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Encyclopedia > Wankel engine
A Wankel engine in Deutsches Museum Munich, Germany
A Wankel engine in Deutsches Museum Munich, Germany

The Wankel engine is a type of internal combustion engine which uses a rotary design to convert pressure into a rotating motion instead of using reciprocating pistons. Its four-stroke cycle is generally generated in a space between the inside of an oval-like epitrochoid-shaped housing and a roughly triangular rotor. This design delivers smooth high-rpm power from a compact, lightweight engine. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (868x1110, 98 KB) Oggetto Wankel engine from German wiki, http://de. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (868x1110, 98 KB) Oggetto Wankel engine from German wiki, http://de. ... Deutsches Museum The Deutsches Museum (German Museum) in Munich, Germany, is the worlds largest museum of technology and science, with approximately 1. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... A colored automobile engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... Many types of rotary combustion engine, like the Quasiturbine or the Wankel engine, have been devised [1], all having the same basic concept; to avoid the reciprocating motion of the piston with its inherent vibration and rotational-speed-related mechanical stress. ... Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... Today Internal combustion engines in cars, trucks, motorcycles, construction machinery and many others, most commonly use a four-stroke cycle. ... An epitrochoid is a roulette traced by a point attached to a circle of radius b rolling around the outside of a fixed circle of radius a, where the point is a distance h from the center of the exterior circle. ... For other uses, see Revolutions per minute (disambiguation). ...


The engine was invented by German engineer Felix Wankel. He began its development in the early 1950s at NSU Motorenwerke AG (NSU) before completing a working, running prototype in 1957. NSU then subsequently licenced the concept to other companies across the globe, who added more efforts and improvements in the 1950s and 1960s. Prof. ... Logo of the Company NSU, 1951 NSU Motorenwerke AG (normally just NSU) was a German manufacturer of cars and motorcycles which was founded in 1873, and was acquired by Volkswagen in 1969. ...


Because of their compact, lightweight design, Wankel rotary engines have been installed in a variety of vehicles and devices such as automobiles and racing cars, aircraft, go-karts, personal water crafts, and auxiliary power units. Car redirects here. ... Auto racing (also known as automobile racing or autosport) is a sport involving racing automobiles. ... Flying machine redirects here. ... Karting, go-kart, go carting and similar terms redirect here. ... Pump-jet PWCs such as this Yamaha Waverunner are extremely popular for their speed and maneuverability. ... The APU exhaust at the tail end of an Airbus A380 An auxiliary power unit (APU) is a device on a vehicle whose purpose is to provide energy for functions other than propulsion. ...

Contents

History

First Wankel Engine DKM54 (Drehkolbenmotor), at the Deutsches Museum in Bonn, Germany
First Wankel Engine DKM54 (Drehkolbenmotor), at the Deutsches Museum in Bonn, Germany
Wankel Engine NSU KKM 57P (Kreiskolbenmotor), at Autovision und Forum, Germany
Wankel Engine NSU KKM 57P (Kreiskolbenmotor), at Autovision und Forum, Germany

In 1951, Felix Wankel began development of the engine at NSU (NSU Motorenwerke AG), where he first conceived his rotary engine in 1954 (DKM 54, Drehkolbenmotor) and later the KKM 57 (the Wankel rotary engine, Kreiskolbenmotor) in 1957. The first working prototype DKM 54 was running on February 1, 1957 at the NSU research and development department Versuchsabteilung TX.[1] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1284x1054, 138 KB) (All user names refer to de. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1284x1054, 138 KB) (All user names refer to de. ... Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. ... Image File history File links Wankelmotor-KKM57P.jpg‎ Beschreibung Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Wankel engine ... Image File history File links Wankelmotor-KKM57P.jpg‎ Beschreibung Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Wankel engine ... Logo of the Company NSU, 1951 NSU Motorenwerke AG (normally just NSU) was a German manufacturer of cars and motorcycles which was founded in 1873, and was acquired by Volkswagen in 1969. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ...


Considerable effort went into designing rotary engines in the 1950s and 1960s. They were of particular interest because they were smooth and quiet running, and because of the reliability resulting from their simplicity.


In the United States, in 1959 under license from NSU, Curtiss-Wright pioneered minor improvements in the basic engine design. In Britain, in the 1960s, Rolls Royce Motor Car Division at Crewe, Cheshire, pioneered a two-stage diesel version of the Wankel engine.[2] The Curtiss-Wright Corporation was once a leading aircraft manufacturer of the United States, but has since become a component manufacturer, specializing in actuators, controls, valves, and metal treatment. ... Rolls-Royce Limited was an British car and, later, aero-engine manufacturing company founded by Henry Royce and Charles Stewart Rolls on 15 March 1906 and was the result of a partnership formed in 1904. ...


Also in Britain, Norton Motorcycles developed a Wankel rotary engine for motorcycles, which was included in their Commander and F1; Suzuki also made a production motorcycle with a Wankel engine, the RE-5. In 1971 and 1972 Arctic Cat produced snowmobiles powered by 303 cc Wankel rotary engines manufactured by Sachs in Germany. John Deere Inc, in the U.S., designed a version that was capable of using a variety of fuels. The design was proposed as the power source for several U.S. Marine combat vehicles in the late 1980s. Norton is a British motorcycle brand from Birmingham and founded in 1898. ... For other uses, see Motorcycle (disambiguation). ... The Norton Commander was a motorcycle made by Norton Motorcycles beginning in 1987 for police forces and 1988 for civilian use. ... For other uses, see Suzuki (disambiguation). ... Arctic Cat is a producer of all-terrain vehicles and Snowmobiles in the United States. ... John Deere This article is about John Deere, the person. ... United States Marine Corps Emblem The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is the second smallest of the five branches of the United States armed forces, with 170,000 active and 40,000 reserve Marines as of 2002. ...


After occasional use in automobiles, for instance by NSU with their Ro 80 model, Citroën with the M35, and GS Birotor using engines produced by Comotor, as well as abortive attempts by General Motors and Mercedes-Benz to design Wankel-engine automobiles, the most extensive automotive use of the Wankel engine has been by the Japanese company Mazda. Logo of the Company NSU, 1951 NSU Motorenwerke AG (normally just NSU) was a German manufacturer of cars and motorcycles which was founded in 1873, and was acquired by Volkswagen in 1969. ... NSU Ro 80 The NSU Ro 80 was a technologically advanced large sedan-type automobile produced by the German firm of NSU from 1967 until 1977. ... Citroën is a French automobile manufacturer, founded in 1919 by André Citroën. ... The Citroën M35 was a coupé derived from the Ami 8, and equiped with a Wankel engine and an hydropneumatic suspension. ... 1970s GS Service Van The Citroën GS/GSA is a small family car produced by the French automaker Citroën between 1970 and 1986. ... The Company Comotor SA was created in Luxembourg in April 1967, by NSU and Citroën. ... General Motors Corporation (NYSE: GM), also known as GM, is an American automobile maker with worldwide operations and brands including Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, Holden, Hummer, Opel, Pontiac, Saturn, Saab and Vauxhall. ... This page is about the Mercedes-Benz brand of automobiles and trucks from the DaimlerChrysler automobile manufacturer. ... Car redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


After years of development, Mazda's first Wankel engined car was the 1967 Cosmo. The company followed with a number of Wankel ("rotary" in the company's terminology) vehicles, including a bus and a pickup truck. Customers often cited the cars' smoothness of operation. However, Mazda chose a method to comply with hydrocarbon emission standards that, while less expensive to produce, increased fuel consumption, just before a sharp rise in fuel prices. Mazda later abandoned the Wankel in most of their automotive designs, but continued using it in their RX-7 sports car until August 2002 (RX-7 importation for North America ceased with the 1995 model year). The company normally used two-rotor designs, but received considerable attention with their 1991 Eunos Cosmo, which used a twin-turbo three-rotor engine. In 2003, Mazda introduced the RENESIS engine with the new RX-8. The RENESIS engine relocated the ports for exhaust and intake from the periphery of the rotary housing to the sides, allowing for larger overall ports, better airflow, and further power gains. The RENESIS is capable of delivering 238 hp (177 kW) from its 1.3 L displacement with better fuel economy, reliability, and environmental friendliness than any other Mazda rotary engine in history.[3] 12A redirects here. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Mazda Cosmo There have been four generations of Mazda automobiles which went by the name of Cosmo, although they are not all particularly related. ... The Rotary Pickup (REPU) from Mazda was the worlds first and only Rotary / Wankel engined pickup truck. ... A 3-dimensional rendered Ball-and-stick model of the methane molecule. ... Emission standards are requirements that set specific limits to the amount of pollutants that can be released into the environment. ... The Mazda RX-7 (also called the Ẽfini RX-7) is a sports car produced by the Japanese automaker Mazda from 1978 to 2002. ... 1963 Jaguar E-Type, a classic sports car 1963 Chevrolet Corvette was based upon European sports cars A sports car is an automobile designed for performance driving. ... There have been several Mazda automobiles named Mazda Cosmo. ... Air foil bearing-supported turbocharger cutaway made by Mohawk Innovative Technology Inc. ... The Mazda RX-8 is a sports car manufactured by Mazda Motor Corporation. ...


Soviet automobile manufacturer VAZ also experimented with the design of Wankel-engine cars. In 1978, they designed an engine with two-rotors and, in the 1980s, started delivering Wankel-powered VAZ-2106s, mostly to security services; about 200 were made.[4] Aviadvigatel, the Soviet aircraft engine design bureau, is known to have produced Wankel engines for aircraft and helicopters, though little specific information has surfaced. Soviet redirects here. ... This page is about a car manufacturer. ... The 1980s was the decade spanning from 1980 to 1989, also called The Eighties. The decade saw social, economic and general upheaval as wealth, production and western culture migrated to new industrializing economies. ...


Although many manufacturers licensed the design, and Mercedes-Benz used it for their C111 concept car, only Mazda has produced Wankel engines in large numbers. American Motors (AMC) was so convinced "...that the rotary engine will play an important role as a powerplant for cars and trucks of the future...", according to Chairman Roy D. Chapin Jr., the smallest U.S. automaker signed an agreement in February 1973, after a year's negotiations, to build Wankels for both passenger cars and Jeeps, as well as the right to sell any rotary engines it produces to other companies.[5][6] It even designed the unique Pacer around the engine, even though by then, AMC had decided to buy the Wankel engines from GM instead of building them itself. However, GM's engines had not reached production when the Pacer was to hit the showrooms. Part of the demise of this feature was the rising fuel prices and concerns about proposed emission legislation in the United States. General Motors' Wankel did not comply with emission standards, so in 1974 the company canceled its development. This meant the Pacer had to be reconfigured to house AMC's venerable straight-sixes with rear-wheel drive. This page is about the Mercedes-Benz brand of automobiles and trucks from the DaimlerChrysler automobile manufacturer. ... The C111 was a series of experimental automobiles produced by Mercedes-Benz in the 1960s and 1970s. ... American Motors Corporation (AMC) was an American automobile company formed on January 14, 1954 by the merger of the Nash-Kelvinator Corporation and the Hudson Motor Car Company. ... Roy D. Chapin Jr. ... For other uses, see Jeep (disambiguation). ... The AMC Pacer is a two-door compact automobile produced in the United States by the American Motors Corporation between 1975 and 1980. ... The 1973 oil crisis began on October 17, 1973, when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC, consisting of the Arab members of OPEC plus Egypt and Syria) announced, as a result of the ongoing Yom Kippur War, that they would no longer ship oil to nations... In the United States, emissions standards are managed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as well as some state governments. ... The American Motors Corporation (AMC) straight-6 family of engines was used by a number of AMC and Jeep vehicles from 1964 through 2006. ...


Naming

Since its introduction in the NSU Motorenwerke AG (NSU) and Mazda cars of the 1960s, the engine has been commonly referred to as the rotary engine, a name which has also been applied to several completely different engine designs. Logo of the Company NSU, 1951 NSU Motorenwerke AG (normally just NSU) was a German manufacturer of cars and motorcycles which was founded in 1873, and was acquired by Volkswagen in 1969. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Rotary engine can have several meanings: For the rotating piston engine used in some World War I aircraft, see rotary engine. ...


Design

The Wankel cycle. The "A" marks one of the three apexes of the rotor. The "B" marks the eccentric shaft and the white portion is the lobe of the eccentric shaft. The shaft turns three times for each rotation of the rotor around the lobe and once for each orbital revolution around the eccentric shaft.
The Wankel cycle. The "A" marks one of the three apexes of the rotor. The "B" marks the eccentric shaft and the white portion is the lobe of the eccentric shaft. The shaft turns three times for each rotation of the rotor around the lobe and once for each orbital revolution around the eccentric shaft.

In the Wankel engine, the four strokes of a typical Otto cycle occur in the space between a three-sided symmetric rotor and the inside of a housing. In the basic single-rotor Wankel engine, the oval-like epitrochoid-shaped housing surrounds a rotor which is similar to a Reuleaux triangle, a three-pointed curve of constant width, but with the bulge in the middle of each side a bit more flattened. From a theoretical perspective, the chosen shape of the rotor between the fixed apexes is basically the result of a minimization of the volume of the geometric combustion chamber and a maximization of the compression ratio, respectively. Thus, the symmetric curve connecting two arbitrary apexes of the rotor is maximized in the direction of the inner housing shape with the constraint not to touch the housing at any angle of rotation (an arc is not a solution of this optimization problem). Image File history File links Wankel_Cycle_anim_en. ... Image File history File links Wankel_Cycle_anim_en. ... Orbital revolution is the cyclical path taken by one object around another object (or point, line, etc. ... The four-stroke cycle of an internal combustion engine is the cycle most commonly used for automotive and industrial purposes today ( cars and trucks, generators, etc). ... An epitrochoid is a roulette traced by a point attached to a circle of radius b rolling around the outside of a fixed circle of radius a, where the point is a distance h from the center of the exterior circle. ... The Reuleaux triangle is a constant width curve based on an equilateral triangle. ... For closed convex planar bodies whose boundary is a smooth curve, one notes that there are exactly two parallel tangent lines to the boundary curve in any given direction. ... A combustion chamber is part of an engine in which fuel is burned. ... Bold text The compression ratio is a single number that can be used to predict the performance of any engine (such as an internal-combustion engine or a Stirling Engine). ... Symmetry is a characteristic of geometrical shapes, equations and other objects; we say that such an object is symmetric with respect to a given operation if this operation, when applied to the object, does not appear to change it. ... In geometry, an apex is a descriptive label for a visual singular highest or most distant point or vertex in an isosceles triangle, pyramid or cone, usually contrasting with the opposite side called the base. ... In Euclidean geometry, an arc is a closed segment of a differentiable curve in the two-dimensional plane; for example, a circular arc is a segment of a circle. ... In mathematics, the term optimization, or mathematical programming, refers to the study of problems in which one seeks to minimize or maximize a real function by systematically choosing the values of real or integer variables from within an allowed set. ...


The central drive shaft, also called an eccentric shaft or E-shaft, passes through the center of the rotor and is supported by bearings. The rotor both rotates around an offset lobe (crank) on the E-shaft and makes orbital revolutions around the central shaft. Seals at the corners of the rotor seal against the periphery of the housing, dividing it into three moving combustion chambers. Fixed gears mounted on each side of the housing engage with ring gears attached to the rotor to ensure the proper orientation as the rotor moves. This article is about rotation as a movement of a physical body. ... Orbital revolution is the cyclical path taken by one object around another object (or point, line, etc. ... A combustion chamber is part of an engine in which fuel is burned. ...


The best way to visualize the action of the engine in the animation at left is to look not at the rotor itself, but the cavity created between it and the housing. The Wankel engine is actually a variable-volume progressing-cavity system. Thus there are 3 cavities per housing, all repeating the same cycle. Note as well that points A and B on the rotor and e-shaft turn at different speed, point B moves 3 times faster than point A, so that one full orbit of the rotor equates to 3 turns of the e-shaft.


As the rotor rotates and orbitally revolves, each side of the rotor gets closer and farther from the wall of the housing, compressing and expanding the combustion chamber similarly to the strokes of a piston in a reciprocating engine. The power vector of the combustion stage goes through the center of the offset lobe. Internal combustion piston engine Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, internal combustion piston engine. ...


While a four-stroke piston engine makes one combustion stroke per cylinder for every two rotations of the crankshaft (that is, one half power stroke per crankshaft rotation per cylinder), each combustion chamber in the Wankel generates one combustion stroke per each driveshaft rotation, i.e. one power stroke per rotor orbital revolution and three power strokes per rotor rotation. Thus, power output of a Wankel engine is generally higher than that of a four-stroke piston engine of similar engine displacement in a similar state of tune; and higher than that of a four-stroke piston engine of similar physical dimensions and weight. The four-stroke cycle of an internal combustion engine is the cycle most commonly used for automotive and industrial purposes today (cars and trucks, generators, etc). ... In physics, power (symbol: P) is the rate at which work is performed or energy is transmitted, or the amount of energy required or expended for a given unit of time. ... One complete cycle of a four cylinder, four stroke engine. ...


Wankel engines also generally have a much higher redline than a reciprocating engine of similar power output, mostly because of the gearing from the rotor to the e-shaft; and also because the smoothness inherent in the circular motion, which eliminates dangerous vibration that can occur in reciprocating engines due to the nature of their operation. Tachometer showing red lines above 14,000 rpm. ...


National agencies that tax automobiles according to displacement and regulatory bodies in automobile racing variously consider the Wankel engine to be equivalent to a four-stroke engine of 1.5 to 2 times the displacement; some racing sanctioning bodies ban it altogether.[7] Auto racing (also known as automobile racing or autosport) is a sport involving racing automobiles. ...


Engineering

Apex seals, left NSU Ro80 Serie and Research and right Mazda 12A and 13B
Apex seals, left NSU Ro80 Serie and Research and right Mazda 12A and 13B
left Mazda old L10A Camber axial cooling, middle Audi NSU EA871 axial water cooling only hot bow, right Diamond Engines Wankel radial cooling only in the hot bow.
left Mazda old L10A Camber axial cooling, middle Audi NSU EA871 axial water cooling only hot bow, right Diamond Engines Wankel radial cooling only in the hot bow.

Felix Wankel managed to overcome most of the problems that made previous rotary engines fail by developing a configuration with vane seals that could be made of more durable materials than piston ring metal that led to the failure of previous rotary designs.[8] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Rotary engines have a thermodynamic problem not found in reciprocating four-stroke engines in that their "cylinder block" operates at steady state, with intake, compression, combustion, and exhaust occurring at fixed housing locations for all "cylinders". In contrast, reciprocating engines perform these four strokes in one chamber, so that extremes of freezing intake and flaming exhaust are averaged and shielded by a boundary layer from overheating working parts.


The boundary layer shields and the oil film act as thermal insulation, leading to a low temperature of the lubricating film (max ~200°C/400°F) on a water-cooled Wankel engine. This gives a more constant surface temperature. The temperature around the spark plug is about the same as the temperature in the combustion chamber of a reciprocating engine. With circumferential or axial flow cooling, the temperature difference remains tolerable.[9][10][11][12]


Four-stroke reciprocating engines are less suitable for hydrogen. The hydrogen can misfire on hot parts like the exhaust valve and spark plugs. Another problem concerns the hydrogenate attack on the lubricating film in reciprocating engines. In a Wankel engine this problem is circumvented by using a ceramic apex seal against a ceramic surface: there is no oil film to suffer hydrogenate attack. Since ceramic piston rings are not available as of 2008, the problem remains with the reciprocating engine. The piston shell must be lubricated and cooled with oil. This substantially increases the lubricating oil consumption in a four-stroke hydrogen engine. 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Materials

Unlike a piston engine, where the cylinder is cooled by the incoming charge after being heated by combustion, Wankel rotor housings are constantly heated on one side and cooled on the other, leading to high local temperatures and unequal thermal expansion. While this places high demands on the materials used, the simplicity of the Wankel makes it easier to use alternative materials like exotic alloys and ceramics. With water cooling in a radial or axial flow direction, with the hot water from the hot bow heating the cold bow, the thermal expansion remains tolerable.[13] In physics, thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in volume in response to a change in temperature. ... This article is about ceramic materials. ...


Sealing

Early engine designs had a high incidence of sealing loss, both between the rotor and the housing and also between the various pieces making up the housing. Also, in earlier model Wankel engines carbon particles could become trapped between the seal and the casing, jamming the engine and requiring a partial rebuild. (This can be prevented in older Mazda engines by always allowing the engine to reach operating temperature.) It was common for very early Mazda engines to require rebuilding after 50,000 miles (80,000 km). Modern Wankel engines have not had these problems for many years. Further sealing problems arise from the uneven thermal distribution within the housings causing distortion and loss of sealing and compression. This thermal distortion also causes uneven wear between the apex seal and the rotor housing, quite evident on higher mileage engines. Attempts have been made to normalize the temperature of the housings, minimizing the distortion, with different coolant circulation patterns and housing wall thicknesses.


Fuel consumption and emissions

Just as the shape of the Wankel combustion chamber prevents preignition, it also leads to incomplete combustion of the air-fuel charge, with the remaining unburned hydrocarbons released into the exhaust. While manufacturers of piston-engine cars were turning to expensive catalytic converters to completely oxidize the unburned hydrocarbons, Mazda was able to avoid this cost by enriching the air/fuel mixture and increasing the amount of unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust to actually support complete combustion in a 'thermal reactor' (an enlarged open chamber in the exhaust manifold) without the need for a catalytic converter, thereby producing a clean exhaust at the cost of some extra fuel consumption. World gasoline prices rose sharply at the time Mazda introduced their Wankel engine, making the cleaner exhaust/increased fuel consumption tradeoff an unwelcome one for consumers.[citation needed] Catalytic converter on a Dodge Ram Van. ... Left side of a Ford Cologne V6 engine, clearly showing a (rusty) cast iron exhaust manifold - three exhaust ports into one pipe. ...


In Mazda's RX-8 with the Renesis engine, fuel consumption is now within normal limits while passing California State emissions requirements. The exhaust ports, which in earlier Mazda rotaries were located in the rotor housings, were moved to the sides of the combustion chamber. This approach allowed Mazda to eliminate overlap between intake and exhaust port openings, while simultaneously increasing exhaust port area. The Renesis engine even meets California's Low Emissions Vehicle or LEV standards. The Mazda RX-8 is a car manufactured by Mazda Motor Corporation; which first appeared in North America at the North American International Auto Show (2001). ... 12A redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Advantages

NSU Wankel Spider, the first line of cars sold with Wankels
NSU Wankel Spider, the first line of cars sold with Wankels

Wankel engines have several major advantages over reciprocating piston designs, in addition to having higher output for similar displacement and physical size. Image File history File links NSU-Spider-Motorraum. ... Image File history File links NSU-Spider-Motorraum. ...


Wankel engines are considerably simpler and contain far fewer moving parts. For instance, because valving is accomplished by simple ports cut into the walls of the rotor housing, they have no valves or complex valve trains; in addition, since the rotor is geared directly to the output shaft, there is no need for connecting rods, a conventional crankshaft, crankshaft balance weights, etc. The elimination of these parts not only makes a Wankel engine much lighter (typically half that of a conventional engine of equivalent power), but it also completely eliminates the reciprocating mass of a piston engine with its internal strain and inherent vibration due to repeated acceleration and deceleration, producing not only a smoother flow of power but also the ability to produce more power by running at higher rpm. A poppet valve is a valve consisting of a hole, usually round or oval, and a tapered plug, usually a disk shape on the end of a shaft also called a valve stem. ... piston (top) and connecting rod from typical automotive engine (scale is in centimetres) Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... Crankshaft (red), pistons (gray) in their cylinders (blue), and flywheel (black) Continental engine marine crankshafts, 1942 Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... Balance shaft in Ford Taunus V4 engine. ... Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity and/or direction, and at any point on a velocity-time graph, it is given by the slope of the tangent to the curve at that point. ... Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity, and at any point on a v-t graph, it is given by the gradient of the tangent to that point In physics, acceleration (symbol: a) is defined as the rate of change (or time derivative) of velocity. ... Rotational speed (sometimes called speed of revolution) indicates for example how fast the motor is running. ...


In addition to the enhanced reliability by virtue of the complete removal of this reciprocating stress on internal parts, the engine is constructed with an iron rotor within a housing made of aluminium, which has greater thermal expansion. This ensures that even a severely overheated Wankel engine cannot seize, as would likely occur in an overheated piston engine. This is a substantial safety benefit in aircraft use since no valves can burn out. Fe redirects here. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... In physics, thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in volume in response to a change in temperature. ...


A further advantage of the Wankel engine for use in aircraft is the fact that a Wankel engine can have a smaller frontal area than a piston engine of equivalent power. The simplicity of design and smaller size of the Wankel engine also allows for savings in construction costs, compared to piston engines of comparable power output.


Of perhaps the most importance is that Wankel engines are almost immune to catastrophic failure. A Wankel that loses compression, cooling or oil pressure will lose a large amount of power, and will die over a short period of time; however, it will usually continue to produce some power during that time. Piston engines under the same circumstances are prone to seizing or breaking parts that almost certainly results in complete internal destruction of the engine and instant loss of power. For this reason Wankel engines are very well suited to aircraft.


Due to a 50% longer stroke duration compared to a four stroke engine, there is more time to complete the combustion. This leads to greater suitability for direct injection. A Wankel rotary engine has stronger flows of air-fuel mixture and a longer operating cycle than a reciprocating engine, so it realizes concomitantly thorough mixing of hydrogen and air. The result is a homogeneous mixture, which is crucial for hydrogen combustion.[14]


Disadvantages

Rolls Royce R6 two stage Wankel Diesel engine
Rolls Royce R6 two stage Wankel Diesel engine

Compared to four stroke piston engines, the time available for fuel to be port injected into a Wankel engine is significantly shorter, due to the way the three chambers rotate. The fuel-air mixture cannot be pre-stored as there is no intake valve. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


The surface/volume-ratio problem is so complex that one cannot make a direct comparison between a reciprocating piston engine and a Wankel engine in relation to the surface/volume-ratio. The flow velocity and the heat losses behave quite differently. Surface temperatures behave absolutely differently; the film of oil in the Wankel engine acts as isolator. Engines with higher compression ratio have a worse surface/volume-ratio. The surface/volume-ratio of a Diesel engine is much worse than a gasoline engine, but Diesel engines are well known for a higher efficiency factor than gasoline engines. Thus we should compare engines with equal power: a naturally aspirated 1.3 liter Wankel engine with a naturally aspirated 1.3 liter four stroke reciprocating piston engine with equal power. But such a four stroke engine is not possible and needs twice the displacement for the same power as a Wankel engine. The extra or "empty" stroke(s) we should not ignore, as a 4-stroke cylinder produces a power stroke only every other rotation of the crankshaft. In actuality, this doubles the real surface/volume-ratio for the four stroke reciprocating piston engine. [15]


The trailing side of the rotary engine’s combustion chamber develops a squeeze stream which pushes back the flamefront. With the conventional two-spark-plug or one-spark-plug system, this squeeze stream prevents the flame from propagating to the combustion chamber's trailing side in the mid and high engine speed ranges. This is why there can be more carbon monoxide and unburnt hydrocarbons in a Wankel's exhaust stream. A side port exhaust, as is used in the Mazda Renesis, avoids this because the unburned mixture cannot escape. The Mazda 26B avoided this issue through a 3-spark plug ignition system. (As a result, at the Le Mans 24 hour endurance race in 1991, the 26B had significantly lower fuel consumption than the competing reciprocating piston engines. All competitors had only the same amount of fuel available, because of the Le Mans 24h limited fuel quantity rule.[16]) The 24 Hours of Le Mans (24 Heures du Mans) is the worlds most famous sports car endurance race, held annually at Circuit de la Sarthe near Le Mans, France, in the French Sarthe département. ...


All Mazda-made Wankel rotaries, including the new Renesis found in the RX8, burn a small quantity of oil by design; it is metered into the combustion chamber in order to preserve the apex seals. Owners must periodically add small amounts of oil, slightly increasing running costs—though it is still reasonable when compared to many reciprocating piston engines. The Mazda RX-8 is a sports car manufactured by Mazda Motor Corporation. ...


Applications

Automobile racing

Powerplant from a Schleicher ASH 26e self-launching motor glider.
Powerplant from a Schleicher ASH 26e self-launching motor glider.

In the racing world, Mazda has had substantial success with two-rotor, three-rotor, and four-rotor cars. Private racers have also had considerable success with stock and modified Mazda Wankel-engine cars, see video clip.[17] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1346x1682, 1121 KB) I took this picture. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1346x1682, 1121 KB) I took this picture. ... The ASH 26 is a 18 metre Class glider built of modern fibre reinforced composites. ... Gliders are un-powered heavier-than-air aircraft. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Sigma MC74 powered by a Mazda 12A engine was the first engine and team from outside Western Europe or the United States to finish the entire 24 hours of the 24 Hours of Le Mans race, in 1974. Mazda is the only team from outside Western Europe or the United States to have won Le Mans outright and the only non-piston engine ever to win Le Mans, which the company accomplished in 1991 with their four-rotor 787B (2,622 cc/160 cu in- actual displacement, rated by FIA formula at 4,708 cc/287 cu in). The following year, a planned rule change at Le Mans made the Mazda 787B ineligible to race anymore. Mazda is also the most reliable finisher at Le Mans (with the exception of Honda, who has entered only three cars in only one year), with 67% of entries finishing.[citation needed] A current understanding of Western Europe. ... The 24 Hours of Le Mans (24 Heures du Mans) is the worlds most famous sports car endurance race, held annually at Circuit de la Sarthe near Le Mans, France, in the French Sarthe département. ... Juuso Pykälistö driving a Peugeot 206 World Rally Car at the 2003 Swedish rally Racing cars redirects here. ... Mazda 787B at the Mazda Museum The Mazda 787/787B was a prototype racing car built for the 24 hours of Le Mans auto race, replacing the 767. ... This article is about the Japanese motor corporation. ...


The Mazda RX-7 has won more IMSA races in its class than any other model of automobile, with its one hundredth victory on September 2, 1990. Following that, the RX-7 won its class in the IMSA 24 Hours of Daytona race ten years in a row, starting in 1982. The RX7 won the IMSA Grand Touring Under Two Liter (GTU) championship each year from 1980 through 1987, inclusive. The Mazda RX-7 (also called the Ẽfini RX-7) is a sports car produced by the Japanese automaker Mazda from 1978 to 2002. ... IMSA logo The International Motor Sports Association (generally referred to as IMSA) is an American auto racing sanctioning body based in Braselton, Georgia. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The Rolex 24 1/2 at Daytona (also frequently referred to as the 24 Hours of Daytona) is a 24-hour sports car endurance race held annually at Daytona International Speedway in Daytona Beach, Florida. ...


Formula Mazda Racing features open-wheel race cars with Mazda Wankel engines, adaptable to both oval tracks and road courses, on several levels of competition. Since 1991, the professionally organized Star Mazda Series has been the most popular format for sponsors, spectators, and upward bound drivers. The engines are all built by one engine builder, certified to produce the prescribed power, and sealed to discourage tampering. They are in a relatively mild state of racing tune, so that they are extremely reliable and can go years between motor rebuilds.[1] Formula Mazda is a class of relatively affordable Formula Racing. ... The Star Mazda Series a group of open-wheel road races conducted by Formula Mazda. ...


The Malibu Grand Prix chain, similar in concept to commercial recreational kart racing tracks, operates several venues in the United States where a customer can purchase several laps around a track in a vehicle very similar to open wheel racing vehicles, but powered by a small Curtiss-Wright rotary engine. Malibu Grand Prix is an entertainment complex on the north side of Tampa, Florida. ... Karting, go-kart, go carting and similar terms redirect here. ... Open-wheel racing refers to a type of motor racing in which the wheels of the cars are not housed inside fenders, as in stock car or touring car racing, but rather out in the open at the end of readily-visible axles and suspension systems. ... The Curtiss-Wright Corporation was once a leading aircraft manufacturer of the United States, but has since become a component manufacturer, specializing in actuators, controls, valves, and metal treatment. ...


In engines having more than two rotors, or two rotor race engines intended for high-rpm use, a multi-piece eccentric shaft may be used, allowing additional bearings between rotors. While this approach does increase the complexity of the eccentric shaft design, it has been used successfully in the Mazda's production three-rotor 20B-REW engine, as well as many low volume production race engines. (The C-111-2 4 Rotor Mercedes-Benz eccentric shaft for the KE Serie 70, Typ DB M950 KE409 is made in one piece! Mercedes-Benz used split bearings.) 12A redirects here. ...


Motorcycle engines

Norton Interpol2 prototype
Norton Interpol2 prototype

From 1974 to 1977 Hercules produced a limited number of motorcycles powered by Wankel engines.[18] The motor tooling and blank apex seals was later used by Norton to produce the Norton Commander model in the early 1980s.[19] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A motorcycle (or motorbike) is a two-wheeled vehicle powered by an engine. ... Norton 850 Commando Norton is a British motorcycle marque from Birmingham and founded in 1898. ... The Norton Commander was a motorcycle made by Norton Motorcycles beginning in 1987 for police forces and 1988 for civilian use. ...


The most common example of a Wankel-powered motorcycle, however, was the Suzuki RE5, produced in 1975 and 1976. This 500cc (actual) displacement motorcycle could have been a great touring bike except for the poor fuel mileage of 32-36 mpg. Examples can still be found on auction sites.[citation needed] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Aircraft engines

Diamond DA20 with Diamond Engines Wankel
Sikorsky Cypher UAV powered with a UEL AR801 Wankel engine
Sikorsky Cypher UAV powered with a UEL AR801 Wankel engine

The first Wankel rotary-engine aircraft was the experimental Lockheed Q-Star civilian version of the United States Army's reconnaissance QT-2, basically a powered Schweizer sailplane, in 1968 or 1969. It was powered by a 185 hp (138 kW) Curtiss-Wright RC2-60 Wankel rotary engine.[20] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... 1999 model DA20-C1 Eclipse DA20-A1 Katana The Diamond DA20 is a two-seat tricycle gear general aviation airplane designed for flight training. ... The Cypher is a type of unmanned aerial vehicle developed by Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation. ... The Lockheed SR-71 was remarkably advanced for its time and remains unsurpassed in many areas of performance. ... The United States Army is the largest, and by some standards oldest, established branch of the armed forces of the United States and is one of seven uniformed services. ... The Schweizer Aircraft Corporation, located in Horseheads, NY, was incorporated in 1939 by three Schweizer brothers, who built their first glider in 1930. ... Gliders are un-powered heavier-than-air aircraft. ... The Curtiss-Wright Corporation was once a leading aircraft manufacturer of the United States, but has since become a component manufacturer, specializing in actuators, controls, valves, and metal treatment. ...


Aircraft Wankels have made something of a comeback in recent years. None of their advantages have been lost in comparison to other engines. They are increasingly being found in roles where their compact size and quiet operation is important, notably in drones, or UAVs. Many companies and hobbyists adapt Mazda rotary engines (taken from automobiles) to aircraft use; others, including Wankel GmbH itself, manufacture Wankel rotary engines dedicated for the purpose.[21][22] An RQ-2 Pioneer, a reconnaissance UAV used by the US military during the Gulf and Iraq Wars. ...


Wankel engines are also becoming increasingly popular in homebuilt experimental aircraft, due to a number of factors.[citation needed] Most are Mazda 12A and 13B automobile engines, converted to aviation use. This is a very cost-effective alternative to certified aircraft engines, providing engines ranging from 100 to 300 horsepower at a fraction of the cost of traditional engines. These conversions first took place in the early 1970s. With a number of these engines mounted on aircraft, as of 10 December 2006 the National Transportation Safety Board has only seven reports of incidents involving aircraft with Mazda engines,[citation needed] and none of these is of a failure due to design or manufacturing flaws. During the same period they have issued several thousand reports of broken crankshafts and connecting rods, failed pistons and incidents caused by other components which are not found in the Wankel engines. Rotary engine enthusiasts[who?] derisively refer to piston aircraft engines as "reciprosaurs," and point out that their designs have remained essentially unchanged since the 1930s, with only minor differences in manufacturing processes and variation in engine displacement. is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) is an independent organization responsible for investigation of accidents involving aviation, highway, marine, pipelines and railroads in the United States. ...


Peter Garrison, Contributing Editor for FLYING Magazine, has said that "the most promising engine for aviation use is the Mazda rotary." Mazdas have indeed worked well when converted for use in homebuilt aircraft. However, the real challenge in aviation is producing FAA-certified alternatives to the standard reciprocating engines that power most small general aviation aircraft. Mistral Engines, based in Switzerland, is busy certifying its purpose-built rotaries for factory and retro-fit installations on certified production aircraft. With the G-190 and G-230-TS rotary engines already flying in the experimental market, Mistral Engines hopes for FAA and JAA certification in 2007 or early 2008. Mistral claims to have overcome the challenges of fuel consumption inherent in the rotary, at least to the extent that the engines are demonstrating specific fuel consumption within a few points of reciprocating engines of similar displacement. While fuel burn is still marginally higher than traditional engines, it is outweighed by other beneficial factors.[23][24] FAA may refer to: Federal Aviation Administration in the United States Fleet Air Arm in the UK Royal Navy Fuerza Aérea Argentina in Argentina This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... JAA is an abbreviation for: Japan Asia Airways the Joint Aviation Authorities of Europe This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Since Wankel engines operate at a relatively high rotational speed with relatively low torque, propeller aircraft must use a Propeller Speed Reduction Unit (PSRU) to keep conventional propellers within the proper speed range. There are many experimental aircraft flying with this arrangement. Rotational speed (sometimes called speed of revolution) indicates for example how fast the motor is running. ... A Propeller Speed Reduction Unit (PSRU) is a gearbox used in some airplanes to allow small, fast-turning engines to turn propellers within an efficient speed range. ...


Other uses

UEL UAV-741 Wankel engine for UAV
UEL UAV-741 Wankel engine for UAV

Small Wankel engines are being found increasingly in other roles, such as go-karts,[25][26] personal water craft and auxiliary power units for aircraft.[27][28] The Graupner/O.S. 49-PI is a 1.27 hp (947 W) 5 cc Wankel engine for model airplane use which has been in production essentially unchanged since 1970; even with a large muffler, the entire package weighs only 380 grams (13.4 ounces).[29][30] An RQ-2 Pioneer, a reconnaissance UAV used by the US military during the Gulf and Iraq Wars. ... Karting, go-kart, go carting and similar terms redirect here. ... Pump-jet PWCs such as this Yamaha Waverunner are extremely popular for their speed and maneuverability. ... The APU exhaust at the tail end of an Airbus A380 An auxiliary power unit (APU) is a device on a vehicle whose purpose is to provide energy for functions other than propulsion. ... Aircraft modeling or aeromodelling is a hobby that has been popular since the 1930s. ...


The simplicity of the Wankel makes it ideal for mini, micro, and micro-mini engine designs. The MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) Rotary Engine Lab at the University of California, Berkeley has been developing Wankel engines of down to 1 mm in diameter with displacements less than 0.1 cc. Materials include silicon and motive power includes compressed air. The goal is to eventually develop an internal combustion engine that will deliver 100 milliwatts of electrical power; the engine itself will serve as the rotor of the generator, with magnets built into the engine rotor itself.[31][32] A mite next to a gear set produced using MEMS. Courtesy Sandia National Laboratories, SUMMiTTM Technologies, www. ... Sather Tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ... This article is about machines that produce electricity. ... For other uses, see Magnet (disambiguation). ...


The largest Wankel engine was built by Ingersoll-Rand; available in 550 hp (410 kW) one rotor and 1100 hp (820 kW) two rotor versions, displacing 41 liters per rotor with a rotor approximately one meter in diameter, it was available between 1975 and 1985. It was derived from a previous, unsuccessful Curtiss-Wright design, which failed because of a well-known problem with all internal combustion engines: the fixed speed at which the flame front travels limits the distance combustion can travel from the point of ignition in a given time, and thereby the maximum size of the cylinder or rotor chamber which can be used. This problem was solved by limiting the engine speed to only 1200 rpm and the use of natural gas as fuel; this was particularly well chosen, as one of the major uses of the engine was to drive compressors on natural gas pipelines.[33] Ingersoll Rand (NYSE: IR) is a diversified industrial firm founded in 1871. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The Curtiss-Wright Corporation was once a leading aircraft manufacturer of the United States, but has since become a component manufacturer, specializing in actuators, controls, valves, and metal treatment. ... A colored automobile engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ...


Non internal combustion

Aside from being used for internal combustion engines, the basic Wankel design has also been utilized for air compressors, and superchargers for internal combustion engines, but in these cases, although the design still offers advantages in reliability, the basic advantages of the Wankel in size and weight over the four-stroke internal combustion engine are irrelevant. In a design using a Wankel supercharger on a Wankel engine, the supercharger is twice the size of the engine. Compressor has several meanings: A gas compressor is a mechanical device that takes in a gas and increases its pressure by squeezing a volume of it into a smaller volume. ... A supercharger (or blower ) is a gas compressor that forces more air into the combustion chamber(s) of an internal combustion engine than is achievable with ambient atmospheric pressure (as seen in a naturally-aspirated engine, see forced induction). ...


Perhaps the most exotic use of the Wankel design is in the seat belt pre-tensioner system[34] of some Mercedes-Benz cars.[35] In these cars, when deceleration sensors sense a potential crash, small explosive cartridges are triggered electrically and the resulting pressurized gas feeds into tiny Wankel engines which rotate to take up the slack in the seat belt systems, anchoring the driver and passengers firmly in the seat before any collision.[36] This article is about the safety device. ... This page is about the Mercedes-Benz brand of automobiles and trucks from the DaimlerChrysler automobile manufacturer. ... Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity, and at any point on a v-t graph, it is given by the gradient of the tangent to that point In physics, acceleration (symbol: a) is defined as the rate of change (or time derivative) of velocity. ... Not to be confused with censure, censer, or censor. ...


See also

12A redirects here. ... A pistonless rotary engine is an internal combustion engine that does not use pistons in the way a reciprocating engine does, but instead uses one or more rotors, sometimes called rotary pistons. ... The Jonova engine is a type of rotary engine, commonly called a Wankel rotary engine, designed originally by John Nowakowski - its name was given to a recent design by student engineers at the University of Arizona. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Wankel-Jubiläum: Warten aufs Wunder - Auto - SPIEGEL ONLINE - Nachrichten
  2. ^ http://www.der-wankelmotor.de/Motoren/Rolls-Royce/rolls-royce.html R1 two stage compound diesel Wankel 1966.
  3. ^ rotary2.pdf Mazda's Rotary Engine for the Next Millennium RENESIS p.6 p.7 1999
  4. ^ http://www.zr.ru/articles/39278/ (Russian)
  5. ^ Ward's Auto World Staff, "Rearview mirror", Ward's Auto World, February 1, 2000. Retrieved on: January 25, 2008.
  6. ^ Faith, Nicholas (1975). Wankel: The Curious Story Behind the Revolutionary Rotary Engine. Stein and Day, 219. ISBN 978-0812817195. 
  7. ^ FIA Reglement 5 engine: Only 4-Stroke engine with reciprocating piston are permitted, see page 12. Retrieved on: January 25, 2008.
  8. ^ Moller Freedom Motors formerly Outboard Marine Corporation (Evirude/Johnson) Rotary engines Moller Skycar
  9. ^ 1971 Rotary Engine Kenichi Yamamoto, Toyo Kogyo LTD p.67 Fig 5.10 and 5.11
  10. ^ 1981, Rotary Engine Kenichi Yamamoto, Toyo Kogyo LTD p.32 p.33 Fig3.39 Fig3.40 Fig3.41
  11. ^ Richard F. Ansdale Der Wankelmotor Motor Buch Verlag p.141-150
  12. ^ Wolf-Dieter Bensinger Rotationskolben - Verbrennungsmotoren Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg ISBN 3-540-05886-9
  13. ^ Kenichi Yamamoto Rotary Engine Side 32 cooling system
  14. ^ RENESIS hydrogen rotary engine, p.2
  15. ^ ANSDALE, R. F. (1971). Der Wankelmotor Konstruktion u. Wirkungsweise. Stuttgart, Motorbuch-Verlag., p.73,91,92,200 Verhältnis Oberfläche zu Volumen; German
  16. ^ Mazda 26B 4-Rotor Rotary Engine for Le Mans(4) 3-Plug Ignitions System
  17. ^ Mazda RX-3 Triple Turbo in action (video clip)
  18. ^ http://www.der-wankelmotor.de/Motoraeder/Hercules/hercules.html Hercules W2000
  19. ^ Thriumph-Norton Wankel Translation
  20. ^ Curtiss & Wright
  21. ^ http://members.aol.com/rotaryroster/index.html?f=fs The Aviator's Rotary Engine Roster
  22. ^ ::UAV Engines Ltd: UAV ENGINES LTD::
  23. ^ Technology - Mistral Engines
  24. ^ Mistral Engines - Error kernel (20)
  25. ^ aixro Kart Engines
  26. ^ http://www.italsistem.com/saetta-eng.htm Italsystem Wankel
  27. ^ Pats APU
  28. ^ High-power density rotary diesel engine .. as well as Auxiliary Power Units.
  29. ^ Graupner/OS-Wankel
  30. ^ OS MAX RE 49 PI-II
  31. ^ MEMS Rotary Engine Power System
  32. ^ Berkley-MEMS-Wankel engine
  33. ^ Ingersol Rand
  34. ^ TRW Wankel pre-tensioner system
  35. ^ Mercedes-Benz. Occupant Safety Systems 11-12. Retrieved on 2007-12-31.
  36. ^ Charles E. Steffens, Jr. Seat belt pretensioner. Retrieved on 2007-04-11.

is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... A poster of the skycar The Moller Skycar is a theorized personal VTOL (vertical take-off and landing) aircraft: a flying car -- called a volantor by its inventor Paul Moller, who has been attempting to develop such vehicles for many years. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Yamaguchi, Jack K. (2003). The Mazda RX-8: World's First 4-door, 4-seat Sports Car Plus Complete Histories of Mazda Rotary Engine development and Rotary Racing Around the World. Mazda Motor Corporation. ISBN 4-947659-02-5. 
  • Yamaguchi, Jack K. (1985). The New Mazda RX-7 and Mazda Rotary Engine Sports Cars. St. Martin's Press, New York. ISBN 0-312-69456-3. 
  • Jan P. Norbye (1973). "Watch out for Mazda!". Automobile Quarterly XI.1: 50-61. 
  • Theory, Design, and Principles of Operation. Monito.com. Retrieved on February 24, 2005.
  • Compendium of Production and Experimental Wankel Engine Data. Monito.com. Retrieved on February 24, 2005.

External links

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A flat-4 is a four cylinder internal combustion engine where the cylinders are arranged in a flat configuration, also referred to as horizontally opposed. ... The flat-6 engine of the Honda Valkyrie motorcycle A flat-6 is a 6 cylinder configuration of a flat engine or boxer engine. ... A flat-8 is an internal combustion engine in flat configuration, having 8 cylinders. ... The flat 10 engine is an engine with two banks of five opposing cylinders each. ... A flat-12 is an internal combustion engine in flat configuration, having 12 cylinders. ... A flat-16 is an internal combustion engine in flat configuration, having 16 cylinders. ... An H engine (or H-block) is an engine configuration in which the cylinders are aligned so that if viewed from the front appear to be in a horizontal letter H. An H engine can be viewed as two flat engines, one atop the other. ... A V engine is a common configuration for an internal combustion engine. ... Honda 90° transversely mounted V-twin A V-twin is a two cylinder internal combustion engine where the cylinders are arranged in a V configuration. ... 1700 cc High Compression Ford Taunus V4 V4 and V-4 redirect here. ... The V5 engine is a V form engine with five cylinders. ... The Ford Essex V6 engine V6 and V-6 redirect here. ... The Liberty V8 aircraft engine clearly shows the configuration, although modern automotive versions use a 90 degree block angle. ... A V10 engine is a V engine with 10 cylinders in two banks of five. ... Colombo Type 125 Testa Rossa engine in a 1961 Ferrari 250TR Spyder V-12 engine simplified cross-section V12 redirects here. ... 1933 Marmon V16 engine. ... Wärtsilä Logo Wärtsilä is a Finnish manufacturer of power plants (mainly diesel-powered) for use in electricity generation and ship power, and associated services. ... A V20 engine is a V engine with 20 cylinders. ... A V24 engine is a V engine with 24 cylinders, suitable only for very large trucks or locomotives. ... The W engine is an engine configuration in which the cylinder banks resemble the letter W in the same way a V engine resembles the letter V. There have been three entirely different implementations of this concept: one with three banks of cylinders, one with four and one with two... A W8 engine is an eight cylinder piston engine in a W configuration, or two juxtaposed V4 engine blocks, coupled to one crankshaft. ... A W12 engine is a twelve cylinder piston engine in a W configuration. ... A W16 engine is a sixteen cylinder piston engine in a W configuration. ... A W18 engine is an eighteen cylinder piston engine which usually has a single crankshaft with three banks of six cylinders arranged in an inverted broad arrow configuration. ... A U engine is a piston engine made up of two separate straight engine engines (complete with separate crankshafts) joined by gears. ... A U engine is a piston engine made up of two separate straight engine engines (complete with separate crankshafts) joined by gears. ... The VR6 engine is an internal combustion engine configuration developed by the Volkswagen Group. ... Fairbanks-Morse opposed piston diesel engines on the submarine USS Pampanito. ... An X engine is a piston engine comprising twinned vee-block engines horizontally-opposed to each other. ... Early Hemi in a 1957 Chrysler 300C See also: Chrysler Hemi engine Hemi (from hemisphere) is a design of internal-combustion engines in which the cylinder heads combustion chamber is of hemispherical form. ... The radial engine is an internal combustion engine configuration in which the cylinders point outward from a central crankshaft like the spokes on a wheel. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Napier Deltic powered British Rail Class 55 Alycidon, at the National Railway Museum, York, UK The term Deltic (meaning in the form of the Greek letter Delta) is used to refer to both the opposed piston high speed diesel engine designed and produced by Napier & Son, and the locomotives produced... A pistonless rotary engine is an internal combustion engine that does not use pistons in the way a reciprocating engine does, but instead uses one or more rotors, sometimes called rotary pistons. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Wankel Engine - MSN Encarta (472 words)
Wankel Engine: The Wankel radial engine is a fascinating beast...
Wankel Engine, internal-combustion engine, powered by gasoline, that uses a triangular-shaped rotor, or rotating part, to produce mechanical energy.
The Wankel engine is powerful for its weight and size, vibrates much less than piston engines, has few moving parts, and can run comparatively quietly and smoothly on different grades of fuel.
Wankel engine (782 words)
The Wankel suffered from a lack of interest, and when it later became clear that the jet engine was far too expensive for all roles, the general aviation world had already shrunk so much that there was little money for new engine designs.
Often the Wankel engine is also called a rotary engine, although the term rotary engine formerly referred to a type of aircraft engine which has a static crankshaft and rotating cylinders which looks as if the whole engine is rotating.
Calling the Wankel engine a rotary engine seems to be some kind of historically grown error, because before the Wankel engine was invented and even before Wankel was born, the term rotary engine referred solely to the engine with the static crankshaft and rotating cylinders.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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