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Encyclopedia > Walmart
Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.
Image:walmartlogo.png
Type Public
Founded Rogers, Arkansas, 1962
Location Bentonville, Arkansas
Key people Sam Walton 1918-1992, Founder
H. Lee Scott, CEO
S. Robson Walton, Chairman
Industry Retail (Department & Discount)
Products Wal-Mart Discount Stores
Wal-Mart Supercenter
Sam's Club
Neighborhood Markets
Revenue $288 billion USD ( image:green up.png$29B FY 2005)
Website www.walmartstores.com

Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. (NYSE: WMT (http://www.nyse.com/about/listed/lcddata.html?ticker=WMT)), founded by Sam Walton in 1962, is the largest retailer and largest company in the world based on revenue. In the fiscal year ending January 31, 2005, Wal-Mart reported net income of US$10.3 billion on US$285.2 billion of sales revenue (3.6% profit margin). If Wal-Mart were its own economy, it would rank 23rd in the world, with a GDP between Austria and Saudi Arabia. It is the largest private employer in the United States, Mexico and Canada. It holds a 8.9 percent retail store market share—$8.90 out of every $100 spent in U.S. retail stores is spent at Wal-Mart. Wal*Mart logo Not GFDL. Corporate logo of Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. ... Literally a public company is a company owned by the public. ... Wiktionary has a definition of: Foundation This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Rogers is a city located in Benton County, Arkansas. ... 1962 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Bentonville is a city located in Benton County, Arkansas. ... Samuel Moore Walton (March 29, 1918 - April 5, 1992) was the founder of the giant American retailer Wal-Mart. ... 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1992 is a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... H. Lee Scott, Jr. ... Samuel Robson (Rob) Walton, born 1944, is eldest son of Sam Walton, founder of Wal-Mart, the worlds most powerful retailer. ... In commerce, a retailer buys goods or products in large quantities from manufacturers or importers, either directly or through a wholesaler, and then sells individual items or small quantities to the general public or end user customers, usually in a shop, also called store. ... Exterior of a typical new Wal-Mart store. ... Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. ... Sams Club in Plano, Texas Typical Sams Club Sams Club is a membership-only warehouse club owned and operated by Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. ... Categories: Stub | Wal-Mart ... In business, revenue is the amount of money that a company actually receives from its activities, mostly from sales of products and/or services to customers. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... Green up arrow for a positive change in revenue from last fiscal year. ... A fiscal year or financial year is a 12-month period used for calculating annual (yearly) financial reports in businesses and other organizations. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ... The front page of the English Wikipedia website. ... New York Stock Exchange (June 2003) The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) is the second largest stock exchange in the world. ... Samuel Moore Walton (March 29, 1918 - April 5, 1992) was the founder of the giant American retailer Wal-Mart. ... 1962 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... In commerce, a retailer buys goods or products in large quantities from manufacturers or importers, either directly or through a wholesaler, and then sells individual items or small quantities to the general public or end user customers, usually in a shop, also called store. ... In UK law, a company is an artificial legal person with a separate identity from its members. ... In business, revenue is the amount of money that a company actually receives from its activities, mostly from sales of products and/or services to customers. ... January 31 is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ... Net income is equal to the income that a firm can get after subtracting Cost of goods sold, sales discounts, sales returns and allowances (the above three items are all only for a merchandizing company) and expenses from the total revenue. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... Usage in this encyclopedia One billion = 109 unless otherwise noted. ... Sales, or the activity of selling, forms an integral part of commercial activity. ... Profit margin is a measure of profitability. ... Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. ... Market share, in strategic management and marketing, is the percentage or proportion of the total available market or market segment that is being serviced by a company. ...


Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. is classified as 45291 (Warehouse Clubs and Superstores) and 45299 (All Other General Merchandise Stores) using NAICS. NAICS, (pronounced nakes) is the North American Industry Classification System. ...

Contents

History

A Wal-Mart advertisement, showing a Wal-Mart greeter.
  • 1962 First Wal-Mart store opens in Rogers, Arkansas
  • 1969 The company incorporates as Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. on Oct. 31.
  • 1972 Wal-Mart listed on the New York Stock Exchange.
  • 1983 First Sam's Club opens in Midwest City, Oklahoma.
  • 1987 Wal-Mart completes largest private satellite communication system in the U.S.
  • 1988 First Supercenter opens in Washington, Missouri.
  • 1990 Wal-Mart becomes nation's largest retailer.
  • 1991 The first store outside of the U.S. opens, in Mexico City.
  • 1994 Wal-Mart acquires 122 Woolco stores in Canada.
  • 1996 Wal-Mart enters China through a joint-venture agreement.
  • 1997 Wal-Mart replaces Woolworth on the Dow Jones Industrial Average.
  • 1997 Wal-Mart becomes largest private employer in the United States, with 680,000 employees worldwide.
  • 1997 Wal-Mart has its first $100 billion sales year.
Another Wal-Mart advertisement
  • 1999 Wal-Mart has 1,140,000 employees, making it the largest private employer in the world. It acquires the ASDA Group with 229 stores in the United Kingdom.
  • 2003 Wal-Mart sets a single-day sales record of $1.52 billion on Black Friday.
  • 2004 Wal-Mart buys the Amigo supermarket chain in Puerto Rico for $17 million.
  • 2004 Wal-Mart employees in Jonquière, Quebec, Canada vote in favor of becoming the first unionized Wal-Mart in North America. Five months later, Wal-Mart announces that it would close the store.
  • 2005 Wal-Mart launches http://www.walmartfacts.com in a public relations effort to counter critics.

The Wal-Mart smiley face, entering past a store greeter, in an ad This work is copyrighted. ... The Wal-Mart smiley face, entering past a store greeter, in an ad This work is copyrighted. ... Rogers is a city located in Benton County, Arkansas. ... Incorporation is: In business, incorporation is the creation of a corporation. ... Midwest City is a major city located in Oklahoma County, Oklahoma. ... Washington is a city located in Franklin County, Missouri, USA. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 13,243. ... Mexico City (Spanish: Ciudad de México) is the federal capital of, and largest city in, Mexico. ... Woolco was a discount retail chain, founded in 1962, as a division of Woolworth. ... A joint venture is a business relationship between two or more parties to undertake economic activity together. ... The F.W. Woolworth Company (NYSE: FL) (formerly Z) was a United States brand name of retail stores. ... The Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) is one of several stock market indices created by Wall Street Journal editor and Dow Jones & Company founder Charles Dow. ... The Wal-Mart smiley face, next to a store clerk, revealing herself from under a Smiley mask, in an ad This work is copyrighted. ... The Wal-Mart smiley face, next to a store clerk, revealing herself from under a Smiley mask, in an ad This work is copyrighted. ... This article is about the supermarket chain, for other meanings, see ASDA (disambiguation) ASDA is a chain of supermarkets in the United Kingdom offering food, clothing and general merchandise products. ... Black Friday (also called Blitz Day), the day after Thanksgiving in the United States, is historically one of the busiest retail shopping days of the year. ... Amigo Supermarkets (Supermercados Amigo) was a Puerto Rican Supermarket company. ... Jonquière was a city on the Saguenay River in the Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean region of Quebec, Canada, near Chicoutimi. ... ... Public relations (PR) deals with influencing public opinion, through the presentation a clients image, message, or product. ...

Business

Wal-Mart operates discount retail department stores selling a broad range of products such as clothing, consumer electronics, drugs, sporting goods, toys, hardware, CDs and books. It typically stocks basic rather than premium products. Wal-Mart also operates "Supercenters" which include a full line of grocery items. Wal-Mart also operates Sam's Club; these are "warehouse clubs" which, like Costco, require membership dues and sell merchandise in wholesale quantities at wholesale prices. (See also List of types of clothing and Clothing terminology) Humans often wear articles of clothing (also known as dress, garments or attire) on the body (for the alternative, see nudity). ... Consumer electronics is electronic equipment intended for use by everyday people. ... Many drugs are provided in tablet form. ... Sports equipment includes any object used for sport or exercise. ... Green Razor Scooter This article is about things that people play with. ... Hardware is equipment such as fasteners, keys, locks, hinges, wire, chains, plumbing supplies, tools, utensils, cutlery and machine parts, especially when they are made of metal. ... Size of CD compared to pencil. ... A book is a collection of leaves of paper, parchment or other material, bound together along one edge within covers. ... Sams Club in Plano, Texas Typical Sams Club Sams Club is a membership-only warehouse club owned and operated by Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. ... Typical Costco warehouse Costco Wholesale Corporation (NASDAQ: COST) is a membership warehouse club chain, headquartered in Issaquah, Washington, United States, with its flagship Warehouse #1 in nearby Seattle. ...


As of January 2005 Wal-Mart employed 1.3 million people in the United States. Wal-Mart's Home Office is located in Bentonville, Arkansas. Apart from stores and clubs, it also operated 99 Distribution Centers/Transportation Offices in the United States. Internationally Wal-Mart employs over 410,000 people (excluding Japan) for a company-wide total of 1.7 million employees. Wal-Mart is also the largest real estate company in the United States, with an entire division devoted entirely to building new stores, selling old stores, and developing shopping centers around its new and existing stores. In addition to its wholly owned international operations, Wal-Mart owns a 37.8% stake in The Seiyu Co., Ltd. in Japan, with an option to purchase a majority stake in the future. Bentonville is a city located in Benton County, Arkansas. ... The Seiyu, Ltd. ...


In the past Wal-Mart has operated dot Discount Drugs, Bud's Discount City, Hypermart*USA, OneSource Nutrition Centers, and Save-Co Home Improvement stores. In 1990 Wal-Mart acquired The McLane Company, a foodservice distributor. In 2003 McLane Company was sold to Berkshire Hathaway. Berkshire Hathaway ( NYSE: BRKa) is a company headquartered in Omaha, Nebraska, USA, that oversees and manages a number of subsidiary companies. ...


Wal-Mart stock is publicly traded at the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol WMT. As of March 31, 2004, there were 333,604 shareholders of Wal-Mart's common stock.


Retail operations

Main article: List of assets owned by Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. ...

Wal-Mart operates 5 major retail formats under 3 retail divisions: Wal-Mart Retail Format Logos This is a copyrighted and/or trademarked logo. ...

  • Wal-Mart Stores USA
    • Wal-Mart Discount Stores — Average 100,000 square feet (9,290 m²) and include a selection of general merchandise, including apparel, electronics, health and beauty aids, toys, sporting goods, and household products.
    • Wal-Mart Supercenter — Average 187,000 square feet (17,400 m²) and combine a standard Wal-Mart Discount Store with a full-line supermarket. (commonly known as big box stores)
    • Wal-Mart Neighborhood Market — Average 43,000 square feet (4,000 m²) and include grocery, pharmacy, and limited general merchandise products.
    • Walmart.com — Online shopping site that offers merchandise different from that in stores. The walmart.com site also offers digital music downloads and online photo processing.
  • SAM'S CLUB — a membership-only wholesale warehouse club focused mainly on serving small business owners. Clubs average 128,000 square feet (11,891 m²).
  • Wal-Mart International — operates various formats internationally, including (but not limited to) SAM'S CLUB, Discount Stores, Supercenters, Supermarkets, and restaurants.
Exterior of a typical Wal-Mart store.

Big box store is a colloquial term used to describe a retail store housed in a rectangular, one-floor building with a high ceiling. ... Download high resolution version (1178x768, 67 KB)Description: Photograph of a Wal-Mart store exterior Source: Photograph taken by Jared C. Benedict on 22 February 2004. ... Download high resolution version (1178x768, 67 KB)Description: Photograph of a Wal-Mart store exterior Source: Photograph taken by Jared C. Benedict on 22 February 2004. ...

Store counts & revenue

Current store counts and revenue for Fiscal Year Ending January 31, 2005 (revenue amounts in U.S. Dollars):

ASDA in the United Kingdom is the largest of the international businesses by sales. An insular area of the United States is a jurisdiction that is neither a part of one of the fifty states nor a part of the District of Columbia, the nations federal district. ... This article is about the supermarket chain, for other meanings, see ASDA (disambiguation) ASDA is a chain of supermarkets in the United Kingdom offering food, clothing and general merchandise products. ...


Competition

Wal-Mart's chief competitors in the discount retail space nationally include the Kmart Corporation and the Target Corporation, along with many smaller regional chains. Wal-Mart's move into grocery has also positioned it against major grocery chains such as Kroger, Publix, and local grocery chains. In the Sam's Club warehouse business, Wal-Mart's chief competitor is Costco, which is much larger than Sam's in terms of sales, but with fewer locations, some analysts believe that Costco has an advantage over Sam's due to the fact that Costco offers better pay and benefits to employees, thereby helping to eliminate contempt for their employer and encourage more productivity. The Kmart Corporation (NYSE: KMRT), based in Troy, Michigan, near Detroit, functions as a global retailer, based primarily in the United States of America. ... Target Corporation (NYSE: TGT) was founded in Minneapolis, Minnesota in 1902. ... Kroger Co. ... Publix is celebrating its 75th anniversary in 2005. ... Typical Costco warehouse Costco Wholesale Corporation (NASDAQ: COST) is a membership warehouse club chain, headquartered in Issaquah, Washington, United States, with its flagship Warehouse #1 in nearby Seattle. ...


Philanthropy

In 2004, cash donations to charities by Wal-Mart, its employees, and its customers made through Wal-Mart, the Wal-Mart Foundation and the Sam's Club Foundation totaled more than $170 million (less than 0.06% of Wal-Mart's gross revenue, less than 1.7% of profit).


Employees

Wal-Mart refers to its employees as "associates," and encourages managers to think of themselves as "servant leaders." Each shift at every store, club, and distribution center (theoretically) starts with a store-wide meeting where managers discuss with hourly associates daily sales figures, company news, and goals for the day. Servant leadership is an approach to leadership development, advanced by such authors as Robert Greenleaf and Peter Block, that emphasizes the leaders role as steward of the resources (human, financial and otherwise) provided by the organization. ...


All Wal-Mart stores have employees referred to as "People Greeters." They welcome people to the store and prevent shoplifting. At Sam's Club these employees inspect the contents of the shopping carts of every exiting customer and check them off item by item against the printed receipt; however, nonmember U.S. customers may legally refuse to reveal the contents of their purchase.


U.S. Senator Hillary Clinton (Democrat, New York) formerly worked as a lawyer for Wal-Mart and also served on its Board of Directors. Seal of the Senate The Senate is one of the two houses of the Congress of the United States, the other being the House of Representatives. ... Hillary Clinton Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26, 1947), was First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001, as the wife of President Bill Clinton. ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... A lawyer is a person licensed by the state to advise clients in legal matters and represent them in courts of law (and in other forms of dispute resolution). ... A board of directors is a group of individuals chosen by the stockholders of a company to promote their interests through the governance of the company. ...


Key employees

Executive Board
S. Robson Walton Chairman of the Board
H. Lee Scott, Jr. President, CEO, Director (2004 Compensation: $12,444,790 USD)
Thomas M. Schoewe CFO (2004 Compensation: $2,681,682 USD)
Non Executive Board
David D. Glass Chairman of the Executive Committee, Director
James W. Breyer Director
Michele M. Burns Director
Roland A. Hernandez Director
John D. Opie Director
Paul J. Reason Director
Jack C. Shewmaker Director
Jose H. Villarreal Director
John T. Walton Director
Christopher J. Williams Director
Senior Management (non-exhaustive list)
John B. Menzer EVP and President and CEO, Wal-Mart International Division
Michael T. Duke EVP and President and CEO, Wal-Mart Stores Division
Eduardo Castro-Wright EVP and COO, Wal-Mart Stores Division
Linda M. Dillman EVP and CIO
Rollin L. Ford EVP, Logistics and Supply Chain
Lawrence V. Jackson EVP, People Division (Chief HR Officer)
Charles M. Holley, Jr. SVP, CAO, Controller
Thomas D. Hyde EVP, Legal and Corporate Affairs, Corporate Secretary
Karen Stuckey SVP of Product Development, Wal-Mart Stores USA
Kevin B. Turner EVP; President and CEO, SAM'S CLUB

Samuel Robson (Rob) Walton, born 1944, is eldest son of Sam Walton, founder of Wal-Mart, the worlds most powerful retailer. ... The Chairman of the board is the leader of a corporate board of directors, see chairman. ... H. Lee Scott, Jr. ... Chief Executive Officer (CEO) is the job of having the ultimate executive responsibility or authority within an organization or corporation. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... CFO is usually short for Chief Financial Officer, but may also mean: Carrier frequency offset Ceramic fiber optics Chief Fire Officer Chief of Flight Operations Conselho Federal de Odontologia (cfo. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... David D. Glass is the chairman of the executive committee of the board of directors of Wal-Mart. ... The abbreviation EVP may refer to: The Evangelical Peoples Party of Switzerland, a political party. ... Chief Executive Officer (CEO) is the job of having the ultimate executive responsibility or authority within an organization or corporation. ... The abbreviation EVP may refer to: The Evangelical Peoples Party of Switzerland, a political party. ... Chief Executive Officer (CEO) is the job of having the ultimate executive responsibility or authority within an organization or corporation. ... The abbreviation EVP may refer to: The Evangelical Peoples Party of Switzerland, a political party. ... COO may stand for: Cell of origin (physiology) Cell of origin (telecommunications) Chief operating officer (business) Coo: name of a belgian village. ... The abbreviation EVP may refer to: The Evangelical Peoples Party of Switzerland, a political party. ... CIO may mean: Chief Information Officer, a corporate title Congress of Industrial Organizations, a US trade union confederation the Central Imagery Office, a predecessor organization of the National Geospatial_Intelligence Agency This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The abbreviation EVP may refer to: The Evangelical Peoples Party of Switzerland, a political party. ... The abbreviation EVP may refer to: The Evangelical Peoples Party of Switzerland, a political party. ... The abbreviation SVP can stand for the Schweizerische Volkspartei (Swiss Peoples Party); or the Südtiroler Volkspartei (South Tyrolese Peoples Party). ... The letters CAO are used to denote several things: The Central Applications Office, the organisation that oversees tertiary education applications in the Republic of Ireland Computer-aided optimization The Chief Administrative Officer of a company Computer Assisted Ordering - See barcode Collectieve Arbeids Overeenkomst (Collective Work Agreement), a Dutch term for... The abbreviation EVP may refer to: The Evangelical Peoples Party of Switzerland, a political party. ... The abbreviation SVP can stand for the Schweizerische Volkspartei (Swiss Peoples Party); or the Südtiroler Volkspartei (South Tyrolese Peoples Party). ... The abbreviation EVP may refer to: The Evangelical Peoples Party of Switzerland, a political party. ... Chief Executive Officer (CEO) is the job of having the ultimate executive responsibility or authority within an organization or corporation. ...

Financial success

Wal-Mart is financially successful by any measure. For example, Wal-Mart is now the top grocery chain in the United States, with 14 percent of all grocery sales in the country, with nearly twice the sales of Kroger ($95 billion vs. $51 billion). Wal-Mart also does 20 percent of the retail toy business. Sam Walton's family's holdings in Wal-Mart if combined would comprise the nation's largest fortune; at $100 billion combined they are significantly ahead of Bill Gates. Kroger Co. ... Bill Gates William Henry Gates III (born October 28, 1955), commonly known as Bill Gates, is an American businessman and a microcomputer pioneer. ...


Different explanations have been offered for this success:

  • The company has always paid a great deal of attention to site selection; in the company's early years, Sam Walton would fly over small towns in a private plane to identify prospective locations. The company claims it analyzes potential locations to find those that would support "one and a half" stores.
  • Wal-Mart benefits from economies of scale in manufacturing and logistics; the purchase of massive quantities of items from its suppliers combined with a very efficient stock control system help make Wal-Mart's operating costs lower than those of its competitors. They are leaders in the field of vendor managed inventory—asking large suppliers to oversee stock control for a category and make recommendations to Wal-Mart buyers. This reduces the overhead of having a large inventory control and buying department. Wal-Mart's vast purchasing power also gives it the leverage to force manufacturers to change their production (usually by creating cheaper products) to suit its wishes: a single Wal-Mart order can easily comprise a double-digit percentage of a supplier's annual output.
  • One particular aspect of the economy of scale is the aggregation effect, used in other business such as The Home Depot and Wells Fargo, whereby Wal-Mart sells as many different items as possible. This allows the company to grow revenue over its fixed cost base (more sales out of the same store). This is why Wal-Mart began to sell low margin groceries.
  • Information Systems: Wal-Mart helped push the retail industry to adopt UPC codes and bar-code scanning equipment. Also, Wal-Mart's focus on cost reduction has led to its involvement in a standards effort [1] (http://www.epcglobalinc.org/about/about_epcglobal.html) to use RFID-based Electronic Product Codes to lower the costs of supply chain management. As of June 2004, it has announced plans [2] (http://www.walmartstores.com/wmstore/wmstores/Mainnews.jsp?pagetype=news&template=NewsArticle.jsp&categoryOID=-8300&contentOID=13926&catID=null&prevPage=NewsShelf.jsp&year=2004) to require the use of the technology among its top 300 suppliers by January 2006.
  • Suppliers: A spokesperson for the company told the Wall Street Journal on Nov. 18, 2004 that it imported $15 billion worth of goods from China in the year that ended Jan. 31, 2004. About $7.5 billion were directly imported by Wal-Mart; the other $7.5 came indirectly through suppliers. In the same period net sales reached $256 billion, with $209 billion coming from U.S. operations. U.S. current account imports from China was reported as $152.4 billion during 2003 ([3] (http://www.bea.gov/bea/newsrel/tradannnewsrelease.htm)). Mainland Chinese media place Wal-Mart as their 8th largest trading partner in front of Russia and the UK on the top-10 list.
  • Cost Control: Wal-Mart watches expenses very closely. Hourly employees are threatened with write ups or termination of employment for working so much as one minute of unauthorized overtime. Wal-Mart also squeezes out any inefficiencies in the business such as reducing paper used through computerization. Wal-Mart has closed stores in what critics claim were efforts to avoid the expense of hiring union workers, but which stockholders may see as an effective means of avoiding costs.

... Logistics is the art and science of managing and controlling the flow of goods, energy, information and other resources. ... What is VMI? In its simplest form, Vendor Managed Inventory is the process where the vendor assumes the task of generating purchase orders to replenish a customer’s inventory. ... The Home Depot (NYSE: HD) is a home improvement retailer that aims for both the do-it-yourself consumer and the professional in home improvement construction. ... Wells Fargo (NYSE: WFC) is a diversified financial services company in the United States, with consumer finance subsidiaries doing business in Canada, the Northern Mariana Islands and the Caribbean. ... An RFID tag used for electronic toll collection Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) is a method of remotely storing and retrieving data using devices called RFID tags/transponders. ... The Electronic Product Code, (EPC), is an electronically coded tag that is intended as an improvement on the UPC barcode system. ... A supply chain is a network of facilities and distribution options that performs the functions of procurement of materials; transformation of these material into intermediate and finished products; and distribution of these finished products to customers. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Wall Street Journal is an influential international daily newspaper published in New York City, New York with an average daily circulation of 1,800,607 (2002). ... The term current account usually refers to the current account of the balance of payments (BOP) and contains the import and export items of goods and services as well as transfer payments including net investment income. ...

Criticism

The neutrality of this section is disputed.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Overview

Wal-Mart is the most-frequently sued corporate entity in the United States. Its legal department has a reputation for aggressive and underhanded legal tactics,in many cases where the plaintiff was awarded damages, Wal-Mart has kept the litigation process going indefinitely to spite the person suing them, although recently they have favored out-of-court settlements to avoid negative publicity. Details of specific, major lawsuits are included in article sections below based on each lawsuit's primary subject.


Product controversy

Wal-Mart suppresses freedom of speech and expression by allowing right wing, conservative, and religious viewpoints to influence its product selection, this effectively forces the company's values on customers and suppliers.

  • In 1999, Wal-Mart announced that it would not stock the morning-after pill in its pharmacies.
  • In 2002, Wal-Mart announced that it would not carry magazines it deemed inappropriate or magazines that generated customer complaints. At the time of the announcement, Maxim, FHM and Stuff were removed from stores. Other titles deemed offensive by the company were moved to displays that obscured the magazines' covers. Magazines such as Redbook, Cosmopolitan and Marie Claire were among those magazines relocated. Editors and publishers of these titles criticized the action as an infringement upon editorial freedom.
  • Wal-Mart does not carry music albums marked with RIAA's Parental Advisory Label. The store does carry edited versions of those albums. Record labels release edited versions with obscenities completely removed or overdubbed with less-offensive lyrics. Such versions, sometimes referred to as radio edits, are produced by music publishers to increase retail sales. Notably, albums critical of Wal-Mart itself have been removed from the shelves.
  • In 2004 Wal-Mart sold the notoriously anti-Semitic The Protocols of the Elders of Zion on its website. Most scholars consider the text to be a forgery, but Wal-Mart's product description suggested the text was genuine. The company ceased selling the book in September 2004, citing "a business decision".

1999 is a common year starting on Friday of the Common Era, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... The morning-after pill, or emergency contraception, is a pill regimen that a woman can take up to three days after she has had sexual intercourse to prevent the implantation of a fertilized egg in her uterus. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Maxim magazine Maxim is an international mens magazine that is prominent for depicting popular actresses, singers, and other female celebrities in sexually alluring poses, usually wearing lingerie or other brief attire. ... Cover of a typical magazine, with Rachel Stevens FHM, an acronym for For Him Magazine (or For Horny Men, as the Philippines edition has it), is a monthly mens magazine (of a type known as a lads mag). ... Stuff magazine is an international mens magazine focused on product reviews, but also including interviews and other articles of interest. ... For other uses, see Red Book. ... Cosmopolitan, or simply Cosmo, is a magazine published monthly from New York by the Hearst Corporation. ... Marie Claire is a womens fashion magazine published in France (in French), the United States and the United Kingdom (in English). ... The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) is a special interest group representing the U.S. recording industry, and the body responsible for certifying gold and platinum albums and singles in the USA. For more information about sales data see list of best selling albums and list of best selling... The sticker nowadays is found on most records. ... A record label is a brand created by companies that specialize in manufacturing, distributing and promoting audio and video recordings, on various formats including compact discs, LPs, DVD-Audio, SACDs, and cassettes. ... A radio edit is a remix of a musical performance, intended to be less potentially offensive than the original uncut version. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Anti-Semitism (alternatively spelled antisemitism) is hostility towards Jews (not: Semites - see the Misnomer section further on). ... The Protocols of the (Learned) Elders of Zion is a fraudulent document purporting to describe a plan to achieve Jewish global domination. ... September is the ninth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of four Gregorian months with the length of 30 days. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Supplier relations

As the single largest customer to most of its suppliers, Wal-Mart agressively uses its bargaining power to squeeze lower prices from suppliers. In economics, bargaining power refers to the ability to influence the setting of prices or (nominal) wages, usually arising from some sort of monopoly or monopsony position -- or a non-equilibrium situation in the market. ...


Some suppliers say Wal-Mart has demanded access to their financial statements in order to look for "excessive profit margins." This information can be used as leverage in pricing negotiations.


Former suppliers have stated that Wal-Mart threatens to cease carrying a supplier's entire product line unless the prices of specific products are lowered, sometimes Wal-Mart demands such a low price that the item can only be made in a foreign country such as China. Product lining is the marketing strategy of offering for sale several related products. ...


Competitive practices

Wal-Mart has been prosecuted for predatory pricing behavior, temporarily lowering prices in order to drive competitors out of business and develop local monopolies. Predatory pricing is the practice of a dominant firm selling a product at a loss in order to drive some or all competitors out of the market. ... In economics, a monopoly (from the Greek monos, one + polein, to sell) is defined as a persistent market situation where there is only one provider of a kind of product or service. ...


The company does admit to using certain products as loss leaders to increase business. In marketing, a loss leader is an item that is sold below cost in an effort to stimulate other profitable sales. ...


Political/lobbying activities

Wal-Mart sometimes garners subsidies from local municipalities in exchange for building new stores or distribution centers. Municipalities typically grant these subsidies with the goal of expanding tax or employment bases. In some cases, Wal-Mart has purchased land after successful eminent domain actions by municipalities. Such support from local governments is often extended to Wal-Mart and not to existing, local businesses. In law, eminent domain is the power of the state to appropriate private property for its own use without the owners consent. ...


Local community impacts

Community activists often organize campaigns against proposed new store locations. Critics and academic studies note that Wal-Mart displaces locally owned stores and results in the reduction of locally-owned corporate assets and real estate. Critics compare this sort of practice to that of an absentee landlord. Community organizing is a process by which disempowered people - most often low- and moderate-income people - are brought together to act in their common self-interest. ... Absentee landlord is an economic term for a person who owns and rents out a profit-earning property, but does not live within the propertys local economic region. ...


A 2002 study[4] (http://econwpa.wustl.edu/eps/lab/papers/0303/0303002.pdf) by Emek Basker examined the impact of Wal-Mart on local employment. Basker found that Wal-Mart's entry into a county increased net retail employment in that county by 100 jobs in the short term. Half of this increase disappeared as other retail establishments closed over a five-year period. Basker found an average decrease of 30 retail jobs in neighbouring counties and 25 wholesale jobs in the entered county. Basker concluded that the net change in the number of jobs was not significant. Basker's study did not distinguish between low-paying and high-paying jobs.


In 2004, the University of California, Berkeley published a study which asserted that Wal-Mart's low wages and benefits resulted in an increased burden on the state welfare programs, costing California taxpayers $86 million. 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... University of California, Berkeley The University of California, Berkeley (also known as Cal, UC Berkeley, UCB, or simply Berkeley) is a public coeducational university situated in the foothills of Berkeley, California, USA to the east of San Francisco Bay, overlooking the Golden Gate. ...


A study by the state of Georgia, cited (see below) by California State Assembly member Sally Lieber, points out that a survey of children in the state's subsidized health care system, PeachCare, found that Wal-Mart employed more of the parents of these children than any other employer. More than 10,000 children who qualified for the program had parents working at Wal-Mart. The next largest employer employed the parents of less than 800 children in the program. The California State Assembly is the lower house of the California State Legislature. ...


The "Bland and Boxy" architecture of its buildings has also created problems with members of city planning and architectural community.


Specific instances of community protests

Wal-Mart has sought to open new stores in Chicago and failed due to community pressure. Despite multiple well-funded attempts to develop Supercenters in at least two wards, unions and community groups such as ACORN focused effective community opposition. In September of 2004, Mayor Daley said this of the debate, "Wal-Mart has a PR problem. I feel sorry for them. They've got a big problem." ACORN, the Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now, is the largest community organization of low and moderate-income families in the United States. ... Richard Michael Daley (born April 24, 1942) has been Mayor of Chicago since 1989. ...


In late 2003, the company undertook an unusual step after failing to gain the support of the Inglewood, California City Council for a proposed development of a supercenter. The council had cited a wide range of concerns, including traffic, the environment, labor practices, and public safety. In response, Wal-Mart obtained the signatures of thousands of voters, forcing the council to call a special election. The resulting 71-page measure, Initiative 04-A, asked voters to allow the company to create its supercenter and a collection of chain shops and restaurants on a sixty acre (243,000 m²) parcel near Hollywood Park Racetrack. The proposal exempted the company from all of Inglewood's planning, zoning and environmental regulations. The special election was held April 7, 2004; by a 60-40 margin the Wal-Mart proposal was defeated. 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Inglewood is a city located in Los Angeles County, California, United States. ... Hollywood Park is a thoroughbred racecourse located in Inglewood, California, about 3 miles (5 km) from Los Angeles International Airport and next door to the Great Western Forum. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Complaints about international locations

Wal-Mart has been accused of "insensitive placement of stores" abroad. In 2004, amid local community resistance and protests, both from environmentalists and anti-globalists, Wal-Mart opened a new Superstore in Teotihuacan, Mexico, near ancient Pre-Columbian pyramids. Local opposition characterised the opening as being "extremely symbolic" and "...like planting the staff of globalization in the heart of ancient Mexico". (Quote is from Homero Ardijis, one of the store's lead opponents in the community.)[5] (http://www.democracynow.org/article.pl?sid=04/11/08/1513234) Environmentalism is the support or involvement with the environmental movement by environmentalists. ... Teotihuacan is the largest Pre-Columbian archeological site in the Americas. ... The term Pre-Columbian is used to refer to the cultures of the New World in the era before significant European influence. ... Geometric shape created by connecting a polygonal base to an apex A pyramid is a geometric shape formed by connecting a polygonal base and a point, called the apex, by triangular faces. ... Globalization (or globalisation) is a term used to describe the changes in societies and the world economy that are the result of dramatically increased trade and cultural exchange. ...


Employee/labor relations

(For information on the large-scale impact of Wal-Mart's employment practices, see the local community impacts section.)

Opposition to unions

The target of persistent unionizing efforts, Wal-Mart aggressively resists union attempts. On several occasions, the company has been found to have acted illegally to prevent unionization. Wal-Mart has fired workers sympathetic to unionization, and the company shows anti-union videos in an effort to discourage unionization, the company provides a "Union Hotline" to managers and instructs them to call it when there are signs of union activity at any of the stores, the company then sends representatives from their corporate headquarters to the store in an attempt to spread disinformation about the union and single out union supporters as targets for illegal firings.


In 2000, the meat-cutting department of the Wal-Mart superstore in Jacksonville, Texas voted to unionize. Eleven days later, Wal-Mart eliminated its meat-cutting operations at all Wal-Mart stores and switched to buying pre-cut meats. Likewise, when the employees of a Wal-Mart in Jonquière, Quebec, Canada voted to unionize, Wal-Mart announced that it would close the store for "financial difficulties" even though the Jonquière superstore was more profitable than the neighboring Saguenay superstore which still remains open today. [6] (http://montreal.cbc.ca/regional/servlet/View?filename=qc-walmart20050209) 2000 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jacksonville is a city located in Cherokee County, Texas. ... Jonquière was a city on the Saguenay River in the Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean region of Quebec, Canada, near Chicoutimi. ... ...


On April 30, 2005, Wal-Mart closed the doors at its first North American, unionized, outlet. The closure eliminated almost 200 jobs in the small town of Jonquière, Quebec. Wal-Mart Canada spokesman Kevin Groh, said the store shut at noon April 30 rather than the planned date of May 6 because it no longer had any merchandise. April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining, as the last day in April. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ...


Michael J. Fraser, the union's national director said; "Wal-Mart is trying to send a message to the rest of their employees that if they join a union the same thing could happen to them," The union will be filing unfair labor practice charges against Wal-Mart in Quebec.


The United Food and Commercial Workers Union has drives in at least 25 Canadian stores. Workers at the Jonquiere store received union certification in August,2004 and Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec has the only remaining unionized Wal-Mart in North America. Saint-Hyacinthe (Ville de) town in southwestern Quebec east of Montreal on the Yamaska River. ...


The consulting firm AT Kearny has stated that above all, low labor costs are a big source of cost advantage for Wal-Mart. Wal-Mart's employees might begin at as little as $6 an hour which is 40-60% less than unionized workers at rival discount stores, some employees refer to Wal-Mart's pay scale as the "Communist Compensation Plan" in jest of the "FY 2004 Compensation Plan" in which start out pay for many stores, and the overnight differential went down, and "merit raises" were effectively eliminated.


Wal-Mart's CEO, H. Lee Scott Jr. Scott is on record as saying that Wal-Mart sees no upside to the higher labor costs and "a bunch of work rules". In both cases, Wal-Mart has claimed that the increased costs associated with a unionized workforce would lead to unprofitability at current retail price levels. Rather than raise retail prices, the company elected to eliminate those jobs.


There have been several other votes to unionize at North American stores. In most cases, unionization proposals are defeated by employees, due to employees' fear of corporate retaliation.


The Quebec Labour Relations Board found the company guilty of harassing and intimidating workers trying to join the United Food and Commercial Workers Union at another store in Ste-Foy, Quebec. [7] (http://montreal.cbc.ca/regional/servlet/View?filename=qc-walmart20050225)


In Germany, all companies of considerable size are required by law to consider the views of workers through each company's or store's so-called "workers' council", but Wal-Mart has, so far, failed to comply and have been seriously criticized by the German media.


Treatment of employees

Wal-Mart experiences a high rate of employee turnover (approximately 50% of employees leave every year, according to the company). Wages at Wal-Mart are about 20% less than at other retail stores. Founder Sam Walton once argued that his company should be exempt from the minimum wage. Samuel Moore Walton (March 29, 1918 - April 5, 1992) was the founder of the giant American retailer Wal-Mart. ... The minimum wage is the minimum rate a worker can legally be paid (usually per hour) as opposed to wages that are determined by the forces of supply and demand in a free market. ...


Wal-Mart managers have pressured employees to work "off-the-clock" in order to avoid overtime pay. It remains to be determined whether this is isolated misconduct by individual managers or a policy tacitly encouraged by corporate headquarters. Overtime is the amount of time someone works beyond normal working hours; these may be determined in several ways, by custom (what is considered healthy or reasonable by society), by practices of a given trade or profession, by legislation, or by agreement between employers and workers or their representatives. ...


Since 1997, investigators have found 250 illegal immigrants working at Wal-Mart stores. These individuals were employed by custodial services subcontractors used by Wal-Mart. Many of the janitors worked seven days a week, for sub-minimum wages, without overtime pay or injury compensation. 1997 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... An illegal immigrant is a person who either enters a country illegally, or who enters legally but subsequently violates the terms of their visa, permanent resident permit or refugee permit. ... A subcontractor is an individual or in many cases a business that signs a contract to perform part or all of the obligations of anothers contract. ...


To settle criminal charges relating to these incidents, Wal-Mart paid $11 million in March 2005 without admitting wrongdoing or liability. There were no charges brought against Wal-Mart or any of its employees. Several of the custodial services firms that employed the illegal immigrants pled guilty to criminal charges. 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ...


Wal-Mart, like many large American corporations with low-wage employees, screens potential hires through a drug test and background check, in addition to an intelligence insulting multiple choice personality test, which asks applicants to express their level of agreement with statements such as "rules have to be followed to the letter at all times." (Ehrenreich, 124) Drug testing is a subject of much controversy. ... A background check is a process in which the specifics of an individuals past history are revealed for the purposes of employment or obtaining classified information. ...


Sex discrimination

Wal-Mart has also discriminated against women. A class-action suit alleging sex discrimination, Dukes vs. Wal-Mart, was brought against Wal-Mart. Representing 1.6 million women, it comprised both current and former employees and is based on statistics that show that women working at Wal-Mart are paid less than men in every region and in most job occupations and take longer to enter management positions. It is the largest class-action suit in American history. In June 2004, a California judge ruled against Wal-Mart and in favor of the plaintiffs. Dukes vs. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Imports and globalization

Worldwide, Wal-Mart has become a symbol of globalization to the Anti-globalization movement by encouraging imports and carrying "sweat-shop" products. Globalization (or globalisation) is a term used to describe the changes in societies and the world economy that are the result of dramatically increased trade and cultural exchange. ... Anti-globalization (anti-globalisation) is a political stance of opposition to the perceived negative aspects of globalization. ... A sweatshop is a factory, where people work for a very small wage, producing products such as clothes, toys, shoes, and other consumer goods. ...


Imports

Critics argue that Wal-Mart's pricing pressure forces the relocation of manufacturing capacity to China, because China currently offers the lowest-cost manufacturing environment in the world. Manufacturing is the transformation of raw materials into finished goods for sale, or intermediate processes involving the production or finishing of semi-manufactures. ...


Supporters argue that the shift of manufacturing capacity to China is part of an inevitable trend towards globalization due to China's comparative advantage in labor intensive manufacturing. Globalization (or globalisation) is a term used to describe the changes in societies and the world economy that are the result of dramatically increased trade and cultural exchange. ... In economics, the theory of comparative advantage explains why it can be beneficial for two countries to trade, even though one of them may be able to produce every kind of item more cheaply than the other. ... Labor intensity is the relative proportion of labor (compared to capital) used in a process. ...


In the mid-1990s, Wal-Mart had a "Buy American" campaign, but it was eventually cancelled. As of 2004, about 70% of the products sold in Wal-Mart stores have at least a component manufactured in China. It has been estimated that Wal-Mart alone makes 10% of the US imports from China and if taken separated from the US, it would be China's 8th trading partner, ahead of countries such as Germany and Russia. The growing deficit with China, heavily influenced by Wal-Mart imports, is estimated to have moved over a million American jobs to China.


Use of sweatshop labor

Wal-Mart is criticized for failure to maintain adequate supervision over its foreign suppliers. This lack of supervision has led to incidents where Wal-Mart products have been made using sweatshops or slave labor. Greg Palast reports that Chinese dissident Harry Wu (Wu Hongda) discovered, in 1995, that Wal-Mart was contracting prison "slave labor" in Guangdong Province. Wu and Palast argue that numerous items at Wal-Mart are made by the Chinese People's Liberation Army rather than being "made in America". Slavery is any of a number of related conditions involving control of a person against his or her will, enforced by violence or other clear forms of coercion. ... Greg Palast is a journalist for the British newspaper The Observer and a self-proclaimed expert on corporate power; who works with labor groups and consumer groups. ... Harry Wu, also known as Wu Hongda (吳弘達) is an American citizen who is said to be a Chinese dissident, author of the books Bitter Winds and Troublemaker. ... 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A monument celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, erected in Victoria Tower Gardens, Millbank, Westminster, London Look up Slavery in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Slavery can mean one or more related conditions which involve control of a person against his or her will, enforced by... Guangdong (Simplified Chinese: 广东; Traditional Chinese: 廣東; pinyin: Guǎngdōng; Wade-Giles: Kuang-tung; Kwangtung in older transliteration; Cantonese: gwong2 dung1), is a province on the south coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Peoples Liberation Army (PLA) (Traditional Chinese: 人民解放軍, Simplified Chinese: 人民解放军, pinyin: Rénmín Jiěfàng Jūn), which includes an army, navy, air force, and strategic nuclear forces, serves as the military of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ...


In Bangladesh, Palast reported that in 1992 teenagers were working in "sweatshops" approximately 80 hours per week, at $0.14 per hour, for Wal-Mart contractor Beximco. In 1994, Guatemalan Wendy Diaz reported that, at the age of 13, she had been working for Wal-Mart at $0.30 per hour. (Palast pp. 119-120) 1992 is a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A sweatshop is a factory, where people work for a very small wage, producing a variety of products such as clothes, toys, shoes, and other consumer goods. ... Bangladesh Export Import Company (BEXIMCO) is a Bangladeshi industrial conglomerate. ... 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ...


Wal-Mart responds that simply comparing wage levels leads to inaccurate conclusions. The company also asserts that wages paid to overseas workers are comparable to or exceed local prevailing wages. In that case, the company states that the overseas manufacturing jobs it creates are often an improvement in the quality of life for its employees. The company has also asserted that factory jobs with its suppliers are often safer and healthier than local alternatives, which may include prostitution, the drug trade or scavenging.


See also

Wal-Mart

  • Code Adam, the Wal-Mart child-safety program
  • List of assets owned by Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.
  • Sam's Club

Code Adam is a nationally-recognized missing child safety program in the United States, originally created and promoted by Wal-Mart retail stores in 1994. ... Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. ... Sams Club in Plano, Texas Typical Sams Club Sams Club is a membership-only warehouse club owned and operated by Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. ...

Other

In commerce, a retailer buys goods or products in large quantities from manufacturers or importers, either directly or through a wholesaler, and then sells individual items or small quantities to the general public or end user customers, usually in a shop, also called store. ... Exterior appearance of typical supermarket (Albertsons) Supermarket produce section A supermarket is a store that sells a wide variety of goods including food and alcohol (where permitted), medicine, clothes, and other household products that are consumed regularly. ... This article is about the supermarket chain, for other meanings, see ASDA (disambiguation) ASDA is a chain of supermarkets in the United Kingdom offering food, clothing and general merchandise products. ...

References and external links

Wal-Mart corporate web sites

  • Note 1: Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. Corporate Site (http://www.walmartstores.com/)
  • Note 2: Wal-Mart Foundation (http://www.walmartfoundation.org)
  • Note 3: Wal-Mart Corporate Propaganda site (http://www.walmartfacts.com)

Articles & reports

  • Reclaim Democracy (http://reclaimdemocracy.org/walmart/) huge collection of articles, studies and websites on Wal-Mart. The articles largely are critical of Wal-Mart, but Wal-Mart supporters also are represented and the stories cover much of the best reporting and studies from multiple perspectives.
  • UC Berkeley report on the community impact of Wal-Mart's lower wages (http://laborcenter.berkeley.edu/lowwage/walmart.pdf)(pdf)
  • "Wal-Mart Sells the Marine Corps" (http://montages.blogspot.com/2005/04/wal-mart-sells-marine-corps.html)
  • Wal-Mart's China inventory to hit US$18b this year (http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2004-11/29/content_395728.htm) China Daily, November 29, 2004.
  • BBC Three, Outrageous Fortunes, aired on 26 April 2004, about the workings of Wal-Mart.
  • "Inside the Leviathan" (http://www.nybooks.com/articles/17647) by Simon Head for The New York Review of Books, December 16, 2004
  • Attacking Wal-Mart's Supply Chain (http://montages.blogspot.com/2004/12/attacking-wal-marts-supply-chain.html)
  • "The Wal-Mart You Don't Know" (http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/77/walmart.html), Fast Company, Issue 77, December 2003, Page 68
  • "A distorted lens on Wal-Mart" (http://www.washtimes.com/commentary/20041121-105707-5851r.htm), Bruce Bartlett, Washington Times, November 22, 2004
  • "Job Creation or Destruction? Labor-Market Effects of Wal-Mart Expansion" (http://econwpa.wustl.edu/eps/lab/papers/0303/0303002.pdf), Emek Basker, Dept. of Economics, University of Missouri, 2002.
  • Study of Peachcare (http://democrats.assembly.ca.gov/members/a22/Press/p222004025.htm)
  • Democratic Staff of the House Committee on Education and the Workforce, "Wal-Mart: High Prices for American Workers" (http://edworkforce.house.gov/democrats/WALMARTREPORT.pdf) (PDF file, February 16, 2004)

BBC Three, the replacement for BBC Choice, is a British television channel from the BBC broadcasting only on digital cable, terrestrial and satellite. ... April 26 is the 116th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (117th in leap years). ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Review of Books (or NYRB) is a biweekly magazine on literature, culture, and current affairs published in New York which takes as its point of departure that the discussion of important books is itself an indispensable literary activity. ... December 16 is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Times is a daily newspaper published in Washington, D.C.. It was founded in 1982 as a conservative alternative to the Washington Post by members of the controversial Unification Church. ... November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed by Adobe Systems for representing documents in a manner that is independent of the original application software, hardware, and operating system used to create those documents. ... February 16 is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Documentaries

  • Store Wars (http://www.pbs.org/itvs/storewars/index.html) is a PBS special taking a close look at one community's battle over Wal-Mart.
  • Frontline: Is Walmart Good for America? (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/walmart/) (PBS Frontline documentary on the impact of Walmart in the U.S. and China)

Books about Wal-Mart

  • The Bully of Bentonville: How the High Cost of Wal-Mart's Everyday Low Prices Is Hurting America, by Anthony Bianco (2006)-ISBN 0385513569
  • Data Warehousing: Using the Wal-Mart Model, by Paul Westerman (2000)-ISBN 155860684X
  • How Wal-Mart Is Destroying America and the World: And What You Can Do about It (3rd edition), by Bill Quinn (2005)-ISBN 1580086683
  • In Sam We Trust: The Untold Story of Sam Walton and Wal-Mart, the World's Most Powerful Retailer, by Bob Ortega (1998)-ISBN 0812963776
  • Selling Women Short: The Landmark Battle for Workers' Rights at Wal-Mart, by Liza Featherstone (2004)-ISBN 0465023169
  • Wal-Mart: A Field Guide to America's Largest Company and the World's Largest Employer, by Nelson Lichtenstein (2006)-ISBN 1595580212
  • Wal-Mart: The High Cost of Low Price, by Disinformation Company (2005)-ISBN 1932857249
  • The Wal-Mart Decade: How a New Generation of Leaders Turned Sam Walton's Legacy into the World's #1 Company, by Robert Slater (2003)-ISBN 1591840066
  • The Wal-Mart Triumph: Inside the World's #1 Company, by Robert Slater (2004)-ISBN 1591840430
  • The Wal-Mart Way: The Inside Story of the Success of the World's Largest Company, by Don Soderquist (2005)-ISBN 0785261192
  • What I Learned from Sam Walton: How to Compete and Thrive in a Wal-Mart World, by Michael Bergdahl (2004)-ISBN 0471679984

2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ... 1998 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Other Books and References

Barbara Ehrenreich (born August 26, 1941) is a social critic and essayist. ... 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Greg Palast is a journalist for the British newspaper The Observer and a self-proclaimed expert on corporate power; who works with labor groups and consumer groups. ... The Best Democracy Money Can Buy (ISBN 0452283914, Penguin Plume USA) is a 2002 book written by Greg Palast. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Critics

  • Sprawl Busters (http://www.sprawl-busters.com/), site Al Norman, an activist who helps local "site fights" against big box stores
  • Index of numerous studies on Wal-Mart's economic and social impacts (http://amiba.net/recommended.html#studies) from The American Independent Business Alliance.
  • Wake-Up Wal-Mart (http://www.wakeupwalmart.com/) Join America's Campaign to change Wal-Mart
  • Wal-Mart Watch (http://www.walmartwatch.com/)
  • Wal-Mart Wiki (http://www.walmartwiki.com) Though not strictly critical, this wiki is definitely weighted against Wal-Mart in its current state.
  • Wal-Mart Free NYC (http://walmartfreenyc.blogspot.com) A group fighting to keep New York City Wal-Mart free.

Data


  Results from FactBites:
 
Walmart - definition of Walmart in Encyclopedia (1665 words)
Wal-Mart is the most often sued corporate entity in the United States and has become a symbol of globalization to anti-globalists.
Walmart has a strong anti-labor union policy, and allegations of firing workers sympathetic to labor organization have been made, all new hires are shown a propganda video tape that tells them how "bad" joining a union would be for them and told that they should never sign a union card.
Walmart has recently allowed unionization in their stores in China, where unionization is mandatory, but provides little power for workers as the unions are controlled by the state.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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