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Encyclopedia > Walter Ulbricht
Walter Ulbricht


In office
1950 – 1971
Preceded by Wilhelm Pieck and Otto Grotewohl
Succeeded by Erich Honecker

In office
1960 – 1973
Preceded by Wilhelm Pieck (as State President)
Succeeded by Willi Stoph

Born June 30, 1893(1893-06-30)
Leipzig, Germany
Died August 1, 1973 (aged 80)
East Berlin, Germany
Nationality German
Political party Socialist Unity Party of Germany
Profession statesman

Walter Ulbricht (June 30, 1893August 1, 1973) was a German communist politician. As First Secretary of the Socialist Unity Party from 1950 to 1971, he played a leading role in the early development and establishment of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). Image File history File links Walterulbricht. ... The party emblem represented the handshake between Communist Wilhelm Pieck and Social Democrat Otto Grotewohl when their parties merged in 1946 The Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED) (German: Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands) was the governing party of East Germany from its formation in 1949 until the elections of 1990. ... Wilhelm Pieck (January 3, 1876 - September 7, 1960) was a German communist, politician and president of East Germany. ... Otto Grotewohl (March 11, 1894 - September 21, 1964) was an East German politician. ... Erich Honecker (August 25, 1912 – May 29, 1994) was a German Communist politician who led the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) from 1971 until 1989. ... The Staatsrat (Council of State) was in the German Democratic Republic the formally highest collective body, which was created with law over the formation of the Council of State from 12 September 1960 as follow-up organ of the abolished office of the president of the GDR after the death... Wilhelm Pieck (January 3, 1876 - September 7, 1960) was a German communist, politician and president of East Germany. ... Willi Stoph (9 July 1914 - 13 April 1999) was Prime Minister of East Germany from 1973 to 1989. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Leipzig ( ; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk from the Sorbian word for Tilia) is, with a population of over 506,000, the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... The party emblem represented the handshake between Communist Wilhelm Pieck and Social Democrat Otto Grotewohl when their parties merged in 1946 The Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED) (German: Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands) was the governing party of East Germany from its formation in 1949 until the elections of 1990. ... Statesman is a respectful term used to refer to politicians, and other notable figures of state. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... The party emblem represented the handshake between Communist Wilhelm Pieck and Social Democrat Otto Grotewohl when their parties merged in 1946 The Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED) (German: Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands) was the governing party of East Germany from its formation in 1949 until the elections of 1990. ... “East Germany” redirects here. ...


Ulbricht was born in Leipzig as the son of a tailor. He spent eight years in primary school (Volksschule), and learned the trade of a joiner. Both his parents worked actively for the Social Democratic Party (SPD), and Walter joined the party in 1912. Leipzig ( ; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk from the Sorbian word for Tilia) is, with a population of over 506,000, the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. ... SPD redirects here. ...

Contents

First World War and Weimar years

He served in World War I from 1915 to 1917 in Galicia on the Eastern Front, and in the Balkans.[1] He deserted in 1917 as he had been opposed to the war from the beginning. Imprisoned in Charleroi, in 1918 he was released during the German revolution. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Galicia. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Belligerents German Empire Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Russian Empire France United Kingdom Serbia Romania Greece Montenegro Commanders Paul von Hindenburg Erich von Falkenhayn August von Mackensen Conrad von Hötzendorf Oskar Potiorek Nikola Zhekov Georgi Todorov Vladimir Vazov Aleksei Brusilov Louis Franchet dEsperey Maurice Sarrail Radomir Putnik Constantin Prezan Panagiotis... “November Revolution” redirects here. ...


In 1917 he became a member of the Independent Social Democratic Party (USPD) after it split off from the Social Democratic Party (SPD) over support of Germany's participation in the First World War. During the November Revolution of 1918 he became a member of the soldier's soviet of his army corps and later a member of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD) in 1920, joining its Central Committee in 1923. Ulbricht attended the International Lenin School of the Comintern in Moscow in 1924/1925. The electors subsequently voted him into the regional parliament of Saxony (Sächsischer Landtag) in 1926. He became a Member of the Reichstag for South Westphalia from 1928 to 1933 and was KPD chairman in Berlin from 1929. USPD election poster, 1919 The Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany (Unabhängige Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, or USPD) was a short-lived political party in Germany during the Second Reich and the Weimar Republic. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Revolutionaries at machine gun posts, Berlin, November 1918 The German Revolution describes a series of events that occurred in 1918-1919, culminating in the overthrow of the Kaiser and the establishment of a democratic republic. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1932 KPD poster, End This System The Communist Party of Germany (German Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands – KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period. ... a school for teh cool Image:Http://submissions. ... The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ... For other places named Westphalia, see Westphalia (disambiguation). ...


In the years before the 1933 Nazi seizure of power, there were frequent disturbances caused by the presence of paramilitary forces of left and right. Violence connected with demonstrations was common, with supporters of each side fighting each other and the police. In 1931 the Communists in Berlin decided on a policy of killing two police officers for every communist demonstrator killed by police, and as a result Walter Ulbricht urged fellow communists Heinz Neumann and Hans Kippenberger to plan the murder of two Berlin police officers, Paul Anlauf and Franz Lenck. The killing was carried out by Erich Ziemer and Ulbricht's later chief of national security, Erich Mielke. In 1932, the Comintern ordered the Communists to cooperate with the Nazis, so Ulbricht and Joseph Goebbels, the propaganda chief of the Nazi Party, both urged their respective constituents to support a planned strike. The strikers were appalled by the scene of Nazis and Communists marching together and the strike was halted after five days. [2] National Socialism redirects here. ... Erich Fritz Emil Mielke (December 28, 1907 - May 21, 2000 in Berlin), was a German Communist. ... The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including... Paul Joseph Goebbels (German pronunciation: IPA: ; English generally IPA: ) (October 29, 1897 – May 1, 1945) was a German politician and Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda during the National Socialist regime from 1933 to 1945. ...


Nazi and war years

The Nazi Party attained power in Germany in January 1933, and very quickly began a purge of Communist and Social Democrat leaders in Germany. Following the arrest of the KPD's leader, Ernst Thälmann, Ulbricht campaigned to be Thälmann's replacement as head of the Party. Many competitors for the leadership were killed in the Soviet Union thanks to Ulbricht.[3] The National Socialist German Workers Party, (German: , or NSDAP, commonly known as the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. ... Ernst Thälmann Ernst Thälmann statue in Weimar. ...


Ulbricht lived in exile in Paris and Prague from 1933 to 1937. The German Popular Front under the leadership of Heinrich Mann in Paris was dissolved after a campaign of behind-the-scenes jockeying by Ulbricht to place the organization under the control of the Comintern. Ulbricht tried to persuade the KPD founder Willi Münzenberg to go to the Soviet Union, allegedly so that Ulbricht could have "them take care of him". Münzenberg refused. He would have been in jeopardy of arrest and purge by the NKVD, a prospect in both Münzenberg's and Ulbricht's minds.[4] Ulbricht spent some time in Spain during the Civil War, as a Comintern representative, ensuring the liquidation of Germans serving on the Republican side who were regarded as not sufficiently loyal to Stalin; some were sent to Moscow for trial, others were executed on the spot.[5] Ulbricht lived in the Soviet Union from 1937 to 1945. This article is about the capital of France. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Grave Stamp Luiz (Ludwig) Heinrich Mann (March 27, 1871 – March 12, 1950) was a German novelist who wrote works with social themes whose attacks on the authoritarian and increasingly militaristic nature of post-Weimar German society led to his exile in 1933. ... Münzenberg Willi Münzenberg (August 14, 1889–October 21, 1940) was a leading propagandist for the KPD (Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands, Communist Party of Germany) in the Weimar Era. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ...


Following the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, Ulbricht was active in a group of German communists under NKVD supervision (a group including, among others, the poet Erich Weinert and the writer Willi Bredel) which, among other things, translated propaganda material into German, prepared broadcasts directed at the invaders, and interrogated captured German officers. In February 1943, following the surrender of the German Sixth Army at the close of the Battle of Stalingrad, Ulbricht, Weinert and Wilhelm Pieck conducted a Communist political rally in the center of Stalingrad which many German prisoners were forced to attend. The political pragmatist Lavrenty Beria commented that Ulbricht was "the greatest idiot that he had ever seen." [6] Erich Weinert (August 4th, 1890 - April 20th, 1953 in Berlin) was a German writer, Communist, and member of the KPD. Weinert was born in 1890 to a family with Social Democratic beliefs. ... Belligerents Germany Romania Italy Hungary Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Wolfram von Richthofen Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Italo Gariboldi Gusztáv Vitéz Jány Josef Stalin Vasiliy Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovskiy Rodion Malinovskiy Andrei Yeremenko Strength Army Group B... Wilhelm Pieck (January 3, 1876 - September 7, 1960) was a German communist, politician and president of East Germany. ... Lavrenty Beria Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria (Georgian: ლავრენტი ბერია; Russian: Лаврентий Павлович Берия; (29 March 1899 – 23 December 1953), was a Soviet politician and chief of the Soviet security and police apparatus. ...


Creation of the GDR

In April 1945 Ulbricht lead a group of party functionaries ("Ulbricht group") into Germany to begin reconstruction of the German Communist party along orthodox Stalinist lines. Within the Soviet occupied zone of Germany, the Social Democrats and Communists united to form the Stalinist dominated Socialist Unity Party of Germany (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands or SED), and Ulbricht played a key role in this. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The party emblem represented the handshake between Communist Wilhelm Pieck and Social Democrat Otto Grotewohl when their parties merged in 1946 The Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED) (German: Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands) was the governing party of East Germany from its formation in 1949 until the elections of 1990. ...


After the founding of the German Democratic Republic on 7 October 1949, Ulbricht became Deputy Chairman (Stellvertreter des Vorsitzenden) of the Council of Ministers (Ministerrat der DDR) under Chairman Otto Grotewohl. In 1950, he became General Secretary of the SED Central Committee; this position was renamed First Secretary in 1953. After the death of Joseph Stalin his position was in danger for some time, because of his reputation as an archetypal Stalinist. Ironically, he was saved by the Berlin Uprising of June 17, 1953, because the Soviet leadership feared that deposing Ulbricht might be construed as a sign of weakness. “East Germany” redirects here. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Stadthaus in Berlin, seat of the Ministerrat der DDR from 1961 until 1990 The Ministerrat (Council of Ministers) was the chief executive body of the East Germany since November 1950 until East Germany dissolved in 1990. ... Otto Grotewohl (March 11, 1894 - September 21, 1964) was an East German politician. ... The term General Secretary (alternatively First Secretary) denotes a leader of various unions, parties or associations. ... Central Committee most commonly refers to the central executive unit of a communist party, whether ruling or non-ruling. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system implemented by Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union. ... Protesters marching through the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin The Uprising of 1953 in East Germany took place in June and July 1953. ...


At the third congress of the SED in 1950, Ulbricht announced a five-year plan concentrating on the doubling of industrial production. As Stalin was at that point keeping open the option of a re-unified Germany, it was not until 1952 that the party moved towards the construction of a socialist society in East Germany.[7] Five-Year Plan refers to a national economic development plan, lasting five years. ...


By 1952, 80 percent of industry had been nationalised. Blindly following an outmoded Stalinist model of industrialisation - concentration on the development of heavy industry regardless of the cost, availability of raw materials, and economic suitability - produced an economy that was short of consumer goods, and those that were produced were often of shoddy quality. Growth was also hampered by a deliberate exclusion from the higher educational system of children of 'bourgeois' families. One consequence was the flight of large numbers of citizens to the West: over 360,000 in 1952 and the early part of 1953. [8]


In 1957, Ulbricht arranged a visit to a East German collective farm at Trinwillershagen in order to demonstrate the GDR's modern agricultural industry to the visiting Soviet Politburo member Anastas Mikoyan. Following the death of Wilhelm Pieck in 1960, the SED abolished the function of President of the GDR and instead created a new institution, the Staatsrat der DDR (Council of State of the GDR), of which Ulbricht, as leader of the party, became Chairman and therefore Head of State. From this point until the early seventies, Ulbricht was the unquestioned leader of the party and the country. The German expression Landwirtschaftliche Produktionsgenossenschaft (lahnd-weird-shaft-lee-che pro-duct-eonz-gae-noss-an-shaft), or — more common — its acronym LPG was the official designation for large, collectivised farms in the former East Germany. ... Map of Germany, location of Trinwillershagen Map of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany, detail: Trinwillershagen Trinwillershagen is a village in the North of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. ... The Politburo (in Russian: Политбюро, full: Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, abbriviated Политбюро ЦК КПСС), known as the Presidium from 1952 to 1966, functioned as the central policymaking and governing body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ... Anastas Hovhannesi Mikoyan (Armenian Անաստաս Հովհաննեսի Միկոյան; (November 25, 1895 [O.S. November 13] - October 21, 1978) was an Armenian Old Bolshevik and Soviet statesman during the Stalin and Khrushchev years. ... Wilhelm Pieck (January 3, 1876 - September 7, 1960) was a German communist, politician and president of East Germany. ... The Staatsrat (Council of State) was in the German Democratic Republic the formally highest collective body, which was created with law over the formation of the Council of State from 12 September 1960 as follow-up organ of the abolished office of the president of the GDR after the death... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ...


Although modest economic gains were being made, emigration still continued. By 1961, 1.65 million had fled to the west.[9] On August 13, 1961, work began on what was to become the Berlin Wall, only two months after Ulbricht had emphatically denied that there were such plans ("Nobody has the intention of building a wall").[10] is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ...


The 1968 invasion by Warsaw Pact troops of Czechoslovakia and the suppression of the Prague Spring were also applauded by Ulbricht - East German soldiers were among those massed on the border but did not cross over, probably due to Czech sensitivities about German troops on their soil - and earned him a reputation as a hard-line Stalinist. People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the...


The New Economic System

From 1963, Ulbricht and his economic adviser Wolfgang Berger attempted to create a more efficient economy through a New Economic System (Neues Ökonomisches System or NÖS). This meant that under the centrally coordinated economic plan, a greater degree of local decision-making would be possible. The reason was not only to stimulate greater responsibility on the part of companies, but also the realization that decisions were sometimes better taken locally. One of Ulbricht's principles was the 'scientific' execution of politics and economy - making use of sociology and psychology but most of all the natural sciences. The effects of the NÖS, which corrected mistakes made in the past, were largely positive, with growing economic efficiency. The New Economic System was a system of controlling the East German economy established by the Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands (SED) of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) in 1963. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the scientific or systematic study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... {redirect|Psychological science|the journal|Psychological Science (journal)}} Not to be confused with Phycology. ... The term natural science as the way in which different fields of study are defined is determined as much by historical convention as by the present day meaning of the words. ...


The New Economic System was not very popular within the party, however, and from 1965 onwards opposition grew, mainly under the direction of Erich Honecker and with tacit support of Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev. Ulbricht's preoccupation with science meant that more and more control of the economy was being relegated from the party to specialists. Also, Ulbricht's motivations were at odds with communist theory, which did not suit ideological hardliners within the Party. The New Economic System was a system of controlling the East German economy established by the Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands (SED) of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) in 1963. ... Erich Honecker (August 25, 1912 – May 29, 1994) was a German Communist politician who led the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) from 1971 until 1989. ... Brezhnev redirects here. ... This article is about communism as a form of society, as an ideology advocating that form of society, and as a popular movement. ...


Dismissal, Death & Legacy

Ulbricht's difficult relationship with Leonid Brezhnev proved to be his eventual undoing. On 3 May 1971 Ulbricht was forced to resign from virtually all of his public functions 'due to reasons of poor health' and was replaced - with the consent of the Soviets - by Erich Honecker. He was allowed to retain only the ceremonial position of Chairman of the Council of State (Vorsitzender des Staatsrats der DDR). Additionally, the honorary position of 'Chairman of the SED' was created especially for him. Ulbricht died at a government guesthouse in Döllnsee, north of East Berlin, on 1 August 1973, during the World Festival of Youth and Students, having suffered a stroke two weeks earlier. He was honoured with a state funeral and buried among other communists in the Zentralfriedhof Friedrichsfelde. is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... The Staatsrat (Council of State) was in the German Democratic Republic the formally highest collective body, which was created with law over the formation of the Council of State from 12 September 1960 as follow-up organ of the abolished office of the president of the GDR after the death... A guest house is a private home which has been converted for the exclusive use of guest accommodation. ... East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... World Festival of Youth and Students is an international event, organized by the World Federation of Democratic Youth jointly with the International Union of Students since 1947. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Zentralfriedhof Friedrichsfelde, also known as the Gedenkstätte der Sozialisten (the Memorial to the Socialists), is a cemetery that contains most of the graves of former East German (GDR) leaders including Walter Ulbricht who ordered the building of the Berlin Wall, and Wilhelm Pieck, the first President of the GDR...


Ulbricht remained loyal to Leninist and Stalinist principles throughout his life, rarely able or willing to make compromises. Inflexible and unlikeable (Anthony Beevor described him as "widely loathed Stalinist bureaucrat well known for his tactics denouncing rivals" .[11]), he was an unlikely figure to attract much public affection or admiration. However, he also proved to be a shrewd and intelligent politician who knew how to get himself out of more than one difficult situation. Despite stabilising the GDR to some extent, he never succeeded in raising the standard of living in the country to a level comparable to that in the West. Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system implemented by Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union. ... Antony Beevor (born in 1946) is an historian, educated at Winchester College and Sandhurst. ...


In 1956, Ulbricht was awarded the Hans Beimler Medal, for veterans of the Spanish Civil War, which caused controversy among other recipients, who had actually served on the front line.[12] Hans Beimler was born on July 1895 in Munich, Germany, and died on 1 December 1936 in Madrid, Spain. ...


He was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union on 29 June 1963. [13]. When Ulbricht visited Egypt in 1965, he was awarded by Nasser the Great Collar of the Order of the Nile.[2] Hero of the Soviet Union (Russian: Герой Советского Союза, Geroy Sovyetskovo Soyuza) was the highest honorary title and the superior degree of distinction of the Soviet Union. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Nasser redirects here. ... Order of the Nile is an awarded by Egypt to a person who did services for the nation. ...


Ulbricht lived in Majakowskiring, Pankow, East Berlin. Ulbricht was married twice; in 1920 to Martha Schmellinsky and from 1953 until his death to Lotte Ulbricht (née Kühn) (1903-2002). The couple adopted a daughter from the Soviet Union named Beate (1944-1991). The location of Pankow in Berlin. ... East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lotte Ulbricht (19 April 1903 – 27 March 2002) was a Socialist Unity Party of Germany official and the second wife of the East German leader Walter Ulbricht. ... Year 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...


Notes

  1. ^ Frank, Mario, Walter Ulbricht. Eine Deutsche Biographie (Berlin 2001) 52-53.
  2. ^ Frank, Mario, Walter Ulbricht. Eine Deutsche Biographie (Berlin 2001) 88-89.
  3. ^ Frank, Mario, Walter Ulbricht. Eine Deutsche Biographie (Berlin 2001), 117-121. Frank only gives an example of Kippenberger. Other competitors were killed as well, but it is very likely the initiative of the NKVD, given the anti-German frenzy in the Soviet union at that time.
  4. ^ Frank, Mario, Walter Ulbricht. Eine Deutsche Biographie (Berlin 2001), 124-139.
  5. ^ Robert Solomon Wistrich, Who's Who in Nazi Germany, Routledge, 2001; John Fuegi, Brecht and Company: Sex, Politics and the Making of the Modern Drama, Grove Press, 2002, p.354; Noel Annan, Changing Enemies: The Defeat and Regeneration of Germany, Cornell University Press, 1997, p.176
  6. ^ Frank, Mario, Walter Ulbricht. Eine Deutsche Biographie (Berlin 2001), 241.
  7. ^ Martin Kitchen, A History Of Modern Germany 1800-2000, Blackwell, 2006, p.328
  8. ^ Martin Kitchen, A History Of Modern Germany 1800-2000, Blackwell, 2006, p.329
  9. ^ Steven Ozment, A Mighty Fortress, Granta, London, 2005 p.294, quoting Lothar Kettenacker, Germany Since 1945 (Oxford, 1997), pp 18-20 and 50-51, and Hagen Shulze, Modern Germany, p. 316
  10. ^ In an interview with Annamarie Doherr, Berlin correspondent of the Frankfurter Rundschau, 15 June 1961 [1]
  11. ^ Anthony Beevor, The fall of Berlin 1945, Penguin Books, London, 2003 p.418
  12. ^ Josie McLellan, Anti-Fascism and Memory in East Germany: Remembering the International Brigades, 1945-1989, p.67
  13. ^ (Russian)Biography at the website on Heroes of the Soviet Union and Russia

Emblem of the NKVD The NKVD (Russian: ,  ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repression during the Stalinist era. ... The Frankfurter Rundschau is a German daily newspaper, based in Frankfurt am Main. ...

Literature

  • Carola Stern, Ulbricht, A Political Biography. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1965. Pp. xi, 231
  • Gregory W. Sandford, From Hitler to Ulbricht. The Communist Reconstruction of East Germany 1945-46. Princeton, 1983
  • John Wendell Keller, Germany, the wall and Berlin;: Internal politics during an international crisis, Vantage Press; (1964)
  • Spilker, Dirk (2006). The East German leadership and the division of Germany : patriotism and propaganda ; 1945 - 1953. Oxford Univ. Press. ISBN 0-19-928412-1. Sample Chapter

There are no biographies in English written after the fall of the GDR. Two have been published in German:

  • Norbert Podewin, Walter Ulbricht: Eine neue Biographie. (Berlin, 1995),
  • Mario Frank, Walter Ulbricht. Eine deutsche Biografie. 2000, Siedler-Verlag, ISBN 3-88680-720-7

See also

The New Economic System was a system of controlling the East German economy established by the Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands (SED) of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) in 1963. ... Lotte Ulbricht (19 April 1903 – 27 March 2002) was a Socialist Unity Party of Germany official and the second wife of the East German leader Walter Ulbricht. ...

External links

  • Extracts from Walter Ulbricht — A Life for Germany, an illustrated 1968 book on Ulbricht
Preceded by
Wilhelm Pieck and Otto Grotewohl
General Secretary (First Secretary) of the Central Committee of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany
1950–1971
Succeeded by
Erich Honecker
Preceded by
State President
Wilhelm Pieck
Chairman of the Council of State of the German Democratic Republic
1960–1973
Succeeded by
Willi Stoph
Persondata
NAME Ulbricht, Walter
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION East German politician
DATE OF BIRTH June 30, 1893
PLACE OF BIRTH Leipzig, Germany
DATE OF DEATH August 1, 1973
PLACE OF DEATH East Berlin, Germany
Wilhelm Pieck (January 3, 1876 - September 7, 1960) was a German communist, politician and president of East Germany. ... Otto Grotewohl (March 11, 1894 - September 21, 1964) was an East German politician. ... // Leaders of the Socialist Unity Party Chairmen Wilhelm Pieck (formerly KPD) and Otto Grotewohl (formerly SPD) (1946–1954) First Secretaries / General Secretaries of the Central Committee German: Erster Sekretär des Zentralkomitees der Sozialistischen Einheitspartei Deutschlands, Generalsekretär des ZK der SED. Walter Ulbricht (1950–1971) Erich Honecker (1971–1989... Erich Honecker (August 25, 1912 – May 29, 1994) was a German Communist politician who led the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) from 1971 until 1989. ... Wilhelm Pieck (January 3, 1876 - September 7, 1960) was a German communist, politician and president of East Germany. ... // Leaders of the Socialist Unity Party Chairmen Wilhelm Pieck (formerly KPD) and Otto Grotewohl (formerly SPD) (1946–1954) First Secretaries / General Secretaries of the Central Committee German: Erster Sekretär des Zentralkomitees der Sozialistischen Einheitspartei Deutschlands, Generalsekretär des ZK der SED. Walter Ulbricht (1950–1971) Erich Honecker (1971–1989... Willi Stoph (9 July 1914 - 13 April 1999) was Prime Minister of East Germany from 1973 to 1989. ... // Leaders of the Socialist Unity Party Chairmen Wilhelm Pieck (formerly KPD) and Otto Grotewohl (formerly SPD) (1946–1954) First Secretaries / General Secretaries of the Central Committee German: Erster Sekretär des Zentralkomitees der Sozialistischen Einheitspartei Deutschlands, Generalsekretär des ZK der SED. Walter Ulbricht (1950–1971) Erich Honecker (1971–1989... Erich Honecker (August 25, 1912 – May 29, 1994) was a German Communist politician who led the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) from 1971 until 1989. ... Egon Krenz (born 19 March 1937) is a former German Communist politician, who briefly served as leader of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) in 1989 before the end of Communist rule. ... The Staatsrat (Council of State) was in the German Democratic Republic the formally highest collective body, which was created with law over the formation of the Council of State from 12 September 1960 as follow-up organ of the abolished office of the president of the GDR after the death... Wilhelm Pieck (January 3, 1876 - September 7, 1960) was a German communist, politician and president of East Germany. ... Willi Stoph (9 July 1914 - 13 April 1999) was Prime Minister of East Germany from 1973 to 1989. ... Erich Honecker (August 25, 1912 – May 29, 1994) was a German Communist politician who led the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) from 1971 until 1989. ... Egon Krenz (born 19 March 1937) is a former German Communist politician, who briefly served as leader of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) in 1989 before the end of Communist rule. ... Manfred Gerlach (born 1928) acted as Chairman of the Council of State and thus head of state in East Germany from December 6, 1989 to April 5, 1990. ... Sabine Bergmann-Pohl (born 20 April 1946) is a German conservative politician who served as the last Head of State of East Germany (the German Democratic Republic) from April 5 to October 2, 1990 - on October 3rd East and West Germany were reunited. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_president_of_state_council_of_East_Germany. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ... Gouzenko wearing his white hood for anonymity Igor Sergeyevich Gouzenko (January 13, 1919, Rogachev, Soviet Union – June 28, 1982, Mississauga, Canada) was a cipher clerk for the Soviet Embassy to Canada in Ottawa, Ontario. ... This concerns the Soviet occupation of Iran, not the Iran hostage crisis. ... Belligerents Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans United Kingdom Communist Party of Greece (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos, Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos, James Van Fleet Markos Vafiadis Strength 150,000 men 50,000 men and women Casualties 15,000 killed 32,000+ killed or captured The Greek Civil War (Ελληνικός εμφύλιος πόλεμος [ellinikos emfilios polemos]) was... Restatement of Policy on Germany is a famous speech by James F. Byrnes, then United States Secretary of State, held in Stuttgart on September 6, 1946. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... The Czechoslovak coup détat of 1948 (often simply the Czech coup) (Czech: , meaning February 1948; in Communist historiography known as Victorious February (Czech: )) was an event late that February in which the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, with Soviet backing, assumed undisputed control over the government of Czechoslovakia, ushering in... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Informbiro. ... Occupation zones after 1945. ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... Belligerents French Union France, State of Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos Viet Minh Commanders French Expeditionary Corps Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1945-46) Jean-Étienne Valluy (1946-8) Roger Blaizot (1948-9) Marcel-Maurice Carpentier (1949-50) Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (1950-51) Raoul Salan (1952-3) Henri Navarre (1953-4... In the 1953 Iranian coup détat, the administration of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower orchestrated the overthrow of the democratically-elected administration of Prime Minister Mohammed Mosaddeq and his cabinet from power. ... Former president Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán on the cover of TIME magazine in June 1954 after his overthrow Operation PBSUCCESS was a CIA-organized covert operation that overthrew the democratically-elected President of Guatemala, Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán in 1954. ... Protesters marching through the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin The Uprising of 1953 in East Germany took place in June and July 1953. ... Taiwan Strait The First Taiwan Strait Crisis (also called the 1954-1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis or the 1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis) was a short armed conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments. ... Combatants Anti-communist labourers and other civilian protesters Communist LWP KBW and UB Commanders Unknown, probably none Gen. ... Combatants Soviet Union; ÁVH (Hungarian State Security Police) Ad hoc local Hungarian militias Commanders Ivan Konev Various independent militia leaders Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks Unknown number of militia and rebelling soldiers Casualties 722 killed, 1,251 wounded[1] 2,500 killed 13,000 wounded[2] The Hungarian... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... Sputnik 1 The Sputnik crisis was a turn point of the Cold War that began on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik 1 satellite. ... Taiwan Strait The Second Taiwan Strait Crisis, also called the 1958 Taiwan Strait Crisis, was a conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments in which the PRC was accused by Taiwan of shelling the islands of Matsu and... Belligerents 26th of July Movement Cuba Commanders Fidel Castro Che Guevara Raul Castro Fulgencio Batista The Cuban Revolution refers to the revolution that led to the overthrow of General Fulgencio Batistas regime on January 1, 1959 by the 26th of July Movement and other revolutionary elements within the country. ... Combatants Congo ONUC Cuba Belgium Katanga South Kasai CIA Commanders Patrice Lumumba Pierre Mulele Laurent-Désiré Kabila Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi Che Guevara Moise Tshombe Joseph Mobutu Mike Hoare Charles Laurent Albert Kalonji Early history Migration & states Colonization Stanley (1867–1885) Congo Free State Leopold II (1885–1908) Belgian Congo... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ... The U–2 Crisis of 1960 occurred when an American U–2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. ... Belligerents Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces Cuban exiles trained by the United States Commanders Fidel Castro José Ramón Fernández Ernesto Che Guevara Francisco Ciutat de Miguel John F. Kennedy Grayston Lynch Pepe San Roman Erneido Oliva Strength 15,000 1,511 Cuban exiles 2 CIA agents Casualties and losses... For the video game based on the possible outcomes of this event, see Cuban Missile Crisis: The Aftermath. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Brazilian military coup of 1964 was a bloodless coup détat held against left-wing President Joao Goulart by the Brazilian military on the night of 31 March 1964. ... Combatants  United States (IAPF) Inter-American Peace Force (CEFA) Dominican Armed Forces Training Center (SIM) Dominican Military Intelligence Service Dominican Armed Forces Constitutionalists PRD irregulars Commanders Lyndon B. Johnson Gen. ... Combatants Republic of Angola, Republic of Cuba, SWAPO, USSR, East Germany, Republic of Zambia Republic of South Africa, UNITA Scope of operations Operational Area: The South African Border War The South African Border War refers to the conflict that took place from 1966 to 1989 in South-West Africa (now... Indonesias Transition to the New Order occurred over 1965-67. ... ASEAN Declaration or Bangkok Declaration is the founding document of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). ... “Secret War” redirects here. ... The Greek military junta of 1967-1974, alternatively The Regime of the Colonels (Greek: ), or in Greece The Junta (Greek: ) and The Seven Years (Greek: ) are terms used to refer to a series of right-wing military governments that ruled Greece from 1967 to 1974. ... This article is about the Peoples Republic of China. ... People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the... Goulash Communism (Hungarian: gulyáskommunizmus) is a term sometimes used to denote the variety of socialism as practised in the Hungarian Peoples Republic between 1962-63 and 1989. ... Combatants People’s Republic of China Soviet Union Commanders Mao Tse-Tung Leonid Brezhnev Strength 814,000 658,000 Casualties 800 killed, 620 wounded, 1 lost [1] 58 killed, 94 wounded [2] The Sino-Soviet border conflict of 1969 was a series of armed clashes between the Soviet Union and... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... Combatants Khmer Republic, United States, Republic of Vietnam Khmer Rouge, Democratic Republic of Vietnam, National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (NLF) Strength ~250,000 FANK troops ~100,000 (60,000) Khmer Rouge Casualties ~600,000 dead, 1,000,000+ wounded[1] The Cambodian Civil War was a conflict that pitted... Three-Time World Mens Singles Champion Zhuang Zedong (left) and U.S. team member Glenn Cowan (right) on the Chinese team bus in Nagoya, Japan, 1971. ... The Four Power Agreement on Berlin[1] was signed on 3 September 1971 by the foreign ministers of the four powers, United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, France, and the United States. ... Richard Nixon (right) meets with Mao Zedong in 1972. ... Prisoners outside the La Moneda Palace after their surrender during the coup (1973). ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim... The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties between the Soviet Union and United States, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of armament control. ... Combatants MPLA Republic of Cuba AAF Mozambique[1] UNITA FNLA South Africa Republic of Zaire Commanders José Eduardo dos Santos Jonas Savimbi Casualties Over 500,000 militants[2] and hundreds of thousands of civilians The Angolan Civil War began when Angola won its war for independence in 1975 with the... The Mozambican Civil War started in Mozambique during the 1970s following independence in 1975. ... Combatants Ethiopia Cuba South Yemen Somalia WSLF Commanders Mengistu Haile Mariam Vasily Petrov[1][2] Siad Barre Strength 217,000 Ethiopians 1,500 Soviet advisors 15,000 Cubans 2,000 South Yemenis SNA 60,000 WSLF 15,000 Casualties Unknown 20,000 killed or wounded 1/2 of the Air... Combatants Peoples Republic of China Socialist Republic of Vietnam Commanders Yang Dezhi Văn Tiến DÅ©ng Strength 300,000+[1] 100,000+ from regular army divisions and divisions of the Public Security Army Casualties Disputed. ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... Belligerents DRA USSR Mujahideen of Afghanistan Commanders Soviet 40th Army: Sergei Sokolov Valentin Varennikov Boris Gromov DRA: Babrak Karmal Mohammad Najibullah Abdul Rashid Dostum Abdul Haq Jalaluddin Haqqani Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Ismail Khan Ahmad Shah Massoud Strength Soviet forces: 80,000-104,000 Afghan forces: 329,000 (in 1989)[1] 45... TIME magazine cover depicting Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa and the Solidarity movement shaking up communism shows that Solidarity received wide international recognition. ... Beginning in the late 1970s, major civil wars erupted in the Central American region, and became one of the major foreign policy crises of the 1980s. ... Able Archer 83 was a ten-day NATO exercise starting on November 2, 1983 that spanned the continent of Europe and simulated a coordinated nuclear release. ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. ... Combatants  United States  Antigua and Barbuda  Barbados  Dominica  Jamaica  Saint Lucia  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines  Grenada  Cuba Commanders Ronald Reagan Joseph Metcalf H. Norman Schwarzkopf Hudson Austin Pedro Tortolo Strength 7,300 Grenada: 1,500 regulars Cuba: about 722 (mostly military engineers)[1] Casualties 19 killed; 116 wounded[2... People on the streets of Bucharest The Romanian Revolution of 1989 was a week-long series of riots and protests in late December of 1989 that overthrew the Communist regime of Nicolae Ceauşescu. ... alternative Chinese name Traditional Chinese: Simplified Chinese: Literal meaning: Tiananmen Incident The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, widely known as the Tiananmen Square Massacre, in China referred to as the June Fourth Incident to avoid confusion with the two other Tiananmen Square protests and as an act of official censorship... Baltic Way, reflecting the peak of the Singing Revolution The Singing Revolution is the common title for events between 1987 and 1990 that led to the regaining of independence of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... The Eastern Bloc prior to the political upheavals of 1989. ... An animated series of maps showing the breakup of the second Yugoslavia; The different colors represent the areas of control. ... This is a history of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. ... Senator John W. Bricker, the sponsor of the proposed constitutional amendment to limit the treaty power of the United States government. ... //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ... Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the dangers of a Communist takeover. ... For other uses of Operation Condor, please see Operation Condor (disambiguation) Operation Condor (Spanish: Operación Cóndor, Portuguese: Operação Condor) was a campaign of political repressions involving assassination and intelligence operations officially implemented starting in 1975 by the right-wing dictatorships that dominated the Southern Cone in South... Emblem of Gladio, Italian branch of the NATO stay-behind paramilitary organizations. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... CIA redirects here. ... A Soviet poster reading COMECON: Unity of Goals, Unity of Action The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON / Comecon / CMEA / CEMA), 1949 – 1991, was an economic organization of communist states and a kind of Eastern Bloc equivalent to—but more inclusive than—the European Economic Community. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... Logo of East Germanys Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ... The term arms race in its original usage, describes a competition between two or more parties for military supremacy. ... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006. ... For a list of key events, see Timeline of space exploration. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Communism Portal Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ), is a variant of Communism derived from the teachings of the late Chinese leader Mao Zedong (Wade-Giles Romanization: Mao Tse-tung). Marxism consists of thousands of truths, but they all... The Brezhnev Doctrine was a Soviet policy doctrine, introduced by Leonid Brezhnev in a speech at the Fifth Congress of the Polish United Workers Party on November 13, 1968, which stated: When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn the development of some socialist country towards capitalism, it... The Ulbricht Doctrine, named after East German leader Walter Ulbricht, was the assertion that normal diplomatic relations between East Germany and West Germany could only occur if both states fully recognised each others sovereignty. ... The Carter Doctrine was proclaimed by President Jimmy Carter in his State of the Union Address on 23 January 1980. ... This article is about foreign policy. ... The domino theory was a mid-20th century foreign policy theory, promoted by the government of the United States, that speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect. ... The Eisenhower Doctrine, given in a message to the United States Congress on January 5, 1957, was the foreign policy of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... The Johnson Doctrine, enunciated by U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. ... The Kennedy Doctrine refers to foreign policy initiatives of the 35th President of the United States, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, towards Latin America during his term in office between 1961 and 1963. ... The Nixon Doctrine was put forth in a press conference in Guam on July 25, 1969 by Richard Nixon. ... Ostpolitik or Eastern Politics describes the realisation of the Change through Rapprochement principle, verbalised by Egon Bahr in 1963, by the effort of Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany, to normalize relations with Eastern European nations including East Germany. ... Peaceful coexistence was a theory developed during the Cold War among Communist states that they could peacefully coexist with capitalist states. ... The Reagan Doctrine was a strategy orchestrated and implemented by the United States to oppose the global influence of the Soviet Union during the final years of the Cold War. ... Rollback was a term used by American foreign policy thinkers during the Cold War. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... // At its simplest, the Cold War is said to have begun in 1947. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Leipzig ( ; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk from the Sorbian word for Tilia) is, with a population of over 506,000, the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ...

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Walter Ulbricht - definition of Walter Ulbricht in Encyclopedia (346 words)
Walter Ulbricht (June 30, 1893–August 1, 1973) was a German communist politician.
Ulbricht was born in Leipzig as the son of a tailor.
Erich Honecker effectively ousted Ulbricht from power when he had to hand over the leadership of the SED in 1971, although he remained the head of state.
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