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Encyclopedia > Walther Bothe

Walther Wilhelm Georg Bothe (January 8, 1891February 8, 1957) was a German physicist, mathematician, chemist, and Nobel Prize winner. Bothe won a Nobel Prize in Physics for 1954 (along with Max Born) for his invention of the coincidence circuit. January 8 is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A physicist is a scientist trained in physics. ... Leonhard Euler is considered by many people to be one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is mathematics. ... Chemist Julie Perkins of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory pours from a Florence flask. ... Sir Edward Appletons medal Photographs of Nobel Prize Medals. ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... Max Born Max Born (December 11, 1882 in Breslau - January 5, 1970 in Göttingen) was a mathematician and physicist. ... In physics, a coincidence circuit is an electronic device with one output and two (or more) inputs. ...

Contents


Biography

Early years

He was born in Oranienburg, Germany (near Berlin) and studied physics from 1908 until 1912 at the University of Berlin under Max Planck. Bothe obtaining his doctorate by 1914. During World War I he was taken prisoner by the Russians and spent 5 years in captivity in Siberia. Oranienburg is a town in Brandenburg, Germany. ... For other uses, see Berlin (disambiguation). ... There is no institution called the University of Berlin, but there are four universities in Berlin, Germany: Humboldt University of Berlin (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) Technical University of Berlin (Technische Universität Berlin) Free University of Berlin (Freie Universität Berlin) Berlin University of the Arts (Universität der Künste Berlin) This is... Max Planck Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (April 23, 1858 – October 4, 1947) was one of the most important German physicists of the late 19th and early 20th century; he is considered to be the founder of quantum theory. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Combatants Allies: Serbia, Russia, France, Romania, Belgium, British Empire, United States, Italy, and others Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total of dead: 8 million Military dead: 4 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total dead: 7 million The First... Siberia is also an album by Echo & The Bunnymen. ...


After the war, he collaborated with Hans Geiger at Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt in Berlin, where he made his most important discoveries. He discovered that if a single particle is detected by two or more Geiger counters, the detection will be practically coincident in time. Using this observation, he constructed the coincidence circuit allowing several counters in coincidence to determine the angular momentum of a particle. Bothe's coincidence circuit was one of the first AND logic gate (1924). Bothe studied the Compton effect using such a set up and establishing the modern analysis of scatter processes. Walther Bothe was a self-confessed homosexual. He was harshly critized for his coming out, but he continued on living out his life his way. Walther is remembered most for his famous quote, "My two great loves are chemistry and beautiful men." Johannes ( Hans ) Wilhelm Geiger (September 30, 1882 – September 24, 1945) was a German physicist. ... Modern geiger counter. ... In physics, a coincidence circuit is an electronic device with one output and two (or more) inputs. ... Gyroscope. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... In quantum mechanics, the Compton effect, observed by Arthur Compton in 1923, is the increase in wavelength which occurs when X-ray photons with energies of around 0. ...


Middle years

During the 1920s Bothe used the coincidence method to discovery penetrating radiation coming from the upper atmosphere now known as cosmic rays. His data indicated that the radiation was not composed exclusively of gamma rays, but was also composed of high energy particles (now known to be mostly mesons). It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Social issues of the 1920s. ... Cosmic rays can loosely be defined as energetic particles originating outside of the Earth. ... This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ... In particle physics, a meson is a strongly interacting boson, that is, it is a hadron with integral spin. ...


Bothe began applying the coincidence method to the transmutation of light elements by the bombardment with alpha particles in 1927. In the 1930s, he found that the radiation emitted by beryllium when it is bombarded with alpha particles a new form of penetrating high energy radiation, which was later shown by James Chadwick to be neutrons. An alpha particle is deflected by a magnetic field Alpha particles (named after the first letter in the Greek alphabet, α) are a highly ionizing form of particle radiation which have low penetration. ... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... General Name, Symbol, Number beryllium, Be, 4 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 2, s Appearance white-gray metallic Atomic mass 9. ... Sir James Chadwick (October 20, 1891 – July 24, 1974) was an English physicist and Nobel laureate. ... Properties In physics, the neutron is a subatomic particle with no net electric charge and a mass of 939. ...


The 1932 appointment made Bothe at the University of Heidelberg the Director of the Institute of Physics. He successed Philipp Lenard. Bothe started working at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute (now the Max Planck Institute). In 1934, Bothe became Director of the Institute of Physics at the Max Planck Institute for Medical Research. In 1938, Wolfgang Gentner and Bothe published the energy dependence of the nuclear photo-effect, which was the first decisive evidence that absorption spectra of nuclei are accumulative and continuous. 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... Philipp Lenard in 1905. ... The Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Later years and death

In 1941, Bothe and Peter Jensen report results on neutron absorption in graphite. Their erronous conclusions contributed to stifling the German nuclear program in World War II. In 1943, Bothe completed Germany's first cyclotron. He was awarded the Max Planck medal in 1953. Bothe continued to work at the Institute of Physics in the Max Planck Institute until his death in Heidelberg. Bothe died in 1957. For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ... The Most Rev Peter Jensen (born 11 July 1943), is the Anglican Archbishop of Sydney, Australia, and Metropolitan of the Province of New South Wales. ... Properties In physics, the neutron is a subatomic particle with no net electric charge and a mass of 939. ... Look up absorption in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Absorption may refer to: In physics: absorption (chemistry) - absorption of particles of gas or liquid in liquid or solid material as studied in physical chemistry absorption (optics) - absorption of photons by a material Absorption (acoustics) - absorption of sound waves by a material... Graphite (named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1789, from the Greek γραφειν: to draw/write, for its use in pencils) is one of the allotropes of carbon. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... A pair of Dee electrodes with loops of coolant pipes on their surface at the Lawrence Hall of Science. ... The Max Planck medal is an award for extraordinary achievements in theoretical physics. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1953 calendar). ...


Personal life

Bothe considered himself a German patriot. Bothe married Barbara Below of Moscow and had two children. Bothe was interested in music (playing the piano) and painting (oil painting and water color). Bothe was a loner. Bothe was sensitive to criticism and kept problems privately. He did not believe that his German weapons research during the Second World War deserved an excuse. Look up patriot in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Government Russia District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuri Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ... Music is a form of expression in the medium of time using the structures of tones and silence. ... A baby grand piano, with the lid up. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Mona Lisa, Oil on wood panel painting by Leonardo da Vinci La Donna Velata, painted in 1516, Oil on wood panel painting by Raphael Oil painting is done on surfaces with pigment ground into a medium of oil — especially in early modern Europe, linseed oil. ... Watercolor is a painting technique making use of water-soluble pigments that are either transparent or opaque and are formulated with gum to bond the pigment to the paper. ...


Publications

  • Bothe, W. and Hans Geiger, "Experimentaler Teil". 1921.
  • Bothe, W., "Bemerkung yur vorstehenden Arbeit". 1921.
  • Bothe, W., "Remarks on the Leipziger DÒ attempt". 1941.
  • Bothe, W., "The distribution of velocity of the neutrons in a braking means". 1942.
  • Bothe, W., "The vermehrung of fast neutrons in uranium and some other work from the KWI Heidelberg".
  • Bothe, W., "Over radiation protection walls".
  • Bothe, W. and W. Fuenfer, "Layer attempts with variation of the u and DÒ thicknesses".

See also

The field of electronics is the study and use of systems that operate by controlling the flow of electrons (or other charge carriers) in devices such as thermionic valves and semiconductors. ... A logic gate is an arrangement of controlled switches used to calculate operations using Boolean logic in digital circuits. ... Modern geiger counter. ... This article presents a detailed timeline of events in the history of computing. ... In physics, a coincidence circuit is an electronic device with one output and two (or more) inputs. ... This page aims to list all Wikipedia articles that are related to physics. ... Robert Sanderson Mulliken (June 7, 1896 – October 31, 1986) was an American physicist and chemist, primarily responsible for the elaboration of the molecular orbital method of computing the structure of molecules. ... Properties In physics, the neutron is a subatomic particle with no net electric charge and a mass of 939. ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... See also: Other events of 1954 List of years in science . ... In quantum mechanics, the Compton effect, observed by Arthur Compton in 1923, is the increase in wavelength which occurs when X-ray photons with energies of around 0. ... Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus is the only book-length work published by the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein in his lifetime. ...

External links and further reading

  • States, David M., "Walther Bothe and the Early Years of the KWImF Nuclear Physics Department". History of the Max Planck Institute for Medical Researc
  • "Walther Bothe". The Nobel Foundation, 2004.
  • "Walther Bothe and the Physics Institute: the Early Years of Nuclear Physics". The Nobel Foundation.
  • "Walther Wilhelm Georg Bothe". Nobel-winners.com.
  • Bethe, Hans, "The German Uranium Project, Creating Copenhagen". City University of New York, 2000.
  • Hoffmann, Dieter, Horst Kant and Hubert Laitko. "Walther Bothe - Wissenschaftler in vier Reichen. Forschungsschwerpunkt für Wissenschaftsgeschichte und Wissenschaftstheorie". 1995. (tr. "Walther Bothe - scientists in four realms. Main point of research for science history and science theory")

  Results from FactBites:
 
Walther Bothe Summary (2457 words)
Walther Bothe was born on Jan. 8, 1891, in Oranienburg near Berlin.
Walther Wilhelm Georg Bothe was born in Oranienburg, Germany, on January 8, 1891, the son of Fritz and Charlotte Hartung Bothe.
Bothe taught at the University of Berlin from 1920 to 1931, at the University of Giessen from 1931 to 1934
Walther Bothe - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (670 words)
Bothe won a Nobel Prize in Physics for 1954 (along with Max Born) for his invention of the coincidence circuit.
Bothe began applying the coincidence method to the transmutation of light elements by the bombardment with alpha particles in 1927.
Bothe, W., "The distribution of velocity of the neutrons in a braking means".
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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