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Encyclopedia > War in Bosnia and Herzegovina
War in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Part of the Yugoslav Wars

The parliament building burns after being hit by artillery fire in Sarajevo May 1992.; Ratko Mladić with Bosnian Serb soldiers; a UN soldier in Sarajevo. Photos by Mikhail Evstafiev
Date April 1, 1992December 14, 1995
Location Bosnia and Herzegovina
Result Dayton Accords
Combatants
 Bosnia and Herzegovina

Volunteers from Islamic countries This does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Bosnian_war_header. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... Ratko Mladić General Ratko Mladić during UN-mediated talks at Sarajevo airport in 1993. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... The Dayton Agreement or Dayton Accords is the name given to the agreement at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio to end the war in the former Yugoslavia that had gone on for the previous three years, in particular the future of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina_(1992-1998). ... The War in Bosnia and Herzegovina between Bosniaks, Croats, and Serbs attracted large numbers of foreign fighters and mercenaries from various countries. ...

Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia
 Croatia

Volunteers from Western Europe Flag Self-proclaimed Croatian entity in Bosnia and Herzegovina Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia show in dark blue Capital Mostar Government Republic Governors (1992-1994)  - Croatian zone of Bosnia and Herzegovina Mate Boban Historical era Yugoslav wars  - Breakup of Yugoslavia June 25, 1991  - Secessions June 25, 1991 - April 27, 1992  - Proclamation... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia. ... The War in Bosnia and Herzegovina between Bosniaks, Croats, and Serbs attracted large numbers of foreign fighters and mercenaries from various countries. ...

 Republika Srpska
 Yugoslavia

Various paramilitary units from FR Yugoslavia

Volunteers from Eastern Europe Image File history File links Flag_of_Republika_Srpska. ... Not to be confused with Serbia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_FR_Yugoslavia. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe... Serbia and Montenegro  â€“ Serbia    â€“ Kosovo and Metohia        (UN administration)    â€“ Vojvodina  â€“ Montenegro Official language Serbian language written in Cyrillic alphabet Capital Belgrade President Svetozar Marović Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % water Ranked 105th  102,350 km²  0. ... The War in Bosnia and Herzegovina between Bosniaks, Croats, and Serbs attracted large numbers of foreign fighters and mercenaries from various countries. ...

Commanders
Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina)

Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993)
Rasim Delić (Army chief of Staff 1993-1995)

Alija Izetbegović (August 8, 1925 – October 19, 2003) was a Bosniak activist, lawyer, author, philosopher and politician, who, in 1990, became the first president of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... The Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Predsjedništvo Bosne i Hercegovine/Предсједништво Босне и Херцеговине) is the head of state of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Sefer Halilović (born January 6, 1952) is a high-ranked general from Bosnia and Herzegovina, currently a war crimes suspect. ...

Franjo Tuđman (President of Croatia)

Mate Boban (President of the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia)
Milivoj Petković (HVO Chief of staff) Dario Kordić (political leader of Croats in Central Bosnia) Valentin Ćorić (commander of the military police in the HVO) ‹ The template below (Foreignchar) is being considered for deletion. ... The President of Croatia is the head of state. ... Mate Boban Mate Boban (1940 - July 7, 1997) was a Herzegovian Croat politician and leader of the Bosnian-Herzegovinian Croats during the Bosnian-Herzegovinian War. ... Flag Self-proclaimed Croatian entity in Bosnia and Herzegovina Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia show in dark blue Capital Mostar Government Republic Governors (1992-1994)  - Croatian zone of Bosnia and Herzegovina Mate Boban Historical era Yugoslav wars  - Breakup of Yugoslavia June 25, 1991  - Secessions June 25, 1991 - April 27, 1992  - Proclamation... Milivoj Petković at the ICTY Milivoj Petković is a Croatian army officer who is amoung six defendants charged by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), in relation to the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia. ... The Croatian Defence Council (Croatian Hrvatsko vijeće obrane, HVO) was the main military formation of the Croats during the Bosnian War charged with achieving the military objectives of the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia. ... Dario Kordić was a Bosnian Croat politician and military commander of the HVO forces during 1991-1995. ... Valentin Coric at the ICTY Valentin Corić is a Croatian politican who is among six defendants charged by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) Background Valentin Corić was born on 23 June, 1956 in the village of Paoca, near ÄŒitluk, in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...

Dobrica Ćosić (President of FR Yugoslavia) (1992-1993) Zoran Lilić (President of FR Yugoslavia) (1993-1997)

Slobodan Milošević(President of Serbia) (1989-1997)
Radovan Karadžić (President of the Republika Srpska)
Ratko Mladić (Commander of the Army of Republika Srpska) Dobrica Ćosić (Serbian Cyrillic: Добрица Ћосић) (born 29 December 1921 in Velika Drenova, near Trstenik, in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, today in Serbia) is a Serbian writer, as well as a political and national theorist. ... The President of Yugoslavia was Yugoslavias head of state from 1953 to 1991 in SFR Yugoslavia, and from 1992 to 2003 in FR Yugoslavia. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe... Zoran Lilić is a Serbian politician. ... The President of Yugoslavia was Yugoslavias head of state from 1953 to 1991 in SFR Yugoslavia, and from 1992 to 2003 in FR Yugoslavia. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe... MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ... Presidential Standard of Serbia The President of Serbia is the head of state of the Republic of Serbia. ... Radovan Karadžić during a visit to Moscow in 1994. ... This article is about the politics of the Republika Srpska, one of the two entities that together comprise the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the other being the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Not to be confused with Serbia. ... Ratko Mladić General Ratko Mladić during UN-mediated talks at Sarajevo airport in 1993. ... Bosnian Serb Army, officially Army of the Republika Srpska (Serbian Војска Републике Српске/Vojska Republike Srpske, ВРС/VRS) is the military of the Bosnian Serb political entity of Republika Srpska. ...

The War in Bosnia and Herzegovina, commonly known as the Bosnian War, was an international armed conflict that took place between March 1992 and November 1995. The war involved several sides. According to numerous ICTY judgments the conflict involved Bosnia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (later Serbia and Montenegro) [1] as well as Croatia.[2] According to ICJ judgment, Serbia gave military and financial support to Serb forces which consisted of the Yugoslav People's Army (later Army of Serbia and Montenegro), the Army of Republika Srpska, the Serbian Ministry of the Interior, the Ministry of the Interior of Republika Srpska and Serb Territorial Defense Forces. Croatia gave military support to Croat forces of self-proclaimed Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia. Bosnian government forces were led by the Army of Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina.[3] These factions changed objectives and allegiances several times at various stages of the war (see Parties Involved). The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia is a body of the United Nations established to prosecute war crimes in the former Yugoslavia. ... This article is about the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe... The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... The Yugoslav Peoples Army (YPA) (Serbo-Croatian: Jugoslovenska narodna armija or Jugoslavenska narodna armija; Serbian and Macedonian: Југословенска народна армија—JHA; Macedonian and Serbian Latin forms: Jugoslovenska narodna armija; Croatian and Bosnian: Jugoslavenska narodna armija—JNA; Slovene: Jugoslovanska ljudska armada—JLA) was the military force of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... The military of Serbia and Montenegro includes the Army of Serbia and Montenegro (Vojska Srbije i Crne Gore - VSCG), which includes ground forces with internal and border troops, naval forces, air and air defense forces, and civil defense. ... Bosnian Serb Army, officially Army of the Republika Srpska (Serbian Војска Републике Српске/Vojska Republike Srpske, ВРС/VRS) is the military of the Bosnian Serb political entity of Republika Srpska. ... MUP or Serbian Ministry of the Interior (Ministarstvo UnutraÅ¡njih Polsova/Mинистарство Uиутрашњих Послова) is the Serbian Ministry of the Interior bureau that deals with internal security of the Republic of Serbia and the apprehension of dangerous criminals. ... Not to be confused with Serbia. ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a south Slavic people mostly living in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina (where theyre one of the constitutive nations). ... Flag Self-proclaimed Croatian entity in Bosnia and Herzegovina Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia show in dark blue Capital Mostar Government Republic Governors (1992-1994)  - Croatian zone of Bosnia and Herzegovina Mate Boban Historical era Yugoslav wars  - Breakup of Yugoslavia June 25, 1991  - Secessions June 25, 1991 - April 27, 1992  - Proclamation... now. ...


Because the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina was a consequence of instability in the wider region of the former Yugoslavia, and due to the involvement of neighboring countries Croatia and Serbia and Montenegro, there was long-standing debate as to whether the conflict was a civil war or a war of aggression. Most Bosniaks and many Croats claimed that the war was a war of Serbian and Croatian aggression, while Serbs often considered it a civil war. A trial took place before the International Court of Justice, following a 1993 suit by Bosnia and Herzegovina against Serbia and Montenegro alleging genocide (see Bosnian genocide case at the International Court of Justice). The International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruling of 26 February 2007 effectively determined the war's nature to be international, thus exonerating Serbia of responsibility for the genocide committed by Serb forces of Republika Srpska. The ICJ concluded, however, that Serbia failed to prevent genocide committed by Serb forces and failed to punish those who carried out the genocide, especially general Ratko Mladić, and bring them to justice. A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ... In international law, a war of aggression is generally considered to be any war for which the purpose is not to repel an invasion, or respond to an attack on the territory of a sovereign nation. ... Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: BoÅ¡njaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... Peace Palace at the Hague The Bosnian genocide case at the International Court of Justice (also known as Bosnia and Herzegovina v. ... The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Not to be confused with Serbia. ... Ratko Mladić General Ratko Mladić during UN-mediated talks at Sarajevo airport in 1993. ...


Despite the evidence of widespread killings, the siege of Sarajevo, mass rapes, ethnic cleansing and torture conducted by different Serb forces which also included JNA (VJ), elsewhere in Bosnia, especially in Prijedor, Banja Luka and Foča, as well as camps and detention centers, the judges ruled that the criteria for genocide with the specific intent (dolus specialis) to destroy Bosnian Muslims were met only in Srebrenica or Eastern Bosnia.[4] The court concluded that the crimes, including mass killings, rapes, detentions, destruction and deportation, committed during the 1992-1995 war, were "acts of genocide" according to the Genocide Convention, but that these acts did not, in themselves, constitute genocide per se.[5] The Court further decided that, following Montenegro's declaration of independence in May 2006, Serbia was the only respondent party in the case, but that "any responsibility for past events involved at the relevant time the composite State of Serbia and Montenegro".[6] Combatants ARBiH (1992-95)  NATO (1995) JNA (1992) VRS (1992-95) Commanders Jovan Divjak Mustafa Hajrulahović Vahid Karavelić Nedžad Ajnadžić Stanislav Galić (1992-94) Dragomir MiloÅ¡ević (1994-95) Strength 40,000 (1992) 30,000 (1992) The Siege of Sarajevo was the longest siege in the history of... For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ... The Yugoslav Peoples Army (Jugoslavenska/Jugoslovenska narodna armija, JNA, Slovene Jugoslovanska ljudska armada, JLA) was the army of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia prior to its dissolution. ... Prijedor (Serbian Cyrillic: Приједор) is a town and municipality in northwestern Bosnia and Herzegovina, located in the Republika Srpska entity. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity Republika Srpska Land area 15,000km² Population (1991 census) 195,139 230,000 Population density 126,8/km2 Coordinates Area code +387 51 Mayor Dragoljub Davidović (SNSD) Website http://www. ... Foča massacres were crimes against humanity committed by Serb military, police and paramilitary forces on Bosniak civilians in Foča region including Gacko and Kalinovik from April 7, 1992 to January 1994. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... Look up Category:Latin derivations in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Srebrenica genocide occured in July of 1995, which resulted in the killing of more than eight thousand Bosniak men and boys, ranging in age from teenagers to the elderly, in the region of Srebrenica by the Serb army of general Ratko Mladić and the Serbian army from Yugoslavia. ... Deportation is the expelling of someone from a country. ... The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was adopted by the UN General Assembly in December 1948 and came into effect in January 1951. ...


The involvement of NATO, during the 1995 Operation Deliberate Force against the positions of the Army of Republika Srpska internationalized the conflict, but only in its final stages. This article is about the military alliance. ... “Operation Deliberate Force” was a sustained air campaign conducted by NATO to undermine the military capability of Bosnian Serb who threatened or attacked UN designated safe areas in Bosnia. ... Bosnian Serb Army, officially Army of the Republika Srpska (Serbian Војска Републике Српске/Vojska Republike Srpske, ВРС/VRS) is the military of the Bosnian Serb political entity of Republika Srpska. ...


The war was brought to an end after the signing of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina in Paris on 14 December 1995.[7] Peace negotiations were held in Dayton, Ohio, and were finalized on 21 December 1995. The accords are known as the Dayton Agreement. This article is about the capital of France. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... : Gem City : Birthplace of Aviation United States Ohio Montgomery 56. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, also known as the Dayton Agreement, Dayton Accords, Paris Protocol or Dayton-Paris Agreement, is the peace agreement reached at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio in November 1995, and formally signed in Paris on December 14...


While wartime figures were propagandized to reflect current political interests of involved parties, the most recent research places the number of victims at around 100,000–110,000 killed (civilians and military), and 1.8 million displaced (see Casualties).[8][9][10] Recent research have shown that most of the killed people (soldiers and civilians) during Bosnian War were Bosniaks (65%), with Serbs in second (25%) and Croats (8%) in third place.[11] Of the 97,207 documented casualties, 83 percent of civilian victims were Bosniaks, 10 percent were Serbs and more than 5 percent were Croats, followed by a small number of others such as Albanians or Romani people. The percentage of Bosniak victims would be higher had survivors of Srebrenica not reported 1,800 of their loved-ones as soldiers to access social services and other government benefits. The total figure of dead could rise by a maximum of another 10,000 for the entire country due to ongoing research. [12] [13] [14] [15] Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: BoÅ¡njaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Romani people (as a noun, singular Rom, plural Roma; sometimes Rrom, Rroma) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ...

Contents

Political situation before the war

Breakup of Yugoslavia

Main article: Breakup of Yugoslavia

The war in Bosnia and Herzegovina came about as a result of the breakup of Yugoslavia. Crisis emerged in Yugoslavia with the weakening of the Communist system at the end of the Cold War. In Yugoslavia, the national Communist party, officially called Alliance or League of Communists of Yugoslavia, was losing its ideological potency, while the nationalist and separatist ideologies were on the rise in the late 1980s. This was particularly noticeable in Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and to a lesser extent in Slovenia and Macedonia. An animated series of maps showing the breakup of the second Yugoslavia; The different colors represent the areas of control. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... SKJ flag in Serbo-Croat, with Latin script SKJ flag in Albanian SKJ flag in Hungarian SKJ flag in Italian SKJ flag in Macedonian SKJ flag in Slovenian League of Communists of Yugoslavia (Savez komunista Jugoslavije), before 1952 the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (Komunistička partija Jugoslavije), was a major... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Political separatism is a movement to obtain sovereignty and split a territory or group of people (usually a people with a distinctive national consciousness) from one another (or one nation from another; a colony from the metropolis). ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ...


In March 1989, the crisis in Yugoslavia deepened after adoption of amendments to the Serbian constitution. This allowed the Serbian republic's government to re-assert effective power over the autonomous provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina. Until that point, their decision-making had been independent. Each also had a vote on the Yugoslav federal level.[citation needed] Serbia, under president Slobodan Milošević, thus gained control over three out of eight votes in the Yugoslav presidency. With additional votes from Montenegro and, occasionally, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia was thus able to heavily influence decisions of the federal government. This situation led to objections in other republics and calls for reform of the Yugoslav Federation. For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ...


At the 14th Extraordinary Congress of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, on 20 January 1990, the delegations of the republics could not agree on the main issues in the Yugoslav federation. As a result, the Slovenian and Croatian delegates left the Congress. The Slovenian delegation, headed by Milan Kučan demanded democratic changes and a looser federation, while the Serbian delegation, headed by Milošević, opposed this. This is considered the beginning of the end of Yugoslavia. Milan Kučan Milan Kučan (born January 14, 1941) Slovene politician and statesman. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ...


Moreover, nationalist parties attained power in other republics. Among them, the Croatian Franjo Tuđman's Croatian Democratic Union was the most prominent. On December 22, 1990, the Parliament of Croatia adopted the new Constitution, taking away some of the rights from the Serbs granted by the previous Socialist constitution. This created ground for nationalist action among the indigenous Serbs of Croatia. Furthermore, Slovenia and Croatia shortly after began the process towards independence, which led to a short armed conflict in Slovenia, and all-out war in Croatia, in the areas that had a substantial Serb population. ‹ The template below (Foreignchar) is being considered for deletion. ... The Croatian Democratic Union (Croatian: Hrvatska demokratska zajednica, HDZ), is a major Croatian political party. ... The word Sabor redirects here. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Combatants Slovenia Territorial Defence SFR Yugoslavia Yugoslav Peoples Army Commanders Janez JanÅ¡a Veljko Kadijević Strength 16,000 Territorial Defence, 10,000 police 35,200 Yugoslav National Army personnel Casualties 18 killed, 182 wounded (official casualties) 44 killed, 146 wounded 5,000 prisoners (Slovenian Estimates) The Ten-Day War... Combatants Croatian military Paramilitary organisations Republic of Serb Krajina Army Yugoslav Peoples Army Bosnian Serb Army Republic of Serbia Paramilitary organisations Commanders Franjo TuÄ‘man (President of Croatia) Anton Tus (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1991-1992) Janko Bobetko (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1992-1995) Atif...


Karađorđevo agreement

Main article: Karađorđevo agreement

Following the declaration of independence, the Serbs attacked different parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The state administration of Bosnia and Herzegovina effectively ceased to function having lost control over the entire territory. The Serbs wanted all lands where Serbs had a majority, eastern and western Bosnia. The Croats and their leader Franjo Tuđman also aimed at securing parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina as Croatian. Secret discussions between Franjo Tuđman and Slobodan Milošević on the division of Bosnia and Herzegovina were held as early as March 1991 known as Karađorđevo agreement. The policies of the Republic of Croatia and its leader Franjo Tuđman towards Bosnia and Herzegovina were never totally transparent and always included Franjo Tuđman’s ultimate aim of expanding Croatia’s borders. [16] TuÄ‘man and MiloÅ¡ević discussing the carving up of Croatia and Bosnia- Herzegovina The KaraÄ‘orÄ‘evo agreement was an agreement between Croatian President Franjo TuÄ‘man and Serbian President Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević to redistribute Bosnia and Herzegovina between Croatia and Serbia. ... ‹ The template below (Foreignchar) is being considered for deletion. ... MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ... TuÄ‘man and MiloÅ¡ević discussing the carving up of Croatia and Bosnia- Herzegovina The KaraÄ‘orÄ‘evo agreement was an agreement between Croatian President Franjo TuÄ‘man and Serbian President Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević to redistribute Bosnia and Herzegovina between Croatia and Serbia. ...


The pre-war situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Ethnic map based on the 1991 census. The different colors show absolute majority in every settlement:      Serbs      Muslims      Croats      others      unknown or uninhabited      no majority
The distribution of the three main ethnic groups in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1991 by municipalities. Bosnian Serbs are shown in red, Bosniaks in green, and Bosnian Croats in blue. The post-Dayton Inter-Entity Boundary Line is shown in white.

Bosnia and Herzegovina has historically been a multi-ethnic state. In 1990, its population included approximately 43% of Bosniaks, 31% of Serbs, and 17% of Croats. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 649 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 739 pixel, file size: 215 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)BiH ethnic map my communinies in 1991 before the war File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 649 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 739 pixel, file size: 215 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)BiH ethnic map my communinies in 1991 before the war File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... 1991 Bosnia and Herzegovina Population Census was the last census of the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina taken before the Bosnian War. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Languages Serbo-Croat(Serbian, Bosnian, Croatian) Macedonian Religions Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups South Slavs Muslims by nationality (Muslimani, Муслимани) was a term used in Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to describe mainly native Slavic Muslims. ... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1213x1467, 155 KB) Summary Relationships between Bosnian constitutive nationalities, by census of 1991. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1213x1467, 155 KB) Summary Relationships between Bosnian constitutive nationalities, by census of 1991. ... Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: Bošnjaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ...


On the first multi-party elections that took place in November 1990 in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the three largest ethnic parties in the country won: the Bosniak Party of Democratic Action, the Serbian Democratic Party and the Croatian Democratic Union. The Party of Democratic Action (Stranka Demokratske Akcije) is a Bosniak nationalist political party in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... The Serbian Democratic Party (Serbian: Srpska Demokratska Stranka, SDS) is a Serbian nationalist political party in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... The Croatian Democratic Union (Croatian: Hrvatska demokratska zajednica, HDZ), is a major Croatian political party. ...


After the elections, they formed a coalition government. The primary motivation behind this union was to maintain an atmosphere of harmony and tolerance and further their common goal to rule as a democratic alternative to the Socialist government that preceded them[citation needed].


Parties divided the power along the ethnic lines so that the President of the Presidency of the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina was a Bosniak, president of the Parliament was a Bosnian Serb and the prime minister a Croat. Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Serbo-Croat: Socijalistička Republika Bosna i Hercegovina/Социјалистичка Pепублика Босна и Херцеговина) was a republic in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a south Slavic people mostly living in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina (where theyre one of the constitutive nations). ...


Establishment of the "Serb Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina"

The Serb members of parliament, consisting mainly of the Serb Democratic Party members, but also including some other party representatives (which would form the "Independent Members of Parliament Caucus"), abandoned the central parliament in Sarajevo, and formed the Assembly of the Serb People of Bosnia and Herzegovina on October 24, 1991, which marked the end of the tri-ethnic coalition that governed after the elections in 1990. This Assembly established the Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina on January 9, 1992, which became Republika Srpska in August 1992. The official aim of this act, stated in the original text of the Constitution of Republika Srpska, later amended, was to preserve the Yugoslav federation. Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... The Serb Democratic Party (Serbian: Srpska Demokratska Stranka, SDS) is a political party for Serbs in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Independent Members of Parliament Caucus (IMPC) was a group of members of the National Assembly of the Republika Srpska from 1992-1996, lead by Milorad Dodik, which later evolved into the Party of Independent Social Democrats. ... The National Assembly (Serbian Cyrillic: Народна Скупштина Републике Српске, Serbian Latin: Narodna SkupÅ¡tina Republike Srpske) is the legislative body of the Serb Republic. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Official language Serbian, Bosnian and Croatian Note: The Constitution of Republika Srpska avoids naming the languages, and lists the languages of Serbs, Bosniaks, and Croats. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Not to be confused with Serbia. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Establishment of the "Croat Community of Herzeg-Bosnia"

During the Yugoslav wars, the objectives of nationalists from Croatia were shared by Croat nationalists in Bosnia and Herzegovina. [17] The ruling party in the Republic of Croatia, the Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ), organized and controlled the branch of the party in Bosnia and Herzegovina. By the latter part of 1991, the more extreme elements of the party, under the leadership of Mate Boban, Dario Kordić, Jadranko Prlić, Ignac Koštroman and local leaders such as Anto Valenta[17], and with the support of Franjo Tuđman and Gojko Šušak, had taken effective control of the party. On November 18, 1991, the party branch in Bosnia and Herzegovina, proclaimed the existence of the Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia, as a separate "political, cultural, economic and territorial whole," on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina. [18] This does not cite any references or sources. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... The Croatian Democratic Union (Croatian: Hrvatska demokratska zajednica, HDZ), is a major Croatian political party. ... Mate Boban Mate Boban (1940 - July 7, 1997) was a Herzegovian Croat politician and leader of the Bosnian-Herzegovinian Croats during the Bosnian-Herzegovinian War. ... Dario Kordić was a Bosnian Croat politician and military commander of the HVO forces during 1991-1995. ... Jadranko Prlić is a Croatian politican who is among six defendants charged by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), in relation to the Croatian Republic of Herceg-Bosna. ... ‹ The template below (Foreignchar) is being considered for deletion. ... Gojko Å uÅ¡ak (April 16, 1945 – May 3, 1998) was Croatian Minister of Defence from 1991 to 1998 and President Franjo TuÄ‘mans closest associate and confidant. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ...


Independence referendum in Bosnia and Herzegovina

After Slovenia and Croatia declared independence from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1991, Bosnia and Herzegovina organized a referendum on independence as well. The decision of the Parliament of the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina on holding the referendum was taken after the majority of Serb members had left the assembly in protest. Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


These Bosnian Serb assembly members invited the Serb population to boycott the referendum held on February 29 and March 1, 1992. The turnout in the referendum was 67% and the vote was 99.43% in favor of independence. [19] Independence was declared on March 5, 1992 by the parliament. The referendum and the murder of a member of a wedding procession on the day before the referendum were utilized by the Serb political leadership as a reason to start road blockades in protest. Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


Cutileiro-Carrington Plan

The Carrington-Cutileiro peace plan, named for its creators Lord Peter Carrington and Portuguese Ambassador José Cutileiro, resulted from the EEC-hosted peace conference held in September 1991 in an attempt to prevent Bosnia and Herzegovina sliding into war. It proposed ethnic power-sharing on all administrative levels and the devolution of central government to local ethnic communities. However, all Bosnia and Herzegovina's districts would be classified as Bosniak, Serb or Croat under the plan, even where ethnic majority was not evident. Initially the plan was accepted by all three sides but eventually Alija Izetbegović (Bosnian Muslim leader and President of the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the majority Bosniak Party of Democratic Action) withdrew his consent. Peter Alexander Rupert Carington, 6th Baron Carrington, KG, GCMG, CH, MC, PC, JP, DL (born June 6, 1919), was British Foreign Secretary (1979–1982) and Secretary-General of NATO (1984–1988). ... Alija Izetbegović (August 8, 1925 – October 19, 2003) was a Bosniak activist, lawyer, author, philosopher and politician, who, in 1990, became the first president of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Serbo-Croat: Socijalistička Republika Bosna i Hercegovina/Социјалистичка Pепублика Босна и Херцеговина) was a republic in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... The Party of Democratic Action (Stranka Demokratske Akcije) is a Bosniak nationalist political party in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


Arms Embargo

On September 25, 1991 the United Nations Security Council passed UNSC Resolution 713 imposing an arms embargo on all of former Yugoslavia. The embargo hurt the Army of Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina the most because Serbia inherited the lion's share of the former JNA arsenal and the Croatian army could smuggle weapons through its coast. Over 55% of the armories and barracks of the former Yugoslavia were located in Bosnia owing to its mountainous terrain, in anticipation of a guerrilla war, but many of those factories were under Serbian control (such as the UNIS PRETIS factory in Vogošća), and others were inoperable due to a lack of electricity and raw materials. The Bosnian government lobbied to have the embargo lifted but that was opposed by the United Kingdom, France and Russia. The US congress passed two resolutions calling for the embargo to be lifted but both were vetoed by President Bill Clinton for fear of creating a rift between the US and the aforementioned countries. Nonetheless, America used both "black" C-130 transports and back channels including radical Islamist groups to smuggle weapons to the Bosnian government forces via Croatia. [20] is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area 72 km² Population (2002 census) 19,894 Population density Coordinates Area code +387 33 Mayor Asim Sarajlić (SDA) Website http://www. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... A black op is a black operation, a term used in political, military, intelligence, and business circles to refer to operations that are either secret (which may also be called a covert operation) or of questionable ethics or legality. ... // In telecommunications It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Return channel. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ...


The War

General information

Alija Izetbegović during his visit to the United States in 1997.

The Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) officially left Bosnia and Herzegovina on May 12, 1992 briefly after independence was declared in April 1992. However, most of the command chain, weaponry, and higher ranked military personnel, including general Ratko Mladić, remained in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Army of Republika Srpska. The Croats organized a defensive military formation of their own called the Croatian Defense Council (Hrvatsko Vijeće Obrane, HVO) as the armed forces of the self-proclaimed Herzeg-Bosnia. The Bosniaks mostly organized into the Army of Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Armija Republike Bosne i Hercegovine, Armija RBiH). This army had a number of non-Bosniaks (around 25%), especially in the 1st Corps in Sarajevo. The deputy commander of the Bosnian Army's Headquarters, was general Jovan Divjak, the highest ranking ethnic Serb in the Bosnian Army. General Stjepan Šiber, an ethnic Croat was the second deputy commander. President Izetbegović also appointed colonel Blaž Kraljević, commander of the Croatian Defence Forces in Herzegovina, to be a member of Bosnian Army's Headquarters, seven days before his assassination, in order to assemble multi-ethnic pro-Bosnian defence front.[21] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 437 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1810 × 2480 pixel, file size: 899 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Uploaded first to German Wikipedia [3] by St. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 437 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1810 × 2480 pixel, file size: 899 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Uploaded first to German Wikipedia [3] by St. ... The Yugoslav Peoples Army (YPA) (Serbo-Croatian: Jugoslovenska narodna armija or Jugoslavenska narodna armija; Serbian and Macedonian: Југословенска народна армија—JHA; Macedonian and Serbian Latin forms: Jugoslovenska narodna armija; Croatian and Bosnian: Jugoslavenska narodna armija—JNA; Slovene: Jugoslovanska ljudska armada—JLA) was the military force of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Ratko Mladić General Ratko Mladić during UN-mediated talks at Sarajevo airport in 1993. ... Bosnian Serb Army, officially Army of the Republika Srpska (Serbian Војска Републике Српске/Vojska Republike Srpske, ВРС/VRS) is the military of the Bosnian Serb political entity of Republika Srpska. ... The Croatian Defence Council (Croatian Hrvatsko vijeće obrane, HVO) was the main military unit of the Croats during the Bosnian War charged with achieving the military objectives of the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia. ... Coat of Arms of Herzeg-Bosnia Flag of Herzeg-Bosnia The Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia (locally Hrvatska Republika Herceg-Bosna) was an unrecognized entity in present day Bosnia and Herzegovina existing between 1991 and 1994 as a result of secessionist politics during the Bosnian War. ... now. ... Jovan Divjak (Born March 11, 1937 in Belgrade, Serbia) was a general in the Bosnian army during the 1992-1995 Bosnian War. ... Alija Izetbegović (August 8, 1925 – October 19, 2003) was a Bosniak activist, lawyer, author, philosopher and politician, who, in 1990, became the first president of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... For other uses, see Colonel (disambiguation). ... Blaž Kraljević (Born June 17, 1947 in LjubuÅ¡ki, Bosnia-Herzegovina -August 9, 1992 near Mostar, Bosnia-Herzegovina) was a Bosnian Croat paramilitary leader during the first few months of the Bosnian War. ... The Croatian Defence Forces (Croatian Hrvatska obrambene snage or HOS) was one of the first armed forces assembled by the Croats during the Croatian Homeland War and the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... This article is about the geographic area of Herzegovina. ...


Various paramilitary units were operating in Bosnian war: the Serb "White Eagles" (Beli Orlovi), Arkan's "Tigers", "Serbian Volunteer Guard" (Srpska Dobrovoljačka Garda), Bosniak "Patriotic League" (Patriotska Liga) and "Green Berets" (Zelene Beretke), and Croatian "Croatian Defense Forces" (Hrvatske Obrambene Snage), etc. The Serb and Croat paramilitaries involved a lot of volunteers from Serbia and Croatia, and were supported by right-wing political parties in those countries. Allegations exist about the involvement of the Serbian and Croatian secret police in the conflict. Forces of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina were divided in 5 corps'. 1st Corps operated at the region of Sarajevo and Gorazde while a stronger 5th Corps held out in western Bosanska Krajina pocket which cooperated with the HVO units in and around the city of Bihac. The Serbs received support from radical Christian Slavic fighters from countries including Russia. Greek volunteers are also reported to have taken part in the Srebrenica Massacre, with the Greek flag being hoisted in Srebrenica when the town fell to the Serbs.[22] Bosniaks received support from Islamic groups commonly known as "holy warriors" (Mujahideen).[23] Sholder patch of the paramilitary group the White Eagles. ... Sholder patch of the paramilitary group the White Eagles. ... Željko Ražnatović or in Serbian Cyrillic writing Жељко Ражњатовић, (April 17, 1952 - January 15, 2000), widely known as Arkan or Аркан, was a Serbian paramilitary leader, nationalistic politician, assembly... Arkan and his Tigers in Croatia, 1991. ... For other uses of the phrase, see Green Berets. ... Bosanska Krajina Region Bosanska Krajina (lit Bosnian Frontier) is a geographical region of Bosnia and Herzegovina enclosed by three rivers - Sava, Una and Vrbas. ... Bihać is a town on the Una river in the north-western part of Bosnia and Herzegovina, center of the Una-Sana Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Burial of 465 identified Bosniak civilians (July 11, 2007) Gravestone of a thirteen year old boy (July 11, 2007) A memorial to the victims of Srebrenica and other towns in Eastern Bosnia The Srebrenica Massacre, also known as Srebrenica Genocide,[1] was the July 1995 killing of an estimated 8... Flag ratio: 7:12 The Flag of Greece is based on nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating with white. ... Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: BoÅ¡njaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


Initially the Serb forces attacked the non-Serb civilian population in Eastern Bosnia. Once towns and villages were securely in their hands, the Serb forces - military, police, the paramilitaries and, sometimes, even Serb villagers – applied the same pattern: Bosniak houses and apartments were systematically ransacked or burnt down, Bosniak civilians were rounded up or captured, and sometimes beaten or killed in the process. Men and women were separated, with many of the men detained in the camps. The women were kept in various detention centres where they had to live in intolerably unhygienic conditions, where they were mistreated in many ways including being raped repeatedly. Serb soldiers or policemen would come to these detention centres, select one or more women, take them out and rape them.[24] The Serbs had the upper hand due to heavier weaponry (despite less manpower) that was given to them by the Yugoslav People's Army and established control over most areas where Serbs had relative majority but also in areas where they were a significant minority in both rural and urban regions excluding the larger towns of Sarajevo and Mostar. The Serb military and political leaders, from ICTY received the most accusations of war crimes many of which have been confirmed after the war in ICTY trials. Mostar (Мостар) is a city and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the center of the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation. ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ...


Most of the capital Sarajevo was predominantly held by the Bosniaks although the official Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina government continued to function in its relative multiethnic capacity. In the 44 months of the siege, the terror against Sarajevo and its residents varied in its intensity, but the purpose remained the same: to inflict the greatest possible suffering on the civilians in order to force the Bosnian authorities to accept the Serb demands.[25] The Army of Republika Srpska surrounded it (alternatively, the Serb forces situated themselves in the areas surrounding Sarajevo the so-called Ring around Sarajevo), deploying troops and artillery in the surrounding hills in what would become the longest siege in the history of modern warfare lasting nearly 4 years. See Siege of Sarajevo. Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... Bosnian Serb Army, officially Army of the Republika Srpska (Serbian Војска Републике Српске/Vojska Republike Srpske, ВРС/VRS) is the military of the Bosnian Serb political entity of Republika Srpska. ... Combatants ARBiH (1992-95)  NATO (1995) JNA (1992) VRS (1992-95) Commanders Jovan Divjak Mustafa Hajrulahović Vahid Karavelić Nedžad Ajnadžić Stanislav Galić (1992-94) Dragomir MiloÅ¡ević (1994-95) Strength 40,000 (1992) 30,000 (1992) The Siege of Sarajevo was the longest siege in the history of...


Numerous cease-fire agreements were signed, and breached again when one of the sides felt it was to their advantage. The United Nations repeatedly, but unsuccessfully attempted to stop the war and the much-touted Vance-Owen Peace Plan made little impact. UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Three major peace plans were offered before and during the Bosnian War by European Community (EC) and United Nations (UN) diplomats before the conflict was settled by the Dayton Agreement in 1995. ...


Chronology

1992

The first casualty in Bosnia is a point of contention between Serbs and Bosniaks. Serbs consider Nikola Gardović, a groom's father who was killed at a Serb wedding procession on the second day of the referendum, on March 1, 1992 in Sarajevo's old town Baščaršija, to be the first victim of the war. Bosniaks and Croats meanwhile consider the first casualties of the war before the independence to be Croat civilians massacred by JNA (later transformed in Army of Republika Srpska and Army of Serbia and Montenegro) in Ravno village in September 1991. Bosniaks also consider the first individual casualty of the war after the independence of Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina to be Suada Dilberović, who was shot during a peace march by unidentified gunmen on April 5 from a Serb sniper nest in a Holiday Inn hotel. Basčarsija Basčarsija is the old town part of Sarajevo. ... The Yugoslav Peoples Army (Jugoslavenska/Jugoslovenska narodna armija, JNA, Slovene Jugoslovanska ljudska armada, JLA) was the army of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia prior to its dissolution. ... Bosnian Serb Army, officially Army of the Republika Srpska (Serbian Војска Републике Српске/Vojska Republike Srpske, ВРС/VRS) is the military of the Bosnian Serb political entity of Republika Srpska. ... The military of Serbia and Montenegro includes the Army of Serbia and Montenegro (Vojska Srbije i Crne Gore - VSCG), which includes ground forces with internal and border troops, naval forces, air and air defense forces, and civil defense. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area 447km² Population (1991 census) 527 Population density Coordinates Area code +387 36 Mayor Andrija Å imunović (HDZ) Website Ravno is a town and the seat of its municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Suada Dilberović (born 1968 in Dubrovnik, Croatia - died April 5, 1992 in Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina) was a Bosniak medical student at the University of Sarajevo who became the first person in Sarajevo to be killed during the Bosnian War. ...


Note that this was not actually the start of the war-related activities on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On September 30, 1991, the Yugoslav People's Army destroyed a small village of Ravno located in Herzegovina, inhabited by Croats, during the course of its siege of the city of Dubrovnik (which was on the territory of Croatia itself). On September 19, the JNA moved some extra troops to the area around the city of Mostar, which was publicly protested by the local government. Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area 447km² Population (1991 census) 527 Population density Coordinates Area code +387 36 Mayor Andrija Å imunović (HDZ) Website Ravno is a town and the seat of its municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Nickname: 1995 map of Dubrovnik The location of Dubrovnik within Croatia Coordinates: , Country County Government  - Mayor Dubravka Å uica (HDZ) Area  - City 143. ... Mostar (Мостар) is a city and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the center of the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation. ...

Vedran Smailovic playing in the destroyed building of the National Library in Sarajevo, 1992. Photo by Mikhail Evstafiev
Manjača camp detainees in 1992

During the months of March-April-May 1992 fierce attacks raged in eastern Bosnia as well as the northwestern part of the country. In March attacks by the SDS leaders, together with field officers of the Second Military Command of former JNA, were conducted in eastern part of the country with the objective to take strategically relevant positions and carry out a communication and information blockade. Attacks carried out resulted in a large number of dead and wounded civilians.[26] Image File history File links Evstafiev-bosnia-cello. ... Image File history File links Evstafiev-bosnia-cello. ... The sky over the city where we were happy by Mikhail Evstafiev, oil on canvas, 2006 Mikhail Aleksandrovich Evstafiev (Russian: Михаил Александрович Евстафьев; born in 1963), is a Russian artist, photographer, writer. ... Image File history File links Manjaca_camp. ... Image File history File links Manjaca_camp. ... Manjača camp detainees in 1992 Manjača camp (pronounced:Mañacha) was a detention camp (also refered to as prison and concentration camp) on mountain Manjača near the city of Banja Luka in northern Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Bosnian War from 1992 to 1995. ...


JNA under control of Serbia was able to take over 70% of the country during these months. Much of this is due to the fact that they were much better armed and organized than the Bosniak and Bosnian Croat forces. Attacks also included areas of mixed ethnic composition. Doboj, Foča, Rogatica, Vlasenica, Bratunac, Zvornik, Prijedor, Sanski Most, Kljuc, Brcko, Derventa, Modrica, Bosanska Krupa, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Novi,Glamoc, Bosanski Petrovac, Cajnice, Bijeljina, Višegrad, and parts of Sarajevo are all areas where Serbs established control and expelled Bosniaks and Croats. Also areas in which were more ethnically homogeneous and were spared from major fighting such as Banja Luka, Bosanska Dubica, Bosanska Gradiska, Bileca, Gacko, Han Pijesak, Kalinovik, Nevesinje, Trebinje, Rudo saw their non-Serb populations expelled. Similarly, the regions of central Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo, Zenica, Maglaj, Zavidovici, Bugojno, Mostar, Konjic, etc.) saw the flight of its Serb population, migrating to the Serb-held areas of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Yugoslav Peoples Army (Jugoslavenska/Jugoslovenska narodna armija, JNA, Slovene Jugoslovanska ljudska armada, JLA) was the army of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia prior to its dissolution. ... View of Doboj from the fortress 14th Century Doboj Fortress, reconstructed in 2006, with a wooden stage added during reconstruction Doboj (Cyrillic: Добој) is a city and a municipality in Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina, situated on the river Bosna. ... Foča (Serbian: Фоча), known from 1992 to 2004 as Srbinje (Србиње), is a town in southeastern Bosnia and Herzegovina near Drina river, in the Herzegovina region of Republika Srpska entity. ... Ja živim u Rogatica. ... Location of Vlasenica within Bosnia and Herzegovina Country Government  - Mayor Dragomir Stupar (SNSD) [1] Population (1991)  - Total 33,817  - Municipality ? Time zone CET (UTC+1)  - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2) Area code(s) 56 Serbian Orthodox church Vlasenica (Cyrillic: Власеница) is a municipality and town in the northeastern part of Republika... Coat of Arms Bratunac (Братунац) is a town located at the east border of Bosnia, southwest of the Drina river and north of Srebrenica. ... Zvornik Monument in Zvornik dedicated to the Serbian soldiers and civilians of the 1992-95 war Zvornik (Cyrillic: Зворник) is a city on the Drina river in northeastern Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina, located south of Bijeljina. ... Prijedor (Serbian Cyrillic: Приједор) is a town and municipality in northwestern Bosnia and Herzegovina, located in the Republika Srpska entity. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area 781 km2 Population (1991 census) 60,307 Population density Coordinates Area code +387 37 Mayor Sanjin Halimović (SDA) Website http://www. ... Ključ is a town and municipality by the same name in western Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Map showing the location of the Brčko District within Bosnia and Herzegovina (in red, upper right corner) Brcko District map Brčko or Брчко (in Serbian Cyrillic) is a city in northern Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Derventa (Cyrillic: Дервента) is a town and municipality in the northern part of Republika Srpska which is part of Bosnia-Herzegovina, located just northwest of Doboj, in the Posavina region. ... The title given to this article lacks diacritics because of certain technical limitations. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area Population (1991 census) 58,320 Population density Coordinates Area code +387 35 Mayor Hamdija GroÅ¡ić (SDA) Website http://www. ... Bosanski Brod (Serbian: Босански Брод or Bosanski Brod; Bosnian: Bosanski Brod; Croatian: Bosanski Brod) also known as Brod (Брод), formerly known as Srpski Brod (Српски Брод), is a town and municipality located on the right bank of the river Sava in the north of Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... ... Location of Glamoc in BiH Glamoč Glamoč is a town and municipality of the same name in western Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area Population (1991 census) 15,621 Population density Coordinates Area code +387 37 Mayor Dragan Kecman (SNSD) Website A post-war postcard from Bosanski Petrovac Bosanski Petrovac (Босански Петровац) is a town in western Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Location in Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Municipality president VukaÅ¡in Tadić (SDS) Land area Population (1991 census) 8,919 Population density Coordinates Area code +387 58 Subdivisions Website ÄŒajniče (Serbian Cyrillic: Чајниче) is a town and municipality in Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Bijeljina (Serbian Cyrillic: Бијељина) is a town and municipality in northeastern Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Not to be confused with VyÅ¡ehrad, Visegrád, or Visegrad. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity Republika Srpska Land area 15,000km² Population (1991 census) 195,139 230,000 Population density 126,8/km2 Coordinates Area code +387 51 Mayor Dragoljub Davidović (SNSD) Website http://www. ... Bosanska Dubica, Kozarska Dubica, or simply Dubica (called Bosanska Dubica by Bosnians, Козарска Дубицa by Serbians, and once again Bosanska Dubica by Croatians) is a town located in Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Bosanska Gradiška. ... Bileća (Билећа) is a town and municipality in the southeast of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Gacko (Cyrillic: Гацко) is a town and municipality by the same name in southeastern Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Han Pijesak (Хан Пијесак) is a town and municipality in Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Kalinovik (Калиновик) is a town and municipality in Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Shield of Nevesinje Nevesinje (Serbian Cyrillic: Невесиње) is a town and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina, located in eastern Herzegovina between Mostar and Gacko. ... Trebinje (Cyrillic: Требиње) is the southern-most municipality and town in Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Rudo is a municipality in eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina near the border of Sandžak, Serbia. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... Coat of arms [[Image:{{{image_coat_of_arms}}}|100px|Coat of arms]] Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina [[Image:{{{image_map}}}|150px|center|Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina highlighting the town or municipality location]] General Information Entity Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Land area 499,7 km² Population 170,000 (estimate) Population density 293/km... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area Population Population density Coordinates Area code +387 32 Mayor Mehmed MustabaÅ¡ić (SDA) Website http://www. ... . Zavidovići is a town in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Canton 6 Land area 366 km² Population 2002 46496 Population density 128/km² Coordinates Area code +387 30 Mayor Hasan Ajkunić (SDA) Website http://www. ... Mostar (Мостар) is a city and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the center of the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation. ... Shield of Konjic with the Neretva river Municipality of Konjic (marked green) Konjic is a town and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina situated on the Neretva river. ...


In June 1992, the United Nations Protection Force which had originally been deployed in Croatia had its mandate extended into Bosnia and Herzegovina, initially to protect the Sarajevo International Airport. In September, the role of the UNPROFOR was expanded in order to protect humanitarian aid and assist in the delivery of the relief in the whole Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as aid in the protection of civilian refugees when required by the Red Cross. Pocket badge of the UNPROFOR The United Nations Protection Force, UNPROFOR, were the primary UN peacekeeping troops in Croatia and in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Yugoslav wars. ... Sarajevo International Airport (IATA: SJJ, ICAO: LQSA) is the main international airport in Bosnia and Herzegovina, located just a few kilometers southwest of the capital city of Sarajevo. ... The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is historically a committee of Swiss nationals, although non-Swiss nationals have recently been allowed (the committee appoints new members to itself to replace those who resign or die) which leads the international Red Cross movement (often simply known after its symbol...


Gornji Vakuf and Novi Travnik were initially attacked by Croats on June 20, 1992, but the attack failed. The Graz agreement caused deep division inside the Croat community and strengthened the separation group, which led to the conflict with Bosniaks. One of the primary pro-union Croat leaders, Blaž Kraljević (leader of the HOS armed group) was killed by HVO soldiers in August 1992, which severely weakened the moderate group who hoped to keep the Bosnian Croat alliance alive[27]. Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area 402,7 km² Population (1991 census) 25,130 Population density (1991 census) 6. ... Novi Travnik is a town in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... The Graz agreement was a military pact signed between Croatian President Franjo TuÄ‘man and Serbian President Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević on April 27th , 1992 in the town of Graz, Austria. ... Blaž Kraljević (Born June 17, 1947 in LjubuÅ¡ki, Bosnia-Herzegovina -August 9, 1992 near Mostar, Bosnia-Herzegovina) was a Bosnian Croat paramilitary leader during the first few months of the Bosnian War. ... The Croatian Defence Forces (Croatian Hrvatska obrambene snage or HOS) was one of the first armed forces assembled by the Croats during the Croatian Homeland War and the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


In October of 1992 the Serbs captured the city of Jajce and expelled the Croat and Bosniak population. The fall of the city was largely due to a lack of Bosniak-Croat cooperation and rising tensions, especially over the past four months. Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area Population (1991 census) 45,007 Population density Area code +387 30 Mayor Nisvet Hrnjić (SDA) Website http://www. ...


1993

Vance-Owen Peace Plan
Serb - red
Croat - blue
Bosniak - green
Split control - white

On January 8, 1993 the Serbs killed the deputy prime minister of Bosnia Hakija Turajlić after stopping the UN convoy which was taking him from the airport. On May 15-16 96% of Serbs voted to reject the Vance-Owen plan. After the failure of the Vance-Owen peace plan, which practically intended to divide the country into three ethnic parts, an armed conflict sprung between Bosniaks and Croats over the 30 percent of Bosnia they held. The peace plan was one of the factors leading to the escalation of the conflict, as Lord Owen avoided moderate Croat authorities (pro-unified Bosnia) and negotiated directly with more extreme elements (which were for separation).[28] Image File history File links Map_of_Vance-Owen_peace_plan. ... Image File history File links Map_of_Vance-Owen_peace_plan. ... Three major peace plans were offered before and during the Bosnian War by European Community (EC) and United Nations (UN) diplomats before the conflict was settled by the Dayton Agreement in 1995. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Hakija Turajlić (1937 - January 8, 1993) was a Bosnian politician and businessman who served as the deputy Prime Minister of Bosnia and Herzegovina until he was murdered in 1993. ... Escalation is the phenomenon of something getting worse step by step, for example a quarrel, or, notably, military presence and nuclear armament during the Cold War. ... David Anthony Llewellyn Owen, Baron Owen, PC (born July 2, 1938), is a British politician. ...


Much of 1993 was dominated by the Croat-Bosniak war that became more serious in October 1992 when Croat forces attacked Bosniak civilian population in Prozor burning their homes and killing civilians. On January 1993 Croat forces attacked Gornji Vakuf again in order to connect Herzegovina with Central Bosnia. Combatants  Bosnia and Herzegovina Volunteers from Islamic countries Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia  Croatia Volunteers from Western Europe Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim Delić (Army chief of Staff 1993-1995) Franjo TuÄ‘man (President of Croatia) Mate Boban... Prozor is a town in Rama, Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


The Lašva Valley ethnic cleansing campaign against Bosniak civilians planned by the Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia's political and military leadership from May 1992 to March 1993 and erupting the following April, was meant to implement objectives set forth by Croat nationalists in November of 1991.[17] The Lašva Valley's Bosniaks were subjected to persecution on political, racial and religious grounds[29], deliberately discriminated against in the context of a widespread attack on the region's civilian population[30] and suffered mass murder, rape, imprisonment in camps, as well as the destruction of cultural sites and private property. This was often followed by anti-Bosniak propaganda, particularly in the municipalities of Vitez, Busovača, Novi Travnik and Kiseljak. The LaÅ¡va Valley ethnic cleansing, also known as the LaÅ¡va Valley case, refers to numerous war crimes committed during the Bosnian war by the Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnias political and military leadership on Bosnian Muslim (Bosniak) civilians in the LaÅ¡va Valley region of Bosnia-Herzegovina. ... Flag Self-proclaimed Croatian entity in Bosnia and Herzegovina Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia show in dark blue Capital Mostar Government Republic Governors (1992-1994)  - Croatian zone of Bosnia and Herzegovina Mate Boban Historical era Yugoslav wars  - Breakup of Yugoslavia June 25, 1991  - Secessions June 25, 1991 - April 27, 1992  - Proclamation... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ... Leader redirects here. ... For other uses, see May (disambiguation). ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... For other uses, see November (disambiguation). ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about race as an intraspecies classification. ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... Mass murder (massacre) is the act of murdering a large number of people, typically at the same time, or over a relatively short period of time. ... A prison is a place in which people are confined and deprived of a range of liberties. ... Camp may mean: Gatherings of people: Campsite Temporary settlement of a band of foragers. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... Shield of Vitez Vitez (Serbian: Витез) is a town in central Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Busovača is a small town in the heart of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Novi Travnik is a town in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area 164 km² Population (1991 census) 24,426 Population density Area code +387 30 Mayor Mladen MiÅ¡urić (HDZ) Website http://www. ...


The Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia took control of many municipal governments and services in Herzegovina as well, removing or marginalising local Bosniak leaders. Herzeg-Bosnia took control of the media and imposed Croatian ideas and propaganda. Croatian symbols and currency were introduced, and Croatian curricula and the Croatian language were introduced in schools. Many Bosniaks and Serbs were removed from positions in government and private business; humanitarian aid was managed and distributed to the Bosniaks' and Serbs' disadvantage; and Bosniaks in general were increasingly harassed. Many of them were deported into concentration camps: Heliodrom, Dretelj, Gabela, Vojno and Šunje. Flag Self-proclaimed Croatian entity in Bosnia and Herzegovina Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia show in dark blue Capital Mostar Government Republic Governors (1992-1994)  - Croatian zone of Bosnia and Herzegovina Mate Boban Historical era Yugoslav wars  - Breakup of Yugoslavia June 25, 1991  - Secessions June 25, 1991 - April 27, 1992  - Proclamation... This article is about the geographic area of Herzegovina. ... IDEA may refer to: Electronic Directory of the European Institutions IDEA League Improvement and Development Agency Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Indian Distance Education Association Integrated Data Environments Australia Intelligent Database Environment for Advanced Applications IntelliJ IDEA - a Java IDE Interactive Database for Energy-efficient Architecture International IDEA (International Institute... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... Heliodrom Camp was Croat run concentration camp during the Bosnian War. ...


The Croat-Bosniak alliance held in some areas of Bosnia, notably Bihać pocket (northwest Bosnia) and the Bosanska Posavina (north), where both were heavily outmatched by Serb forces. This conflict caused the creation of more ethnic enclaves and further bloodshed.


Mostar was also surrounded by the Croat forces for nine months, and much of its historic city was severely destroyed in shelling including the famous Stari Most bridge. Mostar (Мостар) is a city and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the center of the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation. ... Shells of WWI. From left to right: 90 mm fragmentation shell - 120 mm pig iron incendiary shell 77/14 model - 75 mm high explosive shell model 16 - 75 mm fragmentation shell A shell is a payload-carrying projectile, which, as opposed to a bullet, contains an explosive or other filling... Panorama of Old Bridge in Mostar, June 2006 Stari Most (English translation: The Old Bridge) is a 16th century bridge in the city of Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina that crosses the river Neretva and connects two parts of the city. ...


Bosnian Army launched an operation known as Neretva 93 against the Croatian Defence Council and Croatian Army in September 1993 in order to end the siege of Mostar and to recapture areas of Herzegovina, which were included in self-proclaimed Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia. The operation was stopped by Bosnian authorities after it received the information about the incidents against Croat civilians and POWs in villages of Grabovica and Uzdol. Crest of Army of The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... The Croatian Defence Council (Croatian Hrvatsko vijeće obrane, HVO) was the main military unit of the Croats during the Bosnian War charged with achieving the military objectives of the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia. ... Croatian Ground Army (Croatian: Hrvatska kopnena vojska), commonly referred as Croatian Army (Hrvatska vojska) is a branch of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia. ... For other uses, see September (disambiguation). ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... Mostar (Мостар) is a city and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the center of the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation. ... Flag Self-proclaimed Croatian entity in Bosnia and Herzegovina Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia show in dark blue Capital Mostar Government Republic Governors (1992-1994)  - Croatian zone of Bosnia and Herzegovina Mate Boban Historical era Yugoslav wars  - Breakup of Yugoslavia June 25, 1991  - Secessions June 25, 1991 - April 27, 1992  - Proclamation...


The Croat leadership (Jadranko Prlić, Bruno Stojić, Slobodan Praljak, Milivoj Petković, Valentin Ćorić and Berislav Pušić) is presently on trial at the ICTY on charges including crimes against humanity, grave breaches of the Geneva conventions and violations of the laws or customs of war. Dario Kordić, political leader of Croats in Central Bosnia was convicted of the crimes against humanity in Central Bosnia i.e. ethnic cleansing and sentenced to 25 years in prison. [31] Bosnian commander Sefer Halilović was charged with one count of violation of the laws and customs of war on the basis of superior criminal responsibility of the incidents during Neretva 93 and found not guilty. Jadranko Prlić is a Croatian politican who is among six defendants charged by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), in relation to the Croatian Republic of Herceg-Bosna. ... Bruno Stojić at the ICTY Bruno Stojić is a Bosnian-Croat politician who is among six defendants charged by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) Bruno Stojić was born on 8 April, 1955 in the village of Hamzići in the then Socialist Republic of Bosnia and... Slobodan Praljak at the ICTY Slobodan Praljak is a Croatian politican who is amoung six defendants charged by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), in relation to the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia. ... Milivoj Petković at the ICTY Milivoj Petković is a Croatian army officer who is amoung six defendants charged by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), in relation to the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia. ... Valentin Coric at the ICTY Valentin Corić is a Croatian politican who is among six defendants charged by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) Background Valentin Corić was born on 23 June, 1956 in the village of Paoca, near ÄŒitluk, in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Berislav PuÅ¡ić at the ICTY Berislav PuÅ¡ić is a Croatian politician who was among 6 Croatian defendants charged by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) Berislav PuÅ¡ić aka Berto or Berko was born on 8 June 1952 in the village of Krivodol, in Mostar. ... The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia is a body of the United Nations established to prosecute war crimes in the former Yugoslavia. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Dario Kordić was a Bosnian Croat politician and military commander of the HVO forces during 1991-1995. ... This article is in need of attention. ... For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ... Sefer Halilović (born January 6, 1952) is a high-ranked general from Bosnia and Herzegovina, currently a war crimes suspect. ...


In an attempt to protect the civilians, UNPROFOR's role was further extended in 1993 to protect the "safe havens" that it had declared around a number of towns including Sarajevo, Goražde and Srebrenica. Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Canton Bosnian Podrinje Canton Land area 252 km² Population 1999 36496 Population density 144,8/km² Coordinates Area code +387 38 Mayor Mustafa Kurtović (SDA) Website http://www. ... Location of Srebrenica within the Bosnia and Herzegovina Country Settlements 81 Government  - Mayor Abdurahman Malkić (SDA) [1] Area  - Total 527 km² (203. ...


1994

In 1994, NATO became actively involved, when its jets shot down four Serb aircraft over central Bosnia on February 28 1994 violating the UN no-fly zone. This article is about the military alliance. ... Combatants Bosnian Serb Army USAF Strength 6 G-4 Super Galeb 4+ F-16 Casualties 4 aircraft destroyed, pilots fate unknown none The Banja Luka incident, February 28, 1994, was an incident in which six Bosnian Serb Army-owned G-4 Super Galeb fighter jets were engaged four of them... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Croat-Bosniak war officially ended on February 23, 1994 when the Commander of HVO, general Ante Roso and commander of Bosnian Army, general Rasim Delić, signed a ceasefire agreement in Zagreb. In March 1994 a peace agreement mediated by the USA between the warring Croats (represented by Republic of Croatia) and Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina was signed in Washington and Vienna which is known as the Washington Agreement. Under the agreement, the combined territory held by the Croat and Bosnian government forces was divided into ten autonomous cantons, establishing the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This effectively ended the war between Croats and Bosniaks, and narrowed the warring parties down to two. is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan Bandić Area [1]  - Total 641. ... Motto: none Anthem: Intermeco Capital Sarajevo Largest city Sarajevo Official language(s) Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian Government Presidents Prime Minister Federal republic Sulejman Tihić1 (Bosniak) Borislav Paravac (Serb) Ivo Miro Jović (Croat) Adnan Terzic Independence From Yugoslavia Declared 5 April 1992 Area  - Total    - Water (%)   51,129 km² (124th) 19,741... In March and May 1994, a peace agreement was mediated between the warring Bosnian Croats and the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and signed in Washington and Vienna. ... The location of the FBiH entity as part of the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Europe. ...


1995

The war continued through most of 1995.


In July 1995. Serb troops under general Ratko Mladić, occupied the UN "safe area" of Srebrenica in eastern Bosnia where around 8,000 men were killed (most women were expelled to Bosniak-held territory and some of them were killed and raped).[32] The ICTY ruled this event as genocide in the case Prosecutor vs. Krstić. Location of Srebrenica within the Bosnia and Herzegovina Country Settlements 81 Government  - Mayor Abdurahman Malkić (SDA) [1] Area  - Total 527 km² (203. ... Burial of 465 identified Bosniak civilians (July 11, 2007) Gravestone of a thirteen year old boy (July 11, 2007) A memorial to the victims of Srebrenica and other towns in Eastern Bosnia The Srebrenica Massacre, also known as Srebrenica Genocide,[1] was the July 1995 killing of an estimated 8... The Tribunal building in The Hague. ...

Standing, from left to right: Felipe Gonzalez, Bill Clinton, Jacques Chirac, Helmut Kohl, John Major, Viktor Chernomyrdin. Seated from left to right: Slobodan Milošević, Franjo Tuđman, Alija Izetbegovic signing the final peace agreement in Paris on December 14, 1995.

In line with the Croat-Bosniak agreement, Croatian forces operated in western Bosnia (Operation Summer '95) and in early August launched Operation Storm, taking over the Serb Krajina in Croatia. With this, the Bosniak-Croat alliance gained the initiative in the war, taking much of western Bosnia from the Serbs in several operations, including: Mistral and Sana. These forces now came to threaten the Bosnian Serb capital Banja Luka with direct ground attack. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2023x1409, 221 KB) Summary NATO press Service Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2023x1409, 221 KB) Summary NATO press Service Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Felipe González Márquez (March 5, 1942). ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... “Chirac” redirects here. ... Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (born April 3, 1930) is a German conservative politician and statesman. ... For other persons named John Major, see John Major (disambiguation). ... Viktor Stepanovich Chernomyrdin (Russian: Ви́ктор Степа́нович Черномы́рдин) (born April 9, 1938) is a Russian politician. ... MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ... ‹ The template below (Foreignchar) is being considered for deletion. ... Alija Izetbegović, former president of Bosnia and Herzegovina Alija Izetbegović (August 8, 1925 - October 19, 2003) was a Bosnian Muslim activist, philosopher, and politician, president of Bosnia and Herzegovina from 1990 to 1996 and member of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina from 1996 to 2000, and author... Combatants Croatia (HV, HVO) Republika Srpska (VRS) Commanders General Ante Gotovina (HV) Strength Two HV Guard Brigades (4th Motorized, 7th Mechanized) Two HVO Guard Brigades (1st, 3rd Motorized) Other units Units of the 2nd Krajina Corps of the VRS (3 motorized brigades, 5 infantry brigades, 5 light brigades and support... Combatants Croatia (HV) Bosnia and Herzegovina (ABiH) Republic of Serbian Krajina (VSK) Republika Srpska (VRS) Commanders Zvonimir ÄŒervenko (HV) Atif Dudakovic (ABiH) Mile MrkÅ¡ić (VSK) Strength 150,000 soldiers, 350 tanks, 400 artillery pieces, 50 rocket launchers, 50 aircraft and helicopters 40,000 soldiers, 150 tanks, 350 artillery pieces... Self-proclaimed Serbian entity in Croatia Republic of Serbian Krajina show in red Capital Knin Government Republic Governors (1990-1995) Milan Babić Goran Hadžić  - Serbian zone of Croatia Milan Martić Historical era Yugoslav wars  - Breakup of Yugoslavia 1990-June 25, 1991  - Creation of SAO Krajina December 21, 1990  - Secession... Combatants Croatia (HV, HVO) Republika Srpska (VRS) Commanders General Ante Gotovina (HV) Strength Two HV Guard Brigades (4th Motorized, 7th Mechanized) Two HVO Guard Brigades (1st, 3rd Motorized) Other units Units of the 2nd Krajina Corps of the VRS (3 motorized brigades, 5 infantry brigades, 5 light brigades and support... Combatants ARBiH VRS Commanders Atif Dudakovic Zeljko Raznatovic Strength 25,000 20,000-30,000 est. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity Republika Srpska Land area 15,000km² Population (1991 census) 195,139 230,000 Population density 126,8/km2 Coordinates Area code +387 51 Mayor Dragoljub Davidović (SNSD) Website http://www. ...


The second Markale massacre occurred and NATO responded by opening wide air strikes against Bosnian Serb infrastructure and units in September. Photograph from the scene, shortly after one of the massacres. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... “Operation Deliberate Force” was a sustained air campaign conducted by NATO to undermine the military capability of Bosnian Serb who threatened or attacked UN designated safe areas in Bosnia. ...


At that point, the international community pressured Milošević, Tuđman and Izetbegović to the negotiation table and finally the war ended with the Dayton Peace Agreement signed on November 21, 1995. The final version of the peace agreement was signed December 14, 1995 in Paris.
The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, also known as the Dayton Agreement, Dayton Accords, Paris Protocol or Dayton-Paris Agreement, is the peace agreement reached at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio in November 1995, and formally signed in Paris on December 14... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Casualties

The death toll after the war was originally estimated at around 200,000 by the Bosnian government. They also recorded around 1,326,000 refugees and exiles.


Research done by Tibeau and Bijak in 2004 determined a number of 102,000 deaths and estimated the following breakdown: 55,261 were civilians and 47,360 were soldiers. Of the civilians: 16,700 were Serbs while 38,000 were Bosniaks and Croats. Of the soldiers, 14,000 were Serbs, 6,000 were Croats, and 28,000 were Bosniaks.[33]


Another research was conducted by the Sarajevo-based Research and Documentation Center (RDC) that was based on creating lists and databases, rather than providing estimates. ICTY's Demographic Unit in the Hague, provide a similar total death toll, but a somewhat different ethnic distribution.[34] As of October 2006 the count of the number of casualties has reached 97,884.[35] Further research is ongoing. Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... The Research and Documentation Center (RDC) is an independent, non-governmental, non-profit, professional and non-partisan institution. ... The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia is a body of the United Nations established to prosecute war crimes in the former Yugoslavia. ... Arms of The Hague The Hague (with capital T; Dutch: Den Haag, or officially s-Gravenhage) is the administrative capital of the Netherlands, located in the west of the country, in the province South Holland of which it is also the capital. ...


On June 21 2007, the Research and Documentation Center in Sarajevo published the most extensive research on Bosnia-Herzegovina's war casualties titled: The Bosnian Book of the Dead - a database that reveals 97,207 names of Bosnia and Herzegovina's citizens killed and missing during the 1992-1995 war. An international team of experts evaluated the findings before they were released. More than 240,000 pieces of data have been collected, processed, checked, compared and evaluated by international team of experts in order to get the final number of more than 97,000 of names of victims, belonging to all nationalities. Of the 97,207 documented casualties in Bosnia-Herzegovina, 83 percent of civilian victims were Bosniaks, 10 percent of civilian victims were Serbs and more than 5 percent of civilian victims were Croats, followed by a small number of others such as Albanians or Romani people. The percentage of Bosniak victims would be higher had survivors of Srebrenica not reported their loved-ones as 'soldiers' to access social services and other government benefits. The total figure of dead could rise by a maximum of another 10,000 for the entire country due to ongoing research. [36] [37] is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Research and Documentation Center (RDC) is an independent, non-governmental, non-profit, professional and non-partisan institution. ... Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: Bošnjaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Romani people (as a noun, singular Rom, plural Roma; sometimes Rrom, Rroma) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ...


Large discrepancies in all these estimates are generally due to the inconsistent definitions of who can be considered victims of the war. Some research calculated only direct casualties of the military activity while other also calculated indirect casualties, such as those who died from harsh living conditions, hunger, cold, illnesses or other accidents indirectly caused by the war conditions. Original higher numbers were also used as many victims were listed twice or three times both in civilian and military columns as little or no communication and systematic coordination of these lists could take place in wartime conditions. Manipulation with numbers is today most often used by historical revisionist to change the character and the scope of the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina. However, most of above independent studies have not been accredited by either government involved in the conflict and there are no single official results that are acceptable to all sides.


It should not be discounted that there were also significant casualties on the part of International Troops in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Some 320 soldiers of UNPROFOR were killed during this conflict in Bosnia. Pocket badge of the UNPROFOR The United Nations Protection Force, UNPROFOR, were the primary UN peacekeeping troops in Croatia and in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Yugoslav wars. ...

Casualty figures according to the Demographic Unit at the ICTY
Total
102,622
Bosniaks & Croats c. 72,000
Serbs c. 30,700
Total civilians
55,261
Bosniaks & Croats c. 38,000
Serbs c. 16,700
Total soldiers
47,360
Bosniaks c. 28,000
Serbs c. 14,000
Croats c. 6,000
Casualty figures according to RDC
(as reported in March 2006)
Total
96,175
Bosniaks 63,994 66.5%
Serbs 24,206 25.2%
Croats 7,338 7.6%
other 637 0.7%
Total civilians
38,645
Bosniaks 32,723 84.7%
Serbs 3,555 9.2%
Croats 1,899 4.9%
others 466 1.2%
Total soldiers
57,529
Bosniaks 31,270 54.4%
Serbs 20,649 35.9%
Croats 5,439 9.5%
others 171 0.3%
unconfirmed 4,000

























Ethnic cleansing

Ethnic cleansing was a common phenomenon in the war. This typically entailed intimidation, forced expulsion and/or killing of the undesired ethnic group as well as the destruction or removal of the physical vestiges of the ethnic group, such as places of worship, cemeteries and cultural and historical buildings. According to numerous ICTY verdicts, Serb[38] and Croat[31] forces performed ethnic cleansing of their territories planned by their political leadership in order to create ethnically pure states (Republika Srpska and Herzeg-Bosnia). Furthermore, Serb forces committed genocide in Srebrenica at the end of the war.[39] For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ... Not to be confused with Serbia. ... Coat of Arms of Herzeg-Bosnia Flag of Herzeg-Bosnia The Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia (locally Hrvatska Republika Herceg-Bosna) was an unrecognized entity in present day Bosnia and Herzegovina existing between 1991 and 1994 as a result of secessionist politics during the Bosnian War. ... The Srebrenica genocide occured in July of 1995, which resulted in the killing of more than eight thousand Bosniak men and boys, ranging in age from teenagers to the elderly, in the region of Srebrenica by the Serb army of general Ratko Mladić and the Serbian army from Yugoslavia. ...


Based on the evidence of numerous HVO attacks, the ICTY Trial Chamber concluded in the Kordić and Čerkez case that by April 1993 Croat leadership had a common design or plan conceived and executed to ethnically cleanse Bosniaks from the Lašva Valley in Central Bosnia. Dario Kordić, as the local political leader, was found to be the planner and instigator of this plan. [40] Dario Kordić was a Bosnian Croat politician and military commander of the HVO forces during 1991-1995. ...


Galleries

Gallery of maps

Notes

  1. ^ ICTY: Conflict between Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
  2. ^ ICTY: Conflict between Bosnia and Croatia.
  3. ^ ICJ: The genocide case: Bosnia v. Serbia - See Part VI (2) - Entities involved in the events 235-241.
  4. ^ Courte: Serbia failed to prevent genocide, UN court rules. Associated Press (2007-02-26).
  5. ^ Sense Tribunal: SERBIA FOUND GUILTY OF FAILURE TO PREVENT AND PUNISH GENOCIDE.
  6. ^ Statement of the President of the Court
  7. ^ Dayton Peace Accords on Bosnia. US Department of State (1996-03-30). Retrieved on 2006-03-19.
  8. ^ "War-related Deaths in the 1992–1995 Armed Conflicts in Bosnia and Herzegovina: A Critique of Previous Estimates and Recent Results", European Journal of Population, June 2005. 
  9. ^ "Research halves Bosnia war death toll to 100,000", Reuters, November 23, 2005. 
  10. ^ "Review of European Security Issues", U.S. Department of State, 28 April 2006. 
  11. ^ Bosnia’s “Book of the Dead”, Institute for War and Peace Reporting, June 23, 2007
  12. ^ Research shows estimates of B&H death toll inflated - IHT: The Bosnian Book of Dead
  13. ^ Bosnia's Book of Dead - BIRN Report
  14. ^ [1] - RFE: Svaka žrvat ima svoje ime
  15. ^ Bosnia's Book of Dead - BIRN Report
  16. ^ ICTY: Naletilić and Martinović verdict - A. Historical background.
  17. ^ a b c ICTY: Blaškić verdict - A. The Lasva Valley: May 1992 – January 1993t.
  18. ^ ICTY: Prlić et al. (IT-04-74).
  19. ^ VOA: U Federaciji BiH obilježen Dan nezavisnosti BiH.
  20. ^ UK Guardian: America used Islamists to arm the Bosnian Muslims
  21. ^ Vjesnik: Je li Tuta platio atentatorima po pet tisuća maraka[2]
  22. ^ Helena Smith, Greece faces shame of role in Serb massacre, The Observer, 5 January 2003, accessed 25 November 2006
  23. ^ Alix Kroeger, Bosnia eviction battle looms, BBC News, 23 July 2000, accessed 3 October 2006
  24. ^ ICTY: The attack against the civilian population and related requirements.
  25. ^ ICTY: Greatest suffering at least risk.
  26. ^ CCPR Human Rights Committee. "Bosnia and Herzegovina Report". United Nations. 30 October 1992 [3]
  27. ^ Sarajevo, i poslije, Erich Rathfelder, München 1998 [4]
  28. ^ Angus Macqueen and Paul Mitchell, The Death of Yugoslavia, [5]
  29. ^ ICTY (1995): Initial indictment for the ethnic cleansing of the Lasva Valley area - Part II.
  30. ^ ICTY: Summary of sentencing judgement for Miroslav Bralo.
  31. ^ a b ICTY: Kordić and Čerkez verdict.
  32. ^ ICTY: Krstić verdict.
  33. ^ Nilsen, Av Kjell Arild; "Death toll in Bosnian war was 102,000"; Free Republic - Norwegian News Agency, [6]
  34. ^ Krsman, Natasa; "Mirsad Tokača: Samo fizički me mogu spriječiti da radim" (Bosnian only); Nezavisne novine; 18 March 2006 [7]
  35. ^ Research and Documentation Center; "The Status of Database by the Centers"; current [8]
  36. ^ Research shows estimates of B&H death toll inflated - IHT: The Bosnian Book of Dead
  37. ^ Bosnia's Book of Dead - BIRN Report
  38. ^ ICTY: Radoslav Brđanin judgement.
  39. ^ ICTY; "Address by ICTY President Theodor Meron, at Potočari Memorial Cemetery" The Hague, 23 June 2004 [9]
  40. ^ ICTY: Kordić and Čerkez verdict - IV. Attacks on towns and villages: killings - C. The April 1993 Conflagration in Vitez and the Lašva Valley - 3. The Attack on Ahmići (Paragraph 642).

The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Institute for War and Peace Reporting is an international media development charity, established in 1991. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Munich: Frauenkirche and Town Hall steeple Munich (German: München (pronounced listen) is the state capital of the German Bundesland of Bavaria. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...

Bibliography

  • Gutman, Roy, A Witness to Genocide: The 1993 Pulitzer Prize-Winning Dispatches on the "Ethnic Cleansing" of Bosnia, ISBN 978-0020329954
  • Macqueen, Angus; Mitchell, Paul, The Death of Yugoslavia, [10]
  • Hoare, Marko Attila, How Bosnia Armed Saqi Books, 2004, ISBN 978-0863563676
  • Cigar, Norman, Genocide in Bosnia: The Politics of Ethnic Cleansing, Texas A&M University Press, 1995, ISBN 978-1585440047
  • Shrader, Charles R. The Muslim-Croat Civil War in Central Bosnia Texas A&M University Press, 2003 ISBN 1-58544-261-5
  • Simms, Brendan. Unfinest Hour: Britain and the Destruction of Bosnia. Penguin, 2003. ISBN 0-14-028983-6
  • Raguz, Vitomir Miles. Who Saved Bosnia Naklada Stih, 2005 ISBN 953-6959-28-3
  • Beloff, Nora. Yugoslavia: An Avoidable War. New European Publications, 1997. ISBN 1-872410-08-1
  • Loyd, Anthony. "My War Gone By, I Miss It So." Penguin, 1999. ISBN 0-14-029854-1
  • Maas, Peter. Love Thy Neighbor: A Story of War. Vintage Books, 1996. ISBN 0-679-76389-9
  • Dr. R. Craig Nation. "War in the Balkans 1991-2002." Strategic Studies Institute, 2002, ISBN 1-58487-134-2 [11]

See also

Combatants  Bosnia and Herzegovina Volunteers from Islamic countries Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia  Croatia Volunteers from Western Europe Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim Delić (Army chief of Staff 1993-1995) Franjo TuÄ‘man (President of Croatia) Mate Boban... Map of the Cvetković-Maček Agreement The Cvetković-Maček Agreement (Croatian: Sporazum Cvetković-Maček) was a political agreement on the internal divisions in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia which was settled on August 26, 1939 by Yugoslav prime minister DragiÅ¡a Cvetković and Vladko Maček, a Croat... 1991 Bosnia and Herzegovina Population Census was the last census of the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina to be taken before the outbreak of the 1992-1995 war in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Srebrenica massacre. ... Peace Palace in The Hague Command responsibility, sometimes referred to as the Yamashita standard, or the Medina standard is the doctrine of hierarchical accountability in cases of war crimes. ... The High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina, with the Office of the High Representative (OHR) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, was created in 1995 immediately after the Dayton Peace Agreement to oversee the civilian implementation of this agreement. ... Keraterm camp was a detention camp (also refered to as prison and concentration camp) near the town of Prijedor in northern Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Bosnian War from 1992 to 1995. ... Manjača camp detainees in 1992 Manjača camp (pronounced:Mañacha) was a detention camp (also refered to as prison and concentration camp) on mountain Manjača near the city of Banja Luka in northern Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Bosnian War from 1992 to 1995. ... Photograph from the scene, shortly after one of the massacres. ... The Memorandum of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts was a draft document produced by a committee of the Serbian Academy from 1985 to 1986. ... Omarska camp detainees Omarska camp was a detention camp (also refered to as prison and concentration camp) in Omarska mining town near Prijedor in northern Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Bosnian War from 1992 to 1995. ... Combatants NATO Republika Srpska Commanders Willy Claes Ratko Mladić Strength 2 F-16C, 1 Mirage aircraft 2 SAMs Casualties 1 Mirage aircraft 2 pilots POW 1 F-16C Undisclosed The 1995 NATO bombing in Bosnia and Herzegovina (code-named by NATO Operation Deliberate Force) was a sustained air campaign conducted... Three major peace plans were offered before and during the Bosnian War by European Community (EC) and United Nations (UN) diplomats before the conflict was settled by the Dayton Agreement in 1995. ... For other uses of the term, see Holy War. ... The Serb propaganda is the term used before, during and after the Bosnian war to describe efforts made by Serbian media to justify, revise or deny mass war crimes committed by Serb forces during the Bosnian war on Bosniaks. ... Combatants ARBiH (1992-95)  NATO (1995) JNA (1992) VRS (1992-95) Commanders Jovan Divjak Mustafa Hajrulahović Vahid Karavelić Nedžad Ajnadžić Stanislav Galić (1992-94) Dragomir MiloÅ¡ević (1994-95) Strength 40,000 (1992) 30,000 (1992) The Siege of Sarajevo was the longest siege in the history of... Burial of 465 identified Bosniak civilians (July 11, 2007) Gravestone of a thirteen year old boy (July 11, 2007) A memorial to the victims of Srebrenica and other towns in Eastern Bosnia The Srebrenica Massacre, also known as Srebrenica Genocide,[1] was the July 1995 killing of an estimated 8... Starved detainees at the Trnopolje camp, ITN pictures that went around the world Trnopolje camp was a detention camp (also refered to as ghetto, prison and concentration camp) in the village of Trnopolje near the city of Prijedor in northern Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Bosnian War from 1992-1995. ... The War in Bosnia and Herzegovina between Bosniaks, Croats, and Serbs attracted large numbers of foreign fighters and mercenaries from various countries. ... Combatants Bosnian Serb Army USAF Strength SA-6 missiles 2 F-16s Casualties none 1 aircraft destroyed The Mrkonjić Grad incident, June 2, 1995, was an incident in which a Bosnian Serb Army SA-6 surface-to-air missile shot down a USAF F-16 near Mrkonjić Grad, Bosnia. ... Combatants Bosnian Serb Army USAF Strength 6 J-21 Jastreb 4+ F-16 Casualties 4 aircraft destroyed, pilots fate unknown none The Banja Luka incident, February 28, 1994, was an incident in which six Bosnian Serb Army-owned J-21 Jastreb light attack jets were engaged and four of them... During the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Operation Bøllebank was the largest combat operation by Danish forces since 1864. ... Combatants Army of Republika Srpska Danish military (as part of UNPROFOR forces) Commanders Unknown Lt. ... Combatants ARBiH VRS Commanders Atif Dudakovic Zeljko Raznatovic Strength 25,000 20,000-30,000 est. ...

External links

  • List of people missing from the war
  • Stanislav Galic judgement
  • Research and Documentation Center Sarajevo
  • The Death of Yugoslavia Part I (Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian)
  • The Death of Yugoslavia Part II (Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian)
  • UN report on prison camps during the war
  • Open UN document on Serb attrocities towards non-Serbs
  • Guardian Unlimited special report on Serb soldier crimes (Guardian Unlimited)
  • Genocide in Yugoslavia
  • Serbian War Crime Testimonies
  • hWeb - Convoy to Sarajevo, a personal account of relief work during Bosnian War
  • Interview with Haris Silajdzic

Guardian Unlimited is a British website owned by the Guardian Media Group. ...

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