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Encyclopedia > War crimes

In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. Every violation of the law of war in an inter-state conflict is a war crime, while violations in internal conflicts are typically limited to the local jurisdiction. In essence, the term "war crime" represents the concept of an international jurisdiction as applicable to the most severe crimes, in areas where government is dysfunctional and society is in a state of turmoil. The United States detonated an atomic bomb over Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The two parts of the laws of war: Law concerning acceptable practices while engaged in war, like the Geneva Conventions, is called Jus in bello; while law concerning allowable justifications for armed force is called Jus ad bellum. ... A civilian is a person who is not a member of a military. ... In law, jurisdiction from the Latin jus, juris meaning law and dicere meaning to speak, is the practical authority granted to a formally constituted body or to a person to deal with and make pronouncements on legal matters and, by implication, to administer justice within a defined area of responsibility. ...


The article "list of war crimes" summarizes war crimes committed since the Hague Conventions of 1907. In addition, those incidents which have been judged in a court of law to be Crimes Against Peace and Crimes against Humanity that have been committed since these crimes were first defined (in the London Charter, August 8, 1945) are also included. This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... The Hague Conventions were international treaties negotiated at the First and Second Peace Conferences at The Hague, Netherlands in 1899 and 1907, respectively, and were, along with the Geneva Conventions, among the first formal statements of the laws of war and war crimes in the nascent body of international law. ... A crime against peace, in international law, consists of starting or waging a war against the territorial integrity, political independence or sovereignty of a state, or in violation of international treaties, agreements or (legally binding) assurances. ... A crime against humanity is a term in international law that refers to acts of murderous persecution against a body of people, as being the criminal offence above all others. ... The London Charter of the International Military Tribunal (usually referred to simply as the London Charter) was the decree that set down the laws and procedures by which the Nuremberg trials were to be conducted. ... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ...


The article "list of war criminals" is a list of war criminals as according to the conduct and rules of warfare as defined by the Nuremberg Trials following World War II as well as earlier agreements such as Hague Conferences of 1899 and 1907, the Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928, and the Geneva Conventions of 1929 and 1949. . ... A war crime is a punishable offense, under international law, for violations of the law of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... The laws of war (Jus in bello) define the conduct and responsibilities of belligerent nations, neutral nations and individuals engaged in warfare, in relation to each other and to protected persons, usually meaning civilians. ... The Süddeutsche Zeitung announces The Verdict in Nuremberg. ... Combatants Allies: Soviet Union United Kingdom United States and others Axis Powers: Germany Japan Italy and others Commanders Winston Churchill, Josef Stalin, Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4... The Hague Conventions were international treaties negotiated at the First and Second Peace Conferences at The Hague, Netherlands in 1899 and 1907, respectively, and were, along with the Geneva Conventions, among the first formal statements of the laws of war and war crimes in the nascent body of international law. ... The Kellogg-Briand Pact, also known as the Pact of Paris, after the city where it was signed on August 27, 1928, is an international treaty providing for the renunciation of war as an instrument of national policy. ... The Geneva Conventions consist of treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland that set the standards for international law for humanitarian concerns. ...

Contents


Crimes

War crimes include violations of established protections of the laws of war, but also include failures to adhere to norms of procedure and rules of battle, such as attacking those displaying a flag of truce, or using that same flag as a ruse of war to mount an attack. Another good example includes attacking enemy troops while they are being deployed by way of a parachute. The definition of the term "war crime" usually varies between trials to convict the defendants with a more specific crime that they may have committed. Generally, a battle is an instance of combat in warfare between two or more parties wherein each group will seek to defeat the others. ... German troops after surrendering to the U.S. Third Army carry the white flag ( WW2 photo). ... A ruse of war is an action taken by a belligerent in warfare to fool the enemy in order to gain intelligence or a military advantage against an enemy. ...


It comprises such acts as mistreatment of prisoners of war or civilians. War crimes are sometimes part of instances of mass murder and genocide though these crimes are more broadly covered under international humanitarian law described as crimes against humanity. Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... This article deals with mass killings which are not considered genocide. ... Genocide is defined by the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) Article 2 as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group, as such: Killing members of the group; Causing... International Humanitarian Law (IHL), also known as the law of war, the laws and customs of war or the law of armed conflict, is the legal corpus comprised of the Geneva Conventions and the Hague Regulations, as well as subsequent treaties, case law, and customary international law. ... This article is in need of attention. ...


War crimes are significant in international humanitarian law because it is an area where international tribunals such as the Nuremberg Trials have been convened. Recent examples are the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, which were established by the UN Security Council acting under Chapter VII of the UN Charter. Humanitarianism is the view that all people should be treated with the respect and dignity they deserve as human beings, and that advancing the well-being of humanity is a noble goal. ... The Süddeutsche Zeitung announces The Verdict in Nuremberg. ... The International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991, more commonly referred to as the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), is a body of the United Nations (UN) established to... Wanted poster for the ICTR The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) is a court under the auspices of the United Nations for the prosecution of offenses committed in Rwanda during the genocide which occurred there during April, 1994, commencing on April 6. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... The United Nations Charter is the constitution of the United Nations. ...


International Criminal Court

On July 1, 2002 the International Criminal Court, a treaty based court located in The Hague, came into being for the prosecution of war crimes committed on or after that date. However, several nations, most notably the United States, China, and Israel, have criticized the court, refused to participate in it or permit the court to have jurisdiction over their citizens. Note, however, that a citizen of one of the 'objector nations' could still find himself before the Court if he were to travel to a country which is a signatory to the treaty, regardless of the fact that their country of origin is not a signatory. July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Official logo of the ICC. The International Criminal Court (ICC) was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes, as defined by several international agreements, most prominently the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. ... Arms of The Hague Flag of The city of The Hague. ...


To date, the former heads of state and heads of government that have been charged with war crimes include Karl Dönitz of Germany, ex Prime Minister Hideki Tojo of Japan and former Liberian President Charles Taylor. Former Yugoslav President Slobodan Milošević was brought to trial for war crimes, but died before the trial could be concluded. Former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein is accused of committing war crimes and is currently on trial in Iraq. Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... The head of government is the leader of the government or cabinet. ... Karl Dönitz (IPA pronounciation: ); September 16, 1891 – December 24, 1980) was a German naval leader, famous for his command of the Kriegsmarine during World War II and for his twenty-day term as Reichspräsident after Adolf Hitlers suicide. ... Hideki Tojo (KyÅ«jitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機; ) (December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a General in the Imperial Japanese Army, a ultranationalist thinker, and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan; he served as prime minister during much of World War II, from October 18, 1941 to July 22, 1944. ... For other people named Charles Taylor, see Charles Taylor (disambiguation). ... Official language Serbian written in Cyrillic alphabet1 Capital Belgrade2 President3 Svetozar Marović Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 105th 102,350 km² 0. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti, (Arabic: ), (born April 28, 1937 ), was the President of Iraq from 1979 until the United States-led invasion of Iraq reached Baghdad on April 9, 2003. ...


Ambiguity

The Geneva Conventions are a treaty that represent a legal basis for International Law with regard to conduct of warfare. Not all nations are signatories to the GC, and as such retain different codes and values with regard to wartime conduct. Some signatories have routinely violated the Geneva Conventions in a way which either uses the ambiguities of law or political maneuvering to sidestep the laws formalities and principles. Development of the Geneva Conventions from 1864 to 1949 The Geneva Conventions consist of four treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland, that set the standards for international law for humanitarian concerns. ...


Because the definition of a state of "war" may be debated, the term "war crime" itself has seen different usage under different systems of international and military law. It has some degree of application outside of what some may consider to be a state of "war," but in areas where conflicts persist enough to constitute social instability.


The legalities of war have sometimes been accused of containing favoritism toward the winners, as certain controversies have not been ruled as war crimes. Some examples include the United States' destruction of civilian targets during World War I and World War II and the use of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in World War II[citation needed]. Others cite the Indonesian occupation of East Timor between 1976 and 1999. In areas where International Law is yet unresolved, some ambiguity remains with regard to which crimes are considered as such and which are not. In July 2006, UN Human Rights Commissioner Louise Arbour declared Israel's assault on Lebanon to, potentially, amounting to war crimes. Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Military dead: 4 million The First World War, also known as The Great War, The War to End All Wars, and World War I (abbreviated WWI) was... Combatants Allies: Soviet Union United Kingdom United States and others Axis Powers: Germany Japan Italy and others Commanders Winston Churchill, Josef Stalin, Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4... Hiroshima City Hall Mayor Tadatoshi Akiba Address 〒730-8586 Hiroshima-shi, Naka-ku, Kokutaiji 1-6-34 Phone number 082-245-2111 Official website: Hiroshima City , // The city of Hiroshima ) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chugoku region of western Honshu, the largest of... Nagasaki City Hall Mayor {{{Mayor}}} Address 〒850-8685 Nagasaki-shi, Sakura-machi 2-22 Phone number 095-825-5151 Official website: www1. ... Combatants Allies: Soviet Union United Kingdom United States and others Axis Powers: Germany Japan Italy and others Commanders Winston Churchill, Josef Stalin, Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4...


See also

Peace Palace in The Hague Command responsibility, sometimes referred to as the Yamashita standard, or the Medina standard is the doctrine of hierarchical accountability in cases of war crimes. ... The two parts of the laws of war: Law concerning acceptable practices while engaged in war, like the Geneva Conventions, is called Jus in bello; while law concerning allowable justifications for armed force is called Jus ad bellum. ... Belgiums War Crimes Law, extended the concept of universal jurisdiction to allow anyone to bring war crime charges in Belgian courts, regardless of where the alleged crimes have taken place. ... The Lodge Committee began in January 1902 and adjourned on June 28, 1902. ... The Russell Tribunal was a public international body organized by British philosopher and pacifist Bertrand Russell, along with Ken Coates and several others. ... In March 2003, the United States and its allies, the United Kingdom, Australia and Poland invaded Iraq. ... The Special Court for Sierra Leone is an independent judicial body set up to try those who bear greatest responsibility for the war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in Sierra Leone after 30 November 1996 during the Sierra Leone Civil War. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ...

References

Further reading

Footnotes

    International criminal law
    Sources of law:
    Charter of the IMT - Crime against international law - Crime against humanity - Crime against peace
    Crime of apartheid - Crime of genocide - Customary law - Laws of war - Nuremberg Principles
    Peremptory norm - Statute of the ICCt - Universal jurisdiction - War crime - War of aggression
    Courts:
    War responsibility trials in Finland - International Military Tribunal for Europe
    International Military Tribunal for the Far East - Khabarovsk War Crime Trials
    Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia - Tribunal for Rwanda - Tribunal for Sierra Leone
    International Criminal Court
    History:
    List of war crimes

      Results from FactBites:
     
    War crime: FBI targets fake heroes - NY Daily News (364 words)
    The FBI is using a new law to nab phonies like Georgia's Richard Thibodeau, who was outed as a fake marine.
    Federal agents are taking aim at phony war heroes who tell tall tales of battlefield valor and pin bogus medals upon their chests, the Daily News has learned.
    The FBI's Washington headquarters receives at least 15 tips a week about fake heroes - and most of the information comes from veterans who are furious that the scam artists are demeaning real sacrifices, said FBI Special Agent Michael Sanborn.
    War crime - SourceWatch (669 words)
    A war crime is defined as "any of various crimes, such as genocide or the mistreatment of prisoners of war, committed during a war and considered in violation of the conventions of warfare." [1]
    Ramsey Clark, et al., "War Crimes." A Report on United States War Crimes Against Iraq to the Commission of Inquiry for the International War Crimes Tribunal, New York, May 11, 1991.
    Michael Ratner, "International Law and War Crimes." A Report on United States War Crimes Against Iraq to the Commission of Inquiry for the International War Crimes Tribunal, New York, May 11, 1991.
      More results at FactBites »

     
     

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