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Encyclopedia > War and Peace
War and Peace
Author Leo Tolstoy
Original title Война и миръ (Voyna i mir)
Language Russian
Genre(s) Historical, Romance, War novel
Publisher Russki Vestnik (series)
Publication date 1865 to 1869 (series)
Media type Print (Hardback & Paperback) & Audio book
ISBN NA

War and Peace (Russian: Война и миръ, Voyna i mir) is a novel by Leo Tolstoy, first published from 1865 to 1869 in Russki Vestnik, which tells the story of Russian society during the Napoleonic Era. It is usually described as one of Tolstoy's two major masterpieces (the other being Anna Karenina) as well as one of the world's greatest novels. 82. ... Image File history File links WarAndPeace. ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy(Lyof, Lyoff) (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , IPA:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ... A historical novel a novel in which the story is set among historical events, or more generally, in which the time of the action predates the lifetime of the author. ... A romance novel is a literary genre developed in Western culture, mainly in English-speaking countries. ... A war novel is a novel in which the primary action takes place in a field of armed combat, or in a domestic setting (or home front) where the characters are preoccupied with the preparations for, or recovery from, war. ... A publisher is a person or entity which engages in the act of publishing. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Hardcover books A hardcover (or hardback or hardbound) is a book bound with rigid protective covers (typically of cardboard covered with cloth, heavy paper, or sometimes leather). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... ISBN redirects here. ... This article is about the literary concept. ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy(Lyof, Lyoff) (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , IPA:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The Napoleonic Era is a period in the History of France and Europe. ... This article refers to the novel by Tolstoy. ...


War and Peace offered a new kind of fiction, with a great many characters caught up in a plot that covered nothing less than the grand subjects indicated by the title, combined with the equally large topics of youth, marriage, age, and death. While today it is considered a novel, it broke so many novelistic conventions of its day that many critics of Tolstoy's time did not consider it as such. Tolstoy himself considered Anna Karenina (1878) to be his first attempt at a novel in the European sense. This article is about the literary concept. ... This article refers to the novel by Tolstoy. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...

Contents

Title

The Russian words for "peace" (pre-1918: "миръ") and "world" (pre-1918: "міръ", including "world" in the sense of "secular society"; see mir (social)) are homonyms and since the 1918 reforms have been spelled identically, which led to an urban legend in the Soviet Union saying that the original manuscript was called "Война и міръ" (so the novel's title would be correctly translated as "War and the World" or "War and Society").[1] However, Tolstoy himself translated the title into French as "La guerre et la paix" ("War and Peace"). The confusion has been promoted by the popular Soviet TV quiz show Что? Где? Когда? (Chto? Gde? Kogda? - What? Where? When?), which in 1982 presented as a correct answer the "society" variant, based on a 1913 edition of "War and Peace" with a misprint in a single page. This episode was repeated in 2000, which refuelled the legend. There is also an (unrelated) poem by Vladimir Mayakovsky called "Война и міръ" (i.e. "міръ" as "society"), written in 1916. A peace dove, widely known as a symbol for peace, featuring an olive branch in the doves beak. ... For other uses, see World (disambiguation). ... The Russian word mir (мир), besides its direct meanings of peace and world, had some other meanings related to social organization in Imperial Russia. ... For the specialised use of homonym in scientific nomenclature, see Homonym (botany) and Homonym (zoology). ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... An urban legend or urban myth is similar to a modern folklore consisting of stories often thought to be factual by those circulating them. ... What? Where? When? (Russian Что? Где? Когда?) is a quiz show which is well known in Russian-language media. ... Portrait of Vladimir Mayakovsky Vladimir Vladimirovich Mayakovsky (Влади́мир Влади́мирович Маяко́вский) (July 19 [O.S. July 7] 1893 – April 14, 1930) was a Russian poet, among the foremost representatives of early-20th century Futurism. ...


War and Peace or La Guerre et la Paix was also the title of an earlier political work by French anarchist Pierre Proudhon, published in 1864. It has been speculated that the title War and Peace was inspired by Proudhon's La Guerre et la Paix.[2] In an episode of "Seinfeld," Elaine claimed that the original title of War and Peace was "War: What Is It Good For?" Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ... Pierre-Joseph Proudhon Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (pronounced [] in BrE, [] in French) (January 15, 1809 – January 19, 1865) was the first proclaimed anarchist of the 19th century. ... Seinfeld is an Emmy Award-winning American sitcom that originally aired on NBC from July 5, 1989 to May 14, 1998, running a total of 9 seasons. ...


Origin

Tolstoy initially intended to write a novel about the Decembrist revolt.[3] His investigation of the causes of this revolt led him all the way back to Napoleon's invasion of Russia in 1812, and ultimately the history of that war. All that remains of that intention is a foreshadowing in the first epilogue that Pierre Bezukhov and Prince Andrei Bolkonsky's son are going to be members of the Decembrists. Decembrists at the Senate Square The Decembrist revolt or the Decembrist uprising (Russian: ) was attempted in Imperial Russia by army officers who led about 3,000 Russian soldiers on December 14 (December 26 New Style), 1825. ... Kazan Cathedral in St Petersburg and the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow were built to commemorate the Russian victory against Napoleon. ...


Language

Although Tolstoy wrote the bulk of the book, including all the narration, in Russian, significant pockets of dialogue throughout the book (including its opening sentence) are written in French. This merely reflected reality, as the Russian aristocracy in the nineteenth century all knew French, the then lingua franca of the European upper classes, and often spoke French rather than Russian among themselves. Indeed, Tolstoy makes one reference to an adult Russian aristocrat who has to take Russian lessons to try to master the national language. Less realistically, the Frenchmen portrayed in the novel, including Napoleon himself, sometimes speak in French, sometimes in Russian. Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ...


Context

A scene from Sergei Bondarchuk's production of War and Peace (1968).

The novel tells the story of five aristocratic families, particularly the Bezukhovs, the Bolkonskys, and the Rostovs, and the entanglements of their personal lives with the history of 18051813, principally Napoleon's invasion of Russia in 1812. As events proceed, Tolstoy systematically denies his subjects any significant free choice: the onward roll of history determines happiness and tragedy alike. Image File history File links Voinaimir. ... Image File history File links Voinaimir. ... Bondarchuk as Pierre Bezukhov in War and Peace Sergei Fedorovich Bondarchuk (IPA: , Russian: Серге́й Фё́дорович Бондарчу́к; Ukrainian: Сергі́й Фе́дорович Бондарчу́к September 25, 1920 – October 20, 1994) was a Soviet film director, screenwriter, and actor. ... Aristocrat redirects here. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The question of free will is whether, and in what sense, rational agents exercise control over their actions and decisions. ...


The standard Russian text is divided into four books (fifteen parts) and two epilogues – one mainly narrative, the other wholly thematic. While roughly the first half of the novel is concerned strictly with the fictional characters, the later parts, as well as one of the work's two epilogues, increasingly consist of (nonfictional) essays about the nature of war, political power, history, and historiography. Tolstoy interspersed these essays into the story in a way that defies fictional convention. Certain abridged versions removed these essays entirely, while others, published even during Tolstoy's life, simply moved these essays into an appendix. An epilogue, or epilog, is a piece of writing at the end of a work of literature or drama, usually used to bring closure to the work. ... For other uses, see Essay (disambiguation). ... This article is about the study of the past in human terms. ... Historiography studies the processes by which historical knowledge is obtained and transmitted. ... Look up appendix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Plot summary

Wikisource has original text related to this article:

War and Peace depicts a huge cast of characters, both historical and fictional, Russians and non-Russians, the majority of whom are introduced in the first book. The scope of the novel is extremely vast, but the narration focuses mainly on five or six characters whose differing personalities and experiences provide the impetus to the story with their mutual interactions leading up to, around and following the Napoleonic war. Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ...


At the start of the first book, at a soirée given in July 1805 by Anna Pavlovna Scherer - the maid-of-honor to the queen mother Empress Maria Fyodorovna - the main players and aristocratic families of the novel are made known. Pierre Bezukhov is the illegitimate son of a wealthy count who is dying of a stroke, and becomes unexpectedly embroiled in a tussle for his inheritance. Educated abroad in France, with his mother dead, Pierre is essentially kindhearted, but is socially awkward owing to his goodhearted, open nature, and finds it difficult to integrate with the Petersburg society. High school students celebrate at a birthday party. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Queen Mother is a title reserved for a widowed queen consort whose son or daughter from that union is the reigning monarch. ... Maria Feodorovna Romanova, born Princess Dagmar of Denmark (November 26, 1847–October 13, 1928) was Empress Consort of Russia. ... Sergei Bondarchuk as Pierre Bezukhov in War and Peace Count Pierre Bezukhov (Russian: ) is a central fictional character in Leo Tolstoys novel War and Peace. ... This article is about the style or title of nobility. ...


Pierre's friend, the intelligent and sardonic Prince Andrei Bolkonsky, is the husband of a charming wife Lise, and is beginning to find little comfort in married life. Finding Petersburg society unctuous, he instead chooses to be an aide-de-camp to Prince Mikhail Kutuzov in their coming war against Napoleon. An aide-de-camp (French: camp assistant) is a personal assistant, secretary, or adjutant to a person of high rank, usually a senior military officer or a head of state. ... Prince Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov (September 16, 1745 – April 28, 1813 (n. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ...


Tolstoy then switches to Moscow, Russia's ancient city, as a contrast to St Petersburg. The Rostov family would become one of the main narrative players of the novel. We learn of the Moscow Count Ilya Rostov family, with his four adolescent children, of whom the vivacious younger daughter Natalya Rostova ("Natasha") and impetuous older Nikolai Rostov are the more memorable. Young Natasha, at the threshold of her youth, is supposed in love with Boris, a disciplined boyish officer, while Nikolai is pledging his teenage love to Sonya, his younger cousin. The eldest child of the Rostov family, Vera, is cold and somewhat haughty but has a good prospective marriage in a German officer husband Berg. Petya is the youngest of the Rostov family; like his brother, he is impetuous and eager to join the army when of age. The heads of the family, Count Ilya Rostov and Countess Natalya Rostova, are an affectionate couple but forever worrisome over their neglectful financial management. For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ...


At Bald Hills, the Bolkonskys' country estate, Prince Andrei leaves his pregnant wife to his eccentric father Prince Nikolai Andreivitch Bolkonsky and religiously devout sister Maria Bolkonskaya and leaves for war.

The first page of War and Peace in an early edition

The second book opens with descriptions of the impending Russian-French war preparations. At the Schöngrabern engagement, Nikolai Rostov, who is now conscripted as ensign in a squadron of hussars, has his first baptism of fire upfront in battle. He meets with Prince Andrei whom he does not really have a liking for. Like all young soldiers he is attracted by Tsar Alexandr's charisma. However Nikolai gambles recklessly and socialises with the lisping Denisov and the diastrous rake, Dolokhov. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 417 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1049 × 1508 pixel, file size: 906 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)The first page of War and Peace in the original script Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 417 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1049 × 1508 pixel, file size: 906 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)The first page of War and Peace in the original script Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of... Combatants First French Empire Austrian Empire, Russian Empire Commanders Joachim Murat Petr Bagration Strength about 20,600 about 7,300 Casualties about 1,200 2,402 The Battle of Schöngrabern (also known as the Battle of Hollabrunn) was an engagement in the Napoleonic Wars during the War of the... Ensign of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... A British Hussar from the Crimean War Hussar (original Hungarian spelling: huszár, plural huszárok, Polish: Husaria) refers to a number of types of cavalry used throughout Europe since the 15th century. ... The phrase baptism by fire or baptism of fire, known in English since 1822, is a translation of the French phrase baptême du feu and is a reference to a soldiers first experience under fire in battle. ... Aleksandr Pavlovich Romanov or Tsar Alexander I (The Blessed), (Russian: Александр I Павлович) (December 23, 1777–December 1, 1825), Emperor of Russia (reigned March 23, 1801–December 1, 1825), King of Poland (reigned 1815–1825), son of the Grand Duke Paul Petrovich, afterwards Paul I, and Maria Fedorovna, daughter of the Duke...


Briefly returning home to Moscow on home leave, Nikolai finds the Rostov family facing financial ruin due to poor estate management. With Denisov he spends an eventful winter home, finding Natasha blossoming into a beautiful young girl. Although his mother pleads with him to find himself a good financial prospect in marriage, Nikolai refuses to accede to his mother's request to find a rich heiress for wife and promises to marry his childhood sweetheart, the orphaned and self-effacing cousin Sonya. For other uses, see inheritance (disambiguation). ...


If there is a central character to War and Peace it is Pierre Bezukhov, who, upon receiving an unexpected inheritance, is suddenly burdened with the responsibilities and conflicts of a Russian nobleman. Much of Book Two concerns his struggles with his passions and his spiritual conflicts to be a better man. Now a rich aristocrat, his former carefree behavior vanishes and he enters upon a philosophical quest particular to Tolstoy: how should one live a moral life in an ethically imperfect world? The question constantly baffles and confuses Pierre. He attempts to free his peasants, but ultimately achieves nothing of note. He then enters into marriage with Prince Kuragin's beautiful and immoral daughter Hélène (Ëlena), against his own better judgement. He later joins the Freemasons but becomes embroiled in some of the Freemasonry's politicking, and is continually helpless in the face of his wife's numerous affairs, faced with anguish as all these happens. In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: in fact, hunger and harsh winters were realities for the average European in the... American Square & Compasses Freemasonry is a worldwide fraternal organization. ...


Pierre is vividly contrasted with Prince Andrei Bolkonsky, Tolstoy's intelligent and ambitious alter ego. At the Battle of Austerlitz Andrei is inspired by a vision of glory to lead a charge of a straggling army, but suffers a near fatal artillery wound. At the face of death he realizes all his former ambitions are pointless and his former hero, Napoleon (who rescues him in a horseback excursion to the battlefield), is apparently as vain as himself. Recovering from his injuries in a military hospital, Prince Andrei returns home only to find his wife Lise dying during childbirth, and is struck by his guilty conscience for not treating her better when she was alive. Burdened with nihilistic disillusionment, Prince Andrei lives in his estate, until he is led to a philosophical argument with the visiting Pierre: where is God in this amoral world? Pierre points to panentheism and an afterlife. Young Natasha meets Andrei during her very first ball, and briefly reinvigorates Andrei with her openness and lively vitality, but the couple's plan to marry has to be postponed with a year-long engagement. Alter Ego has multiple meanings: Alter Ego is a game for the Commodore 64 computer. ... Combatants French Empire Russian Empire Austrian Empire Commanders Napoleon I Alexander I Francis II Strength 65,000[1] 73,000[2] Casualties 1,305 dead, 6,940 wounded, 573 captured, 1 standard lost[3] 15,000 dead or wounded, 12,000 captured, 180 guns lost, 50 standards lost[3] The... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... This article is about the philosophical position. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... See also Morality and Ethics. ... Panentheism (from Greek (pân) all; (en) in; and (Theós) god; all-in-God) is the theological position that God is immanent within the Universe, but also transcends it. ... For other uses, see Afterlife (disambiguation). ...


When Prince Andrei leaves for his military engagements, Elena and her handsome brother Anatoly conspire together for Anatoly to seduce and dishonor the young, still immature and now beautiful Natasha Rostova. Thanks to Sonya and Pierre, this plan fails, yet, for Pierre, it is the cause of an important meeting with Natasha, when he realizes he has now fallen in love with her. During the time when the Great Comet of 1811–2 streaks the sky, life appears to begin anew for him, with fresh hope of love. Natasha, shamed by her near-seduction, has had her wedding engagement broken off by Andrei. The Great Comet of 1811 (formally designated C/1811 F1) was a comet that was visible to the naked eye for around 260 days. ...


Meanwhile Nikolai unexpectedly acts as a white knight to the beleaguered Maria Bolkonskaya, whose father's death has left her in the mercy of an estate of hostile, rebellious peasants. Struck by Maria, whom he is seeing for the first time, he reconsiders marriage and finds Maria's devotion, consideration, and inheritance extremely attractive. But he is constricted by his earlier, youthful promise to Sonya, his cousin, and hesitates to woo Maria. A knight errant is a figure of Medieval romantic chivalric literature. ...


As Napoleon pushes through Russia, Pierre decides to leave Moscow and to watch the Battle of Borodino from a vantage point next to a Russian artillery crew. After watching for a time, he begins to join in carrying ammunition and virtually becomes an artillaryman. There, he realizes first-hand just how terrible and fatal war can be, in wrecking and killing healthy men. Meanwhile Napoleon himself and his army scores their decisive victory and pushes on and finally reaches a now-emptying Moscow. Combatants First French Empire Russian Empire Commanders Napoleon I Mikhail Kutuzov Strength 82,400 infantry 26,700 cavalry 14,900 artillery troops with 587 guns[1] 72,000 infantry 17,300 cavalry 14,500 artillery troops with 637 guns[2] Casualties ~6,600 killed ~21,400 wounded [3] ~43,000... North American members of the Aston Martin Owners Club receive four annual issues of The Vantage Point magazine. ...


When Napoleon's Grand Army occupies an abandoned and burning Moscow, Pierre takes off on a quixotic mission to assassinate Napoleon. He plan fails and he is captured in Napoleon's headquarters as a prisoner of war for carrying a dagger. After witnessing French soldiers sacking Moscow and shooting Russian civilians arbritarily, Pierre is forced to march with the Grand Army during its disastrous retreat from Moscow owing to the harsh winter. He becomes friends with his cell-mate Platòn Karataev, a peasant with a saintly demeanor, who is incapable of malice. In Karataev Pierre finally finds what he is looking for in life, an honest, "rounded" person who is totally without pretence, unlike those from the Petersburg aristocratic society. After months of trial and tribulation—during which Karataev is capriciously shot by the French—Pierre is later captured and freed by a Russian raiding party. La Grande Armée (in English, the Big or Grand Army) is the French military term for the main force in a military campaign. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fictional character and novel. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


Meanwhile Andrei, wounded during Napoleon's invasion, is taken in as a casualty cared for by the fleeing Rostovs; he is reunited with Natasha and sister Maria before the end of the war. Having lost all will to live after forgiving Natasha, he dies, much like the death scene at the end of The Death of Ivan Ilych. The Death of Ivan Ilyich, first published in 1886, is a novella by Leo Tolstoy. ...


As the novel draws to a close, Pierre's wife Elena dies (sometime during the last throes of Napoleon's invasion); and Pierre is reunited with Natasha, while the victorious Russians rebuild Moscow. Pierre finds love at last and, revealing his love after being released from his former wife's death, marries Natasha, while Nikolai, whose dilemma between his heart's choices is now firmly set on Princess Maria, is released from his previous oath by Sonya herself. He marries Maria Bolkonskaya but provides for Sonya for the rest of her life. Nikolai Rostov and Maria, who are now married, decide to adopt and raise Prince Andrei's orphaned son, Nikolai Bolkonsky. Like in all marriages there are minor squabbles but the couples remain devoted to each other. There is a hint in the closing chapters that the idealistic, boyish Nikolai Bolkonsky and Pierre would both become part of the Decembrist Uprising which would change Russia forever, although the novel merely ends with that of a hint. The first epilogue concludes with Nikolai Bolkonsky promising he would do something which even his late father "would be satisfied...." (presumably as a revolutionary in the Decembrist revolt). The second epilogue sums up Tolstoy's views on history, free will and in what ways the two may interact to cause major events in mankind. This article is about the failed Russian revolt. ... Revolutionary, when used as a noun, is a person who either advocates or actively engages in some kind of revolution. ... Decembrists at the Senate Square The Decembrist revolt or the Decembrist uprising (Russian: ) was attempted in Imperial Russia by army officers who led about 3,000 Russian soldiers on December 14 (December 26 New Style), 1825. ... Free-Will is a Japanese independent record label founded in 1986. ...


Tolstoy's view of history

Tolstoy doesn't subscribe to the "great man" view of history: the notion that history is the story of strong personalities that move events and shape societies. He believes that events shape themselves, caused by social and other forces; and great men take advantage of them, changing them but not creating them. As an example, he compares Napoleon and Kutuzov. Napoleon, the Great Man, thought he had created the French Revolution, but actually he had simply happened along at the right time and usurped it. Kutuzov was more modest and more effective.


Napoleon believed that he could control the course of a battle through sending orders through couriers, while Kutuzov admits that all he could do was to plan the initial disposition and then let subordinates direct the field of action. Typically, Napoleon would be frantically sending out orders throughout the course of a battle, carried by dashing young lieutenants—which were often misinterpreted or made irrelevant by changing conditions—while Kutuzov would sit quietly in his tent and often sleep through the battle. Ultimately, Napoleon chooses wrongly, opting to march on to Moscow and occupy it for five fatal weeks, when he would have been better off destroying the Russian army in a decisive battle. General Kutuzov believes time to be his best ally, and refrains from engaging the French. He moves his army out of Moscow, and the residents evacuate the city: the nobles flee to their country estates, taking their treasures with them; lesser folk flee wherever they can, taking food and supplies. The French march into Moscow and disperse to find housing and supplies, then ultimately destroy themselves as they accidentally burn the city to the ground and then abandon it in late Fall, then limp back toward the French border in the teeth of a Russian Winter. They are all but destroyed by a final Cossack attack as they straggle back toward Paris. Tolstoy observes that Kutuzuv didn't burn Moscow as a "scorched earth policy," nor did Napoleon; but after taking the city, Napoleon moved his troops in, to find housing more or less by chance in the abandoned houses: generals appropriated the grander houses, lesser men took what was left over; units were dispersed, and the chain of command dissolved into chaos. Quickly, his tightly disciplined army dissolved into a disorganized rabble; and of course, if one leaves a wooden city in the hands of strangers who naturally use fire to warm themselves, cook food, and smoke pipes, and have not learned how particular Russian families safely used their stoves and lamps (some of which they had taken with them as they fled the city), fires will break out. In the absence of an organized fire department, the fires will spread. Tolstoy concludes that the the city was destroyed, by chance. For other uses, see Courier (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cossack (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... For the computer game, see Scorched Earth (computer game). ...


Major characters in "War and Peace"

  • Pierre Bezukhov—A freethinking Freemason, though confused and at times reckless, is capable of decisive action and great displays of willpower when circumstances demand it.
  • Natasha Rostova—Introduced as a romantic young girl, she evolves through trial and suffering and eventually finds happiness with Pierre
  • Sonya Rostova —The 'sterile flower'. Orphaned cousin of Vera, Nikolai, Natasha, and Petya Rostov. Engaged to Nikolai throughout most of the book, toward the end, she releases him to marry Princess Maria.
  • Andrey Nikolayevich Bolkonsky —A cynical, brave soldier in the Napoleonic Wars, who is the counterpart to Pierre.
  • Maria Bolkonskaya—(born in 1789) A woman who struggles between the obligations of her religion and the desires of her heart.
  • Nikolai Rostov—a soldier through most of the book, he evenually marries Princess Maria.
  • Napoleon I of France—the Great Man, ruined by great blunders.
  • Kutuzov—Russian General throughout the book. His diligence and modesty eventually save Russia from the Great Man.
  • Elena Kuragina—Pierre's delinquent wife, who earns social power in high-society circles but eventually defeats herself.
  • Anatole Vassilitch Kuragin—Elena's brother and a wild-living soldier who is secretely married yet tries to elope with Natasha Rostova.
  • Petya Ilyitch Rostov (1796-1812) son of Count Ilya Adreyitch Rostov and Natalya Rostova, hero officer of the wars with France, killed in 1812
  • The Freemason—interests Pierre in his mysterious group, starting a lengthy subplot.
  • Emperor Alexander Pavlovitch—Tsar and Emperor of Russia. He signed a peace treaty with Napoleon in 1807.

Many of Tolstoy's characters in War and Peace were based on real-life people known to Tolstoy himself. Nikolai Rostov and Maria Bolkonskaya were based on Tolstoy's own memories of his father and mother, while Natasha was modeled after Tolstoy's wife and sister-in-law. Pierre and Prince Andrei bear much resemblance to Tolstoy himself, and many commentators have treated them as alter egos of the author. (It is an innovation for a writer to create two alter egos of himself, and Tolstoy's are both compelling and complementary.) This is an incomplete list of characters in the Leo Tolstoys novel War and Peace. ... Sergei Bondarchuk as Pierre Bezukhov in War and Peace Count Pierre Bezukhov (Russian: ) is a central fictional character in Leo Tolstoys novel War and Peace. ... “Freemasons” redirects here. ... Audrey Hepburn as Natasha Rostova. ... Sonya Rostova is a character in Leo Tolstoys novel War and Peace. ... Prince Andrei Nikolayevich Bolkonsky is a fictional character in Leo Tolstoys novel War and Peace. ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... Marya Marie Bolkoskaya (born in 1789) is a character in Leo Tolstoys War and Peace. ... Year 1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Count Nikolay Ilyitch Rostov is a character in Leo Tolstoys novel War and Peace. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Mikhail Kutuzov Prince Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov (Russian: ) (September 16, 1745 – April 28, 1813 (n. ... Year 1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... American Square & Compasses Freemasonry is a worldwide fraternal organization. ... Aleksandr I Pavlovich (Russian: Александр I Павлович) (December 23, 1777 – December 1, 1825?), was Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801-1 December 1825 and Ruler of Poland from 1815–1825, as well as the first Grand Duke of Finland. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... An emperorrefers to Nick Herringshaw, a title, empress may only indicate the wife of an emperor (empress consort. ... A peace treaty is an agreement (a peace treaty) between two hostile parties, usually countries or governments, that formally ends a war or armed conflict. ...


There are numerous minor characters in War and Peace, who appear in one chapter or are mentioned occasionally in passing. A few of these, such as Platon Karataev, are not really minor: Karataev plays a major role in the maturation of Pierre Bezhukhov after he becomes a prisoner of war.


Film, TV, theatrical and other adaptations

  • The first Russian film adaptation of War and Peace was the 1915 film Voyna i mir, directed by Vladimir Gardin and starring Gardin and the Russian ballerina Vera Karalli.
  • First successful stage adaptations of War and Peace were produced by Alfred Neumann and Erwin Piscator (1942, revised 1955, published by Macgibbon & Kee in London 1963, and staged in 16 countries since) and R. Lucas (1943). A second film adaptation was produced by F. Kamei in Japan (1947).
  • War and Peace (1968): Soviet director Sergei Bondarchuk made a critically acclaimed four-part film version (Vojna i mir) of the novel, released individually in 1965-1967, and as a re-edited whole in 1968, starring Lyudmila Savelyeva (as Natasha Rostova) and Vyacheslav Tikhonov (as Andrei Bolkonsky). Bondarchuk himself played the character of Pierre Bezukhov. By the time Bondarchuk made this film, the flawless image of Natasha as created by Audrey Hepburn had achieved an almost iconic status among Western audiences,[citation needed] and it was therefore a challenge for the director to select an actress for this role. The actress he chose, Lyudmila Savelyeva, looked very similar to Hepburn.[citation needed] The film was almost seven hours long; it involved thousands of actors, 120 000 extras, and it took seven years to finish the shooting, as a result of which the actors age dramatically from scene to scene. It won an Oscar for Best Foreign Language Film for its authenticity and massive scale. [2]
  • In December 1970, Pacifica Radio station WBAI broadcast a reading of the entire novel (the 1968 Dunnigan translation) read by over 140 celebrities and ordinary people. [3]
  • La Guerre et la paix (tv) (2000) by François Roussillon. Robert Brubaker played the lead role of Pierre.
  • War and Peace (2007): Lux Vide company film which incorporated Russia, France, Germany, Poland and Italy in production. Directed by Robert Dornhelm, with screenplay written by, Lorenzo Favella, Enrico Medioli and Gavin Scott. Alexander Beyer played the lead role of Pierre. Other characters were played by Malcolm McDowell, Clémence Poésy, Alessio Boni, Pilar Abella, J. Kimo Arbas, Juozapas Bagdonas and Toni Bertorelli.

Vladimir Rostislavovich Gardin (18 January [O.S. 6 January] 1877, Moscow — 28 May 1965, Leningrad) was a pioneering Russian film director and actor who strove to raise the artistic level of Russian cinema. ... Vera Karalli (July 27, 1889 - November 16, 1972) was a notable Russian ballet dancer, choreographer and actress during the early years of the twentieth century. ... Erwin Friedrich Maximilian Piscator, (December 17, 1893 – March 30, 1966), German theatrical director and producer who, with Bertolt Brecht, was the foremost exponent of epic theater, a genre that emphasizes the sociopolitical context rather than the emotional content or aesthetics of the play. ... Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev (Russian: , Sergej Sergejevič Prokofijev; April 27 (April 151 O.S.), 1891–March 5, 1953) was a Russian and Soviet composer who mastered numerous musical genres and came to be admired as one of the greatest composers of the 20th century. ... War and Peace (Op. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... The Sydney Opera House is located in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. ... Alfred Neumann (born 15 October 1895, Lautenburg, Germany - died 3 October 1952, Lugano, Switzerland) was a playwright and screenwriter. ... Erwin Friedrich Maximilian Piscator, (December 17, 1893 – March 30, 1966), German theatrical director and producer who, with Bertolt Brecht, was the foremost exponent of epic theater, a genre that emphasizes the sociopolitical context rather than the emotional content or aesthetics of the play. ... War and Peace is the first film version of the novel War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy. ... King Vidor King Wallis Vidor (February 8, 1894 – November 1, 1982) was an American film director. ... Audrey Hepburn (4 May 1929 - 20 January 1993) was an Academy Award and Tony Award winning Anglo-Dutch actress of film and theatre, Broadway stage performer, ballerina, fashion model, and humanitarian. ... Henry Jaynes Fonda (May 16, 1905 – August 12, 1982) was a highly acclaimed Academy Award-winning American film and stage actor, best known for his roles as plain-speaking idealists. ... Mel Ferrer (born August 25, 1917 in Elberon, New Jersey) is an American actor, film director and film producer. ... Henry Jaynes Fonda (May 16, 1905 – August 12, 1982) was a highly acclaimed Academy Award-winning American film and stage actor, best known for his roles as plain-speaking idealists. ... Audrey Hepburn (4 May 1929 - 20 January 1993) was an Academy Award and Tony Award winning Anglo-Dutch actress of film and theatre, Broadway stage performer, ballerina, fashion model, and humanitarian. ... War and Peace (Russian: Война и мир; Voyna i mir) is a Soviet-produced film adaptation of the Leo Tolstoys novel War and Peace. ... CCCP redirects here. ... Bondarchuk as Pierre Bezukhov in War and Peace Sergei Fedorovich Bondarchuk (IPA: , Russian: Серге́й Фё́дорович Бондарчу́к; Ukrainian: Сергі́й Фе́дорович Бондарчу́к September 25, 1920 – October 20, 1994) was a Soviet film director, screenwriter, and actor. ... Vyacheslav Tikhonov (February 8, 1928) is a famous Soviet actor, a recipient of numerous state awards. ... Audrey Hepburn (4 May 1929 - 20 January 1993) was an Academy Award and Tony Award winning Anglo-Dutch actress of film and theatre, Broadway stage performer, ballerina, fashion model, and humanitarian. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pacifica Radio Network. ... WBAI, a part of the Pacifica Radio Network, is a non-commercial, listener-supported radio station, broadcasting at 99. ... for other uses of the phrase War and Peace see War and Peace (disambiguation) War and Peace was a made for television dramatization of the Leo Tolstoy novel of the same name. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... A miniseries (sometimes mini-series), in a serial storytelling medium, is a production which tells a story in a limited number of episodes. ... For the composer, see Antony Hopkins. ... This article is about the British actor. ... Faith Brook is an actress who has appeared on stage, in films and on television. ... Morag Hood (born 12 December 1942 in Glasgow, Scotland, died 5 October 2002 in London, England) is an actress. ... Alan Dobie as Sgt Cribb Alan Russell Dobie (actor), born Alan Russell on June 2 1932, in Wombwell, England; son of George Russell (a mining engineer) and Sarah Kate Dobie; married to Rachel Roberts, (an actress) from 1955-61 (divorced); married Maureen Scott (divorced). ... Harry Locke (December 10, 1913 - September 17, 1987) was a British character actor. ... Helen Edmundson is a British playwright particularly well-known for her adaptations of various literary classics for the stage. ... The Royal National Theatre from Waterloo Bridge The Royal National Theatre is a building complex and theatre company located on the South Bank in London, England immediately east of the southern end of Waterloo Bridge. ... Alexander Beyer (born June 24, 1973 in Erfurt) is a German actor. ... Malcolm McDowell (born 13 June 1943) is a British actor. ... Clémence Poésy (IPA: ) born November 30, 1982 is a French actress famous for playing Fleur Delacour in Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. ...

Translations into other languages

Into English:

Into Macedonian: Constance Garnett (née Black) (December 19, 1861 - December 17, 1946) was an English translator whose translations of nineteenth-century Russian classics first introduced them on a wide basis to the English public. ... Aylmer Maude (28 March 1858 - 25 August 1938) and Louise Maude (1855-1939) were English translators of Tolstoys work, and Aylmer Maude also wrote his friend Tolstoys biography. ... Manuel Komroff (7 September 1890 – December 1974) was an American writer of plays, novels and screenplays. ... Andrew Bromfield is a founding editor of the Russian literature journal Glas. ... Richard Pevear is an American-born poet and translator who frequently collaborates with his wife, Larissa Volokhonsky, on translations of Russian novels. ... Larissa Volokhonsky is a Russian-born translator who frequently collaborates with her American-born husband, Richard Pevear, on translations of works mainly in Russian, but also French, Italian, and Greek. ...

  • Simon Drakul (1985)

Editions

The Inner Sanctum Edition Simon and Schuster. 1945-1954, I (ISBN: 0679600841) Hard Cover, 2. A Reader's Guide and Bookmark for the Inner Sanctum Edition of War and Peace is included, containing

  • a list of characters arranged in family groups;
  • a chronological table of principal historical events, 1805 to 1812, the period covered by War and Peace;
  • a map of the Campaign of 1805; a map showing the Napoleonic Invasion of Russia and a Plan of Moscow in 1812;
  • a list of characters, arranged in order of their appearance, with full identifications and a note on Russian names and titles.

The book is translated, with a preface and introductory notes, by Aylmer Maude, with a foreword by Clifton Fadiman. Includes detailed Table of Contents, various famous authors' praises of War and Peace, a list of dates of principal historical events, and 7 maps throughout text, as well as maps on the front & rear paste-down endpapers.


See also

This is an incomplete list of characters in the Leo Tolstoys novel War and Peace. ... Historical novels are listed by the country in which the majority of the novel takes place. ...

References

Nauka i Zhizn (Science and Life, Russian: ) was a science magazine issued during 1890-1900 in Imperial Russia, since 1934 in Soviet Union and continued in Russian Federation. ...

External links

Wikisource has original text related to this article:

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ...

Online text

For other uses, see Sisu (disambiguation). ...

Study guides

Other information

  • Discussion about "peace" and "world" meaning, in Russian
  • Birth, death, balls and battles by Orlando Figes. This is an edited version of an essay found in the Penguin Classics new translation of War and Peace (2005).
  • Russian Army during the Napoleonic Wars
  • The War and Peace Broadcast: 35th Anniversary, from Pacifica Radio Archives site

Orlando Figes, born 1957 in London, son of the Feminist writer Eva Figes. ...

Listening

  • Radio documentary about 1970 marathon reading of War and Peace on WBAI, from Democracy Now! program, December 6, 2005

  Results from FactBites:
 
War and Peace - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1708 words)
War and Peace (Russian: Война и мир, Vojna i mir; in original orthography: Война и миръ, Vojna i mir") is an epic novel by Leo Tolstoy, first published from 1865 to 1869 in Russki Vestnik, which tells the story of Russian society during the Napoleonic Era.
War and Peace (1968): Soviet director Sergei Bondarchuk made a critically acclaimed four-part film version (Vojna i mir) of the novel, released individually in 1965-1967, and as a re-edited whole in 1968, starring Lyudmila Savelyeva (as Natasha Rostova) and Vyacheslav Tikhonov (as Andrei Bolkonsky).
War and Peace (1972): The BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) made a television miniseries based on the novel, broadcast between in 1972-73.
MediaChannel.org - ISSUE GUIDES | War And Peace (1652 words)
Peace journalism reports not merely the causes of conflict but also explores possible solutions; it undergirds covering conflict with the goal of ending wars.
Peace journalism, sometimes ridiculed yet seldom understood, is a distinctive approach to covering conflict, vastly different from the one pursued by most war correspondents and mainstream media outlets.
If the war in Kosovo demonstrates anything about the Net, it shows that it's a dreadful medium for covering a war." In "War Coverage Is Not The Net's Strength," Katz argues that it was the conventional, not the digital, media which reported the meaning of the war and had the greatest political impact.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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