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Encyclopedia > Wang Jingwei Government

The Wang Jingwei was a government under the leadership of Wang Jingwei in the Republic of China, set up by the Empire of Japan in March 1940. It is also sometimes called the Nanjing Nationalist Government (Traditional Chinese: 南京國民政府; Pinyin: Nánjīng Guó Mín Zhèngfǔ), or the Republic of China-Nanjing. Other names are "Wang Jingwei Regime" (汪精衛政權, Wāng Jīngwèi Zhèngquán) or simply "Nanjing regime". Wang Jingwei * Courtesy name: Jixin (季新) * Alternate name: Zhaoming (兆銘). Wang Jingwei (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Wang Ching-wei) (May 4, 1883 – November 10, 1944), was a Chinese politician. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister (many other Prime Ministers preceded the below list)  - 1916–1918 Count Masatake Terauchi  - 1937-1939, 1940-1941 Prince Fumimaro Konoe  - 1941–1944 Hideki... March is the third month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... “Nanking” redirects here. ...


The Wang Jingwei Government was one of several puppet states of the Japanese during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), and was meant to rival the legitimacy the government of Chiang Kai-shek, which was of the same name in Chongqing. Wang Jingwei was a Kuomintang (KMT) leftist who had broken away from Chiang Kai-Shek's government in March 1940 and defected to the Japanese invaders. A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Combatants China Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Mao Zedong, Peng Dehuai Hirohito, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata, Toshizo Nishio, Yasuji Okamura, Umezu Yoshijiro, Fumimaro Konoe Strength 58,600,000 4,100,000... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... Motto: None Anthem: National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital Nanjing in law Taipei de facto Largest city Taipei Official language(s) Mandarin (Guoyü) Government President Vice President Premier Multiparty democracy Chen Shui-bian Annette Lu Su Tseng-chang Establishment Xinhai Revolution Declared  October 10, 1911 Established  January 1... Chongqing (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Chungching, also Chungking) is the largest and most populous of the Peoples Republic of Chinas four provincial-level municipalities, and the only one in the less densely populated western half of China. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in...


Claiming to be the rightful government of the Republic of China, it flew the same flag and displayed the same emblem as Chiang Kai-shek's National Government. However, it was widely regarded as a puppet state and enjoyed no diplomatic recognition, except from the states of the Anti-Comintern Pact. Flag of Taiwan redirects here. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The Blue Sky with a White Sun flag is the Kuomintang party flag. ... The Anti-Comintern Pact was concluded between Nazi Germany and Japan on November 25, 1936. ...


The Nanjing Nationalist Government was nominally a reintegration of several entities that Japan had established in northern and central China, including the Reformed Government of the Republic of China of eastern China, the Provisional Government of the Republic of China of northern China, and the Mengjiang government in Inner Mongolia, though in reality northern China and Inner Mongolia stayed relatively free of its influence. This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, etc. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N...

Contents

Political boundaries

In theory, the Reformed Government controlled all of China with the exception of Manchukuo, which it recognized as an puppet state. In actuality, the Reformed Government controlled only Jiangsu, Anhui, and the north sector of Zhejiang, all of which were Japanese-controlled territories from 1937. Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (1932–1945... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Jiangsu (Simplified Chinese: 江苏; Traditional Chinese: 江蘇; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-su; Postal System Pinyin: Kiangsu) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country. ... Anhui (Chinese: 安徽; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: An-hui; Postal System Pinyin: Ngan-hui, Anhwei or An-hwei) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Zhejiang (also spelled Chehkiang or Chekiang) is an eastern coastal province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Therefore, the Reformed Government actually controlled this region:

  • Jiangsu: 41,818 square miles (108,308 km²); capital: Chinkiang
  • Anhui: 51,888 square miles (134,389 km²); capital: Anking (also included the national capital of Nanjing
  • Zhejiang: 39,780 square miles (103,030 km²); capital: Hangchou

The actual borders changed as the Japanese gained territory in the war. Thus, during the December 1941 Japanese offensive, the Reformed Government extended its control to Hunan, Hubei, and parts of Jiangxi province. The port of Shanghai and the towns of Hankou and Wuchang were also under control of the Reformed Government at various times. Zhenjiang (Simplified Chinese: 镇江; Traditional Chinese: 鎮江; pinyin: Zhènjiāng; Wade-Giles: Chen-chiang) is a prefecture-level city in the southwestern Jiangsu province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Anqing (Simplified Chinese: 安庆; Pinyin: is a prefecture-level city in southwestern Anhui province, Peoples Republic of China. ... “Nanking” redirects here. ...   (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Hangchow) is a sub-provincial city located in the Yangtze River Delta in the Peoples Republic of China, and the capital of Zhejiang province. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a province of China, located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting (hence the name Hunan, meaning south of the lake). Hunan is sometimes called 湘 (pinyin: Xiāng) for short, after the Xiang River which runs through the province. ... Hubei (Chinese: 湖北; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hu-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hupeh) is a central province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Jiangxi (Chinese: 江西; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Kiangsi) is a southern province of the Peoples Republic of China, spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River in the north into hillier areas in the south. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... Hankou (漢口; pinyin: Hànkǒu; Wade-Giles: Hankow) is one of the three towns, together with Wuchang and Hanyang, which are included in modern day Wuhan, the capital of the Hubei province, in China. ... Wuchang (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is one of the three towns, together with Hankou and Hanyang, which are included in modern day Wuhan, the capital of the Hubei province, in China. ...


The Japanese-controlled provinces of Shandong and Hebei were also theoretically part of this political entity, although they were actually administered by the Commander of the Japanese North Front, under a separate Japanese-controlled government based in Beijing. Like the Northern Front, the southern sectors had their own Japanese military commander and government. Each front acted as its own military unit with its own political and economic administration as well as its own Japanese military commander.   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-tung) is a coastal province of eastern Peoples Republic of China. ... Hebei (Chinese: 河北; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hopeh) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... “Peking” redirects here. ...


During the war, the Imperial Japanese Army committed numerous atrocities in the area controlled by the Reformed Government, such as the so-called "mopping up" operations to frighten the populace. General Toshizo Nishio, the Commander-in-Chief of the Imperial Japanese Army's expeditionary forces in mainland China, was subsequently replaced by General Neiji Okamura. On September 9, 1945, following Japan's defeat in World War II, the Japanese forces in the area surrendered to General He Yingqing of the National Revolutionary army. The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun) was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... Toshizo Nishio was a Japanese general, considered to be one of the Japanese Imperial Armys successful and ablest strategists during the Second Sino-Japanese War, who commanded the Japanese 2nd Army during the first years of the China Incident. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... He Yingqin He Yingqin (何应钦 in Chinese) (April 2, 1890 - October 21, 1987), was one of the senior generals of Kuomintang in early stage, and a close ally of Chiang Kai-shek. ...


Government, economy, education and everyday life

Government and Political Administration

The administrative structure of the Reformed Government included a Legislative Yuan and an Executive Yuan. Both were under the president and head of state Wang Jingwei. Real political power remained with the Commander of the Japanese Army Central Chinese Front and Japanese political entities formed by the Japanese Counsellors. The Japanese also set up various local nationalist parties and movements to support its cause. The Legislative Yuan building in Zhongzheng District, Taipei City (the view is partially obscured by the childrens hospital building of the National Taiwan University Hospital). ... The Executive Yuan (行政院; literally executive court) is the executive branch of the government of the Republic of China. ... Wang Jingwei * Courtesy name: Jixin (季新) * Alternate name: Zhaoming (兆銘). Wang Jingwei (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Wang Ching-wei) (May 4, 1883 – November 10, 1944), was a Chinese politician. ...


After obtaining Japanese approval to establish a nationalist government, Wang Jingwei ordered the Sixth Kuomintang Representative Congress to establish the government in Nanjing. The dedication occurred in the Conference Hall, and both the "blue-sky white-sun red-earth" national flag and the "blue-sky white-sun" Nationalist Party flag were unveiled, flanking a large portrait of Sun Yat-Sen. Sun Yat-sen (November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the father of modern China. Sun played an instrumental role in the eventual overthrow of the Qing Dynasty in 1911. ...


On the day the new government was formed, just before the session of the "Central Political Conference" began, Wang visited Sun's tomb in Nanjing's Purple Mountain in an attempt to establish the legitimacy of his government as Sun's successor. Wang had been a high-level official of the Nationalist government and, as a confidant to Sun, had transcribed Sun's will, the Zongli's Testament. To discredit the legitimacy of the Chongqing government, Wang adopted Sun's flag in the hope that this would establish him as the rightful successor to Sun and bring the government back to Nanjing. Purple Mountain (Pinyin: Zijin Shan; Zi means purple, Jin means golden, and Shan means mountain), also known as Tsuchinshan, Zhongshan Mountain (Pinyin: Zhong Shan, which means Bell mountain), locates in the eastern side of Nanjing, Jiangsu province, N32 5, E118 48, 447. ... Chongqing (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Chungching, also Chungking) is the largest and most populous of the Peoples Republic of Chinas four provincial-level municipalities, and the only one in the less densely populated western half of China. ...


The Nanjing Government and the northern Chinese areas

Area of influence of the intervening Japanese forces
Area of influence of the intervening Japanese forces

The Beijing administration (East Yi Anti-Communist Autonomous Administration) was under the commander-in-chief of the Japanese North China Front until the Yellow River area fell within the sphere of influence of the Central Chinese Front. During this same period the area from middle Zhejiang to the Canton region was administered by the South Chinese Front. These small, largely independent fiefdoms had local money, local leaders, and frequent squabbles. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1141x870, 172 KB) Description: Japanese Occupation - 1940 Source: www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1141x870, 172 KB) Description: Japanese Occupation - 1940 Source: www. ... For other Yellow Rivers, see Yellow River (disambiguation). ...


These political phenomena were analyzed by the American journalist Jim Tew who worked on the Japanese Advertiser, a Japanese independent newspaper, which was American-owned.


The case of the Nanjing pro-Japanese administration was researched by Chester Holcombe, a young American journalist, who arrived in Shanghai to interview the head of government. This interview was published in the Shanghai newspaper, The China Weekly Review, under the title "The Nanjing Prisoner", to the annoyance of the Japanese Army and the local civil establishment. Holcombe was blacklisted and threatened with death if he were to return. For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ...


Wang Jingwei travelled to Tokyo in 1941 for meetings with his Japanese overseers. In Tokyo the Nanjing Government Minister and Vice president Chou Fo-hai commented to the Asahi Shimbun that the Japanese establishment was making little progress in the Nanjing area. This quote provoked anger from Kumataro Honda, the Japanese Ambassador and Consul in Nanjing. Chou Fo-hai petitioned for total control of its central provinces for the National Government. Japanese Army Officer Teiichi Suzuki was charged with providing military guidance for Wang Jingwei's new regime at Nanking, also himself representing part of the real power in the country. Asahi-OSAKA office Asahi is a common name in Japan, for other uses see Asahi. ...


A common monopolistic economic policy was applied in the area, to the benefit of Japanese zaibatsu and local representatives, with the permission of the Japanese Army, when supposedly these companies had equal treatment with the local Chinese companies by the Government. The President of the Yuan legislature in Nanjing, Cheng Kung-po, commented on this to the Kaizo Japanese review. The Nanjing Nationalist Government of the Republic of China had an Embassy in Yokohama (as did Manchukuo). Zaibatsu ) is a Japanese term referring to the financial cliques, or business conglomerates, whose influence and size allowed for control over significant parts of the Japanese economy throughout the Edo and Meiji periods. ... Kaizo could refer to: Kaizo PR is a public relations firm based in London. ... For a tire company, known by Yokohama Tyre, see Yokohama Rubber Company. ...


Notable people

Structure of Local Administration Chinese Reformed State

  • Liang Hongzhi:-President and Head of State in the initial period
  • Wang Jingwei:-President and Head of State
  • Chen Gongbo:-President and Head of State after the death of Wang. Also, President of Legislative Yuan and Mayor of Shanghai occupied sector.
  • Zhou Fohai:-Vice President and Finance minister in Executive Yuan
  • Wu Peifu:-older Warlord, personal friend of the Head of State, possibly a member of Legislative Yuan
  • Wang Buching:-General of National Army
  • Kumataro Honda:-Japanese civil and political counselor of local government and Japanese Ambassador in Nanjing
  • Nobuyuki Abe:-political adviser in Chinese administration
  • Teiichi Suzuki:-Military, and political adviser in Chinese administration
  • Kaya Okinori:-Japanese nationalist,merchant and commercial adviser in the Chinese area
  • Chu Minyi:-National Ambassador in Yokohama, Japan
  • Tao Liang:-Chinese landowner, also Chinese government official
  • Chao Kung:-Obscure personage, Buddhist leader

Liang Hongzhi or Liang Hung-chih was born in 1883. ... Wang Jingwei * Courtesy name: Jixin (季新) * Alternate name: Zhaoming (兆銘). Wang Jingwei (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Wang Ching-wei) (May 4, 1883 – November 10, 1944), was a Chinese politician. ... Chen Gongbo (1892-1946) Chinese politician, was the Head of the Legislative Yuan of the Wang Jingweis puppet state, the Nanjing Nationalist Government. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... Zhou Fohai (1897-1948, 周佛海), Chinese politician, and second in command of Wang Jingweis collaborationist Nanjing Nationalist Government Executive Yuan. ... Wu Peifu (吳佩孚) (1874–1939), was a major figure in the struggles between the warlords (軍閥) who dominated China during the years 1916 to 1927. ... Nobuyuki Abe Nobuyuki Abe (阿部 信行 Abe Nobuyuki, November 24, 1875–September 7, 1953) was a Japanese soldier and politician, and was the 36th Prime Minister of Japan from August 30, 1939 to January 16, 1940. ... Chu Minyi 褚民谊 (1884 - August 1946) was a close associate of Wang Ching-Wei, served under Wang as secretary general of the Executive Yuan (1932-1935) and as the Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Wang Ching-Wei Japanese-sponsored government. ... Ignatius Timothy Trebitsch-Lincoln (1879 - 1943) was a Hungarian-born Jewish adventurer who spent parts of his life as a Protestant missionary, Anglican priest, British Member of Parliament for Darlington, German right-wing politician and spy, and Buddhist abbot in China. ...

Economy

The local economy was administered primarily for the Japanese Army of the Central Front. Military planners installed an "occupation economy" with wartime money (Japanese Military Yen and native Chinese Yen), a Chinese Central Bank and supposedly Chinese entities, but administered for Japanese counsellors and the Japanese Army in the area. The natives had greater access to coveted war-time luxuries, and the Japanese Army enjoyed such things as matches, rice, tea, coffee, cigars, foods and alcoholic drinks, all scarce items in Japan proper. Additional entertainment, such as brothels, casinos and bars, were managed by the Japanese and local functionaries for the military. The purpose of this control was allegedly to impede the monetary depreciation of the yen, so as to maintain the strength of the Japanese currency on the continent. User(s) Areas occupied by Japan during World War II Subunit 100 sen Symbol ¥ Coins none Banknotes 1 sen, 5 sen, 50 sen, ¥1, ¥5, ¥10, ¥100 Ministry of War of Japan This infobox shows the latest status before this currency was rendered obsolete. ... Japanese 10 yen coin (obverse) showing Phoenix Hall of Byodoin Yen is the currency used in Japan. ...


In the Japanese-occupied territories, the prices of basic necessities rose substantially. In 1941, they increased eleven-fold in Shanghai. Similar inflation occurred in Manchukuo, despite heavily-centralized economic control by the Japanese.


Education

Education was similar in all the Japanese occupied territories. The Japanese strategy was to create a workforce, suited for the factories and mines, and for manual labour. The Japanese also attempted to introduce their culture and dress to the Chinese. There were agitations, similar to those in Manchukuo, for more meaningful Chinese educational development under Japanese rule. The Japanese also built Shinto temples and similar cultural centres in order to instill their culture and values in the Chinese populace. These activities came to a halt at the end of the war.


Daily life

Daily life was difficult in the Nanjing Nationalist Government-controlled Republic of China. The local residents used the black market to obtain needed items or to influence the ruling establishment. The Japanese Kempeitai, Chinese local police, and Chinese citizens in the service of the Japanese, censored all information, monitored any opposition, and tortured their enemies. The Japanese also established POW detention centres, concentration camps, and Kamikaze training centres to indoctrinate pilots. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into underground economy. ... The Kempeitai (憲兵隊, Corps of Law Soldiers) was the military police arm of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1881 to 1945. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... USS Bunker Hill was hit by Ogawa (see picture left) and another kamikaze near Kyūshū on May 11, 1945. ...


Population

The population was probably close to the 1937-38 figures of the Interior Affairs Ministry, with no account taken of the outer regions or areas occupied by later advances:

  • Jiangsu: 15,804,623
  • Anhui: 23,354,188
  • Zhejiang: 21,230,749

The populations of the major cities were:

  • Nanjing: 1,100,000
  • Shanghai: 3,703,430 (including 75,000 foreigners)
  • Suzhou: 576,000
  • Hanzhou: 389,000
  • Shaoning: 250,000
  • Ningpoo: 250,000
  • Hankow: 804,526 (during its temporary control)

Other population estimates are as follows:

  • Shanghai: 3,500,000
  • Hankow: 778,000

National defense

The Japanese Army organized a local army, supposedly to defend the Nanjing Regime-controlled China. In reality, it served as a second line and security army for the Chinese war. For this purpose, they organized a Chinese air force, giving them some:

  • Nakajima Ki-34 "Thora" for military activities and troop transport;
  • Nakajima Ki-27b "Nate";
  • Tachikawa Ki-55 "Ida" for training;
  • Tachikawa Ki-9 "Spruce" for reconnaissance and training; and
  • Nakajima Ki-43Ia Hayabusa "Oscar" for defence.

For the Chinese army, Japan provided: The Nakajima Ki-34 was a Japanese light transport of World War II. It was a twin-engine, low-wing monoplane; the undercarriage was of tailwheel type with retractable main units. ... Nakajima Ki-27 The Nakajima Ki-27 (Allied codename Nate) was the main fighter aircraft used by the Japanese Imperial Army up until 1940, and the Armys first monoplane. ... The Tachikawa Ki-55 was a Japanese advanced trainer. ... Known to the Allies by the codename Spruce, the Tachikawa Ki-9 was a biplane trainer aircraft of unequal span. ... The Nakajima Ki-43 Hayabusa (隼, Peregrine Falcon) was a single-engined land-based fighter used by the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force in World War II. The army designation was Type 1 Fighter (一式戦闘機); the Allied codename was Oscar. ...

This was probably why the Imperial Japanese Navy could assume total control of the Shanghai seaport, and river ports in Hankow and Wuchang. The nation also had a regular police force under Japanese control, very likely similar to the situation at Kangde. The local politicians and media consistently provided pro-Japanese propaganda. It included phrases praising the "heroic efforts of the Imperial troops", and argued for a "national defence against Communism and Western interests". The Type 94 Te-Ke was a Japanese tankette which entered service in 1935. ... The Type 89 Chi-Ro was a Japanese medium tank produced by Mitsubishi from 1932 to 1942, and used during the Second World War. ... The Type 95 Ha-Go (also known as the Type 97 Ke-Go) was a Japanese light tank used in the Second World War. ... The Type 38 Rifle Arisaka (三八式歩兵銃 Sanpachi-shiki hoheijyuu) was a bolt-action rifle. ... Arisaka is a family of Japanese military bolt-action rifles, in production from approximately 1906 until the end of World War II. Common specimens include the Type 38 rifle chambered in the 6. ... Type 99 Rifle Type service rifle Nationality Japan Era World War 2 History Date of design 1939 Production period 1939 - 1945 Service duration 1939 - 1945 Operators Japan War service Specifications Type Calibre 7. ... The Nambu pistol was a semi-automatic pistol used by the Imperial Japanese Army and Navy during the First and Second World Wars. ... For Combined Fleet, please see that article. ... Hankou (漢口; pinyin: Hànkǒu; Wade-Giles: Hankow) is one of the three towns, together with Wuchang and Hanyang, which are included in modern day Wuhan, the capital of the Hubei province, in China. ... Wuchang (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is one of the three towns, together with Hankou and Hanyang, which are included in modern day Wuhan, the capital of the Hubei province, in China. ... Aisin-Gioro Puyi¹ (February 7, 1906 - October 17, 1967) was the Xuantong Emperor (宣統皇帝) of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling emperor between 1908 and 1912, and non-ruling emperor between 1912 and 1924), the tenth (and last) emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty to rule over...


Chiang Kai-shek's forces captured numerous members of Wang Chingwei's army during military engagements, among whom were soldiers under the command of Wang Bu-ching, General of the Nanjing Republic of China's Army. Enemy prisoners of low rank were persuaded to renege and fight alongside anti-Japanese forces, but high-ranking prisoners were executed.


Japanese methods of recruiting

During the conflicts in central China, the Japanese utilized several methods to recruit volunteers for their allied forces. Japanese sympathisers like Nanjing's pro-Japanese governor, or major local landowners like Tao-liang, were used to recruit local peasants in return for money or food. The Japanese recruited 5,000 volunteers in the Anhui area for the local Nanjing Army. Japanese forces and the Reformed Nanjing Government used slogans such as "Drop Your Weapons, and Take the Plow", "Oppose the Communist Bandits" or "Oppose Corrupt Government and Support the Reformed Nanjing Government". Other methods included soliciting the cooperation of local bandits, using money, drugs, weapons, or captured goods as enticements. With this system, they organized anti-guerrilla units, who sometimes collaborated with criminal elements.


The Japanese used various methods for subjugating the local populace in the Central provinces. Initially, fear was used to maintain order in the regions, but this approach was changed, following appraisals by Japanese military ideologists. In 1939, the Japanese army attempted some populist policies, including:

  • confiscating the property of major landowners, divided it into small holdings, and allocated them to local peasants;
  • sending candy and food to children;
  • providing the Chinese with medical services, including vaccination against cholera, typhus, and varicella, and treatments for other diseases;
  • ordering Japanese soldiers not to violate any women in the area; and
  • dropping leaflets from Japanese airplanes, offering procedures and rewards for providing information (with the aid of a white surrender flag), handing over weapons, or other actions beneficial to the Japanese cause, in exchange for money and food.

Buddhist leaders of the occupied Chinese territories ("Shao-Kung") were also recruited to give public speeches and via the media to persuade the populace of the virtues of a Chinese alliance with Japan, and advocate the breaking-off of all relations with Western powers.


In 1938, a manifesto was launched in Shanghai, reminding the populace of the track record of the Japanese alliance in maintaining "moral supremacy", and accusing Generallissimo Chiang Kai-Shek of treason for maintaining the Western alliance.


Primary industry statistics

Before and during Japanese control of the Reformed Nanjing Republic of China, the farming possibilities were as follows:


Winter wheat and kaoliang zones

  • Precipitation: 24 in (600 mm)
  • Growing period: 241 days
  • Cultivated land area: 118,993 mile² (308,000 km²)
  • Cultivated land area: 47% for winter wheat and 68% for kaoliang
  • Cultivatable area per farm: 5.1 acres (21,000 m²)
  • Percentage of peasant-tenants: 5%
  • Peasant population density per unit area of cultivated land: 450/km² (1,165/mile²)

Distribution of crops

  • Wheat: 46%
  • Rice: 23%
  • Corn: 16%
  • Cotton: 9%
  • Kaoliang: 19%

Distribution of animals

  • Oxen: 40%
  • Donkeys: 21%
  • Mules: 16%

Transport types

  • Loaders: 32%
  • Hand carts: 36%
  • Loader Animal: 21%
  • Carts: 60%

Typical products

Species About 40, including: Ziziphus glabarrima Zizyphus joazeiro Ziziphus lotus Ziziphus mauritiana Ziziphus spinachristi Zizyphus spinosa Ziziphus zizyphus Ziziphus is a genus of about 40 species of spiny shrubs and small trees in the buckthorn family Rhamnaceae, distributed in the warm-temperate and subtropical parts of the Old World. ...

Yangtze rice and wheat zones

  • Precipitation: 42 inches (1070 mm)
  • Growing period: 293 day
  • Cultivated land area: 40,328 sq miles (104,000 km²)
  • Cultivated land area: 61% for rice and 25% for wheat
  • Cultivatable area per farm: 3.5 acres (14,000 m²)
  • Percentage of peasant-tenants: 25%
  • Peasant population density per unit area of cultivated land: 525/km² (1,360/mile²)

Distribution Of Land Usage For Farming

  • Rice: 58%
  • Wheat: 31%
  • Cotton: 13%
  • Barley: 19%

Distribution Of Animal Husbandry

  • Oxen: 40%
  • Water buffalo: 42%
  • Pigs: 15%

Transportation Distribution In Terms Of Localities

  • Loaders: 41%
  • Hand carts: 22%
  • Little vessels & boats: 33%

Typical products

  • Bamboo

Land in cultivation

  • Anhwei:
    • Land in cultivation: 22.7%
    • Cultivated land per person: 0.38 acres (1,500 m²)
  • Kiangsu:
    • Land in cultivation: 52.4%
    • Cultivated land per person: 0.39 acres (1,600 m²)
  • Chekiang:
    • Land in cultivation: 26.3%
    • Cultivated land per person: 0.30 acres (1,200 m²)

For mining resources, see Empire of Japan (natural resources, Asia mainland and Pacific areas, after 1937) This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Industry & commerce

In Shanghai, several factories had been established for the development of silk and cotton, many of them with pre-war Japanese and other foreign capital investment. A notable installation was the "Shanghai Power Plant" at the heart of the city, with a production capacity of about 200 megawatts. This power plant used coal from northern China and other Chinese areas. Since 1843, the port of Shanghai had been China's gateway for commerce, and in 1935, it was handling trade with New York, London, San Francisco, Kobe, Liverpool, Los Angeles, Hong-Kong, Hamburg and Rotterdam. Shanghai also had other industries that were crucial to modern Chinese society at that time.


To complement the efforts of the South Manchurian Railway Company, the Japanese civil establishment and the Imperial Japanese Army, in collaboration with Chinese local businessmen, founded the North China Railway Company, with branches in Hopei, Shangtung and other Northern Chinese areas, in order to link up the north China and central China railways. At about the same time, the pro-Japanese government in Nanjing, together with "native" Japanese establishments and the Japanese Central Chinese Army authorities, organized the Central China Railway Company to link up the railways of Ahnwei, Kiangsu, north Chekiang, and areas which were near to or were held by the Southern Japanese Chinese Army, for economic and strategic reasons. It was probably for these same reasons that the Japanese organized a Chinese merchant shipping vessel company and Commerce Authority Entity for managing commercial traffic in the Shanghai international port in those days. The South Manchuria Railway Company (Japanese: 満鉄); Mantetsu) was a company founded by Japan in 1906, after the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905), and operated in Japanese-occupied Manchuria. ...


Japanese authorities also reinforced Chinese industrial monopolies in the occupied territories, modelling them on Naiga Wata Kaisha (which specialized in managing affairs of the cotton industry, partly for the Japanese government), or private zaibatsus, such as Mitsubishi and others. Zaibatsu ) is a Japanese term referring to the financial cliques, or business conglomerates, whose influence and size allowed for control over significant parts of the Japanese economy throughout the Edo and Meiji periods. ... Mitsubishi Logo The Mitsubishi Group ), Mitsubishi Group of Companies, or Mitsubishi Companies, all refer to a large grouping of independently operated Japanese companies which share the Mitsubishi brand name. ...


Zhejiang-Jiangxi campaign

The Doolittle raid took place on April 18, 1942, when sixteen USAAF B-25 Mitchell aircraft, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel James Doolittle, took off from the USS Hornet, a US Navy aircraft carrier, in an effort to bomb Tokyo, Yokohama and Nagoya. This attack, however, caused minimal damage. The bombers had originally planned to land at friendly Chinese airfields outside the Japanese occupied territories. However, they were unable to do so -- they had to take off farther from those airfields, resulting in most of the planes running out of fuel and crashing into Japanese-occupied territories. Combatants  United States  Japan Commanders James H. Doolittle Hideki Tojo Strength 16 B-25 Mitchells Unknown number of troops and homeland defense Casualties 3 dead, 8 POWs (4 died in captivity); 5 interned in USSR all 16 B-25s About 50 dead, 400 injured Lt. ... The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) was the aviation component of the United States Army primarily during World War II. The title of Army Air Forces succeeded the prior name of Army Air Corps in June 1941 during preparation for expected combat in what came to be known as... Lt. ... The seventh USS Hornet (CV-8) of the United States Navy was an aircraft carrier of World War II, notable for launching the Doolittle Raid, as a participant in the Battle of Midway, and for action in the Solomons before being mortally wounded in the Battle of the Santa Cruz...


As a consequence of the Doolittle raid, Japanese forces intensified their operations on the Chinese central front. Realizing that the American aircraft had originally intended to land at friendly airfields, hidden in central Zhejiang, the Japanese Army Dai Honei (General Headquarters) in Tokyo ordered the Imperial Japanese Army expeditionary forces and their Chinese allies in the Chinese Central Area to occupy these airfields rapidly to prevent further American air attacks on the Japanese homeland. These Japanese-led attacks are called the "Zhejiang-Jiangxi campaign". Combatants  United States  Japan Commanders James H. Doolittle Hideki Tojo Strength 16 B-25 Mitchells Unknown number of troops and homeland defense Casualties 3 dead, 8 POWs (4 died in captivity); 5 interned in USSR all 16 B-25s About 50 dead, 400 injured Lt. ... Zhejiang (also spelled Chehkiang or Chekiang) is an eastern coastal province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (KyÅ«jitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun) was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ...


After assessing the general situation, Chiang Kai-shek, in coordination with American forces in China, regrouped at 3° War Zone, and for three months, maintained sustained resistance against the Japanese. In the process, they rescued some USAAF members, who were then sent to secure pro-Allied Chinese positions. The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) was the aviation component of the United States Army primarily during World War II. The title of Army Air Forces succeeded the prior name of Army Air Corps in June 1941 during preparation for expected combat in what came to be known as...


The Japanese forces suffered 17,000 losses, and in retaliation, took revenge on all citizens who had given refuge to the Americans, or were found to be in possession of American souvenirs. They carried out massive massacres, burning whole towns, and committed other war crimes. In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ...


References

  • David P. Barrett and Larry N. Shyu, eds.; Chinese Collaboration with Japan, 1932-1945: The Limits of Accommodation Stanford University Press 2001
  • John H. Boyle, China and Japan at War, 1937–1945: The Politics of Collaboration (Harvard University Press, 1972).
  • James C. Hsiung and Steven I. Levine, eds., China's Bitter Victory: The War with Japan, 1937–1945 (Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1992)
  • Ch'i Hsi-sheng, Nationalist China at War: Military Defeats and Political Collapse, 1937–1945 (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1982).
  • Frederick W. Mote, Japanese-Sponsored Governments in China, 1937–1945 (Stanford University Press, 1954).
  • Joseph Newman,"GoodBye Japan",(references about Chinese Reformed Regime)published in New York,March 1942
  • Edward Behr,"The Last Emperor",published by Recorded Picture Co(Productions) Ltd and Screenframe Ltd,1987
  • Agnes Smedley,"Battle Hymn of China"
  • Chiang Kai Shek,"The Soviet Russia in China"
  • Wego W. K. Chiang,"How the Generalissimo Chiang Kai Shek gained the Chinese- Japanese eight years war,1937-1945"
  • Alphonse Max,"Southeast Asia Destiny and Realities",published by Institute of International Studies,1985.

Chiang Wei-kuo as an officer candidate in the Wehrmacht. ...

See also

Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (1932–1945... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Dadao puppet municipal government of Shanghai (1937-1940):was one of a series Japanese-made countries and political entities set up in occupied China. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, etc. ... The Collaborationist Chinese Army in the Second Sino-Japanese War went under different names at different times depending on what puppet regime it was organized under. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Organization of the China Garrison detachment (before 1937) // Japanese civil Government personnel K.Yoshizawa:- Official Japanese Ambassador in Peiping Colonel Takemoto:- Commander of Kempeitai units in Japanese Embassy in Peiping Japanese intelligence detachment Kasuga House:- General HQ Japanese secret services in North Chinese sector. ... Organization of Japanese Expeditionary forces in China // Commanders-in-Chief of all Imperial Expeditionary Army in China Shunroku Hata:-Commander-in-Chief, China Expeditionary Army Otozo Yamada:-Commander Central China Expeditionary Army Juzo Nishio:-Commanding General, China Expeditionary Army(full General) Yasuji Okamura:- Commander-in-Chief, China Expeditionary Army,(replaced... The Shanghai ghetto was an area of approximately one square mile in the Hongkou District of Japanese-occupied Shanghai, where about 20,000 Jewish refugees[1] lived during World War II, having fled from Nazi Germany, Austria, Poland and Lithuania. ... This is a list of some Asian leaders and politicians, with a commitment to the Japanese cause, in the Yen Block or Greater Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere Pan-Asian economic associations previous to and during the Pacific War period, between 1931-1945. ... This is a list of Heads of State of the Republic of China: Military Governments Beginning with the Wuchang Uprising on October 11, 1911 and in the following two months, provincial military governments declared their independence from the Qing Empire under the name Republic of China. ...

External links

  • Nanjing Puppet Government National Flag
  • Central China Railway Company Flag, under Japanese Army control
  • Japanese occupation moneys

 
 

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