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Encyclopedia > Walt Whitman
Walter Whitman

Walt Whitman, age 37, frontispiece to Leaves of Grass, Fulton St., Brooklyn, N.Y., steel engraving by Samuel Hollyer from a lost daguerreotype by Gabriel Harrison.
Born May 31, 1819(1819-05-31)
West Hills, Town of Huntington, Long Island, New York
Died March 26, 1892 (aged 72)
Camden, New Jersey
Occupation journalist, editor, poet, teacher, civil servant for U.S. Department of the Interior, volunteer nurse
Influences Ralph Waldo Emerson, Walter Scott, John Neal, Fanny Wright, Abraham Lincoln
Influenced William Carlos Williams, Edward Carpenter, Hart Crane, Allen Ginsberg, Jack Kerouac, John Berryman, Galway Kinnell, Langston Hughes, Philip Levine, Kenneth Koch, James Wright, Joy Harjo, Mary Oliver, Bob Dylan, Jerry Wemple, June Jordan, Pablo Neruda, Arthur Rimbaud, Federico García Lorca, Fernando Pessoa, D. H. Lawrence, Sherman Alexie

Walter Whitman (May 31, 1819March 26, 1892) was an American poet, essayist, journalist, and humanist. He was a part of the transition between Transcendentalism and Realism, incorporating both views in his works. His works have been translated into more than twenty-five languages.[1] Whitman is among the most influential and controversial poets in the American canon. His work has been described as a "rude shock" and "the most audacious and debatable contribution yet made to American literature."[2] As Whitman wrote in Leaves of Grass (By Blue Ontario's Shore), "Rhymes and rhymers pass away...America justifies itself, give it time..."[3] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (640x900, 71 KB) Summary Whitman from Leaves of Grass Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Walt Whitman Leaves of Grass ... In architecture, a frontispiece constitutes the elements that frame and decorate the main, or front, door to a building; especially when the main entrance is the chief face of the building, rather than being kept behind columns or a portico. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... An 1837 daguerreotype by Daguerre. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1819 (MDCCCXIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) in the [[Grhttp://en. ... West Hills is a census-designated place located in Suffolk County, New York. ... For the hamlet within the Town of Huntington, see Huntington (CDP), New York. ... This article is about the island in New York State. ... This article is about the state. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The City of Camden is the county seat of Camden County, New Jersey in the United States. ... This article is about work. ... Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, poet, and leader of the Transcendentalist movement in the early nineteenth century. ... Raeburns portrait of Sir Walter Scott in 1822. ... John Neal (1793 - 1876), novelist and poet, born at Portland, Maine, was self-educated, kept a dry goods store, and was afterwards a lawyer. ... Frances Wright (1795-1852) was a lecturer who grew up in London and toured the United States from 1818 to 1820. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... William Carlos Williams Dr. William Carlos Williams (sometimes known as WCW) (September 17, 1883 – March 4, 1963), was an American poet closely associated with modernism and Imagism. ... Edward Carpenter in 1875. ... Harold Hart Crane (July 21, 1899 – April 27, 1932) was an American poet. ... Irwin Allen Ginsberg (IPA: ) (June 3, 1926 – April 5, 1997) was an American poet. ... Jack Kerouac (pronounced ) (March 12, 1922 – October 21, 1969) was an American novelist, writer, poet, and artist. ... John Allyn Berryman (originally John Allyn Smith) (October 25, 1914 – January 7, 1972) was an American poet, born in McAlester, Oklahoma. ... Galway Kinnell (born February 1st, 1927 in Providence, Rhode Island) is one of the most influential American poets of the latter half of the 20th century. ... Langston Hughes (February 1, 1902 – May 22, 1967) was an American poet, novelist, playwright, short story writer, and columnist. ... Philip Levine, an American poet, was born in 1928 in Detroit, Michigan. ... Kenneth Koch (27 February 1925 – 6 July 2002) was an American poet, playwright, and professor, active from the 1950s until his death at age 77. ... There have been several people named James Wright. ... Joy Harjo (b. ... Mary Oliver (b. ... This article is about the recording artist. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... June Jordan (July 9, 1936-June 14, 2002) was an African-American bisexual political activist, writer, poet, and teacher, born in Harlem, New York, to Jamaican immigrants. ... Pablo Neruda (July 12, 1904 – September 23, 1973) was the penname and, later, legal name of the Chilean writer and communist politician Ricardo Eliecer Neftalí Reyes Basoalto. ... Rimbaud redirects here. ... Federico García Lorca Federico García Lorca (June 5, 1898 – August 19, 1936) was a Spanish poet and dramatist, also remembered as a painter, pianist, and composer. ... Fernando Pessoa Fernando António Nogueira de Seabra Pessoa (pron. ... David Herbert Richards Lawrence (11 September 1885 – 2 March 1930) was an English writer of the 20th century, whose prolific and diverse output included novels, short stories, poems, plays, essays, travel books, paintings, translations, literary criticism, and personal letters. ... Sherman Alexie Sherman Joseph Alexie, Jr. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1819 (MDCCCXIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) in the [[Grhttp://en. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Essay (disambiguation). ... Journalism is a discipline of gathering, writing and reporting news, and broadly it includes the process of editing and presenting the news articles. ... Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities—particularly rationality. ... Transcendentalism was a group of new ideas in literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that emerged in New England in the early-to mid-19th century. ... Look up realism, realist, realistic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... American literature refers to written or literary work produced in the area of the United States and Colonial America. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...

Contents

Early life

Walter Whitman was born May 31, 1819 in West Hills, Town of Huntington, Long Island, to parents of Quaker background, Walter and Louisa Van Velsor Whitman. He was the second of nine children. [4] One of his siblings, born prior to him, did not make it past infancy. His mother was barely literate and of Dutch descent and his father was a Quaker carpenter. In 1823 the family moved to Brooklyn, where for six years Whitman attended public schools. It was the only formal education he ever received. His mother taught him the value of family ties, and Whitman remained devoted to his family throughout his life, becoming, in a real sense, its leader after the death of his father. Whitman inherited the liberal intellectual and political attitudes of a free thinker from his father, who exposed him to the ideas and writings of the socialists Frances Wright and Robert Dale Owen, the liberal Quaker Elias Hicks, and the deist Count Volney.[4] Year 1819 (MDCCCXIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) in the [[Grhttp://en. ... West Hills is a census-designated place located in Suffolk County, New York. ... For the hamlet within the Town of Huntington, see Huntington (CDP), New York. ... This article is about the island in New York State. ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... Frances Wright (1795-1852) was a lecturer who grew up in London and toured the United States from 1818 to 1820. ... Robert Dale Owen (November 7, 1801–June 24, 1877) was a longtime exponent in his adopted United States of the socialist doctrines of his father, the Welshman Robert Owen, as well as a politician in the Democratic Party. ... Elias Hicks Elias Hicks (March 19, 1748 - February 27, 1830) was an itinerant Quaker preacher from Long Island, New York. ... Arms of Constantin François de ChassebÅ“uf Tomb of Volney, Père Lachaise cemetery (division 41), Paris Constantin François de ChassebÅ“uf, Comte de Volney (February 3, 1757 - April 25, 1820) was a French savant. ...


One advantage of living in Brooklyn was that Whitman saw many of the famous people of the day when they visited nearby New York City. Thus he saw President Andrew Jackson and Marquis de Lafayette.[4] In what was one of Whitman's favorite childhood stories Marquis de Lafayette visited Brooklyn and, selecting the six-year-old Walt from the crowd, lifted him up and carried him. Whitman came to view this event as a kind of laying on of hands: the French hero of the American Revolution anointing the future poet of democracy in the energetic city of immigrants where the nation was being invented day by day.[4] This article is about the borough of New York City. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... Marie-Joseph-Paul-Roch-Yves-Gilbert du Motier, marquis de La Fayette (September 6, 1757–May 20, 1834), was a French aristocrat most famous for his participation in the American Revolutionary War and early French Revolution. ... Marie-Joseph-Paul-Roch-Yves-Gilbert du Motier, marquis de La Fayette (September 6, 1757 – May 20, 1834), was a French aristocrat most famous for his participation in the American Revolutionary War and early French Revolution. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen...


At age eleven he worked as an office boy for lawyers and a doctor, then in the summer of 1831 became a printer's devil for the Long Island Patriot, a four-page weekly whose editor, Samuel L. Clements (not to be confused with Samuel L. Clemens/Mark Twain), shared the liberal political views of his father. It was here that Whitman first broke into print with "sentimental" bits of filler material. The following summer Whitman went to work for another printer, Erastus Worthington, and in the autumn he moved on to the shop of Alden Spooner, the most successful publisher-printer in Brooklyn. Although his family moved back to the area of West Hills in 1834, where another son, Thomas Jefferson, was born in July, Whitman stayed on in Brooklyn. He published a few pieces in the New York Mirror, attended the Bowery Theater, continued subscribing to a circulating library, and joined a local debating society. In his sixteenth year, Whitman moved to New York City to seek work as a compositor. However, a wave of Irish immigrants had contributed to the already unruly behavior in New York City's streets; anti-abolitionist and anti-Irish riots often broke out, unemployment was high, and the winter was miserably cold. Whitman could not find satisfactory employment and, in May 1836, he rejoined his family, now living in Hempstead, Long Island. Whitman taught at various schools until the spring of 1838, when, with the financial support of friends, he began his own newspaper, the weekly Long Islander, in Huntington.[4] Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Printer’s Devil is an episode of the American television anthology series The Twilight Zone. ... Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humanist,[2] humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The New-York Mirror was a newspaper published in New York City under many variant titles, remembered by students of American literature for printing the first editions of poems by Edgar Allan Poe. ... Cigarette trading card featuring the Bowery Theatre, New York City The Bowery Theatre was a playhouse in the Bowery neighborhood of New York City. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Movable metal type Typesetting involves the presentation of textual material in an aesthetic form on paper or some other media. ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Nickname: An aerial view of The Village of Hempstead. ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Publishing

Whitman's stint as an independent newspaperman lasted until May 1839, when he sold the paper and his equipment and left town again. This time he was more fortunate, landing a job in Jamaica with James J. Brenton, editor of the Long Island Democrat.[4] In 1841 he moved to New York City, working initially as a printer but ultimately as a journalist. His first important post was as editor of the New York Aurora in 1842.[4] Throughout the 1840s he worked for more than a dozen city newspapers, including the Brooklyn Daily Eagle, where he was editor between 1846 and 1848.[4] His position at the Eagle was abruptly terminated in part because of his disagreement with the newspaper's owners over the wisdom of the Wilmot Proviso, which stated that all territories had to be admitted into the Union as free soil states. The fact that he started a free soil paper in 1849 reinforces the conclusion that Whitman left his Brooklyn post partly for political reasons. Generally, Whitman's position on slavery was that it was an evil, but so long as the Constitution made it legal, he believed that fugitive slave laws should be obeyed. He stated his views on slavery in a quasi-political treatise called The Eighteenth Presidency written between 1854 and 1856; although it was put into proof sheets, it was never published in Whitman's lifetime. In his optimism for the power of American democracy, he hoped that the American people would voluntarily give up slavery rather than lose it through civil war.[4] 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Brooklyn Eagle, also called The Brooklyn Daily Eagle was a daily newspaper published in Brooklyn, New York from 1841 to 1955. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Wilmot Proviso was introduced on August 8, 1846 in the House of Representatives as a rider on a $2 million appropriations bill intended for the final negotiations to resolve the Mexican-American War. ... Year 1849 (MDCCCXLIX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Leaves of Grass

His most famous work is Leaves of Grass, which he continued to edit and revise until his death and is considered his most personal and political work. A group of Civil War poems, included within Leaves of Grass, is often published as an independent collection under the name of Drum-Taps.[4] This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


The first versions of Leaves of Grass were self-published and poorly received. Several poems featured graphic depictions of the human body, enumerated in Whitman's innovative "cataloguing" style, which contrasted with the reserved Victorian ethic of the period. Despite its revolutionary content and structure, subsequent editions of the book evoked critical indifference in the US literary establishment. Outside the US, the book was a world-wide sensation, especially in France, where Whitman's intense humanism influenced the naturalist revolution in French letters.[4] In 2000, the value of a copy of the first edition, which had sold for $35,000 in the 1990s, was catalogued with an estimated value of between $50,000 and $70,000.[5] This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victorian morality is a distillation of the moral views of people living at the time of Queen Victoria (reigned 1837 - 1901) in particular, and to the moral climate of Great Britain throughout the 19th century in... This article is about methodological naturalism. ...


By 1865 Walt Whitman was world-famous, and Leaves of Grass had been accepted by a publishing house in the US. Though still considered an iconoclast and a literary outsider, the poet's status began to grow at home. During his final years, Whitman became a respected literary vanguard visited by young artists. Several photographs and paintings of Whitman with a large beard cultivated a "Christ-figure" mystique. Whitman did not invent American transcendentalism, but he had become its most famous exponent and was also associated with American mysticism. In the twentieth century, young writers such as Hart Crane, William Carlos Williams, Allen Ginsberg, and Jack Kerouac rediscovered Whitman and reinterpreted his literary manifesto for a new audience.[4] 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... Transcendentalism was a group of new ideas in literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that emerged in New England in the early-to mid-19th century. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... Harold Hart Crane (July 21, 1899 – April 27, 1932) was an American poet. ... William Carlos Williams Dr. William Carlos Williams (sometimes known as WCW) (September 17, 1883 – March 4, 1963), was an American poet closely associated with modernism and Imagism. ... Irwin Allen Ginsberg (IPA: ) (June 3, 1926 – April 5, 1997) was an American poet. ... Jack Kerouac (pronounced ) (March 12, 1922 – October 21, 1969) was an American novelist, writer, poet, and artist. ...


Later life

Walt Whitman, circa 1860, by Mathew Brady
Walt Whitman, circa 1860, by Mathew Brady

Walt Whitman began in 1864 writing to various people for assistance. Of James Redpath, a Boston publisher, he asked unsuccessfully for help in publishing his accounts of Washington during the War, called "Memoranda of a Year." Other people were enlisted in an attempt to find Whitman a better paying job. John Trowbridge met with Salmon P. Chase, Secretary of the Treasury, to find Whitman a position in that department. Chase, a politically sensitive man, not only turned down Whitman because he had learned he was the author of a notorious book, but kept a letter of recommendation written by Emerson as well. During February-March 1864 Whitman visited the wounded at the front, boosting morale and passing out books for them to read. Worn out by all this activity, Whitman moved to Georgetown, Colorado in July, physically and emotionally exhausted.[4] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2248x3112, 602 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Walt Whitman ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2248x3112, 602 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Walt Whitman ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Salmon Portland Chase (January 13, 1808 – May 7, 1873) was an American politician and jurist in the Civil War era who served as Senator from Ohio, Governor of Ohio, as U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Abraham Lincoln, and Chief Justice of the United States. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Georgetown is a town located in Clear Creek County, Colorado. ...


The events of late 1864 did little to raise Whitman's spirits. In October, he found out that his brother George had been captured by the Confederacy after a battle; whether he was wounded and where he was held remained unknown. In December Whitman took his brother Jesse, whose mind had been deteriorating, to the Kings County Lunatic Asylum and committed him. Fortunately for Whitman, more positive events were taking place in Washington. In late December, O'Connor pleaded Whitman 's case before W.T. Otto, Assistant Secretary of the Department of the Interior, and in January, Whitman was offered a low-level clerkship for, to Whitman, the more than adequate salary of $1,200 a year. Upon returning to Washington in January 1865, Whitman was assigned to the Indian Bureau division of the Interior Department. George, after being released from the Danville, Virginia, prisoner-of-war camp, returned home in March, and Whitman took a leave of absence to visit him. When he returned to Washington, Whitman was promoted to a clerkship one grade higher.[4] The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is a Cabinet department of the United States government that manages and conserves most federally-owned land. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Nickname: River City, City of Churches Motto: A World Class Organization Country United States State Virginia County Independent City  - Mayor R. Wayne Williams, Jr. ... POW redirects here. ...


Whitman had not by any means stopped writing poetry during this period. He had, soon after the 1860 Leaves of Grass went into a second printing, begun work on a new volume of poetry, to be called Banners at Day-Break, but the failure of Thayer and Eldridge brought this plan to a halt. The verses intended for the aborted volume would find their way into the next edition of Leaves of Grass (on which Whitman was continually working) and into his next book, which would poetically comment on the Civil War.[4] 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


In January 1865 Whitman was appointed a clerk in the Indian Affairs Department in Washington. By spring, not long after the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln, he was fired from his government post on the orders of Secretary of the Interior James Harlan. The charge was that Whitman was the author of a "dirty book," Leaves of Grass. Actually, Whitman's dismissal was part of an efficiency campaign, but Harlan, formerly a professor of mental and moral science in Iowa, also objected strongly to Whitman's emphasis on the body in his poetry. On 1 July, Ashton reinstated Whitman and transferred him to his own department. Whitman was relieved and his life returned to normal. O'Connor, though, was still upset and went about vindicating Whitman by publishing a biographical study, The Good Gray Poet, in January 1866. This book defended both Whitman and artistic freedom and is especially interesting today because Whitman himself had a major role in preparing it.[4] 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... James Harlan (August 26, 1820 - October 5, 1899) was a member of the United States Senate and a U.S. Cabinet Secretary. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


Over the next few years Whitman continued to work on his poetry, and in 1871 a number of works were published. Roberts Brothers of Boston published After All, Not to Create Only (later called "Song of the Exposition"), a poem which celebrated the opening of the National Industrial Exposition in New York on 7 September 1871. Whitman had been invited by the organizing committee and was paid $100 for his work, which he read in person on opening day. In the same year appeared Democratic Vistas, Whitman's prose comments on the role of the poet in shaping both America's and humanity's destinies, and the importance of democracy as an element in the formation of character. Also in 1871 Whitman published Passage to India, which praised the completion of the Suez Canal, the laying of the Atlantic cable, and the finishing of the transcontinental railroad. 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...

The Walt Whitman House in Camden, New Jersey.
The Walt Whitman House in Camden, New Jersey.

In 1873, Whitman suffered a stroke while working and living in Washington, D. C. He never completely recovered, but continued to write poetry. He lived his final years at his home on Mickle Street in Camden, New Jersey, revising Leaves of Grass and receiving visitors, including Oscar Wilde.[4] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 897 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 897 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... ... The City of Camden is the county seat of Camden County, New Jersey in the United States. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Oscar Fingal OFlahertie Wills Wilde (October 16, 1854 – November 30, 1900) was an Irish playwright, novelist, poet, and author of short stories. ...


After his stroke, his fame grew substantially both at home and abroad. Mostly it was stimulated by several prominent British writers criticizing the American academy for not recognizing Whitman's talents. These included William Rossetti and Anne Gilchrist. At this time in his life, Whitman also had a prominent group of national and international disciples, including Canadian writer and physician Richard Bucke.[4] William Michael Rossetti (September 25, 1829 – February 5, 1919) was an English writer and critic. ... Anne Gilchrist (1828 – 1885), née Burrows, was an English writer who traveled to the US, initially to visit Walt Whitman. ...


During his later years, Whitman ventured out on only two significant journeys: to Colorado in 1879 and to Boston to visit Emerson in 1881. Whitman died on March 26, 1892, and was buried in Camden's Harleigh Cemetery.[6] Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The City of Camden is the county seat of Camden County, New Jersey in the United States. ... Harleigh Cemetery is a cemetery in Camden, in the U.S. state of New Jersey. ...


Although Whitman left Long Island at age 22, he is still much revered there and especially in his native Huntington, where a large shopping mall, high school and major road are all named in his honor. The oldest newspaper on Long Island, The Long Islander, touts that it was "founded by Walt Whitman". Camden and the surrounding area also honor the poet. The Walt Whitman Bridge spans the Delaware River, linking Philadelphia and southern New Jersey, and the Walt Whitman Center at Rutgers-Camden hosts poets, plays and other events. Additionally, a statue of Whitman can be found in the campus center. The Walt Whitman Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Delaware River from Philadelphia to Gloucester City, New Jersey. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Literary works

Leaves of Grass

In 1855, Whitman took it upon himself to publish his first edition of Leaves of Grass. The next year he released his second edition of Leaves of Grass, with around 20 new poems. In 1860 Whitman released his third edition of Leaves of Grass, which was the first major revision and edition to his work. Whitman in 1870 added “Drum-Taps”, “Sequel to Drum-Taps”, and “Songs before Parting” to Leaves of Grass, which made this edition the first to properly address the Civil War through Whitman’s eyes. In 1881 Whitman was able to purchase his final home because of the revenue generated from the 1881 edition of Leaves of Grass. The final edition, called the deathbed edition, was released in 1892, bringing Leaves of Grass to its current state. [7] Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The public response to Leaves of Grass was initially mixed. The first notice, probably written by Charles A. Dana, in the New York Daily Tribune, complained of "a somewhat too oracular strain" and of language that is "too frequently reckless and indecent ... quite out of place amid the decorum of modern society." Nevertheless, "no impartial reader can fail to be impressed with the vigor and faint beauty of isolated portions." In short, "the taste of not overdainty fastidiousness will discern much of the essential spirit of poetry beneath an uncouth and grotesque embodiment." Charles Eliot Norton, writing in Putnam's Monthly, was not at all impressed with this "curious and lawless collection of poems ... [which] are neither in rhyme or blank verse, but in a sort of excited prose broken into lines without any attempt at measure or regularity, and, as many readers will perhaps think, without any idea of sense or reason." Leaves of Grass is ultimately dismissed as a "superficial yet profound ... preposterous yet somehow fascinating ... mixture of Yankee Transcendentalism and New York rowdyism." The debate was beginning.[4]


Song of Myself

Song of Myself was originally published in the 1855 edition of Leaves of Grass in which it was the first of twelve poems. At the time this poem was untitled, but in 1856 Whitman titled this work “Poem of Walt Whitman: An American”. “Poem of Walt Whitman: An American” was divided into 52 numbered sections in 1867, which is how the poem is organized to this day. Then in 1881 Whitman decided to give the poem its final name: Song of Myself.[citation needed] Song of Myself is a poem by Walt Whitman that was included in his book of poems Leaves of Grass. ... Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Song of Myself is a history of the poet’s movement from loafing individual to active spirit. But the poet’s movement is paralleled by the reader’s movement from “assuming” to “resuming” and the poet controls both movements in the poem with the catalogues.” [8].


Drum-Taps

In May 1865 Walt began printing his Civil War literature entitled, Drum-Taps. Shortly after beginning his printing of Drum-Taps Whitman pauses, and begins writing the sequel in order to add in When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd and O Captain! My Captain! in remembrance of President Lincoln, of whom Whitman was very fond. In late 1865 Whitman concluded his work on Drum-Taps and Sequel, and began printing them for distribution. [9] 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wikisource. ... Facsimile of the Authors Proof. ...


Drum-Taps represents yet another shift in Whitman's poetry. In the first two editions, the focus was on the self and its transcendent powers; in the third edition--with such seashore poems as "Out of the Cradle" and "As I Ebb'd with the Ocean of Life"--the poet exchanged the representative ego for a recognition that life has its human limits that the poet must also celebrate, somehow exorcising the bad from the good. In his third phase, he shifts the attention from the self of the first editions to the Christ figure in others. This is brought to its richest fruition in Whitman's elegy for Lincoln, "When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd." What is remarkable about the poem is its revitalization of Whitman's original powers as a poet.


Memoranda During the War

In 1875, Whitman copyrighted his 11 articles written for the New York Times and the New York Weekly Graphic, along with some more material, which he called “Memoranda During the War”. In later years he released the work, only one thousand copies at first, from a private printing. “Memoranda During the War” was not meant to be a detailed description of the actions of the Civil War, but rather a spotlight on the men fighting this monumental battle. This topic touched close to home with Whitman because his brother George was wounded at the Battle of Fredericksburg, which was the catalyst to Whitman’s involvement. [10] 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ambrose E. Burnside Robert E. Lee Strength Army of the Potomac ~114,000 engaged Army of Northern Virginia ~72,500 engaged Casualties 12,653 (1,284 killed, 9,600 wounded, 1,769 captured/missing) 5,377 (608 killed, 4,116...


“DURING the Union War I commenced at the close of 1862, and continued steadily through '63, '64 and '65, to visit the sick and wounded of the Army, both on the field and in the Hospitals in and around Washington city. From the first I kept little note-books for impromptu jottings in pencil to refresh my memory of names and circumstances, and what was specially wanted…” [11]. This is a small excerpt from the beginning of “Memoranda During the War”.


Influence on later poets

Walt Whitman's influence on contemporary American poetry is so fundamental that it has been said that American poetry divides into two camps: that which naturally flows from Whitman and that which consciously strives to accept it.[citation needed] Whitman's great talents presented a complex paradox for the modernist poets T. S. Eliot and Ezra Pound, who recognized his value but feared the implications of his influence. For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26, 1888 – January 4, 1965), was a poet, dramatist and literary critic. ... Ezra Pound in 1913. ...


During the height of modernism, Whitman continued to present "a problem" until he was rescued by such influential poets as William Carlos Williams and Hart Crane. Later, Allen Ginsberg and the beat poets would become the most vociferous champions of Whitman's expansive, abundant, humanistic America. Ginsberg begins his famous poem "Supermarket in California" from Howl and Other Poems with a reference to Whitman. The hand of Whitman can be seen working in such diverse twentieth-century poets as John Berryman, E.E. Cummings, Galway Kinnell, Langston Hughes, Philip Levine, Kenneth Koch, James Wright, Joy Harjo, William Carlos Williams, Mary Oliver, Bob Dylan, Jerry Wemple and June Jordan, to name only a few. Whitman was also revered by international poets ranging from Pablo Neruda to Rimbaud to Federico García Lorca to Fernando Pessoa. William Carlos Williams Dr. William Carlos Williams (sometimes known as WCW) (September 17, 1883 – March 4, 1963), was an American poet closely associated with modernism and Imagism. ... Harold Hart Crane (July 21, 1899 – April 27, 1932) was an American poet. ... Irwin Allen Ginsberg (IPA: ) (June 3, 1926 – April 5, 1997) was an American poet. ... Beats redirects here. ... Humanism is a system of thought that defines a socio-political doctrine (-ism) whose bounds exceed those of locally developed cultures, to include all of humanity and all issues common to human beings. ... Howl and Other Poems was published in the fall of 1956 as number four in the Pocket Poets Series from City Lights Books This article is about the poem by Allen Ginsberg. ... John Allyn Berryman (originally John Allyn Smith) (October 25, 1914 – January 7, 1972) was an American poet, born in McAlester, Oklahoma. ... Edward Estlin Cummings (October 14, 1894 - September 3, 1962) was an American poet and writer. ... Galway Kinnell (born February 1st, 1927 in Providence, Rhode Island) is one of the most influential American poets of the latter half of the 20th century. ... Langston Hughes (February 1, 1902 – May 22, 1967) was an American poet, novelist, playwright, short story writer, and columnist. ... For other persons of the same name, see Philip Levine. ... Kenneth Koch (27 February 1925 – 6 July 2002) was an American poet, playwright, and professor, active from the 1950s until his death at age 77. ... There have been several people named James Wright. ... Joy Harjo (b. ... William Carlos Williams Dr. William Carlos Williams (sometimes known as WCW) (September 17, 1883 – March 4, 1963), was an American poet closely associated with modernism and Imagism. ... Mary Oliver (b. ... This article is about the recording artist. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... June Jordan (July 9, 1936-June 14, 2002) was an African-American bisexual political activist, writer, poet, and teacher, born in Harlem, New York, to Jamaican immigrants. ... Pablo Neruda (July 12, 1904 – September 23, 1973) was the penname and, later, legal name of the Chilean writer and communist politician Ricardo Eliecer Neftalí Reyes Basoalto. ... Rimbaud redirects here. ... Federico García Lorca Federico García Lorca (June 5, 1898 – August 19, 1936) was a Spanish poet and dramatist, also remembered as a painter, pianist, and composer. ... Fernando Pessoa Fernando António Nogueira de Seabra Pessoa (pron. ...


Yale professor and literary critic Harold Bloom considers Walt Whitman to be one of the five most important American poets. The others in Bloom's pantheon are Emily Dickinson, Wallace Stevens, Hart Crane, and Robert Frost. Whitman also had a huge influence on the British novelist and poet D. H. Lawrence. Contemporary Spokane Indian poet, Sherman Alexie, has also been influenced by Whitman, mentioning him explicitly in his poem "Defending Walt Whitman". Yale redirects here. ... Harold Bloom (born July 11, 1930) is an American professor and prominent literary and cultural critic. ... Emily Dickinson (December 10, 1830 – May 15, 1886) was an American poet. ... Wallace Stevens Wallace Stevens (October 2, 1879 – August 2, 1955) was a major American Modernist poet. ... Harold Hart Crane (July 21, 1899 – April 27, 1932) was an American poet. ... Robert Lee Frost (March 26, 1874 – January 29, 1963) was an American poet. ... David Herbert Richards Lawrence (11 September 1885 – 2 March 1930) was an English writer of the 20th century, whose prolific and diverse output included novels, short stories, poems, plays, essays, travel books, paintings, translations, literary criticism, and personal letters. ...


Whitman and sexuality

Whitman's expression of sexuality ranged from his admiration for nineteenth-century ideals of male friendship to openly erotic descriptions of the male body, as can be readily seen in his poem "Song of Myself". This is in contradiction to the outrage Whitman displayed when confronted about these messages in public, praising chastity and denouncing masturbation.[citation needed] Look up Sex on Wiktionary, the free dictionary A sex is one of two specimen categories of species that recombine their genetic material in order to reproduce, a process called genetic recombination. ... Song of Myself is a poem by Walt Whitman that was included in his book of poems Leaves of Grass. ... Allegory of chastity by Hans Memling. ... Woman masturbating, 1913 drawing by Gustav Klimt. ...


During the Civil War, the intense comradeship at the front lines in Virginia, which were visited by Whitman as he searched for his wounded brother, and later in Washington, D.C. where he spent a huge amount of time as an unpaid nurse, fueled his ideas about the convergence of homosexuality and democracy.[citation needed] In "Democratic Vistas", he begins to discriminate between amative (i.e., heterosexual) and adhesive (i.e., homosexual) love, and identifies the latter as the key to forming the community without which democracy is incomplete: This article is about the occupation. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ...

It is to the development, identification, and general prevalence of that fervid comradeship (the adhesive love, at least rivaling the amative love hitherto possessing imaginative literature, if not going beyond it), that I look for the counterbalance and offset of our materialistic and vulgar American democracy, and for the spiritualization thereof.

In 1915, Fernando Pessoa explicitly described Whitman as being homosexual in his sensationalist poem Saudação a Walt Whitman. Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Fernando Pessoa Fernando António Nogueira de Seabra Pessoa (pron. ...


In the 1970s, the gay liberation movement made Whitman one of their poster children, citing the homosexual content and comparing him to Jean Genet for his love of young working-class men ("We Two Boys Together Clinging"). In particular the "Calamus" poems, written after a failed and very likely homosexual relationship, contain passages that were interpreted to represent the coming out of a gay man. The name of the poems alone would have sufficed to convey homosexual connotations to the ones in the know at the time, since the calamus plant is associated with Kalamos, a god in antique mythology who was transformed with grief by the death of his lover, the male youth Karpos. In addition, the calamus plant's central characteristic is a prominent central vein that is phallic in appearance.[citation needed] The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... Gay Liberation (or Gay Lib) is the name used to describe the radical lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered movement of the late 1960s and early to mid 1970s in North America, Western Europe, and Australia and New Zealand. ... Jean Genet (French IPA: ) (December 19, 1910) – April 15, 1986), was a prominent, controversial French writer and later political activist. ... The Calamus poems were poems by Walt Whitman that represented the coming out of his homosexuality. ... For other uses, see Coming out (disambiguation). ... GAY can mean: Gay, a term referring to homosexual men or women The IATA code for Gaya Airport Category: ... Binomial name L. Calamus or Common Sweet Flag (Acorus calamus) is a plant from the Acoraceae family, Acorus genues. ... Kalamos is a Greek word meaning reed, from which comes stories of the Greek mythological figure Kalamos, the son of Maiandros (aka Meander), god of the Meander River. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... Karpos (or Carpus) was a Greek mythological figure, whose name in Greek means fruit. He is the son of Zephyros (the west wind) and Khloris (spring, or new vegetation), together forming a natural metaphor — the west wind comes with the new growth of spring, which later bears fruit. ... The phallus usually refers to the male penis, or sex organ. ...


Whitman's romantic and sexual attraction towards other men is not disputed.[12] However, whether or not Whitman had sexual relationships with men has been the subject of some critical disagreement. The best evidence is a pair of third-hand accounts attributed to fellow poets George Sylvester Viereck and Edward Carpenter, neither of whom entrusted those accounts to print themselves. Though scholars in the field have increasingly supported the view of Whitman as actively homosexual, this aspect of his personality is still sometimes omitted when his works are presented in educational settings. The love of Whitman's life may well have been Peter Doyle, a bus conductor whom he met around 1866. They were inseparable for several years. Interviewed in 1895, Doyle said: "We were familiar at once — I put my hand on his knee — we understood. He did not get out at the end of the trip — in fact went all the way back with me."[13]. A more explicit second-hand account comes from Oscar Wilde. Wilde met Whitman in America in 1882, and wrote to the homosexual rights activist George Cecil Ives that there was "no doubt" about the great American poet's sexual orientation — "I have the kiss of Walt Whitman still on my lips," he boasted.[14] George Sylvester Viereck (December 31, 1884 – March 18, 1962) was a German-American poet, writer, and propagandist. ... Edward Carpenter in 1875. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Oscar Fingal OFlahertie Wills Wilde (October 16, 1854 – November 30, 1900) was an Irish playwright, novelist, poet, and author of short stories. ... George Ives around 1900 George (Cecil) Ives (born in Germany on October 1, 1867 - died June 4, 1950) was a German-British poet, writer, penal reformer and early gay rights campaigner. ...


Harold Bloom in The Western Canon proposes that although Whitman was primarily attracted to his own sex, his primary expressions of sexuality throughout his life were onanistic and reads numerous onanistic references into Leaves of Grass. He writes of Whitman as one of the first Western writers to speak in praise of masturbation. This view is supported by Robert S. Frederickson in his essay "Public Onanism: Whitman's Song of Himself".[15] Bloom's thesis—that the sexual experience Whitman celebrates was possibly merely imagined—has been ridiculed by other scholars, such as Gary Schmidgall[16], who view it as obtuse at best, and homophobic at worst. Harold Bloom (born July 11, 1930) is an American professor and prominent literary and cultural critic. ... Masturbation is the manual excitation of the sexual organs, most often to the point of orgasm. ... Woman masturbating, 1913 drawing by Gustav Klimt. ...


Chronology

  • 1819: Born on May 31 in West Hills, Town of Huntington, Long Island, New York
  • 1831: Whitman takes his first job as a printer’s devil at the The Long Island Patriot
  • 1835: Walt became a printer in New York City after years of self-education
  • 1836-1841: Whitman taught in eight different school districts within the western portion of Long Island
  • 1838: Whitman founded Huntington’s weekly newspaper, The Long Islander
  • 1841: Moves to New York City.
  • 1855: Father, Walter, dies. First edition of Leaves of Grass.
  • 1862: Visits his brother, George, who was wounded in the Battle of Fredericksburg.
  • 1865: Drum-Taps, Whitman's wartime poetry (later incorporated into Leaves of Grass), published.
  • 1866: Meets Peter Doyle. Reprints Leaves of Grass
  • 1868: Poems by Walt Whitman is published, aided by William Michael Rossetti. This gains Whitman an international following.
  • 1870: Fifth edition of Leaves of Grass is published, the first edition to properly address the Civil War
  • 1873: Suffers first stroke, moves to Camden, New Jersey. Mother Louisa dies.
  • 1875: Published a collection of journals titled, The Memoranda during the War, this inspired him to write the Wound Dresser
  • 1877: Meets Richard Maurice Bucke
  • 1882: Meets Oscar Wilde. Publishes Specimen Days & Collect.
  • 1888: Second stroke. Serious illness. Publishes November Boughs.
  • 1891: Final edition of Leaves of Grass.
  • 1892: Dies on March 26, buried Harleigh Cemetery, Camden, New Jersey

West Hills is a census-designated place located in Suffolk County, New York. ... For the hamlet within the Town of Huntington, see Huntington (CDP), New York. ... This article is about the island in New York State. ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the island in New York State. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ambrose E. Burnside Robert E. Lee Strength Army of the Potomac ~114,000 engaged Army of Northern Virginia ~72,500 engaged Casualties 12,653 (1,284 killed, 9,600 wounded, 1,769 captured/missing) 5,377 (608 killed, 4,116... The City of Camden is the county seat of Camden County, New Jersey in the United States. ... Maurice Bucke Richard Maurice Bucke (1837–1902) was an important Canadian progressive psychiatrist in the late nineteenth century. ... Oscar Fingal OFlahertie Wills Wilde (October 16, 1854 – November 30, 1900) was an Irish playwright, novelist, poet, and author of short stories. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The City of Camden is the county seat of Camden County, New Jersey in the United States. ...

See also

Facsimile of the Authors Proof. ... Walt Whitman, aged 37, steel engraving by Samuel Hollyer Pioneers! O Pioneers! is a poem by the American poet Walt Whitman. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Song of Myself is a poem by Walt Whitman that was included in his book of poems Leaves of Grass. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wikisource. ... The Wound-Dresser is a nineteen minute-long piece by minimalist composer John Adams for orchestra and baritone singer. ... The Prayer of Columbus is a poem written by the late American poet, Walt Whitman. ... Look up realism, realist, realistic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Transcendentalism was a group of new ideas in literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that emerged in New England in the early-to mid-19th century. ... Sea Drift is a tone poem for orchestra composed by John Alden Carpenter in 1933; it was premiered by the New York Philharmonic under Werner Janssen in 1934. ...

Selected works

Wikisource
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
  • 1855 Leaves of Grass — 95 pages; 10-page preface, followed by 12 poems
  • 1856 Leaves of Grass — 32 poems, with prose annexes
  • 1860 Leaves of Grass — 456 pages; 178 poems
  • 1865 Drum-Taps
  • 1865–1866 Sequel to Drum-Taps
  • 1867 Leaves of Grass — re-edited; adding Drum-Taps, Sequel to Drum-Taps, and Songs Before Parting; 6 new poems
  • 1871–72 Leaves of Grass — adding 120 pages with 74 poems, 24 of which were new texts
  • 1875 Memoranda During the War
  • 1881–82 Leaves of Grass — adding 17 new poems, deleting 39, and rearranging; 293 poems total, Song of Myself receives its name
  • 1891–92 Leaves of Grass — no significant new material
  • Walt Whitman, Poetry and Prose (Justin Kaplan, ed.) (Library of America, 1982) ISBN
  • Walt Whitman: Selected Poems, American Poets Project (Harold Bloom, ed.) (Library of America, 2003) ISBN

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Volumes in the Library of America series The Library of America (LoA) is a nonprofit publisher of classic American literature. ... Volumes in the Library of America series The Library of America (LoA) is a nonprofit publisher of classic American literature. ...

References

  1. ^ Matthews, Brander, Introduction to American Literature (American Book Company, 1896), p. 224.
  2. ^ Burroughs, John, "Biographical Introduction," Leaves of Grass, R.S. Peale the metrical structures of European poetry for an expansionist freestyle verse—"irregular" but "beautifully rhythmic"— which represented his philosophical view that America was destined to reinvent the world as emancipator and liberator of the human spirit. Matthews, Brander, supra, p. 225.
  3. ^ By Blue Ontario's Shore - http://www.princeton.edu/~batke/logr/log_186.html
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "Walt Whitman," in Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 3: Antebellum Writers in New York and the South. A Bruccoli Clark Layman Book. Edited by Joel Myerson, University of South Carolina. The Gale Group, 1979, pp. 350-371.
  5. ^ http://www.cigaraficionado.com/Cigar/CA_Archives/CA_Show_Article/0,2322,1122,00.html
  6. ^ Walt Whitman House, Visit South Jersey. Accessed August 16, 2007. "Not far from the poet's house is the historic Harleigh Cemetery, his final resting place."
  7. ^ http://www.whitmanarchive.org/biography/index.html
  8. ^ Mason, John B. Rev. of "Song of Myself", by Walt Whitman. American Literature Mar. 1973: 34-49
  9. ^ http://www.whitmanarchive.org/biography/index.html
  10. ^ http://www.classroomelectric.org/volume2/price/memoranda/
  11. ^ http://www.classroomelectric.org/volume2/price/memoranda/memoranda.htm
  12. ^ Martin, Robert K. (2002). Whitman, Walt. glbtq.com.
  13. ^ http://www.infopt.demon.co.uk/whitman.htm
  14. ^ McKenna, Neil "The Secret Life of Oscar Wilde", Century 2003, p33
  15. ^ Fredrickson, Robert S. "Public Onanism: Whitman's Song of Himself". Modern Language Quarterly 46 (June 1985), 143-160
  16. ^ Schmidgall,Gary. Walt Whitman: A Gay Life. NY: Dutton, 1997

Meter (British English spelling: metre) describes the linguistic sound patterns of a verse. ... This is a list of articles about poetry in a single language or produced by a single nation. ... Free verse (also at times referred to as vers libre) is a term describing various styles of poetry that are not written using strict meter or rhyme, but that still are recognizable as poetry by virtue of complex patterns of one sort or another that readers will perceive to be... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... glbtq. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Walt Whitman
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Walt Whitman
Persondata
NAME Whitman, Walter
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Walt Whitman
SHORT DESCRIPTION Journalist
DATE OF BIRTH June 31, 1819
PLACE OF BIRTH Huntington Long Island, New York
DATE OF DEATH March 26, 1892
PLACE OF DEATH Camden, New Jersey

  Results from FactBites:
 
About Walt Whitman (12825 words)
Whitman later came to view this event as a kind of laying on of hands, the French hero of the American Revolution anointing the future poet of democracy in the energetic city of immigrants, where the new nation was being invented day by day.
Walt Whitman is thus of the first generation of Americans who were born in the newly formed United States and grew up assuming the stable existence of the new country.
Whitman’s absorption by people from all walks of life justifies his bold claim of 1855 that "the proof of a poet is that his country absorbs him as affectionately as he has absorbed it." Over a century after his death, Whitman is a vital presence in American cultural memory.
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