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Encyclopedia > Walter Reed
Walter Reed

Walter Reed
Born September 13, 1851
Flag of the United States Belroi, Virginia, USA
Died November 23, 1902
Flag of the United States Washington, DC
Occupation Scientist
Spouse Emilie Lawrence (m. Apr. 1876)
Parents Lemuel Sutton Reed and Pharaba White

Major Walter Reed, M.D., (September 13, 1851 - November 23, 1902) was a U.S. Army physician who in 1900 led the team which confirmed the theory (first set forth in 1881 by Cuban doctor/scientist Carlos Finlay) that yellow fever is transmitted by mosquitoes, rather than by direct contact. This insight opened entire new fields of epidemiology and biomedicine and most immediately allowed the resumption and completion of work on the Panama Canal (1904-14) by the United States. Walter Reed at rank of major (19th century photograph) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1851 (MDCCCLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,774 sq mi (110,785 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,774 sq mi (110,785 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Medicinæ Doctor or Doctor of Medicine (M.D. or D.M.) is a doctorate level degree held by medical doctors. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1851 (MDCCCLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Juan Carlos Finlay. ... Diversity 41 genera Genera See text. ... Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that treat patients. ... Two Panamax running the Miraflores Locks The Panama Canal (Spanish: ) is a major ship canal that traverses the Isthmus of Panama in Central America, connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. ...

Contents

Biography

Walter Reed was born and raised in Belroi, an unincorporated community in Gloucester County in eastern Virginia's Middle Peninsula region, to Lemuel Sutton Reed (a Methodist minister) and Pharaba White. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with unincorporated. ... Gloucester County is an historical Chesapeake county located on the Middle Peninsula of the U.S. state — officially, Commonwealth — of Virginia. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,774 sq mi (110,785 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... The Middle Peninsula is, as its name implies, the middle of three peninsulas on the western shore of Chesapeake Bay in Virginia. ... The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ...


After two year-long sessions at the University of Virginia, Reed completed the M.D. degree in 1869, at the age of 18. He then enrolled at the New York University's Bellevue Hospital Medical College in Manhattan, New York, where he obtained a second M.D. in 1870. After interning at several New York City hospitals, he served the New York Board of Health until 1875. The University of Virginia (also called U.Va. ... New York University (NYU) is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational research university in New York City. ... Bellevue Hospital Center, founded in 1736, is the oldest public hospital in the United States. ...


With his youth apparently limiting his influence, Reed joined the U.S. Army Medical Corps, both for its professional opportunities and the modest financial security it could provide. He spent much of his Army career until 1893 at difficult postings in the American West. During one of his last tours, he completed advanced coursework in pathology and bacteriology in the Johns Hopkins University Hospital Pathology Laboratory. The Johns Hopkins Hospital is a teaching hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. ...


Reed joined the faculty of the Army Medical School in Washington, D.C. in 1893, where he held the professorship of Bacteriology and Clinical Microscopy. In addition to his teaching responsibilities, he actively pursued medical research projects.


Reed first traveled to Cuba in 1899 to study disease in U.S. Army encampments there. Yellow fever became a problem for the Army during the Spanish American War, felling thousands of soldiers in Cuba. The Spanish-American War took place in 1898, and resulted in the United States of America gaining control over the former colonies of Spain in the Caribbean and Pacific. ...


In May 1900, Reed, a major, returned to Cuba when he was appointed head of the Army board charged by Surgeon General George Miller Sternberg to examine tropical diseases including yellow fever. Sternberg was one of the founders of bacteriology during this time of great advances in medicine due to widespread acceptance of Louis Pasteur's germ theory of disease as well as the methods of studying bacteria developed by Robert Koch. Ğ: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... The Surgeon General of the United States Army is the senior-most medical corps officer in the U.S. Army. ... George Miller Sternberg Brigadier General George Miller Sternberg, MD (1838-1915) was a United States Army physician who is considered to have been the first bacteriologist in the United States. ... Microbiology (in Greek micron = small and biologia = studying life) is the study of microorganisms, including unicellular (single-celled) eukaryotes and prokaryotes, fungi, and viruses. ... Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist best known for his remarkable breakthroughs in microbiology. ... The germ theory of disease, also called the pathogenic theory of medicine, is a theory that proposes that microorganisms are the cause of many diseases. ... For the American lobbyist, see Bobby Koch. ...


During Reed's tenure with the US Army Yellow Fever Commission in Cuba, the board confirmed both the transmission by mosquitoes and disproved the common belief that yellow fever could be transmitted by clothing and bedding soiled by the body fluids and excrement of yellow fever sufferers - articles known as fomites. A fomite is any inanimate object or substance supposed to be capable of absorbing, retaining, and transporting contagious or infectious organisms (from germs to parasites) from one individual to another. ...


The board conducted many of its dramatic series of experiments at Camp Lazear, named in November 1900 for Reed's assistant and friend Jesse William Lazear who had died two months earlier of yellow fever while a member of the Commission. Jesse William Lazear Jesse William Lazear (2 May 1866, Baltimore - 26 September 1900 in Quemados, Cuba) was an American physician. ...


The risky but fruitful research work was done with human volunteers, including some of the medical personnel such as Lazear and Clara Maass who allowed themselves to be deliberately infected. The research work with the disease under Reed's leadership was largely responsible for stemming the mortality rates from yellow fever during the building of the Panama Canal, something that had confounded the French attempts to build in that region only 30 years earlier. Clara Maass. ... Two Panamax running the Miraflores Locks The Panama Canal (Spanish: ) is a major ship canal that traverses the Isthmus of Panama in Central America, connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. ...


Following Reed's return from Cuba in 1901, he continued to speak and publish on yellow fever. He received honorary degrees from Harvard and the University of Michigan in recognition of his seminal work. A seminal work [semen = seed (from the Latin seminalis)] is a work from which other works come--it is an engendering work which is so important in its ideas or technique that other people take these up and create new works too. ...


In November 1902, Reed's appendix ruptured; he died on November 23, 1902, of the resulting peritonitis, at age 51. He was buried in Arlington National Cemetery. Look up appendix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... By other animals Humans are not the only species to bury their dead. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Legacy

Reed's breakthrough in yellow fever research is widely considered a milestone in biomedicine, opening new vistas of research and humanitarianism.

  • Reed was portrayed dramatically by actor Lewis Stone in a 1938 Hollywood movie, Yellow Jack (from a 1934 play). The same storyline was again presented in television episodes (both titled “Yellow Jack”) of Celanese Theatre (1952) and of Producers' Showcase (1955), in the latter of which Reed was portrayed by actor Broderick Crawford.
  • A song, "Walter Reed", was penned by Michael Penn and tells of a soldier's desire to be taken to him. [to Walter Reed hospital]
  • PBS's American Experience series broadcast a 2006 episode, The Great Fever, on the Reed yellow fever campaign.

Named in honor of the celebrated U.S. Army physician and researcher Major Walter Reed, MD after his untimely death due to appendicitis in 1902, the Walter Reed General Hospital (WRGH) opened in northern Washington, D.C. on May 1, 1909. ... Nickname: Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: , Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - D.C. Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the U.S. Army medical center/hospital (not the research institute). ... This article is about the U.S. Army medical research institute (not the hospital). ... The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ... The Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (WRNMMC) is to be a tri-service military medical center located on the Bethesda, Maryland campus of the present National Naval Medical Center by September 2011. ... The National Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland, also known as the Bethesda Naval Hospital, is considered the flagship of the United States Navys system of medical centers. ... Bethesda is an urbanized, but unincorporated, area in southern Montgomery County, Maryland, near Washington, D.C. It takes its name from a church located there, the Bethesda Presbyterian Church, built in 1820 and rebuilt in 1850, which in turn took its name from Jerusalems Pool of Bethesda. ... Location in the state of Virginia Formed 1651 Seat Gloucester Area  - Total  - Water 746 km² (288 mi²) 185 km² (71 mi²) 24. ... Walter Reed Medal with corresponding ribbon The Walter Reed Medal is a military decoration of the United States Army which was created by an act of the United States Congress on February 28, 1929. ... Walter Reed Middle School is a track school (individual schools that run on different times) located in North Hollywood in Los Angeles, California. ... North Hollywood is a district in the San Fernando Valley section of Los Angeles, California. ... Lewis Shepard Stone (November 15, 1879 - September 12, 1953) was an American actor. ... Yellow Jack was a 1934 play and 1938 Hollywood movie, both co-written by Sidney Howard and Paul de Kruif (the former a Pulitzer- and Oscar-winning playwright and screenwriter; the latter a well-known microbiologist and author). ... Crawford in Black Angel William Broderick Crawford (born December 9, 1911; died April 26, 1986) was an American actor. ... Michael Penn (born August 1, 1958, in Greenwich Village, New York City) is an American singer and songwriter. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... American Experience (sometimes abbreviated AmEx) is a television program airing on the PBS network in the United States. ...

References

  • Bean, William B., Walter Reed: A Biography, Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1982.
  • Bean, William B., “Walter Reed and Yellow Fever,” JAMA 250.5 (5 August 1983): 659-62.

William Bennett Bean (November 8, 1909, the Philippines—March 1, 1989) was a well-known medical historian and teacher. ... JAMA is the acronym for the Journal of the American Medical Association, a leading medical journal. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Walter Reed Summary (2877 words)
Walter Reed (1851-1902), American military surgeon and head of the U.S. Army Yellow Fever Commission, is widely known as the man who conquered yellow fever by tracing its origin to a particular mosquito species.
Walter Reed was born on Sept. 13, 1851, at Belroi, Va., the son of a Methodist minister.
Walter Reed was born and raised in Belroi, an unincorporated community in Gloucester County in eastern Virginia's Middle Peninsula region to Lemuel Sutton Reed (a Methodist minister) and Pharaba White.
General Info on Major Walter Reed (4727 words)
Walter Reed passed the required examinations and was appointed Assistant Surgeon with the rank of first lieutenant on June 26, 1875.
Reed and Carroll had estimated that there were 300,000 cases in the United States between 1793 and 1900, which cost the nation almost $500,000,000 with a mortality rate usually at forty per cent but sometimes as high as eighty five per cent.
In it, through the carefully recorded controlled experiments, Walter Reed found that in order for a mosquito to become infected, it had to bite a yellow fever patient during the first three days of his illness; only during that time was the agent present in the bloodstream.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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