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Encyclopedia > Wang Jingwei
Wang Jingwei * Courtesy name: Jixin (季新) * Alternate name: Zhaoming (兆銘).
Wang Jingwei
* Courtesy name: Jixin (季新)
* Alternate name: Zhaoming (兆銘).

Wang Jingwei (Traditional Chinese: 汪精衛; Simplified Chinese: 汪精卫; Hanyu Pinyin: Wāng Jīngwèi; Wade-Giles: Wang Ching-wei) (May 4, 1883November 10, 1944), was a Chinese politician. He was a member of the left wing of the Kuomintang (KMT) and is most noted for disagreements with Chiang Kai-shek and forming a Japanese supported collaborationist government in Nanjing. He has often been labelled as a "Traitor to the Han Chinese". Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Cha can also refer to a Latin American dance, also called the Cha-cha-cha. ... Traditional Chinese characters are one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese characters (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; also Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) refer to one of two standard Chinese character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language, officially simplified by the government of the Peoples Republic of China in an attempt to promote literacy. ... Pinyin (拼音, Pīnyīn) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to Hànyǔ Pīnyīn (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... May 4 is the 124th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (125th in leap years). ... 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... The Chinese Nationalist Party (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung-kuo Kuo-min-tang), commonly known as the Kuomintang (KMT), is a centre-right political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of sitting Legislative... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was a Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the 1925 death of Sun Yat-sen. ... For other uses, see Nanjing (disambiguation). ... Before the enemy Wokou have been driven off our lands, all civil servants found negotiating a peace treaty should be considered a Hanjian and traitor to the nation. ...

Contents

Rise to prominence

Born in Panyu, Guangdong, Wang went to Japan as an international student sponsored by the Qing Empire government in 1903 and joined the Tongmeng Hui in 1905. He was jailed for plotting an assassination of the regent, the 2nd Prince Chun, and remained in jail from 1910 until the Wuchang Uprising the next year. Panyu or Pun Yue (番禺) is a district in Guangzhou, Guangdong, China. ... Guangdong, often spelt as Kwangtung, is a province on the south coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... International students are students, usually in early adulthood, who study in foreign schools. ... The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; pinyin: qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of... 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... The Tongmenghui (同盟會 Pinyin: Tóng Méng Huì, literal meaning: United Allegiance Society), also known as the United League or the Revolutionary Alliance, was organized by Sun Yat-sen and Sung Chiao-jen in Tokyo, Japan on August 20, 1905. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Assassin and Targeted killing redirect here. ... Zaifeng, the 2nd Prince Chun in Qing Imperial Robes The 2nd Prince Chun (Chinese: 醇親王) (February 12, 1883 - February 3, 1951) was born Zaifeng (Chinese: 載灃; Wade-Giles: Tsai-feng), of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro clan (the Qing imperial family ruling over China). ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... The Wuchang Uprising (武昌起義, pinyin: WÇ”chāng Qǐyì) of October 10, 1911, started the Xinhai Revolution, which triggered the collapse of the Qing Dynasty and establishment of the Republic of China (ROC). ...


Wang Jingwei, the "Chinese Quisling", pursued a complex and often inconsistent pattern of political life, ranging from far left to far right, interspersed with periods of exile. He was one of the more important members of the early Kuomintang, and was an assistant to Sun Yat-sen and presided over his will. Quisling, after Norwegian fascist politician Vidkun Quisling, is a term used to describe traitors and collaborationists. ... The term far left refers to the relative position a person or group occupies within the political spectrum. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into far right. ... The Chinese Nationalist Party (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung-kuo Kuo-min-tang), commonly known as the Kuomintang (KMT), is a centre-right political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of sitting Legislative... Sun Yat-sen (Chinese: 孫逸仙) (November 12, 1866–March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader who is often referred to as the father of modern China. Sun played an instrumental and leadership role in the eventual overthrow of the Qing Dynasty in 1911. ...


In the early 1920s Wang held several posts in Sun Yat-sen's Revolutionary Government in Guangzhou, but following Sun's death in 1925 he faced a powerful challenge for leadership of the KMT. Following the Zhongshan Warship Incident he lost control of the party to and army to Chiang Kai-shek. The 1920s was a decade sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... Sun Yat-sen (Chinese: 孫逸仙) (November 12, 1866–March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader who is often referred to as the father of modern China. Sun played an instrumental and leadership role in the eventual overthrow of the Qing Dynasty in 1911. ... Guangzhou is the capital and the sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in southern mainland China. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Zhongshan Warship Incident, or March 20th Incident, involving a suspected plot by Captain Li Zhilong of the warship Zhongshan to kidnap Chiang Kai-shek. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was a Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the 1925 death of Sun Yat-sen. ...


Rivalry with Chiang Kai-shek

During the Northern Expedition, Wang was the leading figure in the left-leaning faction of the KMT that called for continued cooperation with the Communist Party of China and the Comintern and for a halt in the Northern Expedition. Wang's faction, which had set up a new KMT capital at Wuhan in early 1927, was opposed by Chiang Kai-shek, who was in the midst of a bloody purge of Communists in Shanghai and was calling for a push north. The separation between these two sides was known as the Ninghan Separation (Traditional Chinese: 寧漢分裂; Simplified Chinese: 宁汉分裂; pinyin: Nínghàn Fenlìe). Wang's faction was weak militarily however, and was ousted by a local warlord the same year. Lacking the military or financial resources to resist the increasingly powerful Chiang, his faction had to rejoin Chiang Kai-shek at Nanjing in September 1927. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (official name, though almost universally known in English as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP)) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng) is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys... The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including... Location within China Modern and ancient   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: WÇ”hàn) is the capital of Hubei province, and is the most populous city in central China. ... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Shanghai (Chinese: ; pinyin:  ; Wu (Long-short): ZÃ¥nhae; Shanghainese (IPA): ), situated on the banks of the Yangtze River Delta in East China, is the largest city of the Peoples Republic of China and the eighth largest in the world. ... Traditional Chinese characters are one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese characters (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; also Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) refer to one of two standard Chinese character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language, officially simplified by the government of the Peoples Republic of China in an attempt to promote literacy. ... It has been suggested that Pinyin method be merged into this article or section. ...


In 1930, Wang tried another abortive coup against Chiang, this time with the aid of Feng Yuxiang and Yan Xishan in the Central Plains War. During these incidents, he traveled to Germany, and maintained some contact with Adolf Hitler. After this failure, Wang reconciled with Chiang's Nanjing government in the early 1930s and held prominent posts for most of the decade, and accompanied the government on its retreat to Chongqing during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945). During this time, he organized some right-wing groups under European fascist lines inside the KMT. Wang was originally part of the pro-war group, but after Chinese defeats in the Battle of Shanghai (1932) and the Defense of the Great Wall, Wang became known for his pessimistic view on China's chance in a war against Japan. He often voiced defeatist opinions in KMT staff meetings, much to the chagrin of his associates. Wang believed that China needed to negotiate with Japan peacefully in order to survive political influences from Europe and oppression from the Chinese Communists. Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... A coup d’état (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government through unconstitutional means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... Feng Yü-hsiang (Traditional Chinese:馮玉祥, Simplified Chinese: 冯玉祥, pinyin: Féng Yùxíang; 1882-1948) was a warlord during the early years of the Republic of China. ... Yen Hsi-shan (閻錫山; pinyin: Yán Xíshān) (1883 - 1960) was a Chinese politician who served in the Republic of China government. ... Combatants Forces of Chiang Kai-shek Forces of the coalition of Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang and Li Zongren Commanders Han Fuju, Liu Zhi Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren Strength 600,000 800,000 Casualties ~95,000+ ~150,000+ Central Plains War (Traditional Chinese: 中原大戰; Simplified Chinese: 中原大战; pinyin: Zhōngyúan... Hitler redirects here. ... For other uses, see Nanjing (disambiguation). ... Chongqing (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Chóngqìng; Postal System Pinyin: Chungking) is the largest and most populous of the Peoples Republic of Chinas four provincial-level municipalities, and the only one in the less densely populated western half of China. ... Combatants Republic of China Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Mao Tse-Tung, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Zhu De, He Yingqin Hideki Tojo, Matsui Iwane, Jiro Minami, Kesago Nakajima, Toshizo Nishio, Yasuji Okamura. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Combatants Republic of China, 19th Route Army, 5th Army Empire of Japan, Imperial Japanese Army, 2nd Independent Tank Company, Shanghai Expeditionary Force Commanders 19th Route Army: Jiang Guangnai (Chinese: 蔣光鼐), 5th Army: Zhang Zhizhong (Chinese: 張治中) Commander: Yoshinori Shirakawa (Japanese: 白川義則), Chief of staff: Kanichiro Tashiro (Japanese: 田代皖一郎) Strength 50,000 90,000 Casualties... The Defense of the Great Wall (Traditional Chinese: 長城抗戰; Simplified Chinese: 长城抗战; pinyin: Chángchéng Kàngzhàn) (January 1 - May 31, 1933) was a battle between the armies of Republic of China and Empire of Japan, before official hostilities of the Sino-Japanese War commenced in 1937. ... Combatants Republic of China Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Mao Tse-Tung, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Zhu De, He Yingqin Hideki Tojo, Matsui Iwane, Jiro Minami, Kesago Nakajima, Toshizo Nishio, Yasuji Okamura. ... Defeatism is acceptance and content with defeat without struggle. ...


Japanese collaboration

Wang received members of the National Socialist Party while he was head of state.
Wang received members of the National Socialist Party while he was head of state.

In late 1938, Wang left Chongqing and eventually ended up in Shanghai, to negotiate with the Japanese occupation. On March 30, 1940, however, he became the head of state of the Wang Jingwei Government based in Nanjing, serving as the President of the Executive Yuan and Chairman of the National Government (行政院長兼國民政府主席), and also maintaining his contacts with German and Italian fascists. Wang lived in Japan during the wartime, along with official Japanese advisers, until he died of pneumonia four years later in Nagoya. Image File history File links Wang_and_Nazis. ... Image File history File links Wang_and_Nazis. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... March 30 is the 89th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (90th in a leap year). ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The President of the Executive Yuan (行政院長), colloquially referred to as the Premier (閣揆), is the head of the Executive Yuan or executive branch of the Republic of China government which currently administers Taiwan. ... Fascism is a political ideology and mass movement that seeks to place the nation, defined in exclusive biological, cultural, and/or historical terms, above all other sources of loyalty, and to create a mobilized national community. ... Nagoya ) is the fourth largest city in Japan. ...


Wang was buried in Nanjing near the Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum, in an elaborately constructed tomb. A few years later, with Japan defeated, the Kuomintang government under Chiang Kai-shek moved its capital back to Nanjing, and destroyed Wang's tomb. (His body in the coffin was removed from the tomb, brought to the countryside and burned.) Today the site is commemorated with a small pavilion. For other uses, see Nanjing (disambiguation). ... Mausoleum of Dr. Sun Yat-Sen The Entrance Gate Gate Ceiling of the sacrificial hall, displaying the flag of Kuomintang Marble coffin The Mausoleum of Dr. Sun Yat-Sen (中山陵) is situated at the foot of the second peak of Mount Zijin (Purple Mountain 紫金山) in Nanjing, China. ...


For his role in the Pacific War, Wang has been considered a traitor by most post-World-War-II Chinese historians. However, some took a different view and regard his collaboration with the Japanese as a good faith attempt to salvage China from foreign imperialism. Such reasoning was rejected by the Kuomintang government, as his senior followers were all executed or imprisoned as traitors after the war. He is today considered as the great traitor of the Chinese nation in the modern era. Combatants Republic of China U.S.A. (from 1941) U.K. (from 1941) Australia (1941) Netherlands (1941) New Zealand (1941) Canada (1941) U.S.S.R. (from 1945) Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, Josef Stalin (from 1945) Hideki Tojo The Pacific War was...


Further reading

  • David P. Barrett and Larry N. Shyu, eds.; Chinese Collaboration with Japan, 1932-1945: The Limits of Accommodation Stanford University Press 2001
  • James C. Hsiung and Steven I. Levine, eds. China's Bitter Victory: The War with Japan, 1937–1945 M. E. Sharpe, 1992
  • Ch'i Hsi-sheng, Nationalist China at War: Military Defeats and Political Collapse, 1937–1945 University of Michigan Press, 1982

See also

  • Second Sino-Japanese War
  • History of the Republic of China
  • Vichy France

Combatants Republic of China Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Mao Tse-Tung, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Zhu De, He Yingqin Hideki Tojo, Matsui Iwane, Jiro Minami, Kesago Nakajima, Toshizo Nishio, Yasuji Okamura. ... The Republic of China (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) succeeded the Qing Dynasty in 1912, ending 2,000 years of imperial rule. ... For other uses, see Vichy (disambiguation). ...

External link

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wāng Jīngwèi
  • Japan's Asian Axis Allies - Chinese National Government of Nanking
Preceded by
Hu Hanmin
Chairman of Central Executive Committee of Kuomintang (Nanjing)
19311933
Succeeded by
Chiang Kai-shek

  Results from FactBites:
 
Wang Jingwei - Information at Halfvalue.com (983 words)
Wang's faction, which had set up a new KMT capital at Wuhan in early 1927, was opposed by Chiang Kai-shek, who was in the midst of a bloody purge of Communists in Shanghai and was calling for a push north.
Wang was originally part of the pro-war group, but after Chinese defeats in the Battle of Shanghai (1932) and the Defense of the Great Wall, Wang became known for his pessimistic view on China's chance in a war against Japan.
Wang was buried in Nanjing near the Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum, in an elaborately constructed tomb.
Wang Jingwei - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (744 words)
During the Northern Expedition, Wang was the leading figure in the left-leaning faction of the KMT that called for continued cooperation with the Communist Party of China and the Comintern and for a halt in the Northern Expedition.
Wang's faction, which had set up a new KMT capital at Wuhan, was opposed by Chiang Kai-shek, who was in the midst of a bloody purge of Communists in Shanghai and was calling for a push north.
Wang was buried in Nanjing near the Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum, in an elaborately constructed tomb.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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