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Encyclopedia > Wampanoag

The Wampanoag (Wôpanâak in the Wampanoag language) are a Native American people. In 1600 they lived in southeastern Massachusetts and Rhode Island, in an area also encompassing Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket and the Elizabeth Islands. Their population numbered about 12,000. Native Americans are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska. ... 1600 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Capital Providence Largest city Providence Area  Ranked 50th  - Total 1,214* sq mi (3,144* km²)  - Width 37 miles (60 km)  - Length 48 miles (77 km)  - % water 32. ... Map of Marthas Vineyard. ... Nantucket is an island south of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, formed of glacial moraine. ... The Elizabeth Islands, off the coast of Massachusetts The Elizabeth Islands are a chain of small islands extending southwest from the southern coast of Cape Cod, Massachusetts in the United States. ...


Wampanoag leaders included Squanto, Samoset, Metacomet (King Philip), and Massasoit. Modern Thanksgiving traditions are based on the Wampanoags' interaction with the Pilgrims. Tisquantum (better known as Squanto) (c. ... Samoset (born about 1590, died in 1653) was the first Native American Indian to make contact with the Pilgrims. ... Metacomet (died August 12, 1676), also known as King Philip or Metacom, was a war chief or sachem of the Wampanoag Indians and their leader in King Philips War. ... This 1902 photo shows Profile Rock in Assonet, Massachusetts. ... Thanksgiving, or Thanksgiving Day, is an annual one-day holiday to give thanks, traditionally to God, for the things one has at the end of the harvest season. ... Pilgrims is the name commonly applied to early settlers of the Plymouth Colony, MA. Their leadership came from a religious congregation who had fled religious persecution in the East Midlands of England for the relative calm of Holland in the Netherlands. ...

Contents

Name

John Smith named the Wampanoag Pakanoket in 1616, after their chief’s village, which was located near present-day Bristol, Rhode Island. This name was used frequently in early records and reports. The name currently used by ethnologists means ‘’Eastern People’’. The word Wapanoos was first seen on Adriaen Block's 1614 map and was probably a description of all tribes living in the Wampanoag's general area. Other synonyms include ‘’Wapenock, Massasoit’’ and ‘’Philips Indians’’. John Smith (1580-1631) was an English soldier, sailor, and author. ... Nickname: Motto: Official website: http://www. ... Blocks map of his 1614 voyage, with the first appearance of the term New Netherland Adriaen Block (1567–1627) was a Dutch private fur trader and navigator who explored the coastal and river valley areas between present-day New Jersey and Massachusetts during four voyages from 1611 to 1614...


Groups of the Wampanoag

Group Area inhabited
Gay Head or Aquinnah western point of Martha's Vineyard
Nantucket Nantucket Island
Nauset Cape Cod
Mashpee Cape Cod
Patuxet eastern Massachusetts, on Plymouth Bay
Pokanoket eastern Massachusetts, near present-day Bristol
Pocasset present day Massachusetts and or present day Rhode Island
and approximately 50 more groups

Culture

The Wampanoag were semi-sedentary, with seasonal movements between fixed sites. Corn (maize), beans and squash were the staples of their diet, supplemented by fish and game. More specifically, each community had authority over a well-defined territory from which the people derived their livelihood through a seasonal round of fishing, planting, harvesting and hunting. Because southern New England was thickly populated at the time, hunting grounds had strictly defined boundaries, and were passed on from father to son. The term sedentary in biology and anthropology applies to organisms and species that are not migratory but rather remain at a single location (permanently fixed or otherwise). ... Corn redirects here. ... Green beans Bean is a common name for large plant seeds of several genera of Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae) used for food or feed. ... Species - hubbard squash, buttercup squash - cushaw squash C. moschata- butternut squash C. pepo- most pumpkins, acorn squash, summer squash References: ITIS 223652002-11-06 Hortus Third Squashes are four species of the genus Cucurbita, also called pumpkins and marrows depending on variety or the nationality of the speaker. ... A giant grouper at the Georgia Aquarium Fish are aquatic vertebrates that are typically cold-blooded; covered with scales, and equipped with two sets of paired fins and several unpaired fins. ... Game is any animal hunted for food or not normally domesticated (such as venison). ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ...


The Wampanoag way of life fostered a harmonious relationship between the people and their natural environment, both physical and spiritual. Also, they respected the traditions and the elders of their nation. The work of making a living was organized on a family level. Families gathered together in the spring to fish, in early winter to hunt and in the summer they separated to cultivate individual planting fields. Boys were schooled in the way of the woods, where a man’s skill at hunting and ability to survive under all conditions were vital to his family’s well being. The women were trained from youth to work diligently in the fields and around the family wetu.


A wetu was the round or oval Wampanoag wigwam. To build them, several posts were placed in the ground, then bent in over a fire and bound together at the top. They were covered on the outside by grass or bark and had an exit hole for smoke at the highest point. A summer house like this was designed so that it could be easily dismantled and moved in just a few hours.[1] == The Band == Wigwam are Alex James, the bassist from Blur and Betty Boo. ...


The Wampanoag were organized into a confederation, where a head sachem presided over a number of other sachem. The English often referred to the sachem as king, a misleading concept, because the position of a sachem was in no way like that of a king and allowed only restricted authority and few privileges. It was traditional, that if there was a lack of appropriate male candidates, a woman could become a sachem.[2] A confederation is an association of sovereign states or communities, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... A sagamore is the head of a Native American tribe. ...


See also: Massachusett The Massachusett were tribal communities of Native Americans who lived in areas surrounding Massachusetts Bay in what is now the state of Massachusetts. ...


Language

Wampanoag spoke Wôpanâôt8âôk,[citation needed] a dialect of the Massachusett Algonquian language. The name "Wampanoag" means "people of first light" or "people of the dawn". They are also called "Massasoit" or "Philip’s Indians". In the early historic records they were very commonly referred to as "Pokanoket" (Poncakenet). The language has been extinct for at least a century.[3] The Massachusett language was a Native American language, a member of the Algonquian language family. ... The Algonquian (also Algonkian) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (the two Algic languages that are not Algonquian are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). ...


A project was begun in 1993 through the initiative of several Wampanoag tribes in hopes that the Wampanoag language, which died out in the 19th century, might be resuscitated. Old printed texts provided a basis, including the translation of the Eliot Bible from 1663, as well as examples from related neighboring Algonquin languages. The "Wampanoag Language Reclamation Project" was started by Jessie Littledoe Baird, a member of the Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe, and Helen Manning, a Gay Head Wampanoag. Today Baird teaches classes in Mashpee and Aquinnah; only Wampanoag is spoken during the lessons. There is a Wampanoag dictionary, which currently contains about 7,000 words.[4] 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Algonquin (or Algonkin) is an Algonquian language closely related to Ojibwe. ...


History

Squanto (or Tisquantum)

Main article: Squanto

The earliest contact between the Wampanoag and Europeans dated from the 16th century, when merchant vessels and fishing boats traveled along the coast of New England. Most of these encounters were of a friendly nature. There were, however, also exceptions, because some captains of these ships were known to capture Native Americans and sell them as slaves in order to increase their earnings. For example, Captain Thomas Hunt had a Wampanoag carried off onto his ship in 1614, and later sold him in Spain as a slave. One of his victims - a Patuxet named Squanto (or Tisquantum) - was bought by Spanish monks, who wanted to "civilize" him. Eventually he was let to go free, and despite his bad experiences he boarded an English ship again, in order to accompany an expedition to Newfoundland as a translator. From Newfoundland he ended up back at his homeland in southern New England in 1619, where meanwhile the whole Patuxet tribe (and with them, his family), had fallen victim to an epidemic.[5] Tisquantum (better known as Squanto) (c. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Thomas Hunt can refer to: Aubrey Thomas Hunt de Vere, an Irish-born poet, critic and essayist an English martyr together with Thomas Sprott in 1600 Category: ... Tisquantum (better known as Squanto) (c. ... For other uses, see Newfoundland (disambiguation). ... Events May 13 - Dutch statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt is executed in The Hague after having been accused of treason. ... In epidemiology, an epidemic (from Greek epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during a...


The Pilgrims

Samoset surprises the settlers with English words
Samoset surprises the settlers with English words

During the same time, a small group of English religious dissidents, who had left England in order to escape persecution, lived in Holland. They had heard of the New World in the west and decided to emigrate there. The Virginia Company was ready to bring them to America, so they took their money and sent them off on two ships, the Mayflower and the Speedwell. Only a third of the passengers were religious separatists; the others were adventurers, criminals and debt prisoners, who England wanted to get rid of. Before this, the Plymouth Company was founded by a trading company of rich London traders, who were interested in the barter trade in the New World. Three men carried the speculations of the Plymouth Company across the Atlantic: William Bradford, who was named in advance to be the governor of the new-founded colony, Captain Myles Standish, the military leader of the pilgrims, and Andrew Weston, the leader of the adventurers.[5] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2319x1515, 874 KB) Description: Samoset speaks English to the British colonists Source: Sutro Library, San Francisco, USA Uploader: User:Nikater Date: 2 May 2006 Other Versions: none License status: File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2319x1515, 874 KB) Description: Samoset speaks English to the British colonists Source: Sutro Library, San Francisco, USA Uploader: User:Nikater Date: 2 May 2006 Other Versions: none License status: File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this... Holland is a region in the central-western part of the Netherlands with 6,07 million inhabitants. ... Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, c. ... The 1606 grants by James I to the London and Plymouth companies. ... Mayflower in Plymouth Harbor by William Halsall (1882) For other uses, see Mayflower (disambiguation). ... The Speedwell was a 60 ton ship, the smaller of the two ships (along with Mayflower) intended to carry the Pilgrim Fathers to North America. ... The 1606 grants by James I to the London and Plymouth companies. ... Signing of the Mayflower Compact William Bradford (1590 – May 9, 1657) was a leader of the separatist settlers of the Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts, and was elected Governor of the Colony for 15 two-year terms. ... Signing of the Mayflower Compact Myles Standish (c. ...


In July 1620 the small fleet set sail, but after 300 miles the Speedwell got a leak and had to sail back to Plymouth, accompanied by the Mayflower. The repairs failed, and so in September 1620 all of the passengers boarded the Mayflower and took off for the New World again, in crowded conditions. After 65 days, on November 11, they reached the coast of present-day Massachusetts and landed near present-day Provincetown on the outermost point of Cape Cod.[5] Plymouth is a city in the southwest of England, or alternatively the Westcountry, and is situated within the traditional county of Devon. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...   Nickname: P-town Settled: 1700 â€“ Incorporated: 1727 Zip Code(s): 02657 â€“ Area Code(s): 508 / 774 Official website: http://www. ... Cape Cod (or simply the Cape) is an arm-shaped peninsula forming the easternmost portion of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, in the Northeastern United States. ...


The colonists decided to settle at this spot, but after some time realized that the sandy soil there was not suited to their needs. Therefore a group of them decided to settle on the other side of the bay of Cape Cod. On December 21, they landed near the abandoned village of the Patuxet, near present-day Plymouth, Massachusetts. The majority of the remaining settlers followed them five days later. December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...   Settled: 1620 â€“ Incorporated: 1620 Zip Code(s): 02360 â€“ Area Code(s): 508 / 774 Official website: http://www. ...


For the next few months they lived there in squalid huts, hungry, sick and waiting for their impending deaths. Half of the newcomers did not survive the first winter. The Native Americans did keep an eye on the Englishmen, but they tried to stay out of their way. The Abenaki sachem, Samoset, from present-day Maine, had already met some English fishers at the short-lived colony by the mouth of the Kennebec River, and he greeted the pilgrims in broken English. He surveyed the situation and came back the next day with Squanto, who helped the Englishmen survive the next few months. He showed them, for example, how the local Native Americans cultivated the land, how to catch fish, and how to collect seafood. The Abenaki (also Wabanuok or Wabanaki) are a tribe of Native Americans/First Nations belonging to the Algonquian peoples of northeastern North America. ... Official language(s) None (English de facto; French is also an administrative language) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... The course of the Kennebec River The Kennebec River is a river, 150 mi (240 km) long, in the state of Maine in the northeastern United States. ...


The preceding information comes from William Bradford's History of Plymouth Plantation.[6]


Massasoit

Massasoit and Governor John Carver smoke a peace pipe
Massasoit and Governor John Carver smoke a peace pipe

Squanto lived with the colonists and escaped captivity with the Wampanoag. He acted as a middleman between the pilgrims and Massasoit, the Wampanoag sachem. For the Wampanoag, the previous ten years before the arrival of the pilgrims was the worst time in their history. They were attacked by Micmac warriors from the north, who took over the coast after their victory over the Penobscot in the Tarratine War (1607-1615). At the same time, the Penobscot came from the west, and occupied eastern Connecticut. Even worse were the three epidemics, which claimed 75% of all the Wampanoag. The Narragansett were the least affected by the epidemics, due to their isolated location on the islands of Narragansett Bay, and so they became the most powerful tribe in the region. They began to demand that the weakened Wampanoag pay them tolls, and Massasoit began to hope that the English would help his people fight the oppression by the Narragansett. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2317x1725, 919 KB) Description: Massasoit and governor John Carver smoking a peace pipe Source: Sutro Library, San Francisco, USA Uploader: User:Nikater Date: 2 May 2006 Other Versions: none License status: File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2317x1725, 919 KB) Description: Massasoit and governor John Carver smoking a peace pipe Source: Sutro Library, San Francisco, USA Uploader: User:Nikater Date: 2 May 2006 Other Versions: none License status: File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link... The Mikmaq (also Míkmaq, Micmac; in Quebec, Migmaq) are a First Nations people indigenous to northeastern New England, Canadas Maritimes and the Gaspe Peninsula of Quebec. ... ¢ Seal of the Penobscot Indian Nation of Maine For other uses, see Penobscot (disambiguation). ... Events January 20 - Tidal wave swept along the Bristol Channel, killing 2000 people. ... Events June 2 - First Récollet missionaries arrive at Quebec City, from Rouen, France. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... Tribal flag // The Narragansett tribe, or more accurately Nahahiganseck Sovereign Nation, are a Native American tribe who controlled the area surrounding Narragansett Bay in present-day Rhode Island, and also portions of Connecticut, and eastern Massachusetts. ... Narragansett Bay, shown in pink. ...


In March 1621 Massasoit visited Plymouth, accompanied by Squanto. He signed an alliance which gave the English permission to take about 12,000 acres (48.5 km²) of land for Plymouth Plantation. However, it is very doubtful that Massasoit understood the differences between land ownership in the European sense, compared with the native people’s manner of using the land. At the moment, this was not particularly significant, because so many of Massasoit’s people had died that New England was halfway depopulated. Furthermore, it was impossible for the Wampanoag to suspect that the few English, who had barely lived through the winter, could ever be a danger to them. The friendship and cooperation between the English and the Native Americans continued, and the Pilgrims were thankful for the Wampanoags' help, so together they celebrated the first Thanksgiving in Plymouth in the fall. Massasoit and his 90 companions brought five deer, and the festival lasted for three days. 1621 was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...   Settled: 1620 â€“ Incorporated: 1620 Zip Code(s): 02360 â€“ Area Code(s): 508 / 774 Official website: http://www. ... Thanksgiving, or Thanksgiving Day, is an annual one-day holiday to give thanks, traditionally to God, for the things one has at the end of the harvest season. ... Fawn redirects here. ...


This first Thanksgiving is debated controversially in the United States. Native Americans especially argue against the romanticized idea of contented Wampanoag celebrating together with the colonists, for at that time the Indians had already recognized that the god-fearing Puritans could be greedy and violent. Thus in 1970 Native American organizations declared Thanksgiving the "National Day of Mourning". The National Day of Mourning is an annual protest held on the fourth Thursday of November (known to many as Thanksgiving) in the United States of America since 1970. ...


In the winter of 1622 another ship came unexpectedly from England and brought 40 additional hungry settlers, so that the second winter yet again brought famine.[7] A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ...


The Narragansett were suspicious of the friendship between the Wampanoag and the English. They suspected that they had formed a military alliance targeted against them, so they sent a message to Plymouth in the form of a bundle of arrows wrapped in snakeskin. Although the English could barely feed themselves, let alone think about trying to wage war, they sent the snakeskin back filled with bullets. Because the Narragansett had been attacked by the Pequot in the meantime, Plymouth managed to evade a new disaster. The good relationship between the Wampanoag and the pilgrims lasted, and when Massasoit became gravely ill in the winter of 1623, he was nursed back to good health by the English. In the meantime, the colony at Plymouth grew larger, and a number of the English Puritans settled on Massachusetts Bay. In 1632 the Narragansett ended their wars with the Pequot and the Mohawk and turned against the Wampanoag again. They attacked Massasoit’s village, Sowam, but because the Wampanoag had help from the English, the Narragansett retreated.[5] The Pequot are a tribal nation of Native Americans who, in the 17th century, inhabited much of what is now Connecticut. ... Massachusetts Bay is one of the large bays of the Atlantic Ocean that form the distinctive shape of the coastline of the U.S. state of Massachusetts. ... The Mohawk (Kanienkeh or Kanienkehaka meaning People of the Flint) are an indigenous people of North America who live around Lake Ontario and the St. ...


Expansion of the Colonists

Seal of Plymouth Colony
Seal of Plymouth Colony

After 1630 the founding members of Plymouth Colony found themselves becoming a minority, due to the growing number of new Puritans arriving. They settled on Massachusetts Bay, near present-day Boston. Barely tolerant of other Christians, they viewed the native peoples as savages and heathens. The militant Puritans were soldiers and traders, who had no interest in friendship or cooperation with the Indians. Under this new leadership, the English expanded westwards into the Connecticut River Valley, and in 1637 they destroyed the powerful Pequot Confederation. In 1643 the Mohicans defeated the Narragansett in a war, and with support from the English, they became the dominant tribe in southern New England.[5] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (730x800, 461 KB) Description: Seal of Plymouth Colony Source: Samuel Adams Drake (1833-1905). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (730x800, 461 KB) Description: Seal of Plymouth Colony Source: Samuel Adams Drake (1833-1905). ... A Puritan of 16th and 17th century England was any person seeking purity of worship and doctrine, especially the parties that rejected the Laudian reform of the Church of England. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... Look up Barbarian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Heathen is a term used both to describe a person who does not follow an organized religion, and also a modern practitioner of Heathenry. ... The Connecticut River Valley is a long river valley formed by the Connecticut River stretching from The New Hampshire/Quebec border to Long Island Sound on the Connecticut Coast. ... The Mahicans (also Mohicans) are a Native American tribe who were living in and around the Hudson Valley at the time of their first contact with Europeans in 1609. ...


Between 1640 and 1675 new waves of settlers arrived, and they continued to force the native peoples westward. While the Pilgrims had normally paid for the land, or had at least asked for permission, the Puritans simply took the land for themselves. In 1665 the Indians of southern New England were simply in the way of the English. They did not desire the ability to survive in the wilderness. Catching fish and the trading of commodities had replaced the trading of furs and wampum from previous years. The population of the native peoples continued to decline, due to recurring epidemics in 1633, 1635, 1654, 1661 and 1667.[5]


After 1640 there was a "humane" solution to the Indian problem by John Eliot and other Puritan missionaries, in which the native peoples were converted to Christianity. How humane these efforts really were is a matter of opinion. The converted Indians were resettled in so-called "praying towns," in Natick, Nonatum, Punkapog and other places. Indians who were critical of the Puritan version of Christianity were not welcome. Attendance at church was required, and their clothes and hairstyle had to be just like that of the white Christians. Even the hint of a traditional ceremony resulted in expulsion.[7] This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Natick Common, Halloween 2004 Natick is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. ...


Metacomet (King Philip)

Even Massasoit took on English customs. Before his death in 1661, he asked the legislators in Plymouth to give both of his sons English names. Wamsutta, the older son, was given the name Alexander, and his younger brother, Metacomet, was named Philip. After his father’s death, Alexander became the sachem of the Wampanoag. The English were not happy about this, because they felt he was too self-confident, and so they invited him to Plymouth to talk. After eating a meal, he became seriously ill and died. The Wampanoag were told he died of fever, but mostly likely it was poison that killed him. The following year Metacomet became the next sachem of the Wampanoag, following the path of his murdered brother. He was later named "King Philip" by the English.[8] Wamsutta (b. ... Metacomet (died August 12, 1676), also known as King Philip or Metacom, was a war chief or sachem of the Wampanoag Indians and their leader in King Philips War. ...


To all appearances, Philip was not a radical sachem, but under his rule there were dramatic changes in the relationship between the Wampanoag and the colonists. It had become clear to him that the English would eventually take over everything, not only their land, but also their culture, their way of life and their religion. Philip decided to impede the further expansion of English settlements. For the Wampanoag alone, this was not at all possible, because at that time their tribe had less than 1,000 members. From his home on Mount Hope outwards he began to visit other tribes, to talk them in to his plan. This too was a nearly hopeless undertaking, because at that time the number of colonists in southern New England was more than double that of the Indians – 35,000 colonists in the face of 15,000 natives. Philip’s efforts did not stay a secret, because a network of spies, the "praying Indians", betrayed Philip’s plans to the English. In 1671 Philip was called to Taunton, where he listened to the accusations of the English and signed an agreement that required the Wampanoag to give up their firearms. To be on the safe side however, he did not take part in the subsequent dinner, and the weapons were not delivered later either.[8]   Settled: 1638 â€“ Incorporated: 1639 Zip Code(s): 02718, 02780, 02783 â€“ Area Code(s): 508 / 774 Official website: http://www. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


The seizures of land by the English continued, and little by little, Philip gained the Nipmuck, Pocomtuc and Narragansett as allies. The beginning of the uprising was first scheduled for the spring of 1676. In January 1675 the body of John Sassamon, a Christian Indian spy, was found. Three Wampanoag warriors were then taken captive, charged with the murder, and eventually hanged. After this blatant provocation, Philip could not hold back his warriors anymore, because in addition to this, rumors were circulating that the English wanted to capture Philip. Philip called together a council of war on Mount Hope: most Wampanoag wanted to follow him, with the exception of the Nauset on Cape Cod and the small groups on the offshore islands. Further allies were the Nipmuck, Pocomtuc and some Pennacook and Eastern Abenaki. The Narragansett, however, were forced to sign a peace treaty with the English and thus stayed neutral. [8] Nipmuck emblem The Nipmuck are an aboriginal North American people, belonging to the family of Algonquian peoples, currently living in and around the Chaubunagungamaug Reservation of Webster, Massachusetts. ... The Pocomtuc were a Native American tribe inhabiting the Connecticut River valley from the northern tip of Connecticut, Western Massachusetts, and the tri-state area of Vermont, New Hammpshire, and Massachusetts. ... The Nauset Indian tribe were the original inhabitants of the Cape Cod peninsula, in Massachusetts. ... The Pennacook or Pawtucket are a Native American group who once had villages in the Merrimack River valley in southern and central New Hampshire, northeastern Massachusetts, and southern Maine. ... Abenaki is the cover term for a complex of dialects of one of the Eastern Algonquian languages, originally spoken in what is now Vermont, New Hampshire and Maine. ...


King Philip's War

On July 20, 1675 some young Wampanoag trekked to Swansea, killed some cattle, and scared and horrified the white settlers. The next day King Philip's War broke out and a number of white settlements were attacked by the Indians and burned to the ground. The unexpected attacks caused great panic among the English. The Christian Indians in the praying towns, who the Puritans had located in various parts of New England, were considered suspicious and thus taken to an island in Boston harbor. The united tribes in southern New England were furthermore successful, and of 90 English settlements, 52 were attacked and partially burned down.[8] July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... Events January 5 - The Battle of Turckeim June 18 - Battle of Fehrbellin August 10 - King Charles II of England places the foundation stone of the Royal Greenwich Observatory in London - construction begins November 11 - Guru Gobind Singh becomes the Tenth Guru of the Sikhs. ... Swansea is a town located in Bristol County in southeastern Massachusetts. ... Attack King Philips War was an armed conflict between Native American inhabitants of present-day southern New England and English colonists and their Native American allies from 1675–1676. ...


From Massachusetts outwards, the war spread to more parts of New England. Some tribes from Maine, the Kennebec, Pigwacket (Pequawket) and Arosaguntacook joined in the war against the English. Even the former enemies of the Wampanoag, the Narragansett of Rhode Island, relinquished their neutrality after the colonists attacked a fortified village. In that battle, which became known as the “Great Swamp Massacre,” the Narragansett lost more than 600 people and 20 sachems. Their leader Canonchet, however, was able to flee and led a large group of Narragansett warriors west to join King Philip’s warriors.[8]


In the spring of 1676, after a winter full of hunger and deprivation, the tides turned against Philip. The English troops set out on a relentless chase after him, and his best ally, Sachem Canonchet of the Narragansett, was taken captive and executed by a firing squad. His corpse was quartered, and his head was sent to Hartford, Connecticut, and put on public display.[8] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


During the summer months, Philip escaped from his pursuers and took up a hideout on Mount Hope. But in August it was discovered by Indian scouts working for the English, and 173 Wampanoag were killed or taken prisoner. Philip only barely escaped capture, but among the prisoners taken were his wife and their 9 year old son. They were taken onto a ship in Plymouth and sold as slaves in the West Indies. On August 12, 1676 British troops surrounded Philip’s camp, and shortly after that he was shot dead by an Indian scout. His head was cut off and for 20 years it was displayed on a pike in Plymouth.[8] The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... Events January 29 - Feodor III becomes Tsar of Russia First measurement of the speed of light, by Ole Rømer Bacons Rebellion Russo-Turkish Wars commence. ... A modern recreation of a mid-17th century company of pikemen. ...


Consequences of the war

With the death of Philip and most of their leaders, the Wampanoag were nearly exterminated; only about 400 of them survived the war. The Narragansett and Nipmuck suffered similar losses, and many small tribes in southern New England were, for all intents and purposes, gone. As a result of a large relocation, many of the survivors were forced to leave their homelands, although some did not have to go far away. They accepted the asylum offer from Edmund Andros, the governor of New York, and settled in Schaghticoke on the Hudson River under the Mahicans. Others found refuge with the Lenni Lenape in New Jersey and Pennsylvania, plus large numbers fled to the Western Abenaki and to Canada. Although small groups lived on the Connecticut River until the 19th century, the Pocumtuc as an organized group disappeared. The war took a toll on the English as well: 600 colonists were killed, in all 90 settlements were attacked and of those, 13 were completely destroyed. Before the war there were approximately 15,000 Indians in southern New England; in 1680 only 4,000 survivors remained, and the severe English peace terms meant outright repression.[8] Nipmuck emblem The Nipmuck are an aboriginal North American people, belonging to the family of Algonquian peoples, currently living in and around the Chaubunagungamaug Reservation of Webster, Massachusetts. ... Sir Edmund Andros Sir Edmund Andros (December 6, 1637 - February 24, 1714), was an early colonial governor in North America, and head of the short-lived Dominion of New England. ... NY redirects here. ... Schaghticoke is a town located in Rensselaer County, New York. ... The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican, is a river that runs through the eastern portion of New York State and, along its southern terminus, demarcates the border between the states of New York and New Jersey. ... The Lenape or Lenni-Lenape (later named Delaware Indians by Europeans) were, in the 1600s, loosely organized bands of Native American people practicing small-scale agriculture to augment a largely mobile hunter-gatherer society in the region around the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, and western Long Island Sound. ... For the Bon Jovi album, see New Jersey (album) Official language(s) None, English de facto Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Area  Ranked 47th  - Total 8,729 sq mi (22,608 km²)  - Width 70 miles (110 km)  - Length 150 miles (240 km)  - % water 14. ... Official language(s) English, Pennsylvania Dutch Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Abenaki couple The Western Abenaki (also Abenaki, Wabanaki), meaning people of the dawn, are a tribe of Native Americans/First Nations belonging to the Algonquian peoples of northeastern North America. ... The Connecticut River as seen from the French King Bridge in western Massachusetts. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events First Portuguese governor was appointed to Macau The Swedish city Karlskrona was founded as the Royal Swedish Navy relocated there. ...


18th to 20th Century

Mashpee

With the exception of the Wampanoag groups on the coastal islands, who had stayed neutral through the war, the Wampanoag of the mainland were resettled with the Saconnet, or brought, together with the Nauset, into the praying towns in Barnstable County. In Massachusetts, Mashpee, on Cape Cod, was the biggest reservation. In 1660 the Indians were allotted about 50 square miles there, and beginning in 1665 they governed themselves with a court of law and trials. The area was integrated into the district of Mashpee in 1763, but in 1788 the state revoked their ability to self-govern, which it considered a failure. It then appointed a committee to supervise, consisting of five white-only members. A certain degree of self-government was returned to the Indians in 1834, and although the Indians were far from completely autonomous, one could say that this time the experiment was successful. Their land was divided up in 1842, with 2,000 of their 13,000 acres distributed in 60 acre parcels to each family. Many laws attest to constant problems of encroachments by whites, who stole wood from the reservation. It was a large region, once rich in wood, fish and game, and therefore desirable for the whites. Some had trouble ignoring the constantly growing community of non-whites, and so the Mashpee Indians had more conflicts with their white neighbors than the other Indian settlements in the state.[4] Barnstable County is a county located in the U.S. state of Massachusetts. ...   Settled: 1660 â€“ Incorporated: 1870 Zip Code(s): 02649 â€“ Area Code(s): 508 / 774 Official website: http://www. ... BIA map of reservations in the United States Tribal sovereignty: Map of the United States, with non-reservation land highlighted. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... 1665 (MDCLXV) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1763 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1834 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Wampanoag on Martha's Vineyard

On Martha’s Vineyard there were three reservations in the 18th and 19th centuries – Chappaquiddick, Christiantown and Gay Head. The Chappaquiddick Reservation was part of a small island with the same name, and was located on the eastern point of that island. As the result of the sale of land in 1789, the Indians lost valuable areas, and the remaining land was distributed between the Indians residents in 1810. In 1823 the laws were changed, in order to hinder those trying to get rid of the Indians and to implement a visible beginning of a civic organization. Around 1849, they owned 692 acres (2.8 km²) of infertile land, and many of the residents moved to nearby Edgartown, so that they could practice a trade and obtain some civil rights.[4] Chappaquiddick Island is a small island off the eastern end of the larger island of Marthas Vineyard. ...   Aquinnah is a town, formerly known as Gay Head, located on Marthas Vineyard in Dukes County, Massachusetts, USA. The population was 344 at the 2000 census. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Edgartown is a town located on Marthas Vineyard in Dukes County, Massachusetts. ...


Christiantown was originally a "praying town" on the northwest side of Martha’s Vineyard, northwest of Tisbury. In 1849 the reservation still consisted of 390 acres (1.57 km²), of which all but 10 were distributed among the residents. The land which was kept under community ownership yielded very few crops, and the tribe members left it behind to get paying jobs in the cities. It is known, through oral tradition, that Christiantown was wiped out in 1888 by a smallpox epidemic.[4] The Lighthouse of Tisbury (West Chop Light) in 1891 Northern view of Holmes Hole, East Tisbury, 1841 Tisbury is a town located on Marthas Vineyard in Dukes County, Massachusetts. ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a highly contagious disease unique to humans. ...

Amos Haskins, a Wampanoag whaling captain of the Aquinnah Band.
Amos Haskins, a Wampanoag whaling captain of the Aquinnah Band.

The third reservation on Martha’s Vineyard was constructed in 1711 by the New England Company (founded in 1649) to Christianize the Indians. They bought land for the Gay Head Indians, who had lived there since before 1642. Unfortunately there was a fierce dispute over how the land should be cultivated, because the better sections of the land had been leased to the whites at low interest. The original goal of creating an undisturbed center for missionary work was quickly forgotten. The state finally created a reservation on a peninsula on the western point of Martha’s Vineyard and named it Gay Head. This region was connected to the main island by an isthmus and created the isolation that the Indians wanted to have. In 1849 they had 2,400 acres (9.7 km²) there, of which 500 were distributed among the tribe members. The rest was communal property. In contrast to the other groups on Massachusetts reservations, the tribe had no guardian or headman. When they needed advice on legal questions, they asked the guardian of the Chappaquiddick Reservation, but other matters they handled themselves. They had no legal claim to their land and allowed the tribal members free rein over their choice of land, as well as over cultivation and building, in order to make their ownership clear. They did not allow whites to settle on their land, and the laws regulating tribe membership were strict. As a result they were able to strengthen the groups' ties to each other, and they did not lose their tribal identity until long after the other groups.[4] Image File history File links WampanoagWhaler. ... Image File history File links WampanoagWhaler. ... A map of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. ...


The Wampanoag on Nantucket Island were almost completely destroyed by an unknown plague in 1763; the last Nantucket died in 1855.[4] Nantucket is an island south of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, formed of glacial moraine. ... A pestilence is an epidemic or even a pandemic of a virulent and highly contagious disease. ... 1763 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1855 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Current status

About 3,000 Wampanoag survive (many of whose ancestry includes other tribes), and many live on the reservation (Watuppa Wampanoag Reservation) on Martha's Vineyard, in Dukes County. It is located in the town of Aquinnah (formerly known as Gay Head), at the extreme western part of the island. It has a land area of 1.952 km² (482.35 acres), and a 2000 census resident population of 91 persons. BIA map of reservations in the United States Tribal sovereignty: Map of the United States, with non-reservation land highlighted. ... Dukes County is a county located in the state of Massachusetts. ... Aquinnah is a town, formerly known as Gay Head, located on Marthas Vineyard in Dukes County, Massachusetts, USA. As of the 2000 census, the town had a total population of 344. ... An acre is the name of a unit of area in a number of different systems, including Imperial units and United States customary units. ... 2000 US Census logo The Twenty-Second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ...


There are currently five organized groups of the Wampanoag: Assonet, Gay Head, Herring Pond, Mashpee and Namasket. All have applied for recognition by the government, but only the Gay Head Wampanoag still have a reservation on Martha’s Vineyard. They received government recognition in 1987 from the Bureau of Indian Affairs. They currently have 1,000 registered members. Their reservation consists of 485 acres (approx. 2 km²) and is located on the outermost southwest part of the island. The official registered name is "Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head". The "Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe" consists of 1,200 registered members and owns many stores and museums. Since 1924 there has been a powwow every year at the beginning of July. The reservation is located near Mashpee on Cape Cod. After decades of legal disputes, the Mashpee Wampanoag obtained provisional recognition as an Indian tribe from the Bureau of Indian Affairs in April 2006. A final decision is expected in October 2006.[9] {note the Mashpee received offical Federal recognition as of February 2007}. There is also still land which is owned separately by families and in common by Wampanoag descendants at both Chaapaquddick and Christiantown. The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States within the Department of the Interior charged with the administration and management of 55. ... This article is about a Native American gathering. ...


In addition, a remnant of the Wampanoag reside on St. David Island, Bermuda. They are descendants of those sold overseas in the aftermath of King Philip's War by the Puritans. See "External Links" on article Metacomet. Metacomet (died August 12, 1676), also known as King Philip or Metacom, was a war chief or sachem of the Wampanoag Indians and their leader in King Philips War. ...


Demographics

Year Number Note Source
1610 6,600 mainland 3,600; islands 3,000 James Mooney
1620 5,000 mainland 2,000 (after the epidemics); islands 3,000 unknown
1677 400 mainland (after King Philip's War) general estimate
2000 2,336 Wampanoag (total) US Census

James Mooney (1861-1921) was a notable anthropologist who lived for several years among the Cherokee. ... 1880 US Census of Hoboken, New Jersey The United States Census is mandated by the United States Constitution[1]. The population is enumerated every 10 years and the results are used to allocate Congressional seats (congressional apportionment), electoral votes, and government program funding. ...

Notable Wampanoag

In 1665, Caleb Cheeshahteaumuck was the first Native American to graduate from Harvard University. ... Jamaal Branch (born January 30, 1981 in Hartford, Connecticut) is an American football player. ...

See also

This is a list of Native American Tribal Entities which are recognized by the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs. ... City of Columbus and Revenue Cutter Dexter Schell and Hogan, 1884 The passenger steamer City of Columbus ran aground on Devil’s Ridge off of Gay Head Cliffs. ... Crispus Attucks Crispus Attucks (circa 1723 - March 5, 1770), was the first of five people killed in the Boston Massacre. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Handbook of North American Indians.
  2. ^ Handbook of North American Indians. Chapter: Indians of Southern New England and Long Island, early period, p. 171f
  3. ^ New England Algonquian Language Revival
  4. ^ a b c d e f Handbook of North American Indians. Chapter: Indians of Southern New England and Long Island, late period, p. 178ff; The Seaconke Wampanoag Tribe webpage; Mashpee Wampanoag Nation webpage; Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head Aquinnah webpage
  5. ^ a b c d e f Die Welt der Indianer.
  6. ^ William Bradford's "Of Plimoth Plantation". 1899, cited as in Die Welt der Indianer.
  7. ^ a b Die Welt der Indianer. Chapter: Die Pilgervaeter, p. 188ff.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Wampanoag History
  9. ^ (PDF)

References

External links

This article incorporates text translated from the corresponding German Wikipedia article as of 31 October 2006.



  Results from FactBites:
 
"Wild Horse". Native American Art & History. Native people tribe. Wampanoag (512 words)
Wampanoag location was Southeastern Massachusetts between the eastern shore of Narragansett Bay in Rhode Island to the western end of Cape Cod.
In 1600 the Wampanoag probably were as many as 12,000 with 40 villages divided roughly between 8,000 on the mainland and another 4,000 on the off-shore islands of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket.
The island communities of Wampanoag on Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket maintained a population near 700 until a fever in 1763 killed two-thirds of the Nantucket.
Wampanoag - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4417 words)
A ‘’wetu’’ was the round or oval Wampanoag wigwam.
With the exception of the Wampanoag groups on the coastal islands, who had stayed neutral through the war, the Wampanoag of the mainland were resettled with the Saconnet, or brought, together with the Nauset, into the praying towns in Barnstable County.
The Wampanoag on Nantucket Island were almost completely destroyed by an unknown plague in 1763; the last Nantucket died in 1855.
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