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Encyclopedia > War crime
Execution of Russian civilians by a shot in the back of the head.

War crimes are "violations of the laws or customs of war", including but not limited to "murder, the ill-treatment or deportation of civilian residents of an occupied territory to slave labor camps", "the murder or ill-treatment of prisoners of war", the killing of hostages, "the wanton destruction of cities, towns and villages, and any devastation not justified by military necessity" [1] A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in forced labor. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


War crimes such as perfidy have existed for many centuries as customary law between civilised countries, Many of these customary laws were clarified in the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907. The modern concept of war crime was further developed under the auspices of the Nuremberg Trials based on the definition in the London Charter that was published on August 8, 1945. Along with war crimes the charter also defined crimes against peace and crimes against humanity, which are often committed during wars and in concert with war crimes, but are different offenses under international law. This article belongs in one or more categories. ... The Hague Conventions were international treaties negotiated at the First and Second Peace Conferences at The Hague, Netherlands in 1899 and 1907, respectively, and were, along with the Geneva Conventions, among the first formal statements of the laws of war and war crimes in the nascent body of international law. ... The Nuremberg Trials is the general name for two sets of trials of Nazis involved in World War II and the Holocaust. ... The London Charter of the International Military Tribunal (usually referred to simply as the London Charter) was the decree that set down the laws and procedures by which the Nuremberg trials were to be conducted. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... A crime against peace, in international law, consists of illegally starting a war. ... This article is in need of attention. ...


Article 22 of the Hague IV ("Laws of War: Laws and Customs of War on Land (Hague IV); October 18, 1907") states that "The right of belligerents to adopt means of injuring the enemy is not unlimited" and over the last century many other treaties have introduced positive laws that place constraints on belligerents (see International treaties on the laws of war). Some of the provisions, such as those in the Hague conventions are considered to be part of customary international law, and are binding on all,[2] Others are only binding on individuals if the belligerent power to which they belong is a party to the treaty which introduced the constraint.

Contents

Crimes

United States soldiers discover the aftermath of the Malmedy massacre (1944).
United States soldiers discover the aftermath of the Malmedy massacre (1944).

War crimes includes violations of established protections of the laws of war, but also include failures to adhere to norms of procedure and rules of battle, such as attacking those displaying a flag of truce, or using that same flag as a ruse of war to mount an attack. Attacking enemy troops while they are being deployed by way of a parachute is not a war crime. However, Protocol I, Article 42 of the Geneva Conventions explicitly forbids attacking parachutists who eject from damaged airplanes, and surrendering parachutists once landed. [3]. War crimes include such acts as mistreatment of prisoners of war or civilians. War crimes are sometimes part of instances of mass murder and genocide though these crimes are more broadly covered under international humanitarian law described as crimes against humanity. Download high resolution version (1024x705, 252 KB)Malmédy massacre - approximately 70 members of Battery B killed after captured . ... Download high resolution version (1024x705, 252 KB)Malmédy massacre - approximately 70 members of Battery B killed after captured . ... United States soldiers discover the aftermath of the Malmedy Massacre. ... For the surname Battle, see Battle (surname). ... German troops after surrendering to the U.S. Third Army carry the white flag ( WW2 photo). ... A ruse of war is an action taken by a belligerent in warfare to fool the enemy in order to gain intelligence or a military advantage against an enemy. ... Original document. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Mass murder (massacre) is the act of murdering a large number of people, typically at the same time, or over a relatively short period of time. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... International humanitarian law (IHL), also known as the law of war, the laws and customs of war or the law of armed conflict, is the legal corpus comprised of the Geneva Conventions and the Hague Conventions, as well as subsequent treaties, case law, and customary international law. ... This article is in need of attention. ...


War crimes are significant in international humanitarian law because it is an area where international tribunals such as the Nuremberg Trials and Tokyo trials have been convened. Recent examples are the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, which were established by the UN Security Council acting under Chapter VII of the UN Charter. Humanitarianism is the view that all people should be treated with the respect and dignity they deserve as human beings, and that advancing the well-being of humanity is a noble goal. ... For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ... President of the Tribunal, Sir William Webb, Justice of the High Court of Australia, presiding over the Tribunal in 1946. ... The Tribunal building in The Hague. ... Wanted poster for the ICTR The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) is a court under the auspices of the United Nations for the prosecution of offenses committed in Rwanda during the genocide which occurred there during April, 1994, commencing on April 6. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... The United Nations Charter is the constitution of the United Nations. ...


Under the Nuremberg Principles, war crimes are different from crimes against peace which is planning, preparing, initiating, or waging a war of aggression, or a war in violation of international treaties, agreements, or assurances. The Nuremberg Principles were a set of guidelines for determining what constitues a war crime. ... A crime against peace, in international law, consists of illegally starting a war. ... In international law, a war of aggression is generally considered to be any war for which the purpose is not to repel an invasion, or respond to an attack on the territory of a sovereign nation. ...


International Criminal Court

Vietnamese women and children in My Lai shortly before U.S. soldiers killed them, March 16, 1968. Photo by Ronald L. Haeberle
Vietnamese women and children in My Lai shortly before U.S. soldiers killed them, March 16, 1968.[4] Photo by Ronald L. Haeberle

On July 1, 2002, the International Criminal Court, a treaty-based court located in The Hague, came into being for the prosecution of war crimes committed on or after that date. However, several nations, most notably the United States, China, and Israel, have criticized the court and refuse to participate in it or to permit the court to have jurisdiction over their citizens. Note, however, that a citizen of one of the 'objector nations' could still find himself before the Court if he were accused of committing war crimes in a country that was a state party, regardless of the fact that their country of origin was not a signatory. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 428 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 1434 pixel, file size: 378 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 428 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 1434 pixel, file size: 378 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... One of Haeberles My Lai photos: Ronald L. Haeberle was a U.S. Army photographer who released pictures of the My Lai massacre to a horrified American and foreign public when it was published by LIFE magazine in late 1969. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The official logo of the ICC The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt)[1] was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression, although it cannot currently exercise jurisdiction over the crime of aggression. ... Hague redirects here. ...


War crimes are defined in the statute that established the International Criminal Court, which includes:

  1. Grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions, such as:
    1. Willful killing, or causing great suffering or serious injury to body or health
    2. Torture or inhumane treatment
    3. Unlawful wanton destruction or appropriation of property
    4. Forcing a prisoner of war to serve in the forces of a hostile power
    5. Depriving a prisoner of war of a fair trial
    6. Unlawful deportation, confinement or transfer
    7. Taking hostages
  2. The following acts as part of an international conflict:
    1. Directing attacks against civilians
    2. Directing attacks against humanitarian workers or UN peacekeepers
    3. Killing a surrendered combatant
    4. Misusing a flag of truce
    5. Settlement of occupied territory
    6. Deportation of inhabitants of occupied territory
    7. Using poison weapons
    8. Using civilians as shields
    9. Using child soldiers
  3. The following acts as part of a non-international conflict:
    1. Murder, cruel or degrading treatment and torture
    2. Directing attacks against civilians, humanitarian workers or UN peacekeepers
    3. Taking hostages
    4. Summary execution
    5. Pillage
    6. Rape, sexual slavery, forced prostitution or forced pregnancy

However the court only has jurisdiction over these crimes where they are "part of a plan or policy or as part of a large-scale commission of such crimes" [5] For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... The Right to a fair trial is an essential right in all countries respecting the rule of law. ... Deportation is the expelling of someone from a country. ... Population transfer is a term referring to a policy by which a state, or international authority, forces the movement of a large group of people out of a region, most frequently on the basis of their ethnicity or religion. ... For other uses, see Hostage (disambiguation). ... Humanitarianism is the view that all people should be treated with the respect and dignity they deserve as human beings, and that advancing the well-being of humanity is a noble goal. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... Peacekeeper (or PeaceKeeper, Peace Keeper or Peace-Keeper) has many meanings: Generally - Peacekeepers, although soldiers, are different than a traditional military force, in that peacekeepers, use minimal force, distribute humanitarian aid, and on rare occasions take offensive action. ... A Chinese Nationalist soldier, age 10, member of a Chinese division boarding planes in Myitkyina (Burma) bound for China, May 1944. ... Execution is a synonym for the actioning of something, of putting something into effect. ... Looting (which derives via the Hindi lut from Sanskrit lung, to rob), sacking, plundering, or pillaging is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe or riot, such as during war,[1] natural disaster,[2] or rioting. ... Sexual slavery is a special case of slavery which includes various different practices: forced prostitution single-owner sexual slavery ritual slavery, sometimes associated with traditional religious practices slavery for primarily non-sexual purposes where sex is common or permissible In general, the nature of slavery means that the slave is...


Prominent indictees

Main article: List of war crimes

To date, the former heads of state and heads of government that have been charged with war crimes include: This article lists and summarizes War Crimes committed since the Hague Convention of 1907. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ...

Karl Dönitz (IPA pronunciation:  ) (born 16 September 1891; died 24 December 1980) was a German naval leader, who commanded the German Navy (Kriegsmarine) during the second half of World War II. Dönitz was also President of Germany for 23 days after Adolf Hitlers suicide. ... Ernst Kaltenbrunner (October 4, 1903 – October 16, 1946) was a senior Nazi official during World War II. He was the highest ranking SS leader to face trial. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Hideki Tojo (KyÅ«jitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機;  ) (December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a General in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 18, 1941 to July 22, 1944. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister  - 1885-1888, 1892-1896, 1898, 1900-1901 Itō Hirobumi  - 1888-1889 Kuroda Kiyotaka  - 1889-1891 Yamagata Aritomo  - 1906-1908, 1911-1912 Saionji Kinmochi... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe... The President of Yugoslavia was Yugoslavias head of state from 1953 to 1991 in SFR Yugoslavia, and from 1992 to 2003 in FR Yugoslavia. ... MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The following is a list of Presidents of the Republic of Liberia, made up of the 24 heads of state in the history of Liberia. ... For other persons named Charles Taylor, see Charles Taylor (disambiguation). ... April 2007 is the fourth month of the year. ... June 2007 is the sixth month of that year. ...

Ambiguity

New Guinea, 1943. An Australian POW about to be beheaded.

The Geneva Conventions are a treaty that represent a legal basis for International Law with regard to conduct of warfare. Not all nations are signatories to the GC, and as such retain different codes and values with regard to wartime conduct. Some signatories have routinely violated the Geneva Conventions in a way which either uses the ambiguities of law or political maneuvering to sidestep the laws' formalities and principles. Image File history File linksMetadata LeonardGSiffleet. ... Image File history File linksMetadata LeonardGSiffleet. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Original document. ...


Because the definition of a state of "war" may be debated, the term "war crime" itself has seen different usage under different systems of international and military law. It has some degree of application outside of what some may consider to be a state of "war," but in areas where conflicts persist enough to constitute social instability. The legalities of war have sometimes been accused of containing favoritism toward the winners ("Victor's justice"), as certain controversies have not been ruled as war crimes. Some examples include the Allies' destruction of civilian Axis targets during World War I and World War II (the firebombing of the German city of Dresden is one such example), the use of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in World War II; the use of Agent Orange against civilian targets in the Vietnam war; the mass killing of Biharies by Kader Siddique and Mukti Bahini[6] before or after victory of Bangladesh Liberation War in Bangladesh between 1971 and 1972; and the Indonesian occupation of East Timor between 1976 and 1999. The label victors justice (in German, Siegerjustiz) is applied by advocates to a situation in which they believe that a victorious nation is applying different rules to judge what is right or wrong for their own forces and for those of the (former) enemy. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the city in Germany. ... For other uses, see Hiroshima (disambiguation). ... Megane-bashi (Spectacles Bridge) Nagasaki   listen? (長崎市; -shi, literally long peninsula) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture located at the south-western coast of Kyushu, Japan. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Agent Orange (disambiguation). ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Combatants Mukti Bahini India Pakistan Commanders Col. ...


In areas where International Law is yet unresolved, some ambiguity remains with regard to which crimes are considered as such and which are not.


Punishment

Historically, the punishment for committing war crimes was capital punishment, but in many cases, war criminals were sent to national prisons to live out the rest of their lives. At the modern international tribunals, capital punishment is banned, and conviction results in a sentence for a term of years. The convicted person serves his or her sentence in a national prison system, whose country has agreed with the tribunal to effect execution of sentence. Death penalty, death sentence, and execution redirect here. ...


See also

Genocide Portal

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article lists and summarizes War Crimes committed since the Hague Convention of 1907. ... The two parts of the laws of war (or Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC)): Law concerning acceptable practices while engaged in war, like the Geneva Conventions, is called jus in bello; while law concerning allowable justifications for armed force is called jus ad bellum. ... Peace Palace in The Hague Command responsibility, sometimes referred to as the Yamashita standard, or the Medina standard is the doctrine of hierarchical accountability in cases of war crimes. ... Germany committed war crimes in both World War I and World War II. The most notable of these is the Holocaust, where millions of people, about half of which were Jews, were murdered. ... War crimes of the Wehrmacht are those carried out by traditional German armed forces during World War II. While the principal perpetrators of the Holocaust amongst German armed forces were the Nazi German political armies (the Waffen-SS and particularly the Einsatzgruppen), the traditional armed forces represented by the Wehrmacht... Armenian Genocide photo. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Japanese war crimes occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism. ... At the end of World War II, several trials of Axis war criminals took place, most famously the Nuremberg Trials. ... Red Army atrocities refers to the systemic commission of crimes by Soviet military personnel in Eastern Europe in late 1944 and early 1945, particularly murder and rape. ... The massacre of prisoners refers to a series of mass executions committed by Soviet NKVD against prisoners in Poland and parts of the Soviet Union from which the Red Army was withdrawing after the German invasion in 1941 (see Operation Barbarossa). ... Belgiums War Crimes Law, extended the concept of universal jurisdiction to allow anyone to bring war crime charges in Belgian courts, regardless of where the alleged crimes have taken place. ... German Nazism and the acts of the Nazi German state profoundly affected many countries, communities and peoples before, during and after World War II. While the attempt of Germany to exterminate several nations viewed as subhuman by Nazi ideology, was stopped by the Allies, Nazi aggression neverthless led to deaths... The Lodge Committee began in January 1902 and adjourned on June 28, 1902. ... The Russell Tribunal was a public international body organized by British philosopher and pacifist Bertrand Russell, along with Ken Coates and several others. ... This is false story,never been established by any scientific survey. ... In March 2003, the United States and its allies, the United Kingdom, Australia and Poland invaded Iraq. ... The Special Court for Sierra Leone is an independent judicial body set up to try those who bear greatest responsibility for the war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in Sierra Leone after 30 November 1996 during the Sierra Leone Civil War. ... Human shield is a military and political term describing the presence of civilians in or around combat targets to deter an enemy from attacking those targets. ... Current cases before the International Criminal Court include three situations where the Chief Prosecutor has opened an official investigation, one other referral that has been received from a state and a number of complaints received from individuals. ... Transitional justice generally refers to a range of approaches that states may use to address past human rights wrongs and includes both judicial and non-judicial approaches. ...

Further reading

Oriana Fallaci Oriana Fallaci (born July 29, 1930) is an Italian journalist , author, and political interviewer. ... A photo of a child who survived Khojaly. ...

External links

Footnotes

  1. ^ Nicolas Werth, Karel Bartošek, Jean-Louis Panné, Jean-Louis Margolin, Andrzej Paczkowski, Stéphane Courtois, The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression, Harvard University Press, 1999, hardcover, 858 pages, ISBN 0-674-07608-7, page 5.
  2. ^ Judgement: The Law Relating to War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity contained in the Avalon Project archive at Yale Law School. "but by 1939 these rules laid down in the [Hague] Convention [of 1907] were recognised by all civilized nations, and were regarded as being declaratory of the laws and customs of war"
  3. ^ Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflict, International Committee of the Red Cross, Geneva, Switzerland. (Protocol I)
  4. ^ "Report of the Department of Army review of the preliminary investigations into the My Lai incident. Volume III, Exhibits, Book 6 — Photographs, 14 March 1970". From the Library of Congress, Military Legal Resources.[1]
  5. ^ Rome Statute, Part I, Article 8.
  6. ^ Interview With History by Oriana Fallaci-
Stéphane Courtois is a French historian, currently employed as research director (i. ... The Black Book of Communism The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression is a book that describes the history of political repressions by Communist states, including extrajudicial executions, deportations, and man-made famines that the book argues resulted from communist policies. ... The Harvard University Press is a publishing house, a division of Harvard University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... The Avalon Project is Yale Law Schools digital library of Documents in Law, History and Diplomacy. ... The Sterling Law Building Sculptural ornamentation on the Sterling Law Building Yale Law School, or YLS, is the law school of Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. ... Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ... Oriana Fallaci Oriana Fallaci (born July 29, 1930) is an Italian journalist , author, and political interviewer. ... International law deals with the relationships between states, or between persons or entities in different states. ... Sources of international law are the materials and processes out of which the rules and principles regulating the international community are developed. ... Customary international law Unwritten law applied to the behaviour of nations. ... A peremptory norm (also called jus cogens, Latin for compelling law) is a fundamental principle of international law considered to have acceptance among the international community of states as a whole. ... The Hague Conventions were international treaties negotiated at the First and Second Peace Conferences at The Hague, Netherlands in 1899 and 1907, respectively, and were, along with the Geneva Conventions, among the first formal statements of the laws of war and war crimes in the nascent body of secular international... Original document. ... The London Charter of the International Military Tribunal (usually referred to simply as the London Charter) was the decree that set down the laws and procedures by which the Nuremberg trials were to be conducted. ... The Nuremberg Principles were a set of guidelines for determining what constitues a war crime. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was adopted by the UN General Assembly in December 1948 and came into effect in January 1951. ... CAT states: members in green, non-members in grey The United Nations Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (UNCAT) is an international human rights instrument, organized by the United Nations and intended to prevent torture and other similar activities. ... Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Opened for signature June 17, 1998[1] at Rome Entered into force July 1, 2002 Conditions for entry into force 60 ratifications Parties 99[2] The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (or Rome Statute) is the treaty which established the International... International law deals with the relationships between states, or between persons or entities in different states. ... In international law, a crime against humanity consists of acts of persecution or any large scale atrocities against a body of people, as being the criminal offence above all others. ... A crime against peace, in international law, consists of starting or waging a war against the territorial integrity, political independence or sovereignty of a state, or in violation of international treaties, agreements or (legally binding) assurances. ... The crime of apartheid is defined by the 2002 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court which established the International Criminal Court as inhumane acts of a character similar to other crimes against humanity committed in the context of an institutionalised regime of systematic oppression and domination by one racial... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... This article is about maritime piracy. ... The history of slavery covers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures throughout human history. ... In international law, a war of aggression is generally considered to be any war for which the purpose is not to repel an invasion, or respond to an attack on the territory of a sovereign nation. ... The International Criminal Court (ICC) was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes, as defined by several international agreements, most prominently the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. ... For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ... The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE), also known as the Tokyo Trials, the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal or simply as the Tribunal, was convened to try the leaders of the Empire of Japan for three types of crimes: Class A (crimes against peace), Class B (war crimes... Khabarovsk War Crime Trials were a series of hearings held between December 25 - 31st, 1949 in the Russian industrial city of Khabarovsk, (Хабáровск) situated on the Russian Far East (Дáльний Востóк). Here, twelve members of the Japanese Kwantung Army were tried as war criminals for manufacturing and using biological weapons during World War... The Tribunal building in The Hague. ... Wanted poster for the ICTR The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) is a court under the auspices of the United Nations for the prosecution of offenses committed in Rwanda during the genocide which occurred there during April, 1994, commencing on April 6. ... The Special Court for Sierra Leone is an independent judicial body set up to try those who bear greatest responsibility for the war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in Sierra Leone after 30 November 1996 during the Sierra Leone Civil War. ... The Special Tribunal for Lebanon is an international criminal court that has been proposed and approved by the United Nations and the Director-General of the Ministry of Justice on behalf of the Lebanese Republic. ... The official logo of the ICC The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt)[1] was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression, although it cannot currently exercise jurisdiction over the crime of aggression. ... This article lists and summarizes War Crimes committed since the Hague Convention of 1907. ... . ... Peace Palace in The Hague Command responsibility, sometimes referred to as the Yamashita standard, or the Medina standard is the doctrine of hierarchical accountability in cases of war crimes. ... The two parts of the laws of war (or Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC)): Law concerning acceptable practices while engaged in war, like the Geneva Conventions, is called jus in bello; while law concerning allowable justifications for armed force is called jus ad bellum. ... Universal jurisdiction or universality principle is a controversial principle in international law whereby states claim criminal jurisdiction over persons whose alleged crimes were committed outside the boundaries of the prosecuting state, regardless of nationality, country of residence, or any other relation with the prosecuting country. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
War crime: FBI targets fake heroes - NY Daily News (364 words)
The FBI is using a new law to nab phonies like Georgia's Richard Thibodeau, who was outed as a fake marine.
Federal agents are taking aim at phony war heroes who tell tall tales of battlefield valor and pin bogus medals upon their chests, the Daily News has learned.
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A war crime is defined as "any of various crimes, such as genocide or the mistreatment of prisoners of war, committed during a war and considered in violation of the conventions of warfare." [1]
Ramsey Clark, et al., "War Crimes." A Report on United States War Crimes Against Iraq to the Commission of Inquiry for the International War Crimes Tribunal, New York, May 11, 1991.
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