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Encyclopedia > Walter Gropius
Walter Adolph Gropius

Walter Gropius (circa 1920). Photo by Louis Held.
Personal Information
Name Walter Adolph Gropius
Nationality German
Birth date May 18, 1883
Birth place Berlin, Germany
Date of death July 5, 1969
Place of death Cambridge, Massachusetts
Working Life
Practice Name Peter Behrens (1908–1910)

The Architects' Collaborative (1945–1969) Image File history File links Walter_Gropius_Foto_1920. ... Louis Held (1851 – 1927) was a German photographer and a pioneer of photojournalism. ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Berlin (disambiguation). ... July 5 is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 179 days remaining. ... Year 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ...   Settled: 1630 â€“ Incorporated: 1636 Zip Code(s): 02138, 02139, 02140, 02141, 02142 â€“ Area Code(s): 617 / 857 Official website: http://www. ... Peter Behrens (April 14, 1868–February 27, 1940) was a German architect and designer. ... The Architects Collaborative (TAC) was an American architectural firm founded by Walter Gropius and seven younger architects in 1945 in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ...

Significant Buildings Fagus Factory

Factory Buildings at the Werkbund Exhibition (1914)
Bauhaus
Village College
Gropius House
Harvard Graduate Center
University of Baghdad
John F. Kennedy Federal Office Building
Pan Am Building
Interbau
Wayland High School
Embassy of the United States, Athens
The Fagus Factory (German:Fagus Fabrik) was built in 1911 in Alfeld on the Leine. ... The Werkbund Exhibition of 1914 was held in Cologne, Germany. ... For the British post-punk band, see Bauhaus (band). ... Soham Village College is a secondary school in Soham, Cambridgeshire, England. ... Gropius House, front view. ... Harkness Commons, also known as the Harvard Graduate Center, was commissioned of The Architects Collaborative by Harvard University in 1948. ... Baghdad University is the largest university in Baghdad, Iraq, established by legislation in 1958 and situated near the Tigris river. ... The MetLife Building in New York City The MetLife Building, formerly the Pan Am Building, is located at 200 Park Avenue in New York City. ... Interbau was a housing development, constructed as part of the 1957 International Building Exhibition in the Hansaviertel area of West Berlin. ... Wayland High School is a secondary school located at 264 Old Connecticut Path, in Wayland, MA; its principal is Charles P. Ruopp. ...

Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (May 18, 1883July 5, 1969) was a German architect and founder of Bauhaus. Along with Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Le Corbusier, he is widely regarded as one of the pioneering masters of "modern" architecture. May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... July 5 is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 179 days remaining. ... Year 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... Architect at his drawing board, 1893 An Architect is a person who is involved in the planning, designing and oversight of a buildings construction. ... For the British post-punk band, see Bauhaus (band). ... The reconstructed German Pavilion in Barcelona Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies) (March 27, 1886 – August 17, 1969) was a German architect. ... Charles-Edouard Jeanneret, widely known as Le Corbusier (October 6, 1887– August 27, 1965), was a French Swiss born architect, famous for his contributions to what is now called modernism, or the International Style. ...

Contents

Life

Bauhaus (built 1925–1926) in Dessau, Germany.
Bauhaus (built 1925–1926) in Dessau, Germany.

Born in Berlin, Walter Gropius was the third son of a building advisor to the government with the same name, and Manon Auguste Pauline Scharnweber (1855–1933) whose family owned a manor near the capital city. Image File history File links From WIKIPEDIA.DE. There described as: Bauhaus Dessau, eigenes Foto von 2003, public domain. ... Image File history File links From WIKIPEDIA.DE. There described as: Bauhaus Dessau, eigenes Foto von 2003, public domain. ... For the British post-punk band, see Bauhaus (band). ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ...


Gropius married Alma Mahler (1879-1964), then widow of Gustav Mahler. Walter and Alma's daughter, named Manon after Walter's mother, was born in 1916. When Manon died of polio at age eighteen, composer Alban Berg wrote his Violin Concerto in memory of her (it is inscribed "to the memory of an angel"). Gropius and Alma divorced in 1920. (Alma had by that time established a relationship with Franz Werfel, whom she later married.) In 1923 Gropius married Ise Frank (d. 1983), and they remained together until his death. Alma Mahler Alma Mahler (August 31, 1879 - December 11, 1964), noted in her native Vienna for her beauty and intelligence, was the wife, successively, of one of the centurys leading composers (Gustav Mahler), architects (Walter Gropius), and novelists (Franz Werfel). ... This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... Portrait of Alban Berg by Arnold Schoenberg, c. ... Alban Bergs Violin Concerto was written in 1935 (the score is dated August 11, 1935). ... Franz Werfel, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1940 Werfels grave in the Zentralfriedhof, Vienna. ...


Gropius, like his father and great-uncle Martin Gropius before him, was an architect. But all sources agree that Walter Gropius could not draw, and was dependent on collaborators and partner-interpreters all through his career. In school he hired an assistant to complete his homework for him. In 1908 Gropius found employment with the firm of Peter Behrens, one of the first members of the utilitarian school. His fellow employees at this time included Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Dietrich Marcks. In 1910 Gropius left the firm of Behrens and together with fellow employee Adolf Meyer established a practice in Berlin. Together they share credit for one of the seminal modernist buildings created during this period, the Faguswerk, Alfeld-an-der-Leine, Germany, a shoe last factory. The glass curtain walls of this building demonstrated both the modernist principle that form reflect function and Gropius's concern with providing healthful conditions for the working class. Other works of this early period include the office and factory building for the Werkbund Exhibition (1914) in Cologne. The reconstructed German Pavilion in Barcelona Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies) (March 27, 1886 – August 17, 1969) was a German architect. ... Adolf Meyer (1881 – 1929) was a German architect. ... The Fagus Factory (German:Fagus Fabrik) was built in 1911 in Alfeld on the Leine. ... The Werkbund Exhibition of 1914 was held in Cologne, Germany. ...


Gropius's career was interrupted by the events of 1914. Called up immediately as a reservist, Gropius served as a sergeant major at the Western front during the war years.[1] Ironically the war provided an opportunity which would advance his career during the post war period. Henry van de Velde, the master of the Grand-Ducal Saxon School of Arts and Crafts in Weimar was asked to step down in 1915 due to his Belgian nationality. His recommendation of Gropius to succeed him led eventually to Gropius's appointment as master of the school in 1919. It was this academy which Gropius transformed into the world famous Bauhaus, attracting a faculty which included Paul Klee, Johannes Itten, Josef Albers, Herbet Bayer, László Moholy-Nagy, and Wassily Kandinsky. Students were taught to use modern and innovative materials and mass-produced fittings, often originally intended for industrial settings, to create original furniture and buildings. Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Henry Van de Velde (3 April 1863 - 15 October 1957) was a Belgian painter, architect and interior designer. ... For the British post-punk band, see Bauhaus (band). ... Paul Klee (IPA: ) (December 18, 1879 to June 29, 1940) was a Swiss painter of German nationality. ... Johannes Itten (November 11, 1888 - May 27, 1967) was a Swiss painter, designer teacher, writer and theorist associated with the Bauhaus school. ... Josef Albers (born March 19, 1888 in Bottrop, Westphalia (Germany) - died March 26, 1976 in New Haven, Connecticut), was a German artist and educator whose work, both in Europe and in the United States, formed the basis of some of the most influential and far-reaching art education programs of... László Moholy-Nagy László Moholy-Nagy (July 20, 1895 – November 24, 1946) was a Hungarian painter and photographer as well as professor in the Bauhaus school. ... Wassily Kandinsky Wassily Kandinsky (Russian: Василий Кандинский, first name pronounced as [vassi:li]) (December 16, 1866 [O.S. December 4] – December 13, 1944) was a Russian painter and art theorist. ...


Also in 1919, Gropius was involved in the Glass Chain utopian expressionist correspondence under the pseudonym 'Mass'. Usually more notable for his functionalist approach, the "Monument to the March Dead" indicates that expressionsism has clearly an influence on him at this time. The Glass Chain or Crystal Chain sometimes known as the Utopian Correspondence (German:Die Gläserne Kette) was a chain letter that took place between 1919 and 1920. ... Expressionist architecture occurs in architecture when an architect distorts a building or design for an emotional effect. ...

Door handles (1923).
Door handles (1923).

In 1923, Gropius designed one of his most famous works, door handles, now considered an icon of 20th century design and often listed as one of the most influential designs to emerge from the Bauhaus. Image File history File linksMetadata Gropius_Handles. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Gropius_Handles. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


Gropius fled Germany in 1934 due to the rising power of the Nazi Party, and lived and worked in Britain, at the Isokon project, and then, from 1937 to the United States, where his own house, the Gropius House in Lincoln, Massachusetts, was influential in bringing International Modernism to the US. Gropius did not like the term: "I made it a point to absorb into my own conception those features of the New England architectural tradition that I found still alive and adequate" (see [1]). National Socialism redirects here. ... The London-based Isokon firm was founded in 1929 to design and construct modernist houses and flats, and subsequently furniture and fittings for them. ...


Gropius and his Bauhaus protégé Marcel Breuer both moved to Cambridge, Massachusetts to teach at the Harvard Graduate School of Design and collaborate on the company-town Aluminum City Terrace project in New Kensington, Pennsylvania, before their professional split. In 1944, he became a naturalized citizen of the United States. Marcel Breuer Marcel Lajos Breuer (May 21, 1902 Pécs, Hungary – July 1, 1981 New York City), architect and furniture designer, was an influential modernist. ...   Settled: 1630 â€“ Incorporated: 1636 Zip Code(s): 02138, 02139, 02140, 02141, 02142 â€“ Area Code(s): 617 / 857 Official website: http://www. ... The Harvard Graduate School of Design (GSD) is a graduate school at Harvard University offering degrees in Architecture, Landscape Architecture, and Urban Planning and Design. ... New Kensington is a city located in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania. ...


In 1945, Gropius founded The Architects' Collaborative (TAC) based in Cambridge with a group of younger architects. The original partners included Norman C. Fletcher, Jean B. Fletcher, John C. Harkness, Sarah P. Harkness, Robert S. MacMillan, Louis A. MacMillen, and Benjamin C. Thompson. TAC would become one of the most well-known and respected architectural firms in the world. TAC went bankrupt in 1995. The Architects Collaborative (TAC) was an American architectural firm founded by Walter Gropius and seven younger architects in 1945 in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Norman Collings Fletcher (born December 8, 1917) is an American architect who was a co-founder and partner of the architecual firm The Architcts Collaborative (TAC), working there from 1945 until his retirement in 1989. ... Jean Bodman Fletcher was an architect who was a founding member of the Architects Collaborative. ... John Cheesman Harkness (b. ... Sarah Pillsbury Harkness is an architect. ... Robert Sensman McMillan (1916-2000) was an architect who was one of the founders of The Architects Collaborative. ... Benjamin C. Thompson (July 3, 1918 - August 21, 2002) was a notable American architect. ...


Gropius died in 1969 in Boston, Massachusetts, aged 86. Today, he is remembered not only by his various buildings but also by the district of Gropiusstadt in Berlin. Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1 Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino (D) Area    - City 232. ...


Important buildings

Monument to the March Dead (1920) in Weimar, Germany.
Monument to the March Dead (1920) in Weimar, Germany.
Gropius House (1938) in Lincoln, Massachusetts.
Gropius House (1938) in Lincoln, Massachusetts.
A late work of Gropius:The Embassy of the United States in Athens
A late work of Gropius:The Embassy of the United States in Athens

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (860x533, 531 KB) Summary Image is 84 years old - sourced from http://courses. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (860x533, 531 KB) Summary Image is 84 years old - sourced from http://courses. ... Image File history File links Walter_Gropius_photo_Gropius_house_Lincoln_MA.jpg 1938 Walter Gropius house, Lincoln, Massachusetts taken from en-wiki, there uploaded by en:user:Lockley. ... Image File history File links Walter_Gropius_photo_Gropius_house_Lincoln_MA.jpg 1938 Walter Gropius house, Lincoln, Massachusetts taken from en-wiki, there uploaded by en:user:Lockley. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 2584 KB) Embassy of the United States in Athens. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 2584 KB) Embassy of the United States in Athens. ... The Fagus Factory (German:Fagus Fabrik) was built in 1911 in Alfeld on the Leine. ... Map of Germany showing Alfeld Alfeld is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... The Werkbund Exhibition of 1914 was held in Cologne, Germany. ... For other uses, see Cologne (disambiguation). ... For the British post-punk band, see Bauhaus (band). ... Dessau is a town in Germany on the junction of the rivers Mulde and Elbe, in the Bundesland (Federal State) of Saxony-Anhalt. ... Soham Village College is a secondary school in Soham, Cambridgeshire, England. ... The Impington windmill by Mark Claessen Impington is a village in Cambridgeshire some 4km North of the city of Cambridge, England. ... Gropius House, front view. ... Lincoln is a town located in Middlesex County, Massachusetts. ... New Kensington is a city located in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania. ... Harkness Commons, also known as the Harvard Graduate Center, was commissioned of The Architects Collaborative by Harvard University in 1948. ...   Settled: 1630 â€“ Incorporated: 1636 Zip Code(s): 02138, 02139, 02140, 02141, 02142 â€“ Area Code(s): 617 / 857 Official website: http://www. ... Baghdad University is the largest university in Baghdad, Iraq, established by legislation in 1958 and situated near the Tigris river. ... Baghdad (Arabic ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1 Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino (D) Area    - City 232. ... Peter Thacher Junior High School was a middle school located in Attleboro, Massachusetts originally serving grades 7 through 9. ... The MetLife Building in New York City The MetLife Building, formerly the Pan Am Building, is located at 200 Park Avenue in New York City. ... Midtown Manhattan, looking north from the Empire State Building, 2005 New York City (officially named the City of New York) is the most populous city in the state of New York and the entire United States. ... Pietro Belluschi (August 18, 1899 - February 14, 1994) was an architect, a leader of the Modern Architecture movement, and responsible for the design of over one thousand buildings. ... Emery Roth (1871 – August 20, 1948) was an American architect who built many of the definitive New York City hotels and apartment buildings of the 1920s and 30s, incorporating Beaux-Arts and Art Deco details. ... Interbau was a housing development, constructed as part of the 1957 International Building Exhibition in the Hansaviertel area of West Berlin. ... Location of the Hansaviertel in Berlin The Hansaviertel is a quarter in the Mitte borough of Berlin. ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... Wayland High School is a secondary school located at 264 Old Connecticut Path, in Wayland, MA; its principal is Charles P. Ruopp. ...   Settled: 1638 â€“ Incorporated: 1780 Zip Code(s): 01778 â€“ Area Code(s): 508 / 774 Official website: http://www. ... Nickname: City of Athena or Cradle of Democracy Location of the city of Athens (red dot) within the Prefecture of Athens and Periphery of Attica Coordinates: Country Greece Peripheries Attica Prefecture Athens Founded circa 2000 BC Mayor Nikitas Kaklamanis Area    - City 38. ...

Trivia

  • Gropius was known to have a snappy sense of style and was often seen wearing a bowtie. Among his students was the writer and theorist Sigfried Giedion.
  • Walter Gropius and his wife Alma are mentioned in Tom Lehrer's song "Alma."
  • Walter Gropius' "Bauhaus Village" is proposed by Lisa as a potential vacation destination for The Simpsons. Homer vetoes the suggestion, arguing that they would have to deal with the crowds.

Author of SPACE, TIME & ARCHITECTURE, 1941 ... László Moholy-Nagy László Moholy-Nagy (July 20, 1895 – November 24, 1946) was a Hungarian painter and photographer as well as professor in the Bauhaus school. ... State Street Village, S.R. Crown Hall, Armour Main Building Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) is a private Ph. ... Tom Lehrer in 1960. ... Lisa Marie Simpson is a fictional character on the animated television series The Simpsons, and is voiced by Yeardley Smith. ... Simpsons redirects here. ... Homer Jay Simpson (born May 12, 1955) is a fictional character in the animated television series The Simpsons, voiced by Dan Castellaneta. ...

References

  1. ^ Interview with Walter Gropius. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved on 2006-08-02.

-1... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ...

Further reading

  • The New Architecture and the Bauhaus, 1955.
  • The Scope of Total Architecture, 1956.

See also

  • Walter Gropius buildings

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • Walter Gropius' house, Lincoln, Massachusetts
  • On the Interbau apartments
  • Impington Village College — only example of Gropius's work in the UK
  • Fagus works (German)
  • Bauhaus in America is a documentary film made in 1995 that reveals the influence of Gropius and others on American design and architecture.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Walter Gropius - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (850 words)
Born in Berlin, Walter Gropius was the third son of a building advisor to the government with the same name, and Manon Auguste Pauline Scharnweber (1855–1933) whose family owned a manor near the capital city.
Gropius married Alma Mahler, the widow of Gustav Mahler.
Gropius fled Germany in 1934 due to the rising power of the Nazi Party, and lived and worked in Britain, at the Isokon project, and then, from 1937 to the United States, where his own house, the Gropius House in Lincoln, Massachusetts, was influential in bringing International Modernism to the US.
Walter Gropius - definition of Walter Gropius in Encyclopedia (259 words)
Walter Adolph Gropius (May 18, 1883 – July 5, 1969) was a German architect and founder of Bauhaus.
Born in Berlin, Walter Gropius was the third son of a building advisor to the government with the same name, and Manon Auguste Pauline Scharnweber (1855–1933) whose family owned a manor near Berlin.
Gropius married Alma Schindler after the death of her husband Gustav Mahler, and they had a daughter, Manon (1916–1935).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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