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Encyclopedia > War of 1812
War of 1812

The Battle of Queenston Heights
Date June 18, 1812February 18, 1815
Location Eastern and Central North America, Gulf Coast, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
Result Treaty of Ghent, status quo ante bellum
Combatants
United States
* and some Native American Allies
British Empire:
United Kingdom
The Canadian Provinces
Eastern Woodland Indians
Commanders
James Madison
Henry Dearborn
Jacob Brown
Winfield Scott
Andrew Jackson
Flag of the United Kingdom George Prevost
Flag of the United Kingdom Isaac Brock
Tecumseh
Strength
United States
Regular Army: 6,686 (at start of war) 35,800 (at wars end)
Rangers: 3,049
Militia: 458,463*
US Navy: (at start of war):
Frigates:6
•Other vessels: 14
Indigenous peoples
British Empire
British Army: 6,034 (at start of war) 48,163 (at wars end)
Provincial Regulars: 10,000
Militia: 4,000
Royal Navy & Royal Marines:
Ships of the Line: 11
Frigates: 34
•Other vessels: 52
Provincial Marine: unknown
Indigenous peoples: 3,500
Casualties
Killed or wounded: 6,765
Disease and other: 17,205
Civilian: presumably 500
Killed or wounded: 4,400
Disease and other: unknown
Civilian: unknown
*Very few militia members left their homes to fight in the war's campaigns

The War of 1812 (known as the American War of 1812 in Britain to distinguish it from the war with Napoleon I of France that occurred in the same year) was fought between the United States of America and the United Kingdom and its colonies, especially Upper Canada (Ontario), Lower Canada (Quebec), Nova Scotia, Bermuda and Newfoundland. Combatants France Italy Naples Duchy of Warsaw Confederation of the Rhine Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Swiss Confederation Austria Prussia Russia Commanders Napoleon Eugène de Beauharnais Jérôme Bonaparte Jacques MacDonald Prince Schwarzenberg Józef Poniatowski Alexander I of Russia Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly Pyotr Bagration Mikhail Kutuzov Strength... Image File history File links Push_on,_brave_York_volunteers. ... Combatants Britain United States Commanders Isaac Brock † Roger Sheaffe Stephen Van Rensselaer Strength 1,300 regulars, militia, and natives 6,000 regulars and militia Casualties 14 dead 77 wounded 100 dead 300 wounded 925 captured The Battle of Queenston Heights was a British victory of the War of 1812 which... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Signing of the Treaty of Ghent. ... The term status quo ante bellum comes from Latin meaning literally, as things were before the war. ... Image File history File links US_flag_15_stars. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... When the United States and Great Britain went to war against each other in 1812, the major land theatre of war was Canada, which was then divided for administrative purposes into Upper Canada (broadly the present day province of Ontario), Lower Canada (roughly present day Quebec) and the Atlantic Provinces... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (900x540, 228 KB) [edit] Sumari Bandera Eastern Shawnee —Walden69 16:24, 5 February 2006 (UTC) [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Shawnee Gallery of flags... The Eastern Woodlands was a cultural area of the indigenous peoples of North America. ... Image File history File links US_flag_15_stars. ... James Madison (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836), was an American politician and the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817), and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. ... Image File history File links US_flag_15_stars. ... Henry Dearborn (February 23, 1751 – June 6, 1829) was an American physician, statesman and veteran of both the American Revolutionary War and the War of 1812. ... Image File history File links US_flag_15_stars. ... Jacob Jennings Brown (May 9, 1775-February 24, 1828) was an American army officer in the War of 1812. ... Image File history File links US_flag_15_stars. ... For other uses of Winfield Scott, see Winfield Scott (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links US_flag_15_stars. ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... George Prevost Sir George Prévost (Hackensack May 19, 1767 – January 5, 1816 London) was a British soldier and colonial administrator. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... This article refers to the British general. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (900x540, 228 KB) [edit] Sumari Bandera Eastern Shawnee —Walden69 16:24, 5 February 2006 (UTC) [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Shawnee Gallery of flags... For other uses, see Tecumseh (disambiguation). ... The six original United States frigates were authorized by Congress with the Naval Act of 1794 on March 27, 1794 at a then-cost of $688,888. ... Ships of the line were 1st, 2nd, or 3rd-rated ships in the rating system of the Royal Navy. ... Sailing frigates were 4th, 5th, or 6th-rated ships in the rating system of the Royal Navy. ... When the United States and Great Britain went to war against each other in 1812, the major land theatre of war was Canada, which was then divided for administrative purposes into Upper Canada (broadly the present day province of Ontario), Lower Canada (roughly present day Quebec) and the Atlantic Provinces... Combatants Britain United States Commanders Strength Casualties The First Battle of Sacketts Harbor was fought on July 19, 1812 between the United States and Great Britain. ... In this relatively short and fast battle a very small garrison of British troops and Canadian volunteers, with the assistance of Kahnawake Mohawk warriors, defended a blockhouse of Lacolle Mills near the village of Champlain. ... Combatants Britain United States Commanders James Lucas Yeo Isaac Chauncey Strength 1 first rate ship of the line 2 frigates 6 sloops and brigs 4 schooners and gunboats 2 frigates 6 sloops and brigs 12 schooners and gunboats Casualties 1 sloop destroyed 2 brigs destroyed 1 brig captured 5 schooners... Combatants Great Britain United States Commanders George MacDonnell Benjamin Forsyth Strength 520 about 250 Casualties 55 90 The Battle of Ogdensburg was a battle of the War of 1812. ... The Battle of York was a battle of the War of 1812 on April 27, 1813, at York, Upper Canada, which was later to become Toronto, Ontario. ... The Battle of Sacketts Harbor was fought in northwestern New York on May 29, 1813 during the War of 1812. ... Combatants United Kingdom United States Commanders Charles de Salaberry Wade Hampton Strength 400 French Canadian militia 170 natives 4,000 regulars Casualties 2 killed 15 wounded 3 captured 2 deserted 23 dead 33 wounded 29 missing The Battle of the Chateauguay was a battle of the War of 1812. ... Combatants Britain United States Commanders William Mulcaster Joseph Morrison James Wilkinson John P. Boyd Strength 800 regulars and militia 8,000 regulars and militia (2500 present) Casualties 22 dead 148 wounded 102 dead 237 wounded 150 missing The Battle of Cryslers Farm was a battle of the War of... In this battle, Major-General James Wilkonson planned another invasion of Canada to make up his huge loss to the British in the Battle of Cryslers Farm. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Battle of Big Sandy was fought in northwestern New York on May 29 –30, 1814 during the War of 1812. ... Combatants Britain United States Commanders George Prevost George Downie † Thomas Macdonough Alexander Macomb Strength 11,000 1,500 regulars 1,900 milita Casualties 300 200 {{{notes}}} The Battle of Plattsburgh also known as the Battle of Lake Champlain ended the final invasion of the Northern states during the War of... The Niagara campaign was the final campaign to invade Canada during the War of 1812. ... Combatants Britain United States Commanders Isaac Brock † Roger Sheaffe Stephen Van Rensselaer Strength 1,300 regulars, militia, and natives 6,000 regulars and militia Casualties 14 dead 77 wounded 100 dead 300 wounded 925 captured The Battle of Queenston Heights was a British victory of the War of 1812 which... The Battle of Fort George was a battle fought during the War of 1812, in which the Americans captured the British fort on western Lake Ontario. ... Combatants United Kingdom United States Commanders John Vincent John Chandler, William Winder Strength 700 3,400 Casualties 22 dead, 134 wounded 55 dead or wounded, 113 captured The Battle of Stoney Creek was fought on June 6, 1813, during the War of 1812 near Stoney Creek, Ontario. ... Combatants Britain United States Commanders James FitzGibbon Charles G. Boerstler Strength 50 regulars 400 natives 575 regulars Casualties 25 killed and wounded 80 dead or wounded 462 captured The Battle of Beaver Dams was a small battle on June 24, 1813, during the War of 1812. ... After the successful bayonet charge of the British the Fort of Niagara was quickly captured and along with it a large number of American prisoners. ... A new invasion of Canada was planned under the command of General Jacob Brown, aimed at the Niagara Peninsula. ... The Battle of Chippawa (sometimes spelled Chippewa) was a decisive victory for the American army which allowed for the invasion of Canada along the Niagara River. ... Combatants Britain United States Commanders Gordon Drummond Phineas Riall Jacob Brown Winfield Scott Strength At start: 2,200, 5 guns Reinforcements: 1,800, 3 guns At start: 2,000, 3 guns Reinforcements: 1,000, 6 guns Casualties 84 dead 559 wounded 193 missing 42 captured 171 dead 572 wounded 110... The Battle of Cooks Mills was the last engagement between U.S. and British/Canadian armies fought on Canadian soil during the War of 1812. ... Combatants Britain United States Commanders Gordon Drummond Edmund P. Gaines Jacob Brown Strength 2,200 3,000 Casualties 966 dead, wounded, or captured 540 missing 630 dead or wounded The Siege of Fort Erie was one of the last engagements between British and American forces during the Niagara campaign of... Combatants Tecumsehs confederacy United States Commanders Tenskwatawa William Henry Harrison Strength 550-700 1,000 regulars and militia Casualties 50+ killed 70+ wounded 62 killed 126 wounded The Battle of Tippecanoe was fought in 1811 between United States forces led by Governor William Henry Harrison of the Indiana Territory... Combatants Britain Native Americans United States Commanders Captain Charles Roberts Lieutenant Porter Hanks Strength about 600 61 Casualties 0 61 surrendered The Battle of Mackinac Island (1812) was a British victory in the War of 1812. ... The Battle of Brownstown was an early skirmish in the War of 1812. ... Combatants Britain United States Commanders Adam Muir James Miller Strength 75 regulars, 70 natives, 60 militia 600 regulars Casualties 6 killed, 21 wounded, 2 surrendered 18 killed, 64 wounded Detroit frontier Tippecanoe – 1st Mackinac Island – Brownstown - Maguaga – Fort Dearborn – Detroit – Fort Harrison – Fort Wayne – Mississinewa – Frenchtown – Fort Meigs – Fort Stephenson... Combatants Potawatomi United Kingdom United States Commanders Chief Blackbird Nathan Heald Strength 500+ 69 military + civilians Casualties 15 39 military + 27 civilians The Fort Dearborn massacre occurred on August 15, 1812 near Fort Dearborn in the United States during the War of 1812. ... Combatants United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Native Americans United States Commanders Isaac Brock Tecumseh William Hull # Strength 600 natives, 330 regulars, 300 militia, 2,500 Casualties 2 wounded 7 killed, 2,493 captured Detroit frontier Tippecanoe – 1st Mackinac Island – Brownstown - Maguaga – Fort Dearborn – Detroit – Fort Harrison – Fort Wayne... The Battle of Fort Harrison was a decisive victory for the United States against an Indian force which greatly outnumbered their own. ... The Siege of Fort Wayne took place during the War of 1812, between American and Indian forces in the wake of the successful British campaigns of 1812. ... The Battle of the Mississinewa also known as the Battle of Mississineway was an expedition ordered by William Henry Harrison against Miami villages in response to the attacks on Fort Wayne. ... Combatants Britain, American Indians United States Commanders Henry Procter, Tecumseh James Winchester Strength 450 natives, 200 regulars, 300 militia, 1,000 regulars and militia Casualties 24 dead, 158 wounded 397 dead, 561 wounded or captured Detroit frontier Tippecanoe – 1st Mackinac Island – Brownstown - Maguaga – Fort Dearborn – Detroit – Fort Harrison – Fort Wayne... The Siege of Fort Meigs took place during the War of 1812 in northwestern Ohio. ... The Battle of Fort Stephenson was an American victory during the War of 1812. ... Combatants United Kingdom United States Commanders Robert Heriot Barclay Oliver Hazard Perry Jesse Elliot Strength 2 ships 2 brigs 1 schooner 1 sloop 3 brigs 5 schooners 1 sloop Casualties 41 dead 93 wounded prisoners 306 surrendered Entire squadron captured 27 dead 96 wounded One brig heavily damaged The Battle... Combatants British Empire Indian Confederation United States Commanders Henry Procter Tecumseh † William Henry Harrison Strength 800 regulars 500 natives1 2,380 militia 1,000 cavalry 120 regulars 260 natives1 Casualties 155 British dead or wounded 477 captured 33 natives dead 15 dead 30 wounded The Battle of the Thames, also... Combatants Britain First nations United States Commanders James Lewis Basden Andrew Holmes Strength 300 180 Casualties 14 dead, 52 wounded, 1 missing 4 dead, 3 wounded The Battle of Longwoods was a battle of the War of 1812 on March 4, 1814, fought near present-day Wardsville, Ontario. ... Combatants British Empire Native Americans United States Commanders William McKay Joseph Perkins Strength about 650 about 100 Casualties 0 dead, few wounded 5 wounded The Battle of Prairie du Chien was a British victory in the far western theater of the War of 1812. ... Combatants British Empire United States Commanders Robert McDouall George Croghan Andrew Holmes† Strength about 300 700 Casualties 1 dead, 1 wounded 13 dead, 51 wounded The Battle of Fort Mackinac was a British victory in the War of 1812. ... Combatants Great Britain United States Commanders Miller Worsley Arthur Sinclair George Croghan Casualties 3 killed 9 wounded 1 schooner destroyed 6 killed 6 wounded 2 gunboats captured The Engagement on Lake Huron was actually a series of minor engagements, which left the British in control of the Lake, and thus... The Battle of Malcolms Mills was a brief skirmish during the War of 1812, in which a force of American cavalry overran and scattered a force of Canadian militia. ... Battle of Craney Island - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Combatants Britain United States Commanders George Cockburn Derry Benson Strength Casualties 29 None {{{notes}}} The Battle of St. ... The Battle of Bladensburg was a battle fought during the War of 1812. ... Combatants Great Britain United States Commanders Robert Ross George Cockburn Unknown Strength 4,250 Unknown The Burning of Washington is the name given to the burning of Washington, D.C., by British forces in 1814, during the War of 1812. ... Combatants Great Britain United States Commanders James Alexander Gordon John Rodgers Strength 6 warships unknown Casualties 7 killed 35 wounded unknown The Raid on Alexandria was a British victory during the War of 1812, which gained much plunder at little cost but may have contributed to the later British repulse... Combatants Britain United States Commanders Sir Peter Parker Philip Reed Casualties 29 None The Battle of Caulk’s Field occurred during the War of 1812. ... Combatants Britain United States Commanders Robert Ross† Arthur Brooke Samuel Smith John Stricker Strength 4,500 3,000 Casualties 46 killed 273 wounded 163 killed and wounded over 200 captured The Battle of North Point was fought on September 12, 1814. ... Combatants Great Britain United States of America Commanders Robert Ross† Alexander Cochrane Arthur Brooke Samuel Smith John Stricker George Armistead Strength 5,000 2,000 (Baltimore defenses) 1,000 (Fort McHenry garrison) Casualties 46 dead, 300 wounded 310 killed or wounded In the Battle of Baltimore, one of the turning... Combatants United States Lower Creeks Cherokees Red Sticks (Creek Indians) Commanders Andrew Jackson John Coffee William McIntosh William Weatherford Menawa Peter McQueen Strength 7,000 4,000 Casualties 500 Settlers 125 Soldiers 1,900 The Creek War (1813–1814), also known as the Red Stick War and the Creek Civil... Combatants Britain Spain Creek allies United States Commanders Mateo González Manrique Edward Nicholls Andrew Jackson Strength 500 4,000 Casualties Negligible 15 The Battle of Pensacola was a battle in the War of 1812 in which American forces fought against the British, Spanish and Indians allied with the British. ... Combatants United Kingdom United States Commanders Sir Alexander Cochrane Sir Edward M. Pakenham† John Keane John Lambert Andrew Jackson William Carroll John Coffee Strength 8,000 men 3,500-4,000 men Casualties 385 killed 1,186 wounded 484 captured 13 killed 58 wounded 30 captured The Battle of New... Combatants United Kingdom United States Commanders John Lambert William Lawrence Strength 1,000+ Around 370 Casualties 25 Killed or Wounded Around 370 Captured The Battle of Fort Bowyer was the last engagement between British and American forces in the War of 1812. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Flag Map of Upper Canada (orange) Capital Newark 1792 - 1797 York(later renamed Toronto in 1834) 1797 - 1841 Language(s) English Religion Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Sovereign  - 1791-1820 George III  - 1837-1841 Victoria Lieutenant-Governor See list of Lieutenant-Governors Legislature Parliament of Upper Canada  - Upper house Legislative Council... Map of Lower Canada (green) Lower Canada was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (1791-1841). ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... Newfoundland may refer to: Newfoundland and Labrador, a Canadian province (known simply as Newfoundland until 2001) Dominion of Newfoundland, an independent country (from 1907 to 1934) Colony of Newfoundland, a British colony prior to 1907 Newfoundland (island), a Canadian island that forms part of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador...


The war was fought from 1812 to 1814 on both land and sea. By the end of the war, 1,600 British and 2,260 American troops had died.[1]


Great Britain was at war with France and,[2] to impede American trade with France, imposed a series of restrictions that the U.S. contested as illegal under international law.[3] The Americans declared war on Britain on June 18, 1812 for a combination of reasons, including: outrage at the impressment (conscription) of thousands of American sailors into the British navy; frustration at British restraints on neutral trade; anger at alleged British military support for American Indians defending their tribal lands from encroaching American settlers;[4] and a desire for territorial expansion of the Republic. is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... Look up Impressment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Sioux in traditional dress including war bonnet, about 1908 Native Americans â€“ also Indians, American Indians, First Nations, First Peoples, Indigenous Peoples of America, Aboriginal Peoples, Aboriginal Americans, Amerindians, Amerind, Native Canadians (or of other nations) â€“ are those peoples indigenous to the Americas, living there prior to European colonization and...

Contents

Overview

The war started badly for the Americans as their attempts to invade Canada were repeatedly repulsed by General Isaac Brock, commanding a small force composed largely of local militias and American Indian allies. The American strategy depended on use of militias, but they either resisted service or were incompetently led. Financial and logistical problems also plagued the American war effort. Military and civilian leadership was lacking and remained a critical American weakness until 1814. Importantly, New England opposed the war and refused to provide troops or financing.[citation needed] This article refers to the British general. ... Lebanese Kataeb militia A Militia is an army composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency or paramilitary service, or those engaged in such activity. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ...


Britain possessed excellent finance and logistics, but the ongoing war with France had a higher priority, so in 1812-1813, it adopted a defensive strategy. After the final defeat of Napoleon in 1814, the British were able to send veteran armies to invade the U.S., but by then the Americans had learned how to mobilize and fight as well.[citation needed] For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ...


At sea, the powerful Royal Navy blockaded much of the American coastline (though allowing substantial exports from New England, which was trading with Britain and Canada in defiance of American laws). The blockade devastated American agricultural exports, but helped stimulate local factories that replaced goods previously imported. This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ...


The American strategy of using small gunboats to defend ports was a fiasco, as the British raided the coast at will. The most famous episode was a series of British raids on the shores of Chesapeake Bay, including an attack on Washington D.C. itself that resulted in the burning of the White House, the Capitol, the navy yard and other public buildings, later called the "Burning of Washington". The Americans were more successful sending out several hundred privateers to attack British merchant ships; British commercial interests were damaged, especially in the West Indies. Although few in number compared to the Royal Navy, the American Navy's more powerful frigates prevailed in several one-on-one naval battles against British ships. The Chesapeake Bay - Landsat photo The Chesapeake Bay where the Susquehanna River empties into it. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... The United States Capitol is the capitol building that serves as the location for the United States Congress, the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government. ... Combatants Great Britain United States Commanders Robert Ross George Cockburn Unknown Strength 4,250 Unknown The Burning of Washington is the name given to the burning of Washington, D.C., by British forces in 1814, during the War of 1812. ... For other uses, see Privateer (disambiguation). ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ...


The decisive use of naval power came on the Great Lakes and depended on a contest of building ships. In 1813, the Americans won control of Lake Erie and thus cut off the British and native forces to the west from their supplies. The British ultimately held Lake Ontario, preventing any major American invasion. The Americans controlled Lake Champlain, and a naval victory there forced a large invading British army to turn back in 1814. The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... Landsat photo Lake Champlain (French: lac Champlain) is a large lake in North America, mostly within the borders of the United States (states of Vermont and New York) but partially situated across the US-Canada border in the province of Quebec. ...


The Americans destroyed the power of the native peoples of the northwest and southeast, thus securing a major war goal. The trade restrictions and impressment by the British ended with the defeat of France, removing another root cause of the war. Both nations eventually agreed to a peace that left the prewar boundaries intact.


In January 1815 after the Treaty of Ghent was signed the US Congress received a copy to ratify, the Americans succeeded in defending New Orleans, and the British captured Fort Bowyer before news of the treaty reached the combatants on the south coast. Signing of the Treaty of Ghent. ... Combatants United Kingdom United States Commanders Sir Alexander Cochrane Sir Edward M. Pakenham† John Keane John Lambert Andrew Jackson William Carroll John Coffee Strength 8,000 men 3,500-4,000 men Casualties 385 killed 1,186 wounded 484 captured 13 killed 58 wounded 30 captured The Battle of New... Combatants United Kingdom United States Commanders John Lambert William Lawrence Strength 1,000+ Around 370 Casualties 25 Killed or Wounded Around 370 Captured The Battle of Fort Bowyer was the last engagement between British and American forces in the War of 1812. ...


The war had the effect of both uniting Canadians and also uniting Americans far more closely than either population had been prior to the war. Canadians remember the war as a victory by avoiding conquest, while Americans celebrated victory personified in the hero of New Orleans, Andrew Jackson. New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ...


Causes of the war

On June 1, America declared war on Britain for a number of reasons: outrage at the impressment (seizure) of thousands of American sailors, frustration at British restrictions on neutral trade while Britain warred with France, and anger at British military support for tribes in the Ohio-Indiana-Michigan area. One faction in Congress desired the conquest of Canada while the British were occupied in their war with France, in the belief that if they were sufficiently weakened, Canada would be easily overcome.[5] This group was a minority, but another faction opposing impressment of seamen contributed sufficient votes to pass a bill declaring war by the smallest margin that had ever been recorded on a war vote in the United States Congress.[6] On May 11, Prime Minister Spencer Perceval was shot and killed by an assassin resulting in a change of the UK government putting Lord Liverpool in power. Liverpool was for a more practical relation with the United States. A repeal of the impressment orders were issued but the US was unaware as it took three weeks for the news to cross the Atlantic.[6] After war was declared, Britain offered to rescind the trade restrictions, but it was too late to appease the American "War Hawks", who portrayed the conflict as a "second war for independence."[citation needed] In addition to the stated reasons for going to war, a major goal of the War Hawks in the western and southern states was aggressive territorial expansion. The intent was to drive the British out of North America, and the Spanish out of Florida.[7] Origins of the War of 1812 outlines the causes of the War of 1812. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Spencer Perceval (1 November 1762 – 11 May 1812) was a British statesman and Prime Minister. ... The son of George IIIs close adviser Charles Jenkinson, 1st Earl of Liverpool and his part-Indian first wife, Amelia Watts, Robert Jenkinson was educated at Charterhouse School and Christ Church, Oxford. ... War Hawk is a term originally used to describe a member of the House of Representatives of the Twelfth Congress of the United States (usually from the south & southwest) who advocated going to war against Great Britain in the War of 1812. ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ...


Course of the war

Although the outbreak of the war had been preceded by years of angry diplomatic dispute, neither side was ready for war when it came.


The UK was still hard pressed by the Napoleonic Wars; most of the British Army was engaged in the Peninsular War (in Spain), and the Royal Navy was compelled to blockade most of the coast of Europe. The total number of British regular troops present in Canada in July 1812 was officially stated to be 6,034, supported by Canadian militia. Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... For the 1862 American Civil War campaign, see Peninsula Campaign. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Throughout the war, the British Secretary of State for War and the Colonies was the Earl of Bathurst. For the first two years of the war, he could spare few troops to reinforce North America and urged the Commander-in-Chief in North America (Lieutenant General Sir George Prevost) to maintain a defensive strategy. The naturally cautious Prevost followed these instructions, concentrating on defending Quebec and Lower Canada. In the final year of the War, large numbers of British soldiers became available after the abdication of Napoleon Bonaparte. Prevost launched an offensive of his own into Upper New York State, but is considered to have mishandled it, and was forced to retreat after the British lost the Battle of Plattsburg. The Secretary of State for War and the Colonies was a British cabinet level position responsible for the army and the British colonies (other than India). ... Henry Bathurst, 3rd Earl Bathurst (22 May 1762 - 27 July 1834), the elder son of the second earl. ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... George Prevost Sir George Prévost (Hackensack May 19, 1767 – January 5, 1816 London) was a British soldier and colonial administrator. ... Nickname: Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Province Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date 1833 Government... Map of Lower Canada (green) Lower Canada was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (1791-1841). ... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... The Battle of Plattsburgh also known as the Battle of Lake Champlain ended the final invasion of the Northern states during the War of 1812. ...


Despite years of warlike talk, the United States was unready to prosecute a war, for President Madison assumed that the state militias would easily seize Canada and negotiations would then follow. In 1812, the regular army consisted of fewer than 12,000 men. Congress authorized the expansion of the army to 35,000 men, but the service was voluntary, low paid and unpopular and there were initially very few trained and experienced officers.


The militia—called in to aid the regulars—objected to serving outside their home states, were not amenable to discipline, and as a rule, performed poorly in the presence of the enemy when outside of their home state. The U.S. had great difficulty financing its war, especially since it had disbanded its national bank and private bankers in the Northeast were opposed to the war.


The early disasters brought about largely by American unpreparedness and lack of leadership drove United States Secretary of War William Eustis from office. His successor, John Armstrong, Jr., attempted a coordinated strategy late in 1813 aimed at the capture of Montreal, but was thwarted by logistics, uncooperative and quarrelsome commanders, and ill-trained troops. The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... William Eustis (June 10, 1753–February 6, 1825) was an early American statesman. ... John Armstrong, Jr. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ...


By 1814, the United States Army's morale and leadership had greatly improved, but the embarrassing Burning of Washington led to Armstrong's dismissal from office in turn. The war ended before the new Secretary of War James Monroe could develop any new strategy. The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... Combatants Great Britain United States Commanders Robert Ross George Cockburn Unknown Strength 4,250 Unknown The Burning of Washington is the name given to the burning of Washington, D.C., by British forces in 1814, during the War of 1812. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... For other persons named James Monroe, see James Monroe (disambiguation). ...

An artist's rendering of the battle at Fort McHenry, where Francis Scott Key was inspired to write "The Star Spangled Banner".

American prosecution of the war also suffered from its unpopularity, especially in New England, where anti-war spokesmen were vocal. The failure of New England to provide militia units or financial support was a serious blow. Threats of secession by New England states were loud; Britain immediately exploited these divisions, blockading only southern ports for much of the war and encouraging smuggling. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1004x735, 158 KB) The caption reads A VIEW of the BOMBARDMENT of Fort McHenry, near Baltimore, by the British fleet taken from the Observatory under the Command of Admirals Cochrane & Cockburn on the morning of the 13th of Sept 1814 which... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1004x735, 158 KB) The caption reads A VIEW of the BOMBARDMENT of Fort McHenry, near Baltimore, by the British fleet taken from the Observatory under the Command of Admirals Cochrane & Cockburn on the morning of the 13th of Sept 1814 which... Fort McHenry Fort McHenry, in Baltimore, Maryland, is a star shaped fort best known for its role in the War of 1812, when it successfully defended Baltimore Harbor from an attack by the British navy in Chesapeake Bay. ... Francis Scott Key Maryland Historical Society plaque marking the birthplace of Francis Scott Key Fort McHenry looking towards the position of the British ships (with the Francis Scott Key Bridge in the distance on the upper left) Francis Scott Key (August 1, 1779 – January 11, 1843) was an American lawyer... Nicholson took the copy Key gave him to a printer, where it was published as a broadside on September 17 under the title The Defence of Fort McHenry, with an explanatory note explaining the circumstances of its writing. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ...


The war was conducted in three theatres of operations:

  1. The Atlantic Ocean
  2. The Great Lakes and the Canadian frontier
  3. The Southern States

The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ...

Atlantic theatre

USS Constitution defeats HMS Guerriere; a significant event during the war
USS Constitution defeats HMS Guerriere; a significant event during the war

Britain had long been the world's pre-eminent naval power, confirmed by its epic victory over the French and the Spanish at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. In 1812, the Royal Navy had eighty-five vessels in American waters.[8] By contrast, the United States Navy, which was not yet twenty years old, was a frigate navy that had only twenty-two commissioned vessels, though a number of the American frigates were exceptionally large and powerful for their class. Whereas the standard British frigate of the time mounted 38 guns, with their main battery consisting of 18-pounder guns, the USS Constitution, USS President and USS United States were theoretically 44-gun ships and capable of carrying 52, 55 and 56 guns respectively, with a main battery of 24-pounders.[citation needed] Painting of combat between USS Constitution and HMS Guerriere by Michel Felice Corne, collected from [1] and cropped File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Painting of combat between USS Constitution and HMS Guerriere by Michel Felice Corne, collected from [1] and cropped File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... “ Old Ironsides ” redirects here. ... HMS Guerriere was a British 3-masted sail frigate of 38 guns captured from the French, and commanded by Captain Tom Dacres when she met the Constitution in her last battle on 19 August 1812. ... Combatants United Kingdom First French Empire Kingdom of Spain Commanders Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson † Pierre Charles Silvestre de Villeneuve Strength 27 ships of the line and 6 others. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... USN redirects here. ... Frigate Navy is a term describing a nation states navy that is made of mostly frigates or destroyers as a major combat force. ... Sailing frigates were 4th, 5th, or 6th-rated ships in the rating system of the Royal Navy. ... “ Old Ironsides ” redirects here. ... Two ships of the United States Navy have been named USS President, after the office of the President of the United States. ... Four ships of the United States Navy have bore the name USS United States in honor of that nation, but only one of them was launched, and it became part of the Confederate Navy. ... Remains of a battery of English cannon from Youghal, County Cork. ...


The strategy of the British was to protect their own merchant shipping to and from Halifax and Canada, and to enforce a blockade of major American ports to restrict American trade. Because of their numerical inferiority, the Americans aimed to cause disruption through hit-and-run tactics, such as the capture of prizes and engaging Royal Navy vessels under only favorable circumstances. The City of Halifax (1841-1996) was the capital of the province of Nova Scotia, and the largest city in Atlantic Canada. ... Prize is a term used in admiralty law to refer to equipment, vehicles, and vessels captured as a result of armed conflict. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ...


The Americans experienced early successes at sea. Days after the formal declaration of war, two small squadrons sailed, including the frigate USS President and the sloop USS Hornet under Commodore John Rodgers (who had general command), and the frigates USS United States and USS Congress, with the brig USS Argus under Captain Stephen Decatur. The first USS President of the United States Navy was a 44-gun sailing frigate built by Christian Bergh, East River, New York. ... The third USS Hornet was a brig-rigged sloop of war was launched on 28 July 1805 in Baltimore and commissioned on 18 October. ... John Rodgers (11 July 1772 - 1 August 1838), American naval officer, was born near present Havre de Grace, Maryland. ... USS United States was the first frigate in the United States Navy in 1797. ... The third USS Congress of the United States Navy was a 36-gun sailing frigate. ... The first USS Argus was a brig in the United States Navy during the First Barbary War and the War of 1812. ... Commodore Stephen Decatur, Jr (5 January 1779 – 22 March 1820) was an American naval officer notable for his heroism in the Barbary Wars and in the War of 1812. ...


Meanwhile, USS Constitution, commanded by Captain Isaac Hull, sailed from Chesapeake Bay on July 12. On July 17, a British squadron gave chase. Constitution evaded her pursuers after two days. After briefly calling at Boston to replenish water, on August 19 Constitution engaged the British frigate HMS Guerriere. After a thirty five-minute battle, Guerriere had been dismasted and captured and was later burned. Hull returned to Boston with news of this significant victory.[9] “ Old Ironsides ” redirects here. ... Isaac Hull (March 9, 1773 – February 13, 1843), was a Commodore, in the United States Navy. ... The Chesapeake Bay - Landsat photo The Chesapeake Bay where the Susquehanna River empties into it. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... HMS Guerriere was a British 3-masted sail frigate of 38 (the captain was a homosexual)guns captured from the French, and commanded by Captain Tom Dacres when she met the Constitution in her last battle on 19 August 1812. ...


On October 25, the USS United States, commanded by Captain Decatur, captured the British frigate HMS Macedonian, which he then carried back to port.[10] At the close of the month, Constitution sailed south under the command of Captain William Bainbridge. On December 29, off Bahia, Brazil, she met the British frigate HMS Java. After a battle lasting three hours, Java struck her colours and was burned after being judged unsalvageable.[11] is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... HMS Macedonian was a 38-gun sailing frigate in the Royal Navy, later captured by the United States during the War of 1812. ... William Bainbridge (1774-1833). ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Capital (and largest city) Salvador Demonym Baiano Government  -  Governor Jacques Wagner  -  Vice Governor Edmundo Pereira Santos Area  -  Total 564. ... The French-built frigate Renommée was taken by the British near Madagascar and renamed HMS Java. ... Striking the colors was and is the universally recognized indication of surrender. ...


In January 1813, the American frigate USS Essex, under the command of Captain David Porter, sailed into the Pacific in an attempt to harass British shipping. Many British whaling ships carried letters of marque allowing them to prey on American whalers, nearly destroying the industry. Essex challenged this practice. She inflicted considerable damage on British interests before she was captured off Valparaiso, Chile, by the British frigate HMS Phoebe and the sloop HMS Cherub on March 28, 1814.[12] The first USS Essex of the United States Navy was a sailing frigate that participated in the Quasi-War with France and in the War of 1812, wherein she was captured by the British (1814). ... David Porter (February 1, 1780 – March 3, 1843) was an officer in the United States Navy and later the commander-in-chief of the Mexican Navy. ... A letter of marque and reprisal was an official warrant or commission from a national government authorizing the designated agent to search, seize, or destroy specified assets or personnel belonging to a party which had committed some offense under the laws of nations against the assets or citizens of the... HMS Phoebe was a 36-gun fifth-rate frigate of the British Royal Navy. ... HMS Cherub was an 18-gun Royal Navy sloop-of-war built in Dover in 1806. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In all of these actions—except the one in which Essex was taken—the Americans had the advantage of greater size and heavier guns. However, the United States Navy's sloops and brigs also won several victories over Royal Navy vessels of approximately equal strength. While the American ships had experienced and well-drilled volunteer crews, the cream of the over-stretched Royal Navy was serving elsewhere, and constant sea duties of those serving in North America interfered with their training and exercises.[13]


The capture of the three British frigates stimulated the British to greater exertions. More vessels were deployed on the American seaboard and the blockade tightened. On June 1, 1813, off Boston Harbor, the frigate USS Chesapeake, commanded by Captain James Lawrence, was captured by the British frigate HMS Shannon under Captain Sir Philip Broke. Lawrence was mortally wounded and famously cried out, "Don't give up the ship!".[14] is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Categories: Stub | Massachusetts geography | Boston ... The USS Chesapeake was a 36-gun sailing frigate of the United States Navy during the Quasi-War with France and the War of 1812. ... Captain James Lawrence, USN James Lawrence (October 1, 1781 – June 4, 1813) was an American naval hero. ... The HMS Shannon was a Royal Navy 38 gun frigate of the Leda class, launched in 1806. ... Sir Philip Bowes de Vere Broke Sir Philip Bowes de Vere Broke was a distinguished officer in the British Royal Navy. ...


Blockade

The blockade of American ports had tightened to the extent that most American merchant ships and naval vessels were confined to port. The American frigates USS United States and USS Macedonian ended the war blockaded and hulked in New London, Connecticut. Some merchant ships were based in Europe or Asia and continued operations. Others, mainly from New England, were issued licenses to trade by Admiral Sir John Borlase Warren, Commander in Chief on the American station in 1813. This allowed Wellington's army in Spain to be supplied with American goods, as well as maintaining the New Englanders' opposition to the war. Because of the utilization of heavy squadrons and the blockade, the Royal Navy was able to transport British Army troops to American shores, paving the way for their attack on Washington D.C., which became known as the burning of Washington in 1814. A hulk is a ship that is afloat, but incapable of going to sea. ... Nickname: Motto: MARE LIBERUM Coordinates: , NECTA Norwich-New London Region Southeastern Connecticut Settled 1646 (Pequot Plantation) Named 1658 (New London) Incorporated (city) 1784 Government  - Type Council-manager  - City council Margaret Mary Curtin, Mayor Kevin J. Cavanagh, Dep. ... Sir John Borlase Warren (1753-1822), English admiral, was born at Stapleford, Nottinghamshire, on the 2nd of September 1753, being the son and heir of John Boriase Warren (d. ... Combatants Great Britain United States Commanders Robert Ross George Cockburn Unknown Strength 4,250 Unknown The Burning of Washington is the name given to the burning of Washington, D.C., by British forces in 1814, during the War of 1812. ...


Following their earlier losses, the British Admiralty had instituted a new policy that the three American heavy frigates should not be engaged except by a ship-of-the-line or smaller vessels in squadron strength. An example of this was the Capture of USS President by a squadron of four British frigates in January 1815 (although the action was fought on the British side mainly by HMS Endymion).[15][16] The Capture of USS President was a naval action fought at the end of the Anglo-American War of 1812. ... This article is about the british frigate Endymion, launched in 1797. ...


The operations of American privateers, some of which belonged to the United States Navy but most of which were private ventures, were extensive. They continued until the close of the war and were only partially affected by the strict enforcement of convoy by the Royal Navy. An example of the audacity of the American cruisers was the depredations in British home waters carried out by the American sloop USS Argus, which was eventually captured off St David's Head in Wales by the British brig HMS Pelican, on August 14, 1813. A total of 1,554 vessels were claimed captured by all American naval and privateering vessels, 1300 of which were captured by privateers.[17][18] However, according to the insurer Lloyd’s the true number was only 1,175 British ships counted as taken by the Americans during the war, less 373 recaptured for a total loss of 802.[19] For other uses, see Convoy (disambiguation). ... The first USS Argus was a brig in the United States Navy during the First Barbary War and the War of 1812. ... St Davids (Welsh: Tyddewi) is the smallest city in the United Kingdom, with a population of under 2,000 people. ... This article is about the country. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Halifax was the Royal Navy base that supervised the blockade and it profited greatly during the war. British privateers based there seized many French and American ships, selling their prizes in Halifax, Nova Scotia. One such ship that was seized was that of Commander Alexander Edelman, an American naval officer. He was in command of a small ship carrying supplies to American forces in Canada. He bravely ordered his men to defend the ship at all costs, and held off British attackers for several hours before they overwhelmed his exhausted crew. Commander Edelman was killed in the final stage of the attack, but not before taking down several British soldiers with him.[citation needed] The City of Halifax (1841-1996) was the capital of the province of Nova Scotia, and the largest city in Atlantic Canada. ...


The war was likely the last time the British allowed privateering, since the practice was coming to be seen as politically inexpedient and of diminishing value in maintaining its naval supremacy. It was certainly the swansong of Bermuda's privateers, who returned to the practice with a vengeance after American lawsuits had put a stop to it two decades earlier. The nimble Bermuda sloops captured 298 enemy ships (the total captures by all British naval and privateering vessels between the Great Lakes and the West Indies was 1,593 vessels).[citation needed] 1831 painting of a three-masted Bermuda sloop of the Royal Navy, entering a West Indies port. ...


Great Lakes and Canadian theatre

Invasions of Upper and Lower Canada, 1812

Major General Sir Isaac Brock skillfully repulsed an American invasion of Upper Canada, but his death was a severe loss for the British cause.

America's leaders had assumed that Canada could be easily overrun. Former President Jefferson optimistically referred to the conquest of Canada as "a matter of marching." Many Americans had migrated to Upper Canada and it was assumed (by both sides) they would favor the American cause, but they did not. In pre-war Upper Canada General Prevost found himself in the unusual position of purchasing much of the provisions for his troops from the American side, and this peculiar trade persisted throughout the war in spite of an abortive attempt by the American government to curtail it. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article refers to the British general. ... Flag Map of Upper Canada (orange) Capital Newark 1792 - 1797 York(later renamed Toronto in 1834) 1797 - 1841 Language(s) English Religion Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Sovereign  - 1791-1820 George III  - 1837-1841 Victoria Lieutenant-Governor See list of Lieutenant-Governors Legislature Parliament of Upper Canada  - Upper house Legislative Council...


In Lower Canada, much more populous, support for Britain came from the English elite with strong loyalty to the Empire, and from the French elite who feared American conquest would destroy the old order by introducing Protestantism, anglicization, republican democracy, and commercial capitalism.


The French habitants feared the loss to potential American immigrants of a shrinking area of good lands.[20]


In 1812-13 British military experience prevailed over inexperienced American commanders.


Geography dictated that operations would take place in the west principally around Lake Erie, near the Niagara River between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario and near Saint Lawrence River area and Lake Champlain. This was the focus of the three pronged attacks by the Americans in 1812. Lake Erie (pronounced ) is the tenth largest lake on Earth[2] and, of the five Great Lakes of North America, is the fourth largest by surface area, the southernmost, shallowest, and smallest by volume. ... Satellite image of the Niagara River. ... Lake Ontario, bounded on the north by the Canadian province of Ontario and on the south by Ontarios Niagara Peninsula and by New York State, USA, is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. ... a broat veiew of the St LAwrence River, with a Quebec City on a background The Saint Lawrence River (In French: fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large south west-to-north east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... Landsat photo Lake Champlain (French: lac Champlain) is a large lake in North America, mostly within the borders of the United States (states of Vermont and New York) but partially situated across the US-Canada border in the province of Quebec. ...


Although cutting the St. Lawrence River through the capture of Montreal and Quebec would make Britain's hold in North America unsustainable, the United States began operations first in the Western frontier because of the general popularity there of a war with the British, who had sold arms to the American Indians opposing the settlers.


The British scored an important early success when their detachment at St. Joseph Island on Lake Huron learned of the declaration of war before the nearby American garrison at the important trading post at Mackinac Island in Michigan did. A scratch force landed on the island on July 17, 1812, and mounted a gun overlooking Fort Mackinac. The Americans, taken by surprise, surrendered. This early victory encouraged the Indians, and large numbers of them moved to help the British at Amherstburg. St. ... Ipperwash Beach, Lake Huron. ... Mackinac Island (pronounced or MACK-in-aw) is an island covering 3. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... Fort Mackinac painting Fort Mackinac was a military outpost garrisoned from the late 18th century to the late 19th century on Mackinac Island in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Country Canada Province Ontario County Essex Government  - Mayor Wayne Hurst  - Governing body Amherstburg Town Council  - Member of Parliament Jeff Watson (CONS)  - Member of Provincial Parliament Bruce Crozier (LIB) Area  - Town 185. ...


American Brigadier General William Hull invaded Canada on July 12, 1812, from Detroit with an army mainly composed of militiamen. Once on Canadian soil, Hull issued a proclamation ordering all British subjects to surrender, or "the horrors, and calamities of war will stalk before you." He also threatened to kill any British prisoner caught fighting alongside an Indian. The proclamation helped stiffen resistance to the American attacks. Portrait of William Hull William Hull (June 24, 1753–November 29, 1825) was an American soldier and politician. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting...


Despite the threats, Hull's invasion turned into a retreat after receiving news of the British victory at Mackinac and when his supply lines were threatened in the battles of Brownstown and Monguagon. He pulled his 2,500 troops back to Fort Lernoult (commonly referred to as Fort Detroit at the time). The Battle of Brownstown was an early skirmish in the War of 1812. ... Combatants Britain United States Commanders Adam Muir William Hull Strength 75 regulars 70 natives 60 militia 600 regulars Casualties 1 dead 23 wounded 18 dead 63 wounded The Battle of Maguaga (also known as the Battle of Monguagon) was a small battle fought between British troops, Canadian militia and Tecumseh... This article is about the fort commonly referred to as Fort Detroit during the War of 1812. ...


British Major General Isaac Brock advanced on Fort Detroit with 1,200 men. Brock sent a fake correspondence and allowed the letter to be captured by the Americans, saying they required only 5,000 Native warriors to capture Detroit. Hull feared the Indians and their threats of torture and scalping. Believing the British had more troops than they did, Hull surrendered at Detroit without a fight on August 16. This article refers to the British general. ... Native American Big Mouth Spring with decorated scalp lock on right shoulder. ... The Battle of Detroit, also known as the Battle of Fort Detroit or the Surrender of Fort Detroit, was a humiliating loss for the Americans early in the War of 1812. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Brock promptly transferred himself to the eastern end of Lake Erie, where American General Stephen Van Rensselaer was attempting a second invasion. An armistice (arranged by Prevost in the hope the British renunciation of the Orders in Council to which the United States objected might lead to peace) prevented Brock from invading American territory. Stephen Van Rensselaer III (November 1, 1764–January 26, 1839) was an American statesman, soldier, and land-owner, the heir to one of the greatest estates in the New York region at the time. ...


When the armistice ended, the Americans attempted an attack across the Niagara River on October 13, but suffered a crushing defeat at Queenston Heights. Brock was killed during the battle. While the professionalism of the American forces would improve by the war's end, British leadership suffered after Brock's death. Satellite image of the Niagara River. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Britain United States Commanders Isaac Brock † Roger Sheaffe Stephen Van Rensselaer Strength 1,300 regulars, militia, and natives 6,000 regulars and militia Casualties 14 dead 77 wounded 100 dead 300 wounded 925 captured The Battle of Queenston Heights was a British victory of the War of 1812 which...


A final attempt in 1812 by American General Henry Dearborn to advance north from Lake Champlain failed when his militia refused to advance beyond American territory. In contrast to the American militia, the Canadian militia performed well. French-Canadians, who found the anti-Catholic stance of most of the United States troublesome, and United Empire Loyalists, who had fought for the Crown during the American Revolutionary War, strongly opposed the American invasion. Henry Dearborn (February 23, 1751 – June 6, 1829) was an American physician, statesman and veteran of both the American Revolutionary War and the War of 1812. ... Canadiens redirects here. ... The name United Empire Loyalists is given to those American Loyalists who resettled in British North America and other British Colonies as an act of fealty to King George III after the British defeat in the American Revolutionary War. ...


However, a large segment of Upper Canada's population was recent settlers from the United States who had no obvious loyalties to the Crown. Nevertheless, while there were some who sympathized with the invaders[21], the American forces found strong opposition from men loyal to the Empire.


American northwest, 1813

After Hull's surrender, General William Henry Harrison was given command of the American Army of the Northwest. He set out to retake Detroit, which was now defended by Colonel Henry Procter in conjunction with Tecumseh. A detachment of Harrison's army was defeated at Frenchtown along the River Raisin on January 22, 1813. William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841) was an American military leader, politician, and the ninth President of the United States. ... Henry Procter (c. ... For other uses, see Tecumseh (disambiguation). ... Combatants Britain, American Indians United States Commanders Henry Procter, Tecumseh James Winchester Strength 450 natives, 200 regulars, 300 militia, 1,000 regulars and militia Casualties 24 dead, 158 wounded 397 dead, 561 wounded or captured Detroit frontier Tippecanoe – 1st Mackinac Island – Brownstown - Maguaga – Fort Dearborn – Detroit – Fort Harrison – Fort Wayne... Boats on the River Raisin just downstream from Monroe, Michigan The River Raisin is a river in southeastern Michigan, United States that flows through glacial sediments into Lake Erie. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Procter left the prisoners with an inadequate guard, who were unable to prevent some of his North American Indian allies from attacking and killing perhaps as many as sixty Americans, an event which became known as the "River Raisin Massacre." The defeat ended Harrison's campaign against Detroit, and the phrase "Remember the River Raisin!" became a rallying cry for the Americans.

Oliver Hazard Perry's message to William Henry Harrison after the Battle of Lake Erie began with what would become one of the most famous sentences in American military history: "We have met the enemy and they are ours." This 1865 painting by William H. Powell shows Perry transferring to a different ship during the battle.
Oliver Hazard Perry's message to William Henry Harrison after the Battle of Lake Erie began with what would become one of the most famous sentences in American military history: "We have met the enemy and they are ours." This 1865 painting by William H. Powell shows Perry transferring to a different ship during the battle.

In May 1813, Procter and Tecumseh set siege to Fort Meigs in northern Ohio. American reinforcements arriving during the siege were defeated by the Indians, but the fort held out. The Indians eventually began to disperse, forcing Procter and Tecumseh to return to Canada. A second offensive against Fort Meigs also failed in July. In an attempt to improve Indian morale, Procter and Tecumseh attempted to storm Fort Stephenson, a small American post on the Sandusky River, only to be repulsed with serious losses, marking the end of the Ohio campaign. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Oliver Hazard Perry Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry (August 23, 1785 – August 23, 1819) was an officer in the United States Navy. ... Combatants United Kingdom United States Commanders Robert Heriot Barclay Oliver Hazard Perry Jesse Elliot Strength 2 ships 2 brigs 1 schooner 1 sloop 3 brigs 5 schooners 1 sloop Casualties 41 dead 93 wounded prisoners 306 surrendered Entire squadron captured 27 dead 96 wounded One brig heavily damaged The Battle... The Siege of Fort Meigs took place during the War of 1812 in northwestern Ohio. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The Battle of Fort Stephenson was an American victory during the War of 1812. ... The Sandusky River is a tributary to Lake Erie in north-central Ohio in the United States. ...


On Lake Erie, the American commander Captain Oliver Hazard Perry fought the Battle of Lake Erie on September 10, 1813. His decisive victory ensured American control of the lake, improved American morale after a series of defeats, and compelled the British to fall back from Detroit. Oliver Hazard Perry Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry (August 23, 1785 – August 23, 1819) was an officer in the United States Navy. ... Combatants United Kingdom United States Commanders Robert Heriot Barclay Oliver Hazard Perry Jesse Elliot Strength 2 ships 2 brigs 1 schooner 1 sloop 3 brigs 5 schooners 1 sloop Casualties 41 dead 93 wounded prisoners 306 surrendered Entire squadron captured 27 dead 96 wounded One brig heavily damaged The Battle... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


This paved the way for General Harrison to launch another invasion of Upper Canada, which culminated in the U.S. victory at the Battle of the Thames on October 5, 1813, in which Tecumseh was killed. Tecumseh's death effectively ended the North American Indian alliance with the British in the Detroit region. The Americans controlled Detroit and Amherstburg for the duration of the war. Combatants British Empire Indian Confederation United States Commanders Henry Procter Tecumseh † William Henry Harrison Strength 800 regulars 500 natives1 2,380 militia 1,000 cavalry 120 regulars 260 natives1 Casualties 155 British dead or wounded 477 captured 33 natives dead 15 dead 30 wounded The Battle of the Thames, also... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Niagara frontier, 1813

Because of the difficulties of land communications, control of the Great Lakes and the Saint Lawrence River corridor was crucial. When the war began, the British already had a small squadron of warships on Lake Ontario and had the initial advantage. To redress the situation, the Americans established a Navy yard at Sackett's Harbor, New York. Commodore Isaac Chauncey took charge of the large number of sailors and shipwrights sent there from New York. They completed the second warship built there in a mere 45 days. Ultimately, 3000 men worked at the shipyard, building eleven warships, and many smaller boats and transports. The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... Lake Ontario, bounded on the north by the Canadian province of Ontario and on the south by Ontarios Niagara Peninsula and by New York State, USA, is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. ... Sackets Harbor is a village located in Jefferson County, New York. ... Isaac Chauncey (20 February 1779 – 27 January 1840) was an officer in the United States Navy. ...


Having regained the advantage by their rapid building program, Chauncey and Dearborn attacked York (now called Toronto), the capital of Upper Canada, on April 27, 1813. The Battle of York was an American victory, marred by looting and the burning of the Parliament Buildings and a library. However, Kingston was strategically more valuable to British supply and communications along the St Lawrence. Without control of Kingston, the American navy could not effectively control Lake Ontario or sever the British supply line from Lower Canada. York was the original name of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Battle of York was a battle of the War of 1812 on April 27, 1813, at York, Upper Canada, which was later to become Toronto, Ontario. ... Murney Tower, Kingston The Fort Henry Guard performing an historical demonstration The Prince George Hotel. ... Map of Lower Canada (green) Lower Canada was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (1791-1841). ...


On May 27, 1813, an American amphibious force from Lake Ontario assaulted Fort George on the northern end of the Niagara River and captured it without serious losses. The retreating British forces were not pursued, however, until they had largely escaped and organized a counter-offensive against the advancing Americans at the Battle of Stoney Creek on June 5. On June 24, with the help of advance warning by Loyalist Laura Secord, another American force was forced to surrender by a much smaller British and Indian force at the Battle of Beaver Dams, marking the end of the American offensive into Upper Canada. Meanwhile, Commodore James Lucas Yeo had taken charge of the British ships on the lake, and mounted a counter-attack, which was nevertheless repulsed at the Battle of Sackett's Harbor. is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Fort George is a historic military structure at Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, Canada, that was the scene of several battles during the War of 1812. ... Combatants United Kingdom United States Commanders John Vincent John Chandler, William Winder Strength 700 3,400 Casualties 22 dead, 134 wounded 55 dead or wounded, 113 captured The Battle of Stoney Creek was fought on June 6, 1813, during the War of 1812 near Stoney Creek, Ontario. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The name United Empire Loyalists is given to those American Loyalists who resettled in British North America and other British Colonies as an act of fealty to King George III after the British defeat in the American Revolutionary War. ... Statue of Laura Secord at the Valiants Memorial in Ottawa Laura Secord (née Ingersoll) (September 13, 1775 – October 17, 1868) was a Canadian heroine of the War of 1812. ... Combatants Britain United States Commanders James FitzGibbon Charles G. Boerstler Strength 50 regulars 400 natives 575 regulars Casualties 25 killed and wounded 80 dead or wounded 462 captured The Battle of Beaver Dams was a small battle on June 24, 1813, during the War of 1812. ... James Lucas Yeo (1782-1818) was a British Naval commander who served in the War of 1812. ... The Battle of Sacketts Harbor was fought in northwestern New York on May 29, 1813 during the War of 1812. ...


Late in 1813, the Americans abandoned the Canadian territory they occupied around Fort George. They set fire to the village of Newark (now Niagara-on-the-Lake) on December 15, 1813, incensing the British and Canadians. Many of the inhabitants were left without shelter, freezing to death in the snow. This led to British retaliation following the Capture of Fort Niagara on December 18, 1813, and similar destruction at Buffalo on December 30, 1813. Niagara-on-the-Lake in the Niagara Region Niagara-on-the-Lake Niagara-on-the-Lake (2001 population 13,839) is a town where the Niagara River meets Lake Ontario in the Niagara Region, Ontario, Canada. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... After the successful bayonet charge of the British the Fort of Niagara was quickly captured and along with it a large number of American prisoners. ... Nickname: Location of Buffalo in New York State Coordinates: , Country State County Erie Government  - Mayor Byron Brown (D) Area  - City 52. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


In 1814, the contest for Lake Ontario turned into a building race. Eventually, by the end of the year, Yeo had constructed HMS St Lawrence, a first-rate ship of the line of 112 guns which gave him superiority, but the overall result of the Engagements on Lake Ontario had been an indecisive draw. HMS St. ... This is one of six ratings (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th) in the rating system of the Royal Navy. ... Ships of the line were 1st, 2nd, or 3rd-rated ships in the rating system of the Royal Navy. ... Combatants Britain United States Commanders James Lucas Yeo Isaac Chauncey Strength 1 first rate ship of the line 2 frigates 6 sloops and brigs 4 schooners and gunboats 2 frigates 6 sloops and brigs 12 schooners and gunboats Casualties 1 sloop destroyed 2 brigs destroyed 1 brig captured 5 schooners...


St. Lawrence and Lower Canada 1813

Sakawarton (John Smoke Johnson), John Tutela, and Young Warner, three Six Nations War of 1812 veterans.
Sakawarton (John Smoke Johnson), John Tutela, and Young Warner, three Six Nations War of 1812 veterans.

The British were potentially most vulnerable over the stretch of the Saint Lawrence where it also formed the frontier between Upper Canada and the United States. During the early days of the war, there was much illicit commerce across the river, but over the winter of 1812 - 1813, the Americans launched a series of raids from Ogdensburg on the American side of the river, hampering British supply traffic up the river. Image File history File links Six_Nations_survivors_of_War_of_1812. ... Image File history File links Six_Nations_survivors_of_War_of_1812. ... Johnson (right) with John Tutela, and Young Warner, two other Six Nations War of 1812 veterans. ... For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ... Ogdensburg is a city in St. ...


On February 21, Sir George Prevost passed through Prescott on the opposite bank of the river, with reinforcements for Upper Canada. When he left the next day, the reinforcements and local militia attacked. At the Battle of Ogdensburg, the Americans were forced to retire. is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Prescott is a town of approximately 4,200 people on the north shore of the Saint Lawrence River in Ontario, Canada, directly across from Ogdensburg, New York. ... Combatants Great Britain United States Commanders George MacDonnell Benjamin Forsyth Strength 520 about 250 Casualties 55 90 The Battle of Ogdensburg was a battle of the War of 1812. ...


For the rest of the year, Ogdensburg had no American garrison and many residents of Ogdensburg resumed visits and trade with Prescott. This British victory removed the last American regular troops from the Upper St Lawrence frontier and helped secure British communications with Montreal.


Late in 1813, after much argument, the Americans made two thrusts against Montreal. The plan eventually agreed upon was for Major-General Wade Hampton to march north from Lake Champlain and join a force under General James Wilkinson which would embark in boats and sail from Sackett's Harbour on Lake Ontario and descend the Saint Lawrence. Wade Hampton (1752-February 4, 1835) served in the American Revolution and was a member of Congress from 1795-1797 and from 1803-1805, and a presidential elector in 1801. ... General James Wilkinson James Wilkinson (1757 – December 28, 1825) was a U.S. soldier and statesman, who was associated with several scandals and controversies. ... Sackets Harbor is a village in Jefferson County, New York, United States. ...


Hampton was delayed by bad roads and supply problems and an intense dislike of Wilkinson, which limited his desire to support his plan. On October 25, his 4,000-strong force was defeated at the Chateauguay River by Charles de Salaberry's smaller force of French-Canadian Voltigeurs and Mohawks. is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United Kingdom United States Commanders Charles de Salaberry Wade Hampton Strength 400 French Canadian militia 170 natives 4,000 regulars Casualties 2 killed 15 wounded 3 captured 2 deserted 23 dead 33 wounded 29 missing The Battle of the Chateauguay was a battle of the War of 1812. ... Charles-Michel dIrumberry de Salaberry Lieutenant Colonel Charles-Michel dIrumberry de Salaberry (1778 - 1829) was a French-Canadian nobleman who served as an officer of the British army in Lower Canada (now Quebec) and won distinction for repelling the American advance on Montreal during the War of 1812. ... The Canadian Voltigeurs were a Light Infantry unit, raised in Lower Canada in 1812, and which fought in the War of 1812. ... Mohawk is: A tribe of Native Americans: see Mohawk nation The Mohawk language spoken by the Mohawk people. ...


Wilkinson's force of 8,000 set out on October 17 but was also delayed by bad weather. After learning that Hampton had been checked, Wilkinson heard that a British force under Captain William Mulcaster and Lieutenant-Colonel Joseph Wanton Morrison was pursuing him, and by November 10, he was forced to land near Morrisburg, about 150 kilometers (90 mi) from Montreal. On November 11, Wilkinson's rearguard, numbering 2,500, attacked Morrison's force of 800 at Crysler's Farm and was repulsed with heavy losses. After learning that Hampton was unable to renew his advance, Wilkinson retreated to the U.S. and settled into winter quarters. He resigned his command after a failed attack on a British outpost at Lacolle Mills. is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... William Howe Mulcaster (1786 – 1837) was an officer in the British Royal Navy, who played a distinguished part in the Anglo-American War of 1812. ... Joseph Wanton Morrison (4 May 1783 – 15 February 1826) was a British soldier, best known for commanding the British troops at the Battle of Cryslers Farm during the War of 1812. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... External links Morrisburg & District Historical Society Categories: Canada geography stubs | Ontario communities ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Britain United States Commanders William Mulcaster Joseph Morrison James Wilkinson John P. Boyd Strength 800 regulars and militia 8,000 regulars and militia (2500 present) Casualties 22 dead 148 wounded 102 dead 237 wounded 150 missing The Battle of Cryslers Farm was a battle of the War of... In this battle, Major-General James Wilkonson planned another invasion of Canada to make up his huge loss to the British in the Battle of Cryslers Farm. ...


Niagara and Plattsburgh Campaigns, 1814

By the middle of 1814, American generals, including Major Generals Jacob Brown and Winfield Scott, had drastically improved the fighting abilities and discipline of the army. Their renewed attack on the Niagara peninsula quickly captured Fort Erie. Winfield Scott then gained a decisive victory over an equal British force at the Battle of Chippewa on July 5. Jacob Jennings Brown (May 9, 1775-February 24, 1828) was an American army officer in the War of 1812. ... For other uses of Winfield Scott, see Winfield Scott (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fort and historic site. ... The Battle of Chippewa (sometimes spelled Chippawa) was a decisive victory for American militia units which allowed for the invasion of Canada along the Niagara River. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


An attempt to advance further ended with a hard-fought drawn battle at Lundy's Lane on July 25. The outnumbered Americans withdrew but withstood a prolonged Siege of Fort Erie. The British raised the siege, but lack of provisions eventually forced the Americans to retreat across the Niagara. Combatants Britain United States Commanders Gordon Drummond Phineas Riall Jacob Brown Winfield Scott Strength At start: 2,200, 5 guns Reinforcements: 1,800, 3 guns At start: 2,000, 3 guns Reinforcements: 1,000, 6 guns Casualties 84 dead 559 wounded 193 missing 42 captured 171 dead 572 wounded 110... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Britain United States Commanders Gordon Drummond Edmund P. Gaines Jacob Brown Strength 2,200 3,000 Casualties 966 dead, wounded, or captured 540 missing 630 dead or wounded The Siege of Fort Erie was one of the last engagements between British and American forces during the Niagara campaign of...


Meanwhile, following the abdication of Napoleon, 15,000 British troops were sent to North America under four of Wellington’s most able brigade commanders. Fewer than half were veterans of the Peninsula and the remainder came from garrisons. Along with the troops came instructions for offensives against the United States. British strategy was changing, and like the Americans, the British were seeking advantages for the peace negotiations.


Governor-General Sir George Prevost was instructed to launch an invasion into the New York-Vermont region. He had a large invasion force which was much more powerful than the Americans. On reaching Plattsburgh, however, he delayed the assault until the belated arrival of a fleet led by Captain George Downie in the hastily completed 36-gun "Confiance." Prevost forced Downie into a premature attack, but then unaccountably failed to provide the promised military backing. George Prevost Sir George Prévost (Hackensack May 19, 1767 – January 5, 1816 London) was a British soldier and colonial administrator. ... Plattsburgh is a town in Clinton County, New York, USA. The population was 11,190 at the 2000 census. ...


Downie was killed and his naval force defeated at the naval Battle of Plattsburgh in Plattsburgh Bay on September 11, 1814. The Americans now had control of Lake Champlain; Theodore Roosevelt later termed it the greatest naval battle of the war. To the astonishment of his senior officers, Prevost then turned back, saying it would too hazardous to remain on enemy territory after the loss of naval supremacy. Combatants Britain United States Commanders George Prevost George Downie † Thomas Macdonough Alexander Macomb Strength 11,000 1,500 regulars 1,900 milita Casualties 300 200 {{{notes}}} The Battle of Plattsburgh also known as the Battle of Lake Champlain ended the final invasion of the Northern states during the War of... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ...


Prevost's political and military enemies forced his recall. In London a naval court martial of the surviving officers of the Plattsburgh Bay debacle decided that defeat had been caused principally by Prevost’s urging the squadron into premature action and then failing to afford the promised support from the land forces. Prevost died suddenly, just before his own court martial was to convene.


Prevost's reputation sank to new lows, as Canadians claimed their militia under Brock did the job and he failed. Recently, however, historians have been more kindly, measuring him not against Wellington but against his American foes. They judge Prevost’s preparations for defending the Canadas with limited means to be energetic, well conceived, and comprehensive, and against the odds he had achieved the primary objective of preventing an American conquest.[22]


American West, 1814

Little of note took place on Lake Huron in 1813, but the American victory on Lake Erie isolated the British there. During the winter, a Canadian party under Lieutenant Colonel Robert McDouall established a new supply line from York to Nottawasaga Bay on Georgian Bay. When he arrived at Fort Mackinac with supplies and reinforcements, he sent an expedition to recapture the trading post of Prairie du Chien in the far West. The Battle of Prairie du Chien ended in a British victory on July 20, 1814. Lieutenant Colonel Robert McDouall was a military officer during the War of 1812. ... Nottawasaga Bay is a bay of Lake Huron in Ontario, at the southernmost end of Georgian Bay. ... Georgian Bay (French: baie Georgienne) is a large bay of Lake Huron, located in Ontario, Canada. ... Sign seen in Prairie du Chien, WI on entering from Iowa. ... Combatants British Empire Native Americans United States Commanders William McKay Joseph Perkins Strength about 650 about 100 Casualties 0 dead, few wounded 5 wounded The Battle of Prairie du Chien was a British victory in the far western theater of the War of 1812. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...


In 1814, the Americans sent a force of five vessels from Detroit to recapture Mackinac. A mixed force of regulars and volunteers from the militia landed on the island on July 4. They did not attempt to achieve surprise, and at the brief Battle of Mackinac Island, they were ambushed by Indians and forced to re-embark. is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants British Empire United States Commanders Robert McDouall George Croghan Andrew Holmes† Strength about 300 700 Casualties 1 dead, 1 wounded 13 dead, 51 wounded The Battle of Fort Mackinac was a British victory in the War of 1812. ...


The Americans discovered the new base at Nottawasaga Bay and on August 13, destroyed its fortifications and a schooner which they found there. They then returned to Detroit, leaving two gunboats to blockade Michilimackinac. On September 4, these gunboats were taken unawares and captured by enemy boarding parties from canoes and small boats. This Engagement on Lake Huron left Mackinac under British control. is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Fort Michilimackinac was an 18th century French, and later British, fort and trading post in the Great Lakes of North America. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Great Britain United States Commanders Miller Worsley Arthur Sinclair George Croghan Casualties 3 killed 9 wounded 1 schooner destroyed 6 killed 6 wounded 2 gunboats captured The Engagement on Lake Huron was actually a series of minor engagements, which left the British in control of the Lake, and thus...


The British garrison at Prairie du Chien also fought off an attack by Major Zachary Taylor. In this distant theatre, the British retained the upper hand till the end of the war because of their allegiance with several Indian tribes that they supplied with arms and gifts. This article is about the twelfth President of the United States. ...


Atlantic coast

When the war began, the British naval forces had some difficulty in blockading the entire U.S. coast, and they were also preoccupied in their pursuit of American privateers. The British government, having need of American foodstuffs for its army in Spain, benefitted from the willingness of the New Englanders to trade with them, so no blockade of New England was at first attempted. The Delaware River and Chesapeake Bay were declared in a state of blockade on December 26, 1812. For the Delaware River in Kansas, see Delaware River (Kansas) The Delaware River is a river on the Atlantic coast of the United States. ... The Chesapeake Bay - Landsat photo The Chesapeake Bay where the Susquehanna River empties into it. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting...


This was extended to the coast south of Narragansett by November 1813 and to all the American coast on May 31, 1814. In the meantime, much illicit trade was carried on by collusive captures arranged between American traders and British officers. American ships were fraudulently transferred to neutral flags. Location of Narragansett, Rhode Island Narragansett is a town in Washington County, Rhode Island, United States. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Eventually the U.S. Government was driven to issue orders to stop illicit trading. This put only a further strain on the commerce of the country. The overpowering strength of the British fleet enabled it to occupy the Chesapeake and to attack and destroy numerous docks and harbors.


Additionally, commanders of the blockading fleet, based at the Bermuda dockyard, were given instructions to encourage the defection of American slaves. Many black slaves came over to the Crown, with their families, and were recruited into the (3rd Colonial Battalion) Royal Marines on occupied Tangier Island, in the Chesapeake. Storehouse Building, HMD Bermuda, Ireland Island, Bermuda. ... The Royal Marines (RM) are the marines and amphibious infantry of the United Kingdom and, along with the Royal Navy and Royal Fleet Auxiliary, form the Naval Service [2]. They are also the United Kingdoms amphibious force and specialists in mountain and Arctic warfare. ... Tangier is a town on Tangier Island in Chesapeake Bay. ...


A further company of colonial marines was raised at the Bermuda dockyard, where many freed slaves, men women and children, had been given refuge and employment, and was kept as a defensive force in case of an attack. These former slaves fought for Britain throughout the Atlantic campaign, including the attack on Washington D.C.and the Louisiana Campaign, and most were later re-enlisted into British West India regiments, or settled in Trinidad in August, 1816, where seven hundred of these ex-marines were granted land (they reportedly organised themselves in villages along the lines of military companies). Many other freed American slaves had been recruited directly into existing West Indian regiments, or newly-created British Army units. For other uses, see Trinidad (disambiguation). ...


From the probing of the British Colony of New Brunswick, Maine was an important conquest by the British. The line of the border between New Brunswick and the District of Maine had never been adequately agreed after the American Revolution. A military victory in Maine by the British could represent a large gain in territory for New Brunswick, but more immediately it assured communication with Lower Canada via the St John River and the Halifax Road. The war did not settle the border dispute, and when Maine became a state in 1820, it led to a border crisis called the Aroostook War. The border between Maine and New Brunswick was not be settled until 1842 and the "Webster-Ashburton Treaty". This article is about the Canadian province. ... The District of Maine was a legal designation for what is now the U.S. state of Maine from American independence until the Missouri Compromise on March 4, 1820, after which it gained its independence from Massachusetts and became the 23rd state in the Union. ... Map of Lower Canada (green) Lower Canada was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (1791-1841). ... The St. ... The Halifax Road or Grand Communication Route was used by the British as an overland communication link between the British colonies of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Lower Canada (Quebec), and Upper Canada (Ontario) in the winter months when the St. ... Combatants United States of America British Empire/British North America Strength 3,000–10,000 3,000–10,000 Casualties 38 incidental deaths The Aroostook War, also called the Pork and Beans War,the Lumberjacks War or the Northeastern Boundary Dispute, was an undeclared confrontation in 1838-39 between... The Webster-Ashburton Treaty, signed August 9, 1842, settled the dispute over the location of the Maine-New Brunswick border between the United States and Great Britain and the shared use of the Great Lakes. ...


In September 1814, Sir John Coape Sherbrooke led a British Army into eastern Maine and was successful in capturing Castine, Hampden, Bangor, and Machias. The Americans were given the option of swearing allegiance to the king or quitting the country. The vast majority swore allegiance and were even permitted to keep their firearms. Sir John Coape, Lord Sherbrooke (baptised April 29, 1764 - February 14, 1830) was a British soldier and colonial administrator. ... Castine, Maine Castine is a town located in Hancock County, Maine. ... Hampden is a town located in Penobscot County, Maine. ... For other places with the same name, see Bangor. ... Machias is a town located in Washington County, Maine. ...


This is the only large tract of territory held by either side at the conclusion of the war and was given back to the United States by the Treaty of Ghent. The British did not leave Maine until April 1815, at which time they took large sums of money retained from duties in occupied Maine. This money, called the "Castine Fund", was used in the establishment of Dalhousie University, in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Signing of the Treaty of Ghent. ... Dalhousie University is a university located in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. ... The City of Halifax (1841-1996) was the capital of the province of Nova Scotia, and the largest city in Atlantic Canada. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867...


Chesapeake campaign and "The Star-Spangled Banner"

The strategic location of the Chesapeake Bay near the nation's capital made it a prime target for the British. Starting in March 1813, a squadron under Rear Admiral George Cockburn started a blockade of the bay and raided towns along the bay from Norfolk to Havre de Grace. Drawing, Capture and burning of Washington by the British, in 1814. ... Drawing, Capture and burning of Washington by the British, in 1814. ... Sir George Cockburn was born in 1772 and went to sea at the age of 14. ... Motto: Crescas (Latin for, Thou shalt grow. ... Location in Maryland Coordinates: County Harford County Incorporated 1785 Mayor John P. Correri, Jr. ...


On July 4, 1813, Joshua Barney, a Revolutionary War naval hero, convinced the Navy Department to build the Chesapeake Bay Flotilla, a squadron of twenty barges to defend the Chesapeake Bay. Launched in April 1814, the squadron was quickly cornered in the Patuxent River, and while successful in harassing the Royal Navy, they were powerless to stop the British campaign that ultimately led to the "Burning of Washington". is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Joshua Barney (6 July 1759 - 1 December 1818) was a commodore in the United States Navy who served in the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812. ... The War of 1812 against Great Britain had been going for two years. ... The Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Combatants Great Britain United States Commanders Robert Ross George Cockburn Unknown Strength 4,250 Unknown The Burning of Washington is the name given to the burning of Washington, D.C., by British forces in 1814, during the War of 1812. ...


This expedition, led by Cockburn and General Robert Ross, was carried out between August 19 and August 29, 1814, as the result of the hardened British policy of 1814 (although British and American commissioners had convened peace negotiations at Ghent in June of that year). As part of this, Admiral Warren had been replaced as Commander-in-Chief by Admiral Alexander Cochrane, with reinforcements and orders to coerce the Americans into a favourable peace. Robert Ross (1766 - September 12, 1814) was a British military officer who participated in the Napoleonic War and the War of 1812. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Admiral Sir Alexander (Forrester Inglis) Cochrane (April 23, 1758 – January 26, 1832) was a senior Royal Navy commander during the Napoleonic Wars. ...


Governor-General Sir George Prevost of Canada had written to the Admirals in Bermuda calling for a retaliation for the American sacking of York (now Toronto). A force of 2,500 soldiers under General Ross, aboard a Royal Navy task force composed of the Royal Oak, three frigates, three sloops and ten other vessels, had just arrived in Bermuda. George Prevost Sir George Prévost (Hackensack May 19, 1767 – January 5, 1816 London) was a British soldier and colonial administrator. ... HMS Royal Oak was a 74-gun sailing ship of the line Classified as a Man-of-War Battleship, Third Rate Frigate, Guns/Cannons: 74, Builit in 1809, Launched from Depford, Kent, UK and broke up 1850. ...


Released from the Peninsular War by British victory, it had been intended to use them for diversionary raids along the coasts of Maryland and Virginia. In response to Prevost's request, it was decided to employ this force, together with the naval and military units already on the station, to strike at Washington D.C. [3] For the 1862 American Civil War campaign, see Peninsula Campaign. ...


On August 24, Secretary of War Armstrong insisted that the British would attack Baltimore rather than Washington, even when the British army was obviously on its way to the capital. The inexperienced American militia, which had congregated at Bladensburg, Maryland, to protect the capital, were destroyed in the Battle of Bladensburg, opening the route to Washington. While Dolley Madison saved valuables from the White House, President James Madison was forced to flee to Virginia.[23] is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bladensburg is a town in Prince Georges County, Maryland, United States. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... The Battle of Bladensburg was a battle fought during the War of 1812. ... This article is about a U.S. First Lady (the wife of James Madison). ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


The British commanders ate the supper which had been prepared for the president before they burned the President's Mansion; American morale was reduced to an all-time low. The British viewed their actions as in retaliation for destructive American raids into Canada, most notably the Americans' burning of York (now Toronto) in 1813. Later, that same evening a furious storm swept into Washington D.C. sending one or more tornadoes into the city, causing more damage but eventually extinguished the fires with torrential rains.[4] The naval yards were set afire at the direction of U.S. officals to prevent the capture of naval ships and supplies.[24] The British left Washington D.C. as soon as the storm subsided. The Battle of York was a battle of the War of 1812 on April 27, 1813, at York, Upper Canada, which was later to become Toronto, Ontario. ...


Having destroyed Washington's public buildings, including the White House and the Treasury, the British army next moved to capture Baltimore, a busy port and a key base for American privateers. The subsequent Battle of Baltimore began with a British landing at North Point, but withdrew when General Ross was killed at an American outpost. The British also attempted to attack Baltimore by sea on September 13 but were unable to reduce Fort McHenry, at the entrance to Baltimore Harbor. Combatants Great Britain United States Commanders Robert Ross George Cockburn Unknown Strength 4,250 Unknown The Burning of Washington is the name given to the burning of Washington, D.C., by British forces in 1814, during the War of 1812. ... Baltimore redirects here. ... Combatants Great Britain United States of America Commanders Robert Ross† Alexander Cochrane Arthur Brooke Samuel Smith John Stricker George Armistead Strength 5,000 2,000 (Baltimore defenses) 1,000 (Fort McHenry garrison) Casualties 46 dead, 300 wounded 310 killed or wounded In the Battle of Baltimore, one of the turning... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Fort McHenry Fort McHenry, in Baltimore, Maryland, is a star shaped fort best known for its role in the War of 1812, when it successfully defended Baltimore Harbor from an attack by the British navy in Chesapeake Bay. ...


The Battle of Fort McHenry was no battle at all. British guns had range on American cannon, and stood off out of U.S. range, bombarding the fort, which returned no fire. Their plan was to coordinate with a land force, but from that distance coordination proved impossible, so the British called off the attack and left.


All the lights were extinguished in Baltimore the night of the attack, and the fort was bombarded for 25 hours. The only light was given off by the exploding shells over Fort McHenry, which gave proof that the flag was still over the fort. The defense of the fort inspired the American lawyer Francis Scott Key to write a poem that would eventually supply the lyrics to "The Star-Spangled Banner". Francis Scott Key Maryland Historical Society plaque marking the birthplace of Francis Scott Key Fort McHenry looking towards the position of the British ships (with the Francis Scott Key Bridge in the distance on the upper left) Francis Scott Key (August 1, 1779 – January 11, 1843) was an American lawyer... The Star-Spangled Banner is the national anthem of the United States. ...


Creek War

Main article: Creek War

In March 1814, Jackson led a force of Tennessee militia, Cherokee warriors, and U.S. regulars southward to attack the Creek tribes, led by Chief Menawa. On March 26, Jackson and General John Coffee decisively defeated the Creeks at Horseshoe Bend, killing 800 of 1,000 Creeks at a cost of 49 killed and 154 wounded of approximately 2,000 American and Cherokee forces. Jackson pursued the surviving Creeks until they surrendered. Most historians consider the Creek war as part of the War of 1812, because the Indians were a cause and the British supported them. Combatants United States Lower Creeks Cherokees Red Sticks (Creek Indians) Commanders Andrew Jackson John Coffee William McIntosh William Weatherford Menawa Peter McQueen Strength 7,000 4,000 Casualties 500 Settlers 125 Soldiers 1,900 The Creek War (1813–1814), also known as the Red Stick War and the Creek Civil... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... For other uses, see Cherokee (disambiguation). ... The Creeks are an American Indian people originally from the southeastern United States, also known by their original name Muscogee (or Muskogee), the name they use to identify themselves today. ... Menawas portrait was painted by Charles Bird King when Menawa visited Washington, D.C. in 1826 to protest the Treaty of Indian Springs. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... John Coffee (June 2, 1772–July 7, 1833) was an American planter, US Congressman and military leader. ... Combatants Creek Indians Red Sticks United States Cherokee Creek allies Commanders Menawa Andrew Jackson Strength 1,000 Red Stick Creek about 2,000 infantry 700 mounted infantry 600 Cherokee and Lower Creeks Casualties 800 49 killed 154 wounded // Although having nothing to do with the British or Canadians, the battle...


Treaty of Ghent and Battle of New Orleans

"New Orleans" 1815 by Herbert Morton Stoops

On December 24, 1814, diplomats from the two countries, meeting in Ghent, United Kingdom of the Netherlands (present Belgium), signed the Treaty of Ghent. This was ratified by the Americans on February 16, 1815. Download high resolution version (1385x923, 217 KB)BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS New Orleans, 1815 Herbert Morton Stoops Either the 21st Regiment of Foot (Royal North British Fusiliers) (later the Royal Scots Fusiliers) or the 93rd (Highland) Regiment of Foot (later the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders). ... Download high resolution version (1385x923, 217 KB)BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS New Orleans, 1815 Herbert Morton Stoops Either the 21st Regiment of Foot (Royal North British Fusiliers) (later the Royal Scots Fusiliers) or the 93rd (Highland) Regiment of Foot (later the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders). ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article is about the Belgian city. ... The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and Limburg in 1839 1, 2 and 3 United Kingdom of the Netherlands (until 1830) 1 and 2 Kingdom of the Netherlands (after 1830) 2 Duchy of Limburg (In the German Confederacy after 1839 as compensation for Waals-Luxemburg) 3 and 4 Kingdom of Belgium (after... Signing of the Treaty of Ghent. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ...


Unaware of the peace, Jackson's forces moved to New Orleans, Louisiana, in late 1814 to defend against a large-scale British invasion. Jackson decisively defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans on January 8, with over 2000 British casualties and fewer than 100 American losses. It was hailed as a great victory, making Andrew Jackson a national hero, eventually propelling him to the presidency.[25][26] New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Combatants United Kingdom United States Commanders Sir Alexander Cochrane Sir Edward M. Pakenham† John Keane John Lambert Andrew Jackson William Carroll John Coffee Strength 8,000 men 3,500-4,000 men Casualties 385 killed 1,186 wounded 484 captured 13 killed 58 wounded 30 captured The Battle of New... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ...


The British gave up on New Orleans but moved to attack the town of Mobile. In the last military action of the war 1000 British troops won the battle of Fort Bowyer. When news of peace arrived on February 13 they sailed home. The campaign was to be the last time the United States was directly attacked by another country until the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 during World War II. Combatants United Kingdom United States Commanders John Lambert William Lawrence Strength 1,000+ Around 370 Casualties 25 Killed or Wounded Around 370 Captured The Battle of Fort Bowyer was the last engagement between British and American forces in the War of 1812. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the actual attack. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The terms of the treaty stated that fighting between the United States and Britain would cease, all conquered territory was returned to the prewar claimant, the Americans received fishing rights in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and that both the United States and Britain agreed to recognize the prewar boundary between Canada and the United States. The Gulf of Saint Lawrence, the worlds largest estuary, is the outlet of North Americas Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean. ...


The Treaty of Ghent, which was promptly ratified by the Senate in 1815, said nothing at all about the grievances that led to war. Britain made no concessions concerning impressment, blockades, or other maritime differences. Thus, the war ended in a stalemate with no gain for either side.[27]


Consequences

This was a war in which no territory was lost nor gained by either side. None of the points of contention were addressed by the Treaty of Ghent, yet it was a war that changed much between the United States of America and Great Britain. The Treaty of Ghent established the status quo ante bellum; that is, there were no territorial changes made by either side. The issue of impressment was made moot when the Royal Navy stopped impressment after the defeat of Napoleon. // Results of the War of 1812 between the Great Britain and the United States involved no geographical changes, and no major policy changes. ...


Excepting occasional border disputes and the circumstances of the American Civil War, relations between the United States and Britain remained generally peaceful for the rest of the nineteenth century, and the two countries became close allies in the twentieth century. Border adjustments between the United States and British North America were made in the Treaty of 1818. (A border dispute along the Maine-New Brunswick border was settled by the 1842 Webster-Ashburton Treaty after the bloodless Aroostook War, and the border in the Oregon Territory was settled by the 1846 Oregon Treaty.) "But the lessons of the war were taken to heart. Anti-American sentiment in Great Britain ran high for several years, but the United States was never again refused proper treatment as an independent power" [28] Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The Convention respecting fisheries, boundary, and the restoration of slaves between the United States and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, also known as the London Convention, Anglo-American Convention of 1818, Convention of 1818, or simply the Treaty of 1818, was a treaty signed in 1818 between... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... The Webster-Ashburton Treaty, signed August 9, 1842, settled the dispute over the location of the Maine-New Brunswick border between the United States and Great Britain and the shared use of the Great Lakes. ... Combatants United States of America British Empire/British North America Strength 3,000–10,000 3,000–10,000 Casualties 38 incidental deaths The Aroostook War, also called the Pork and Beans War,the Lumberjacks War or the Northeastern Boundary Dispute, was an undeclared confrontation in 1838-39 between... The Oregon Territory is the name applied both to the unorganized Oregon Country claimed by both the United States and Britain, as well as to the organized U.S. territory formed from it that existed between 1848 and 1859. ... Map of the lands in dispute The Oregon Treaty, officially known as the Treaty with Great Britain, in Regard to Limits Westward of the Rocky Mountains, and also known as the Treaty of Washington, is a bilateral treaty between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the United...


United States

The US ended the Indian threat on its western and southern borders. The nation also gained a psychological sense of complete independence as people celebrated their "second war of independence."[29]. Nationalism soared after the victory at the Battle of New Orleans. The opposition Federalist Party collapsed and an Era of Good Feelings ensued. ... The Era of Good Feelings describes the period from 1815-1824[1] when partisan bitterness largely disappeared in United States politics. ...


The United States no longer questioned the need for a strong Navy and indeed completed three new 74 gun ships of the line and two new 44 gun frigates shortly after the end of the war.[30] (Another frigate had been destroyed to prevent it being captured on the stocks).[31] In 1816 the U.S. Congress passed into law an "Act for the gradual increase of the Navy" at a cost of one million dollars a year for eight years authorizing nine ships of the line and 12 heavy frigates.[32] The Captains and Commodores of the U.S. Navy became the heroes of their generation in the United States. Decorated plates and pitchers of Decatur, Hull, Bainbridge, Lawrence, Perry and Macdonough were made in Staffordshire, England, and found a ready market in the United States. Three of the war heroes used their celebrity to win national office: Andrew Jackson (elected president in 1828 and 1832), Richard Mentor Johnson (elected vice president in 1836), and William Henry Harrison (elected president in 1840). For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Richard Mentor Johnson (October 17, 1780 – November 19, 1850) was the ninth Vice President of the United States, serving in the administration of Martin Van Buren. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841) was an American military leader, politician, and the ninth President of the United States. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


The New England states became increasingly frustrated over how the war was being conducted, and how the conflict was affecting their states. They complained that the United States government was not investing enough in the states' defenses both militarily and financially, and that the states should have more control over their militia. The increased taxes, the British blockade, and the occupation of some of New England by enemy forces also agitated public opinion in the states. This article is about the region in the United States of America. ...


As a result, at the Hartford Convention (December-January 1814/15) held in Connecticut, New England representatives asked for New England to have its states' powers fully restored. Nevertheless, a common misperception which had been propagated by newspapers of the time was that the New England representatives wanted to secede from the Union and make a separate peace with the British. This view is not supported by what actually happened at the Convention. [33] The Secret Journal of the Hartford Convention, published 1823. ... Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[3] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[2] Area  Ranked 48th  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ...


British North America

The War of 1812 was seen by the people in British North America, and later Canada, as a reprieve from an American takeover. The outcome gave Empire-oriented Canadians confidence and, together with the postwar "militia myth" that the civilian militia had been primarily responsible rather than the British regulars, was used to stimulate a new sense of Canadian nationalism[34]. British North America consisted of the loyalist colonies and territories (i. ...


A long-term implication of the militia myth that remained popular in the Canadian public at least until World War I was that Canada did not need a regular professional army.[35]


The Battle of York demonstrated the vulnerability of Upper and Lower Canada. In the 1820s, work began on La Citadelle at Quebec City as a defence against the United States. The fort remains an operational base of the Canadian Forces. In the 1820s, work began on the Halifax citadel to defend the port against American attacks. This fort remained in operation through World War II. The Battle of York was a battle of the War of 1812 on April 27, 1813, at York, Upper Canada, which was later to become Toronto, Ontario. ... Flag Map of Upper Canada (orange) Capital Newark 1792 - 1797 York(later renamed Toronto in 1834) 1797 - 1841 Language(s) English Religion Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Sovereign  - 1791-1820 George III  - 1837-1841 Victoria Lieutenant-Governor See list of Lieutenant-Governors Legislature Parliament of Upper Canada  - Upper house Legislative Council... Map of Lower Canada (green) Lower Canada was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (1791-1841). ... The Citadel (fr: Citadelle) is a military fort atop Cape Diamant, adjoining the Plains of Abraham in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. ... Nickname: Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Province Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date 1833 Government... The Canadian Forces (CF) (French: Forces canadiennes (FC)) are the unified armed forces of Canada, governed by the National Defence Act, which states: The Canadian Forces are the armed forces of Her Majesty raised by Canada and consist of one Service called the Canadian Armed Forces. ... Halifax Citadel is a provincial electoral district in Nova Scotia in Halifax. ...


In the 1830s, the Rideau Canal was built to provide a secure waterway from Montreal to Lake Ontario avoiding the narrows of the St. Lawrence river where American cannon could block traffic. The British also built Fort Henry at Kingston to defend the Rideau Canal. This fort remained operational until 1891. The Locks in Summer The Rideau Canal, also known as the Rideau Waterway, connects the city of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada on the Ottawa River to the city of Kingston, Ontario on Lake Ontario. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... Fort Henry, Ontario, is a National Historic Site of Canada. ...


Bermuda

Bermuda had been largely left to the defences of its own militia and privateers prior to American independence, but the Royal Navy had begun buying up land and operating from there in 1795 as its location was a useful substitute for the lost American ports. It originally was intended to be the winter headquarters of the North American Squadron, but the war shoved it into a new prominence.


As construction work progressed through the first half of the century, Bermuda became the permanent naval headquarters in Western waters, housing the Admiralty, and serving as a base and dockyard. The military garrison was built up to protect the naval establishment, heavily fortifying the archipelago that came to be described as the Gibraltar of the West. Defence infrastructure would remain the central leg of Bermuda's economy until after the Second World War. Storehouse Building, HMD Bermuda, Ireland Island, Bermuda. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


Great Britain

The war is scarcely remembered in Britain [36] because it was overshadowed by the far larger conflict against Napoleon Bonaparte. Britain's goals of impressing seamen and blocking trade with France had been achieved and were no longer needed. Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from...


In the early years of the nineteenth century, the Royal Navy was the dominant nautical power in the world.[37] They used their overwhelming strength to cripple American maritime trade and launch raids on the American coast. However, the Royal Navy was acutely conscious that the United States Navy had won most of the single-ship duels during the War.[31] The causes of the losses were many but among those were the heavier broadside of the American 44 gun frigates, and the fact that the large American crews were hand-picked from among 55,000 unemployed merchant seamen in American harbors. The United States Navy had 14 frigates and smaller ships to crew at the start of the war, while Great Britain maintained 85 ships in North American waters alone. The crews of the British fleet which numbered some 140,000 men were rounded out with impressed ordinary seamen and landsmen.[38] In an order to his ships, Admiral Warren ordered that less attention be paid to spit and polish and more to gunnery practice.[39] It is notable that the well trained gunnery of HMS Shannon allowed her victory over the USS Chesapeake.[40] This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... USN redirects here. ... Sir John Borlase Warren (1753-1822), English admiral, was born at Stapleford, Nottinghamshire, on the 2nd of September 1753, being the son and heir of John Boriase Warren (d. ...


See also

War of 1812 Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... Chronology of the War of 1812 is a timeline of events of the War of 1812. ... The following is a synopsis of the Land Campaigns of the War of 1812. ... Combatants United Kingdom United States Commanders Sir Alexander Cochrane Sir Edward M. Pakenham† John Keane John Lambert Andrew Jackson William Carroll John Coffee Strength 8,000 men 3,500-4,000 men Casualties 385 killed 1,186 wounded 484 captured 13 killed 58 wounded 30 captured The Battle of New...

Footnotes

  1. ^ See http://www.geocities.com/Pentagon/Camp/7624/Warof1812.htm - sources at bottom. British and American forces also suffered 3,679 and 4,505 wounded, respectively. It is noteworthy that these "official" figures do not include losses to disease, casualties among American or Canadian militia forces, or losses among allied native tribes.
  2. ^ Caffrey, Kate pgs 34-36
  3. ^ Caffery, Kate pgs 56-58
  4. ^ Caffery, Kate pgs 101-104
  5. ^ American Military History, Army Historical Series, Ch. 6, p. 123, states "While the western "war hawks" urged war in the hope of conquering Canada, the people of Georgia, Tennessee, and the Mississippi Territory entertained similar designs against Florida, a Spanish possession".[1]
  6. ^ a b Toll, Ian V. pg 329
  7. ^ American Military History, Army Historical Series, Ch. 6, p. 123.
  8. ^ Toll, Ian V. Pg. 180 Amirality reply to British press critism
  9. ^ http://www.history.navy.mil/docs/war1812/const5.htm
  10. ^ Toll, Ian V. p360-365,
  11. ^ http://www.history.navy.mil/docs/war1812/const6.htm
  12. ^ http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/e5/essex-i.htm
  13. ^ Toll, Ian V. Pgs. 405-417
  14. ^ Toll, Ian V. Pgs. 405-417
  15. ^ http://www.pbenyon.plus.com/Naval_History/Vol_VI/P_363.html
  16. ^ http://www.webroots.org/library/usamilit/hotusn07.html
  17. ^ http://www.usmm.org/warof1812.html][http://www.princedeneufchatel.com/
  18. ^ http://www.msc.navy.mil/sealift/2004/May/perspective.htm
  19. ^ Hansard, vol 29, pp.649-50.
  20. ^ Peter Burroughs, "Prevost, Sir George" in Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online online
  21. ^ See "Mallory, Behajah" in Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online online and "WILLCOCKS (Wilcox), JOSEPH" in ibid online
  22. ^ Peter Burroughs, "Prevost, Sir George" in Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online online
  23. ^ http://www.history.navy.mil/library/online/burning_washington.htm#rodgers-p
  24. ^ http://www.history.navy.mil/library/online/burning_washington.htm#johnson
  25. ^ http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/America/United_States/Louisiana/New_Orleans/_Texts/KENHNO/6*.html
  26. ^ http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/books/amh/amh-06.htm
  27. ^ b. John J. Newman, and John M. Schmalbach. United States History: Preparing for the Advanced Placement Examination. AMSCO School Publications, Inc.: New York. 2006, 2004, 2002, and 1998. Page 131
  28. ^ Toll, Ian V. pg 458 Quote of Winston Churchill
  29. ^ Stagg (1983)
  30. ^ Toll, Ian V. Pg. 456,467
  31. ^ a b The Naval War of 1812 Or the History of the United States Navy during the Last War with Great Britain to Which Is Appended an Account of the Battle of New Orleans / Roosevelt, Theodore, 1858-1919
  32. ^ Toll, Ian V. pg 457
  33. ^ Benn, Carl; The War of 1812; Osprey Publishing; p259-260
  34. ^ Erik Kaufman, "Condemned to Rootlessness: The Loyalist Origins of Canada's Identity Crisis", Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, vol.3, no.1, (1997), pp. 110-135 online at [2]
  35. ^ CMH, "Origins of the Militia Myth" (February 2006) online
  36. ^ Caffery, Kate; p290
  37. ^ - MOD official RN site
  38. ^ Toll, Ian V. Pg. 382-383
  39. ^ Toll, Ian V. Pg. 382
  40. ^ Toll, Ian V. Pgs. 405-417

References

  • Toll, Ian V., Six Frigates ISBN 139780393058475
  • Caffrey, Kate, The Twilight's Last Gleaming ISBN 0812819209
  • Latimer, Jon, 1812: War with America ISBN 0674025849

Further reading

See List of books about the War of 1812 List of War of 1812 books is a selective, annotated bibliography using APA style citations of the many books related to the War of 1812. ...


External links

Danwild6 01:49, 2 December 2007 (UTC) Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants  United Nations:  Republic of Korea  Australia  Belgium  Canada  Colombia  Ethiopia  France Greece  Luxembourg  Netherlands  New Zealand  Philippines South Africa  Thailand  Turkey  United Kingdom  United States Medical staff:  Denmark  Italy  Norway  Sweden Communist: Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea  Peoples Republic of China  Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Combatants NATO Republika Srpska Commanders Willy Claes Ratko Mladić Strength 2 F-16C, 1 Mirage aircraft 2 SAMs Casualties 1 Mirage aircraft 2 pilots POW 1 F-16C Undisclosed The 1995 NATO bombing in Bosnia and Herzegovina (code-named by NATO Operation Deliberate Force) was a sustained air campaign conducted... Combatants NATO (USAF, RAF, and other air, maritime and land forces) Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and allied Serb paramilitary and foreign volunteer forces[1] Commanders Wesley Clark (SACEUR), Javier Solana (Secretary General of NATO) Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević (Supreme Commander of the Yugoslav Army), Vojislav Å eÅ¡elj, Dragoljub Ojdanić (Chief of... For other uses of War in Afghanistan, see War in Afghanistan (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Combatants Native Americans Colonial America/United States of America Indian Wars is the name generally used in the United States to describe a series of conflicts between the colonial and federal government and the indigenous peoples. ... The Quasi-War was an undeclared war fought entirely at sea between the United States and France from 1798 to 1801. ... Combatants United States Barbary States (Ottoman Empire regencies) Commanders Richard Dale William Eaton Edward Preble Hassan Bey Murad Reis Strength 7 Ships 10 US Marines and Soldiers Christian Mercenaries Arab Mercenaries 4000 Casualties 2 Ships destroyed 2 Marines killed, 3 wounded Christian/Arab Mercenaries killed and wounded uncertain Unknown The... Combatants United States British Empire (from 1815) Barbary states: Algiers Tripoli Tunis Commanders Stephen Decatur, Jr. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... Combatants United States Republic of Cuba Philippine Republic Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Arsenio Linares Ramón Blanco Casualties 3,289 U.S. dead (432 from combat); considerably higher although undetermined Cuban and Filipino casualties... Combatants United States Philippines several groups post-1902 Commanders William McKinley Theodore Roosevelt Wesley Merritt Elwell Stephen Otis J. Franklin Bell Henry Ware Lawton† John J. Pershing Joseph Wheeler Emilio Aguinaldo Miguel Malvar Pio del Pilar Manuel Tinio Gregorio del Pilar† Licerio Geronimo Vicente Lukban Juan Cailles Maximino Hizon Antonio... Combatants  United States  Antigua and Barbuda  Barbados  Dominica  Jamaica  Saint Lucia  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines  Grenada  Cuba Commanders Ronald Reagan Joseph Metcalf H. Norman Schwarzkopf Hudson Austin Pedro Tortolo Strength 7,300 Grenada: 1,500 regulars Cuba: about 722 (mostly military engineers)[1] Casualties 19 killed; 116 wounded[2... Combatants Panama United States Commanders Manuel Noriega Maxwell R. Thurman Strength 16,000+ 27,684+ Casualties 100-1,000 killed 24 Killed 325 Wounded 300-3,000 civilians killed Rangers from Charlie Company, 3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment prepare to take La Comandancia in the El Chorrillo neighborhood of Panama... This article is about military actions only. ... Shays rebellion was an armed uprising in Western Massachusetts from 1786 to 1787. ... Washington leads his troops to western Pennsylvania (Metropolitan Museum of Art) The Whiskey Rebellion, less commonly known as the Whiskey Insurrection, was a popular uprising that had its beginnings in 1791 and culminated in an insurrection in 1794 in the locality of Washington, Pennsylvania, in the Monongahela Valley. ... Combatants United States Seminole Commanders Andrew Jackson Osceola The Seminole Wars, also known as the Florida Wars, were three wars or conflicts in Florida between various groups of Indians collectively known as Seminoles and the United States. ... Map of the Toledo Strip, the disputed region. ... The Mormon War is a name sometimes given to the 1838 conflict which occurred between Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and their neighbors in the northwestern region of the U.S. state of Missouri. ... The Honey Lands were a strip of territory disputed between the U.S. state of Missouri and the Iowa Territory. ... Division of the states during the Civil War:  Union states  Union territories  Border states  Bleeding Kansas  The Confederacy  Confederate territories (not always held) Bleeding Kansas, sometimes referred to in history as Bloody Kansas or the Border War, was a sequence of violent events involving Free-Staters (anti-slavery) and pro... Combatants United States Mormon settlers Commanders Albert Sidney Johnston Brigham Young John D. Lee Lot Smith Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown The Utah War was a dispute between Mormon settlers in Utah Territory and the United States federal government. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Combatants Republican Party nicknamed The Minstrels mostly Northerners at first loyal to Powell Clayton, later Democrats Liberal Republican Party nicknamed The Brindle Tails initially supported by state militia, later mostly African American volunteers Commanders Elisha Baxter Joseph Brooks Robert F. Catterson (Arkansas state militia) Strength more than 2,000 approximately... The Battle of Blair Mountain was the largest organized armed uprising in American labor history and led almost directly to the labor laws currently in effect in the United States of America. ... List of conflicts in the United States is a timeline of events that includes wars, battles, skirmishes, major terrorist attacks, and other related items that have occurred in the United Statess current geographical area, including overseas territories. ... This is a list of wars, conflicts, operations, and battles, in chronological order, that involve the United States during and after its declaration of independence from the British Empire. ... From 1776 to 2007, there have been hundreds of instances of the deployment of United States military forces abroad and domestically. ... For other uses, see American Empire (disambiguation). ...


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War of 1812 (0 words)
At a critical battle in the War of 1812, British General Isaac Brock and 200...
Fort York was sacked twice by the Americans during the War of 1812 (courtesy Library and Archives Canada/C-40091).
Tecumseh allied his forces with those of the British during the War of 1812, and his active participation was crucial.
War of 1812 - MSN Encarta (1132 words)
War of 1812, conflict between the United States and Britain that began in 1812 and lasted until early 1815.
Madison’s War,” but others saw it as a “second war of independence,” an opportunity for Americans to defend their freedom and honor in the face of European disrespect.
The War Hawks now felt they could enlist federal aid against Native Americans and their British allies by supporting a war to stop British interference with American trade on the seas.
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