warfare is a strategic concept which states that to win a war, one's enemy must be worn down to the point of collapse by continuous losses in personnel and materiel.
In the sense that attrition warfare represents an attempt to grind down an opponent through superior numbers, it represents the opposite of the usual principles of war, where one attempts to achieve decisive victories through maneuver, concentration of force, surprise, and so forth.
The War of Attrition between Egypt and Israel.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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