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Encyclopedia > Walnut
Walnuts
Persian Walnut, Juglans regia
Persian Walnut, Juglans regia
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Fagales
Family: Juglandaceae
Genus: Juglans
L.
Species

See text A walnut is a kind of tree, as well as the nuts growing on those types of tree. ... Walnut Tree may mean: Walnut (Juglans), a genus of trees in the family Juglandaceae, as well as the nuts growing on those types of tree African Walnut, a common name for the unrelated African tree Coula edulis in the family Olacaceae Walnut Tree, is a B-side to the single... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 421 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1077 × 1533 pixel, file size: 553 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Familia Juglandaceae Beschreibung / Description Haßloch (Pfalz), Germany – walnut tree / Walnussbaum Quelle / Source selbst fotografiert / taken by myself Datum der Aufnahme / Time of creation 2004-10... Binomial name Juglans regia L. The Persian Walnut (Juglans regia) is a walnut native from the Balkans in southeast Europe east through southwest and central Asia and the Himalaya to southwest China. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also angiosperms or Magnoliophyta) are one of the major groups of modern plants, comprising those that produce seeds in specialized reproductive organs called flowers, where the ovulary or carpel is enclosed. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class of flowering plants. ... Families included in the Kew list: Fagaceae - Beech family   (including Nothofagaceae) Betulaceae - Birch family Corylaceae - Hazel family Ticodendraceae not included in the Kew list: Casuarinaceae - She-oak family Juglandaceae - Walnut family Rhoipteleaceae Myricaceae The Fagales are an order of flowering plants, including some of the best known trees. ... Genera Alfaroa Annamocarya (beaked hickory) Carya (hickory and pecan) Cyclocarya (wheel wingnut) Engelhardia (cheo) Juglans (walnut) Oreomunnia Platycarya Pterocarya (wingnut) The Juglandaceae are a family of dicotyledonous trees in the order Fagales. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ...

Walnuts (genus Juglans) are plants in the family Juglandaceae. They are deciduous trees, 10 - 40 metres tall (about 30-130 ft.), with pinnate leaves 200 - 900 millimetres long (about 7-35 inches), with 5 - 25 leaflets; the shoots have chambered pith, a character shared with the wingnuts (Pterocarya) but not the hickories (Carya) in the same family. For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Genera Alfaroa Annamocarya (beaked hickory) Carya (hickory and pecan) Cyclocarya (wheel wingnut) Engelhardia (cheo) Juglans (walnut) Oreomunnia Platycarya Pterocarya (wingnut) The Juglandaceae are a family of dicotyledonous trees in the order Fagales. ... Deciduous forest after leaf fall Like many deciduous plants, Forsythia flowers during the leafless season For other uses, see Deciduous (disambiguation). ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... This article is about a foot as a unit of length. ... Look up Pinnate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mid-19th century tool for converting between different standards of the inch An inch is an Imperial unit of length. ... The centre dark spot (about 1 mm diameter) in this yew wood is the pith Elderberry shoot cut longitudinally to show the broad, solid pith (rough-textured, white) inside the wood (smooth, yellow-tinged). ... Species See text The wingnuts are plants in the genus Pterocarya (from Ancient Greek pteron, wing + kary, nut) in the walnut family Juglandaceae, native to Asia. ... Species See text Comparison of Carya nuts Ripe hickory nuts ready to fall, Andrews, SC Hickory is a tree of the genus Carya, including 17-19 species of deciduous trees with pinnately compound leaves and large nuts. ...


The 21 species in the genus range across the north temperate Old World from southeast Europe east to Japan, and more widely in the New World from southeast Canada west to California and south to Argentina. The Latin name Juglans derives from Jovis glans, "Jupiter's acorn": figuratively, a nut fit for a god. The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans, Asians, and Africans before the voyages of Christopher Columbus; it includes Europe, Asia, and Africa (collectively known as Africa-Eurasia), plus surrounding islands. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


The word walnut derives from Old English wealhhnutu, literally "foreign nut", wealh meaning "foreign" (wealh is akin to the terms Welsh and Vlach; see *Walha and History of the term Vlach).[1] The walnut was so called because it was introduced from Gaul and Italy. The previous Latin name for the walnut was nux Gallica, "Gallic nut".[2] Old English redirects here. ... Vlachs (also called Wlachs, Wallachs, Olahs) are the Romanized population in Central and Eastern Europe, including Romanians, Aromanians, Istro-Romanians and Megleno-Romanians, but since the creation of the Romanian state, this term was mostly used for the Vlachs living south of the Danube river. ... brass replica of the Tjurkö Bracteate showing the attestation of the name Walha Walha () is an ancient Germanic word, meaning foreigner or stranger (welsh) or roman. It is attested in the Roman Iron Age Tjurkö Bracteate inscription as walhakurne, probably welsh crown for Roman coin, i. ... Vlach is a Slavic-derived term from the Germanic word Valah/Valach used to designate the Romance speaking peoples of South-Eastern Europe: Romanians, Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians and Istro-Romanians. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ...

Contents

Species and classification

  • Sect. Juglans. Leaves large (20-45 cm) with 5-9 broad leaflets, hairless, margins entire. Wood hard. Southeast Europe to central Asia.
    • Juglans regia L. (J. duclouxiana Dode, J. fallax Dode, J. orientis Dode) - Persian Walnut, Carpathian, or Common Walnut
    • Juglans sigillata Dode - Iron Walnut (doubtfully distinct from J. regia)
  • Sect. Rhysocaryon. Leaves large (20-50 cm) with 11-23 slender leaflets, finely pubescent, margins serrated. Wood hard. North America, South America.
    • Juglans australis Griseb. (J. boliviana Dode) - Argentine Walnut
    • Juglans brasiliensis Dode - Brazilian Walnut
    • Juglans californica S.Wats. - California Walnut
    • Juglans hindsii (Jepson) R.E.Smith - Hinds' Walnut
    • Juglans hirsuta Manning - Nuevo Leon Walnut
    • Juglans jamaicensis C.DC. (J. insularis Griseb.) - West Indies Walnut
    • Juglans major (Torrey) Heller (J. arizonica Dode, J. elaeopyron Dode, J. torreyi Dode) - Arizona Walnut
      • Juglans major var. glabrata Manning
    • Juglans microcarpa Berlandier (J. rupestris Engelm.) - Texas Walnut or Little Walnut
      • Juglans microcarpa var. stewartii (Johnston) Manning
    • Juglans mollis Engelm. - Mexican Walnut
    • Juglans neotropica Diels (J. honorei Dode) - Andean Walnut
    • Juglans nigra L. - Black Walnut
    • Juglans olanchana Standl. & L.O.Williams -
    • Juglans peruviana Dode - Peruvian Walnut
    • Juglans soratensis Manning -
    • Juglans steyermarkii Manning - Guatemalan Walnut
    • Juglans venezuelensis Manning - Venezuela Walnut
  • Sect. Cardiocaryon. Leaves very large (40-90 cm) with 11-19 broad leaflets, softly downy, margins serrated. Wood soft. Northeast Asia, eastern North America.
    • Juglans ailantifolia Carr. (J. cordiformis Maxim., J. sieboldiana Maxim.) - Japanese Walnut
    • Juglans cinerea L. - Butternut
    • Juglans mandshurica Maxim. (J. cathayensis Dode, J. formosana Hayata, J. hopeiensis Dode, J. stenocarpa Maxim.) - Manchurian Walnut or Chinese Walnut.
Japanese Walnut foliage and nuts
Japanese Walnut foliage and nuts

The best-known member of the genus is the Persian Walnut (Juglans regia), native from the Balkans in southeast Europe, southwest & central Asia to the Himalaya and southwest China. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Juglans regia L. The Persian Walnut (Juglans regia) is a walnut native from the Balkans in southeast Europe east through southwest and central Asia and the Himalaya to southwest China. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Binomial name L. The Black Walnut or American Walnut (Juglans nigra L.) is a native of eastern North America, where it grows, mostly alongside rivers, from southern Ontario, Canada west to southeast South Dakota, south to Georgia, northern Florida and southwest to central Texas. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Binomial name Juglans ailantifolia Carr. ... Binomial name Juglans cinerea L. The Butternut (Juglans cinerea), also occasionally known as the White Walnut, is a species of walnut native to the eastern United States and southeast Canada, from southern Quebec west to Minnesota, south to northern Alabama and southwest to northern Arkansas. ... Binomial name Maxim. ... Image File history File links Juglans ailantifolia (Japanese Walnut) - photo MPF File links The following pages link to this file: Walnut Japanese Walnut ... Image File history File links Juglans ailantifolia (Japanese Walnut) - photo MPF File links The following pages link to this file: Walnut Japanese Walnut ... Binomial name Juglans regia L. The Persian Walnut (Juglans regia) is a walnut native from the Balkans in southeast Europe east through southwest and central Asia and the Himalaya to southwest China. ... Balkan redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ...


The scientific name Juglans is from the Latin jovis glans, "Jupiter's acorn", and regia, "royal". Its common name, Persian walnut, indicates its origins in Persia (Iran) in southwest Asia; 'walnut' derives from the Germanic wal- for "foreign", recognising that it is not a nut native to northern Europe. In Kyrgyzstan alone there are 230,700 ha of walnut-fruit forest, where J. regia is the dominant overstorey (Hemery and Popov 1998). This is the species which is widely cultivated for its delicious nuts. J. regia is also called English walnut because English merchant marines once controlled its world commerce. For other uses, see Nut (disambiguation). ...


The Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) is a common species in its native eastern North America, and is also widely cultivated elsewhere. The nuts are edible, but have a smaller kernel and an extremely tough shell, and they are not widely grown for nut production. Binomial name L. The Black Walnut or American Walnut (Juglans nigra L.) is a native of eastern North America, where it grows, mostly alongside rivers, from southern Ontario, Canada west to southeast South Dakota, south to Georgia, northern Florida and southwest to central Texas. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ...


The Butternut (Juglans cinerea) is also native to eastern North America, where it is currently endangered by an introduced disease, butternut canker, caused by the fungus Sirococcus clavigignenti. Its leaves are 40-60 cm long, and the nuts oval. Binomial name Juglans cinerea L. The Butternut (Juglans cinerea), also occasionally known as the White Walnut, is a species of walnut native to the eastern United States and southeast Canada, from southern Quebec west to Minnesota, south to northern Alabama and southwest to northern Arkansas. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... Butternut canker on a stem Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum (butternut canker) is a fungus that causes a lethal canker disease of Juglans cinerea (Butternut) trees. ... Subkingdom/Phyla Chytridiomycota Blastocladiomycota Neocallimastigomycota Glomeromycota Zygomycota Dikarya (inc. ...


The Japanese Walnut (Juglans ailantifolia) is similar to Butternut, distinguished by the larger leaves up to 90 cm long, and round (not oval) nuts. Binomial name Juglans ailantifolia Carr. ...

Hybrids
  • Juglans x bixbyi Rehd. - J. ailantifolia x J. cinerea
  • Juglans x intermedia Carr. - J. nigra x J. regia
  • Juglans x notha Rehd. - J. ailantifolia x J. regia
  • Juglans x quadrangulata (Carr.) Rehd. - J. cinerea x J. regia
  • Juglans x sinensis (D. C.) Rehd. - J. mandschurica x J. regia
  • Juglans x paradox Burbank - J. hindsii x J. regia
  • Juglans x royal Burbank - J. hindsii x J. nigra

Cultivation and uses

Walnut output in 2005
Walnut output in 2005

The two most commercially important species are J. regia for timber and nuts, and J. nigra for timber. Both species have similar cultivation requirements and are widely grown in temperate zones. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of walnut output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (China - 499,070 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of walnut output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (China - 499,070 tonnes). ...


Walnuts are light-demanding species that benefit from protection from wind. Walnuts are also very hardy against drought.


Interplanting walnut plantations with a nitrogen fixing plant such as Elaeagnus × ebbingei or E. umbellata, and various Alnus species results in a 30% increase in tree height and girth (Hemery 2001). Nitrogen fixation is the process by which nitrogen is taken from its relatively inert molecular form (N2) in the atmosphere and converted into nitrogen compounds (such as, notably, ammonia, nitrate and nitrogen dioxide)[1] useful for other chemical processes. ...


When grown for nuts care must be taken to select cultivars that are compatible for pollination purposes, although some cultivars are marketed as "self fertile" they will generally fruit better with a different pollination partner. There are many different cultivars available for growers, offering different growth habit, flowering and leafing, kernel flavour and shell thickness. A key trait for more northerly latitudes of N. America and Europe is phenology, with ‘late flushing’ being particularly important to avoid frost damage in Spring. Some cultivars have been developed for novel ‘hedge’ production systems developed in Europe and would not suit more traditional orchard systems. This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... Phenology is the study of the times of recurring natural phenomena. ...


Nuts

Inside of a Persian Walnut nut with green outer layer visible in the top left corner
Inside of a Persian Walnut nut with green outer layer visible in the top left corner

The nuts of all the species are edible, but the walnuts commonly available in stores are from the Persian Walnut, the only species which has a large nut and thin shell. A horticultural form selected for thin nut shells and hardiness in temperate zones is sometimes known as the 'Carpathian' walnut. The nuts are rich in oil, and are widely eaten both fresh and in cookery. Walnut oil is expensive and consequently is used sparingly; most often in salad dressing. Oil paint also often employs walnut oil as an effective binding medium, known for its clear, glossy consistency and non-toxicity. Walnuts are also an excellent source of omega-3 fatty acids, and have been shown as helpful in lowering cholesterol. They need to be kept dry and refrigerated to store well; in warm conditions they become rancid in a few weeks, particularly after shelling. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1071, 294 KB) Walnut File links The following pages link to this file: Walnut Juglandaceae ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1071, 294 KB) Walnut File links The following pages link to this file: Walnut Juglandaceae ... For other uses, see Nut (disambiguation). ... Walnut oil was one of the most important and vital oils of the Renaissance. ... Cooking is the act of preparing food for consumption. ... —Cleopatra, in Shakespeares Antony and Cleopatra, 1606 A salad is a food item generally served either prior to or after the main dish as a separate course, as a main course in itself, or as a side dish accompanying the main dish. ... View of Delft in oil paint, by Johannes Vermeer. ... Omega-3 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids found in certain fish tissues, and in vegetable sources such as flax seeds, walnuts, and canola oil. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ...

Persian Walnuts
Persian Walnuts

In some countries immature nuts in their husks are preserved in vinegar. In England these are called "pickled walnuts" and this is one of the major uses for fresh nuts from the small scale plantings. In Armenian cuisine, walnuts are preserved in sugar syrup and eaten whole. In Italy, liqueurs called Nocino and Nocello are flavoured with walnuts. In Georgia, walnuts are ground along with other ingredients to make walnut sauce. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 456 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Walnut User:Fir0002/Fir0002 gallery ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 456 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Walnut User:Fir0002/Fir0002 gallery ... Armenian cuisine is as ancient as the history of Armenia, and a combination of different tastes and aromas. ... Bottles of strawberry liqueur A liqueur is a sweet alcoholic beverage, often flavoured with fruits, herbs, spices, flowers, seeds, roots, plants, barks, and sometimes cream. ... Nocino is a sticky dark brown liqueur from Emilia-Romagna and is made from unripe green walnuts steeped in spirit. ... A bottle of Nocello Nocello is a walnut- and hazelnut-flavored liqueur from Italy. ... Walnut sauce (also known as walnut paste) is a food paste with origins in Iranian cuisine made primarily from walnuts and especially popular in Georgian cuisine. ...


Walnuts are heavily used in India. In Jammu, India it is used widely as a prasad (offering) to Mother Goddess Vaisnav Devi and, generally, as a dry food in the season of festivals such as Diwali. Diwali,or Deepawali, (also called Tihar and Swanti in Nepal) (Markiscarali) is a major Indian and Nepalese festive holiday. ...


Walnut husks are often used to create a rich yellow-brown to dark brown dye that is used for dyeing fabric and for other purposes. When picking walnuts, the husks should be handled wearing rubber gloves, to avoid dyeing one's fingers. Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ...


Wood

Walnut shoot cut longitudinally to show chambered pith. Scale in mm.
Walnut shoot cut longitudinally to show chambered pith. Scale in mm.

The Persian Walnut, and the Black Walnut and its allies, are important for their attractive timber, which (except in young trees) is hard, dense, tight-grained and polishes to a very smooth finish. The colour ranges from creamy white in the sapwood to a dark chocolate colour in the heartwood. When kiln-dried, walnut wood tends toward a dull brown colour, but when air-dried can become a rich purplish-brown. Because of its colour, hardness and grain it is a prized furniture and carving wood. Walnut burls (or 'burrs' in Europe) are commonly used to create bowls and other turned pieces. Veneer sliced from walnut burl is one of the most valuable and highly prized by cabinet makers and prestige car manufacturers. Walnut wood has been the timber of choice for gun makers for centuries, including the Lee Enfield rifle of the First World War. Today it is used for exclusive sporting guns, by makers such as Purdey of London. The wood of the Butternut and related Asian species is of much lower value, softer, coarser, less strong and heavy, and paler in color. Walnut twig showing chambered pith (scale in mm) Photo User:MPF File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Walnut twig showing chambered pith (scale in mm) Photo User:MPF File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The centre dark spot (about 1 mm diameter) in this yew wood is the pith Elderberry shoot cut longitudinally to show the broad, solid pith (rough-textured, white) inside the wood (smooth, yellow-tinged). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A veneer is a thin covering over something. ... The Lee-Enfield was, in various marks and models, the British Armys standard bolt-action, magazine-fed, repeating rifle for over 60 years from (officially) 1895[2] until 1957[3], although it remained in British service well into the early 1960s and is still found in service in the...


In North America research has been undertaken mostly on Juglans nigra aiming to improve the quality of planting stock and markets. The Walnut Council is the key body linking growers with scientists. In Europe, various EU-led scientific programs have studied walnut growing for timber.[3]


Parkland and garden trees

Walnuts are very attractive trees in parks and large gardens. The Japanese Walnut in particular is grown for its huge leaves, which have a 'tropical' appearance. This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


As garden trees they have some drawbacks, in particular the falling nuts, and the releasing of the allelopathic compound juglone, though a number of gardeners do grow them.[4] Casuarina equisetifolia litter completely suppresses germination of understory plants as shown here despite the relative openess of the canopy and ample rainfall (>120 cm/yr) at the location Allelopathy means that one plant harms another with specific biomolecules. ... Juglone is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C10H6O3. ...


The toxic effect of walnut trees was reported by Pliny.[5] However, different walnut species vary in the amount of juglone they release from the roots and fallen leaves - the black walnut in particular is known for its toxicity.[6] [7] Juglone is toxic to plants such as tomato, apple, and birch and may cause stunting and death of nearby vegetation. Juglone appears to be one of the walnut's primary defence mechanisms against potential competitors for resources (water, nutrients and sunlight), and its effects are felt most strongly inside the tree's "drip line" (the circle around the tree marked by the horizontal distance of its outermost branches). However, even plants at a seemingly great distance outside the drip line can be affected, and juglone can linger in the soil for several years even after a walnut is removed as its roots slowly decompose and release juglone into the soil. Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Binomial name L. The Black Walnut or American Walnut (Juglans nigra L.) is a native of eastern North America, where it grows, mostly alongside rivers, from southern Ontario, Canada west to southeast South Dakota, south to Georgia, northern Florida and southwest to central Texas. ... Casuarina equisetifolia litter completely suppresses germination of understory plants as shown here despite the relative openess of the canopy and ample rainfall (>120 cm/yr) at the location The term allelopathy denotes the production of specific biomolecules by one plant that can induce suffering in, or give benefit to, another... For other uses, see Tomato (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fruit. ... Species Many species; see text and classification Birch is the name of any tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, closely related to the beech/oak family, Fagaceae. ...


Walnut as food plants

Walnuts are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species. These include[citation needed]: A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... The order Lepidoptera is the second most speciose order in the class Insecta and includes the butterflies, moths and skippers. ...

In addition, walnuts are a popular snack among woodland creatures, specifically mice and squirrels. Binomial name Euproctis chrysorrhoea Linnaeus, 1758 The Brown-tail (Euproctis chrysorrhoea) is a moth of the family Lymantriidae. ... Coleophora is a very large genus of moths of the family Coleophoridae with over 750 described species. ... Binomial name Hemithea aestivaria Hübner, 1799 The Common Emerald (Hemithea aestivaria) is a moth of the family Geometridae. ... Binomial name Pavonia pavonia Linnaeus, 1758 The Emperor Moth (Pavonia pavonia) is a moth of the family Saturniidae. ... Binomial name Ectropis crepuscularia Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775 The Engrailed (Ectropis crepuscularia) is a moth of the family Geometridae. ... Binomial name Amorpha juglandis (J. E. Smith, 1797) The Walnut Sphinx (Amorpha juglandis) is a moth of the Sphingidae family. ...


Health aspects of walnuts

A 2006 study published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology found that eating walnuts after a meal high in unhealthy fats can reduce the damaging effects of such fats on blood vessels. Researchers from Barcelona's Hospital Clinic conducted a study on 24 adult participants, half of whom had normal cholesterol levels, and half of whom had moderately high levels of cholesterol. Each group was fed two high-fat meals of salami and cheese, eaten one week apart. During one meal, the researchers supplemented the food with five teaspoons of olive oil. The researcher added eight shelled walnuts to the other meal, the following week. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 361 pixel Image in higher resolution (3444 × 1555 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 361 pixel Image in higher resolution (3444 × 1555 pixel, file size: 2. ... Binomial name Juglans regia L. The Persian Walnut (Juglans regia), also known as Common Walnut or English Walnut, is a species of walnut native from the Balkans in southeast Europe east through southwest and central Asia and the Himalaya to southwest China. ... Categories: Organization stubs | Medical associations ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ...


Tests after each meal showed that both the olive oil and the walnuts helped reduce the onset of dangerous inflammation and oxidation in the arteries after the meals, which were high in saturated fat. However, unlike the olive oil, the walnuts also helped the arteries maintain their elasticity and flexibility, even in the participants with higher cholesterol.


Lead researcher Dr. Emilio Ros said walnuts' protective effects could be because the nuts are high in antioxidants and ALA, a plant-based omega-3 fatty acid. Walnuts also contain arginine, which is an amino acid that the body uses to produce nitric oxide, necessary for keeping blood vessels flexible.[8][9] Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is a polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid. ... Omega-3 fatty acids are a family of polyunsaturated fatty acids which have in common a carbon-carbon double bond in the ω-3 position. ... Arginine (abbreviated as Arg or R)[1] is an α-amino acid. ...


Walnut extract and Alzheimer's

A 2004 study by the NYS Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities (OMRDD) found that walnut extract was able to inhibit and defibrillize (break down) fibrillar amyloid beta protein - the principal component of amyloid plaques in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's. The study looked at the effect of walnut extract on amyloid beta protein fibrillization by Thioflavin T fluorescence spectroscopy and electron microscopy.[10] Similarly, in a study done at Baldwin-Wallace College in Berea, Ohio it was found that two of its major components in walnuts, gallic and ellagic acid, act as "dual-inhibitors" of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase which, in association with amyloid-ß, inhibits protein aggregation, and will also inhibit the site of acetylcholinesterase responsible for the breakdown of acetylcholine.[11] The Office of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities (OMRDD) is an independent agency in the state of New York, whose mission is to provide services and conduct research for those with mental retardation and developmental disabilities. ... Amyloid beta (Aβ or Abeta) is a peptide of 39-43 amino acids that is the main constituent of amyloid plaques in the brains of Alzheimers disease patients. ... For other uses, see Amyloid (disambiguation). ... The human brain In animals, the brain (enkephalos) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... Alzheimers disease (AD) or senile dementia of Alzheimers type is a neurodegenerative disease which results in a loss of mental functions due to the deterioration of brain tissue. ... Amyloid beta (Aβ or Abeta) is a peptide of 39-43 amino acids that is the main constituent of amyloid plaques in the brains of Alzheimers disease patients. ... Thioflavin T mw: 318. ... Fluorescence spectroscopy or fluorometry is a type of electromagnetic spectroscopy used for analyzing fluorescent spectra. ... The electron microscope is a microscope that can magnify very small details with high resolving power due to the use of electrons rather than light to scatter off material, magnifying at levels up to 500,000 times. ... Baldwin-Wallace College is a small, liberal arts college in Berea, Ohio. ... Berea is a city in Cuyahoga County in the U.S. state of Ohio, and is a suburb of Cleveland, Ohio. ... Chemical structure of gallic acid Gallic acid is an organic acid, also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, found in gallnuts, sumac, witch hazel, tea leaves, oak bark, and other plants. ... Ellagic acid C14 H6 O8 CAS No. ... Look up ache in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Amyloid beta (Aβ or Abeta) is a peptide of 39-43 amino acids that is the main constituent of amyloid plaques in the brains of Alzheimers disease patients. ... The chemical compound acetylcholine, often abbreviated as ACh, was the first neurotransmitter to be identified. ...


These results suggest that walnuts may reduce the risk or delay the onset of Alzheimer's disease by maintaining amyloid beta protein in the soluble form and prevent the breakdown of acetylcholine.[12] Amyloid beta (Aβ or Abeta) is a peptide of 39-43 amino acids that is the main constituent of amyloid plaques in the brains of Alzheimers disease patients. ... The chemical compound acetylcholine, often abbreviated as ACh, was the first neurotransmitter to be identified. ...


Walnuts in Chinese medicine

In Traditional Chinese Medicine, walnut seeds are primarily considered a kidney tonic. They are also considered beneficial to the brain, back, and skin, and to relieve constipation if it is caused by dehydration.[13] Traditional Chinese medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... Tonic may mean: A concept from musical harmony and musical theory: see Tonic (music); A carbonated beverage flavoured with quinine, used in cocktails: see Tonic water. ... The human brain In animals, the brain (enkephalos) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... Look up Back in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ... Constipation or irregularity, is a condition of the digestive system where a person (or animal) experiences hard feces that are difficult to egest; it may be extremely painful, and in severe cases (fecal impaction) lead to symptoms of bowel obstruction. ...


References

  1. ^ http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?l=w&p=1
  2. ^ http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?l=w&p=1
  3. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/factual/opencountry_20020330.shtml
  4. ^ http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1082/is_n4_v40/ai_18629649
  5. ^ http://www.wvu.edu/~agexten/hortcult/fruits/blkwalnt.htm
  6. ^ http://counties.cce.cornell.edu/yates/mg%20articles/MG4.25.01.htm
  7. ^ Помогайбин А.В., Кавеленова Л.М., Силаева О.Н. (2002). Некоторые особенности химического состава и биологической активности листового отпада видов рода орех (Juglans L.) при интродукции в Среднем Поволжье. Химия растительного сырья 4, 43-47.
  8. ^ Journal of the American College of Cardiology - Oct. 17, 2006 edition
  9. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/6036409.stm
  10. ^ [1] Walnut Extract Inhibits the Fibrillization of Amyloid Beta-Protein, and also Defibrillizes its Preformed Fibrils
  11. ^ [2] Diet Of Walnuts, Blueberries Improve Cognition; May Help Maintain Brain Function
  12. ^ Current Alzheimer Research, Volume 1, Number 3, August 2004, pp. 183-188(6)
  13. ^ http://www.acupuncture.com/nutrition/walnuts1.htm

See also

Species See text Comparison of Carya nuts Ripe hickory nuts ready to fall, Andrews, SC Hickory is a tree of the genus Carya, including 17-19 species of deciduous trees with pinnately compound leaves and large nuts. ... Binomial name Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Walnut - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (686 words)
The best-known member of the genus is the Persian Walnut or Common Walnut (Juglans regia), native from the Balkans in southeast Europe, southwest and central Asia to the Himalaya and southwest China.
Walnuts are also an excellent source of omega-3 fatty acids, and have been shown as helpful in lowering cholesterol.
Walnut nut husks are often used to create a rich yellow-brown to dark brown dye that is used for dyeing fabric and for other purposes.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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