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Encyclopedia > Wallis, The Duchess of Windsor
The Duke and Duchess of Windsor on their wedding day.
The Duke and Duchess of Windsor on their wedding day.

Wallis, The Duchess of Windsor previously Wallis Simpson (born Bessie Wallis Warfield; June 19, 1895 or 1896April 24, 1986) was the wife of Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor. She remains a controversial figure in British history. Image File history File links This work is copyrighted. ... Image File history File links This work is copyrighted. ... June 19 is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 195 days remaining. ... 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David Windsor; later The Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was King of Great Britain, Ireland, the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India from the death of his father, George V (1910–36), on...


She was born out of wedlock in humble circumstances, but managed to climb the social ladder with the help of her wealthier relatives. After two unsuccessful marriages, she became the maitresse en titre of Edward, Prince of Wales in 1934. Two years later after the Prince's accession as King-Emperor of the British Empire, the King proposed to marry her. The desire of the King to marry her, a twice-divorced American with two living ex-husbands and a reputation as an opportunist, caused a constitutional crisis in the United Kingdom and the Dominions which ultimately led to the King's abdication in order to marry "the woman I love".[1] The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... A constitutional crisis is a severe breakdown in the smooth operation of government. ... A dominion, often Dominion, is the territory or the authority of a dominus (a lord or master). ... The Instrument of Abdication signed by Edward VIII and his three brothers Like King Henry VIII of England, whose desire to marry Anne Boleyn in the 1530s shook his kingdom, King Edward VIII created an abdication crisis for the United Kingdom and the British Commonwealth in the 1930s when he...


The abdicated King was created Duke of Windsor by his brother, George VI of the United Kingdom and six months after the abdication, the Duke married her. Following her marriage to the former king, she was formally known as The Duchess of Windsor, without the style "Her Royal Highness". Before, during and after World War II, both the Duke and Duchess of Windsor were suspected of being Nazi sympathisers. George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George Windsor) (14 December 1895 - 6 February 1952) became the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, each of the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, upon the unexpected abdication of his brother, Edward VIII. He reigned from 11 December 1936... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


In the 1950s and 1960s she and the Duke shuttled between Europe and the United States, living a life of leisure as society celebrities. After the Duke's death in 1972, she lived in seclusion and was rarely seen in public. Her private life has remained a source of much speculation.

Contents

Birth and childhood

Bessie Wallis (sometimes written "Bessiewallis") Warfield was born in Square Cottage at Monterey Inn, directly across the road from the Monterey Country Club, at the resort of Blue Ridge Summit, Pennsylvania, the only child of Teackle Wallis Warfield by Alice M. Montague.[2] She was born either in 1895 (according to the 1900 census returns)[3] or in 1896 (according to the Duchess herself). Either way, she was born before her parents' marriage, which took place on 19 November 1896.[3] The family later deliberately obscured the birth and marriage dates in order to avoid the social stigma of illegitimacy. She was named Bessie Wallis, in honour of her father and her mother's sister, Bessie Montague, Mrs. David Buchanan Merryman. She was generally known as Wallis. Her father died of tuberculosis in November 1897. For her first few years, she was raised in Baltimore, Maryland in modest, even impoverished, circumstances dependent upon the charity of her much wealthier relatives.[4] Built before 1885, the Monterey Country Club is home to one of the oldest golf courses in the United States. ... Blue Ridge Summit is a town in southeastern Pennsylvania, located at 39. ... Official language(s) English, Pennsylvania Dutch Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... November 19 is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by the mycobacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium bovis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system, lymphatic system, circulatory system, genitourinary system, bones, joints, and even the... Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town[1][2], B-more Motto: The Greatest City in America[3], Get in on it. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,417 sq mi (32,160 km²)  - Width 90 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37°53N to 39°43N  - Longitude 75°4W to 79°33...


In 1901 her maternal aunt, Mrs Merryman, was widowed and the following year Alice and Wallis moved into her large comfortable house at 9 West Chase Street, Baltimore. A fellow pupil at Wallis's school recalled, "She was bright, brighter than all of us. She made up her mind to go to the head of the class, and she did."[5] Wallis was always immaculately dressed and pushed herself hard to do well.[6]


In 1908 Alice Warfield married a second time to John Freeman Rasin, a 37-year-old bachelor. On April 17, 1910 Wallis was confirmed at Protestant Episcopal Christ Church, Baltimore, even though she had never been baptised.[3] Between 1912 and 1914 her uncle, Solomon Warfield paid for her to attend Oldfields School, the most expensive girl's school in Maryland. There she made friends with heiress Renée du Pont, daughter of Senator T. Coleman du Pont of the du Pont family, and Mary Kirk, of Kirk Silverware.[7] April 17 is the 107th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (108th in leap years). ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Oldfields School, founded in Baltimore County in 1867 by Anna Austen McCulloch, is the oldest girls boarding school in Maryland. ... Thomas Coleman du Pont (1863–1930) was an American engineer, and politician, from Greenville, Delaware in New Castle County. ... The Du Pont de Nemours family is a wealthy American family. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


First marriage

In May 1916 she met Earl Winfield Spencer, Jr., a US Navy pilot, at Pensacola, Florida whilst visiting her cousin, Mrs Corinne Mustin.[8] It was at this time that Wallis witnessed two airplane crashes about a fortnight apart, resulting in her life-long fear of flying.[9] On November 8, 1916, they married at Christ Church. Win, as her husband was known, was an alcoholic. He drank even before flying, and once crashed into the sea, mercifully almost unharmed.[10] After the United States entered World War I in 1917 Win was posted to a training base in San Diego, where they remained for the rest of the war and until 1920.[11] In 1920 Edward, the Prince of Wales visited San Diego but he and Wallis never met.[12] Later that year, Win left Wallis for a period of four months, but in the spring of 1921 they rejoined each other in Washington, D.C., where Win had been posted. They soon split up again, and in 1923 when Spencer was posted to the Far East Wallis remained behind, continuing a torrid affair with Argentine diplomat Don Felipe Espil.[13] Wallis sailed out to the Far East in 1924 aboard a troop carrier; during the trip the passengers were so unruly a man was killed and buried at sea.[14] She and Win were briefly reconciled until she fell ill from drinking contaminated water, when she was evacuated to Hong Kong.[15] Earl Winfield Spencer, Jr. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... Pensacola is the name of several cities as well as other things: Pensacola (tribe), a group of Native Americans A number of places in the U.S. state of Florida: Pensacola, Florida An area airport, see Pensacola Regional Airport. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 162 miles (260 km)  - Length 497 miles (800 km)  - % water 17. ... November 8 is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 53 days remaining. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert Henry Asquith Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow... Flag Seal Nickname: Americas Finest City Location Location of San Diego within San Diego County Coordinates , Government County San Diego Mayor City Attorney         City Council District One District Two District Three District Four District Five District Six District Seven District Eight Jerry Sanders (R) Michael Aguirre Scott Peters Kevin... Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar). ...


An Italian diplomat remembered Wallis from her time in China, "Her conversation was brilliant and she had the habit of bringing up the right subject of conversation with anyone she came in contact with and entertaining them on that subject."[16] Wallis travelled around China, and was billeted with Herman and Katherine Rogers, who were to remain long-term friends, whilst in Beijing.[17] According to the wife of one of Win's fellow officers, it was here that Wallis met Count Galeazzo Ciano, had an affair with and became pregnant by him; a botched abortion left her unable to conceive children.[18] By September 1925 Wallis and Win were back in the United States, living apart.[19] They divorced on 10 December 1927.[2] Win continued an association with the Italian fascists, and was made a Knight of the Order of the Crown of Italy by Benito Mussolini in 1936.[19] Beijing [English Pronunciation] (Chinese: 北京 [Chinese Pronunciation]; Pinyin: Běijīng; IPA: ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Galeazzo Ciano. ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Order of the Crown of Italy (Ordine della Corona dItalia) was an Order (decoration) conferred by the Kingdom of Italy. ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. ...


Second marriage

By the time her marriage to Spencer was dissolved, she had already become involved with Ernest Aldrich Simpson, a mild-mannered half-English, half-American shipping executive and former captain in the Coldstream Guards.[20] He divorced his first wife, the former Dorothea Parsons Dechert (by whom he had a daughter, Audrey) to marry Wallis Spencer on July 21, 1928 at the Chelsea Register Office, London.[2] Wallis telegraphed her acceptance of his proposal from Cannes where she was staying with her friends, Mr and Mrs Rogers.[21] Ernest Aldrich Simpson (1895 - 1958) was an Anglo-American shipping executive best known as the second husband of Wallis Simpson, who married the former Edward VIII of the United Kingdom. ... The Coldstream Guards is a regiment of the British Army, part of the Guards Division or Household Division. ... July 21 is the 202nd day (203rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 163 days remaining. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... Statue of Thomas More on Cheyne Walk. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For the annual festival, see Cannes Film Festival. ...


The Simpsons temporarily set up home in a Mayfair furnished house with four servants.[22] In 1929 Wallis sailed back to the United States to visit her sick mother, by now married to Charles Gordon Allen. During the trip Wallis's investments were wiped out in the Wall Street Crash, and her mother died penniless on November 2. Wallis returned to England, and, with the shipping business still buoyant, the Simpsons moved into a large flat with a staff of servants.[23] Mayfair is an area in the City of Westminster London, named after the fortnight-long May Fair that took place there from 1686 until it was banned in that location in 1764. ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... For the protest against the Communications Decency Act, see Black World Wide Web protest. ... November 2 is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 59 days remaining. ...


Through a friend, Consuelo Thaw, Wallis met Thelma, Lady Furness, the then mistress of Edward, Prince of Wales.[24] In January 1931 Lady Furness introduced Wallis to the Prince.[25] The Prince was the eldest son and heir of King George V and Queen Mary. Between 1931 and 1934 he met the Simpsons at various house parties and Wallis was presented at court. Ernest was beginning to encounter financial difficulties, as the Simpsons were living beyond their means, and they had to fire a succession of staff.[26] Thelma, Viscountess Furness (August 23, 1904 – January 29, 1970), born Thelma Morgan, was the mistress who preceded Wallis Simpson in the affections of Edward VIII of the United Kingdom. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 - 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, as a result of his creating it from the British branch of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... Mary of Teck (Victoria Mary Augusta Louise Olga Pauline Claudine Agnes; 26 May 1867 – 24 March 1953) was the Queen Consort of George V. Queen Mary was also the Empress of India and Queen of Ireland. ...


Relationship with Edward, Prince of Wales

In December 1933, whilst Lady Furness was away in New York, Wallis allegedly became the Prince's mistress, although Edward denied to his father that she was, despite his staff seeing them in bed together as well as evidence of a physical sex act.[27] Wallis soon ousted the Prince's previous companion, Lady Furness, and distanced him from a former lover and confidante, the Anglo-American textile heiress Freda Dudley Ward.[28] Nickname: Big Apple, Gotham, NYC, City That Never Sleeps, The Concrete Jungle, The City So Nice They Named It Twice Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1676 Government  - Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area... Freda Dudley Ward (28 July 1894 - 16 March 1983) was a leading English socialite. ...


By 1934, Edward was irretrievably besotted with Wallis, finding her domineering manner and abrasive irreverence toward his position appealing. He introduced her to his parents — his father was outraged,[29] primarily on account of her marital history (divorced people were excluded from court).[30] Edward showered Wallis with money and jewels,[31] and in February 1935, and again later in the year, Wallis and Edward holidayed together in Europe.[32] 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


British documents released on January 30, 2003 revealed that in 1935 Wallis Simpson was being trailed by Special Branch detectives. Their reports claim that Wallis was also secretly conducting a love affair with Guy Marcus Trundle, an engineer and salesman for Ford, who was an upper-middle-class Englishman and son of a respected Anglican canon. However, considerable doubts have been cast on the veracity of these claims, based on comments from a man whose mother was Trundle's mistress for nearly two decades.[33] January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Special Branch is the arm of the British, Irish and many Commonwealth police forces that deals with national security matters. ... Engineering is the design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled Ford Motor Company and Ford (vehicles). ... A canon (from the Latin canonicus and Greek κανωνικωσ relating to a rule) is a priest who is a member of certain bodies of the Christian clergy subject to a rule (canon). ...


Abdication Crisis

Wallis was named Woman of the Year by TIME magazine in 1936, the first ever female to receive the title.
Wallis was named Woman of the Year by TIME magazine in 1936, the first ever female to receive the title.

On January 20, 1936, King George V died and Edward ascended the throne as King Edward VIII. The next day, he broke royal protocol by watching the proclamation of his accession from a window of St. James's Palace, in the company of the still-married Wallis.[34] It was becoming apparent to court and government circles that Edward meant to marry Wallis.[35] The King’s behaviour and his relationship with Wallis made him unpopular with the 'Conservative' National British government, as well as distressing his mother and brother.[36] Although the pre-war media in the UK remained deferential to the monarchy, and no stories of the affair were reported in domestic press, foreign media reported Edward and Wallis's relationship widely.[37] Image File history File links Wallis_Time. ... Image File history File links Wallis_Time. ... Past Person of the Year covers (clockwise from upper-left): Charles Lindbergh, 1927; The American Fighting-Man, 1950; Ayatollah Khomeini, 1979; The Computer, 1982; Rudy Giuliani, 2001. ... Time (whose trademark is capitalized TIME) is a weekly American newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and U.S. News & World Report. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Instrument of Abdication signed by Edward VIII and his three brothers Like King Henry VIII of England, whose desire to marry Anne Boleyn in the 1530s shook his kingdom, King Edward VIII created an abdication crisis for the United Kingdom and the British Commonwealth in the 1930s when he... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... King Edward VIII King of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, King of Ireland Emperor of India His Majesty King Edward VIII, (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David), later His Royal Highness The Duke of Windsor (23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was the second British monarch of the... St Jamess Palace and The Mall by Jan Kip, 1715. ... In the United Kingdom the term National Government is in an abstract sense used to refer to a coalition of some or all major political parties. ...


The King of the United Kingdom is Supreme Governor of the Church of England. At the time of the proposed marriage, and indeed until 2002, the Church of England did not permit the re-marriage of divorced people with living ex-partners.[38] Accordingly, while there was no civil law barrier to King Edward marrying Wallis, and she would have automatically become Queen of the United Kingdom and Empress of India, the Constitutional position was that the King could not marry a divorcée and remain as King (for to do so would conflict with his role as Supreme Governor).[39] Further the British government and the governments of the dominions were against the idea of marriage between the King and an American divorcée.[40] She was perceived by many in the British Empire as a woman of "limitless ambition"[41] who was pursuing the King because of his wealth and position.[42] The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the 16 sovereign states of the Commonwealth of Nations that separately recognise Queen Elizabeth II as their monarch. ...


Wallis had already filed for divorce from her second husband and the decree nisi was granted on October 27.[43] Her relationship with the King began to become public knowledge in the UK by early December. Wallis decided to flee the country as the scandal broke, being driven to the south of France in a dramatic race to outrun the press. For the next three months, she would practically be under siege at the Villa Lou Viei, near Cannes, the home of her close friends Herman and Katherine Rogers.[44] October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 65 days remaining. ...


Back in the United Kingdom, the King consulted with the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Stanley Baldwin on a way to marry Wallis and keep the throne. The King suggested a morganatic marriage, but this was rejected by Baldwin and the Prime Ministers of Australia and South Africa.[40] If the King were to marry Wallis against Baldwin's advice, the Government would be required to resign, causing a constitutional crisis.[45] The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the the United Kingdom. ... Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, KG, PC (3 August 1867–14 December 1947) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom on three separate occasions. ... A morganatic marriage is a type of marriage which can be contracted in certain countries, usually between persons of unequal social rank (unebenbürtig in German), which prevents the passage of the husbands titles and privileges to the wife and any children born of the marriage. ...


In their South of France hide-away, the King's Lord-in-Waiting Peregrine Cust, 6th Baron Brownlow pressured Wallis to renounce the King and on December 7 Lord Brownlow read her statement (which he had helped her draft) to the press indicating Wallis's readiness to give up the King.[46] However, Edward was determined to marry Wallis, as the issue of abdication gathered strength, John Theodore Goddard, Wallis's solicitor stated: "[his] client was ready to do anything to ease the situation but the other end of the wicket [Edward VIII] was determined." This seemingly indicated the King had made up his mind on the basis he had no option but to abdicate if he wished to marry Wallis.[47] In politics, a whip is a member of a political party in a legislature whose task is to ensure that members of the party attend and vote as the party leadership desires. ... Belton House, the ancestral home of the Brownlow family Peregrine Cust, 6th Baron Brownlow (born 1899 - died 1978) was the son of Adelbert Salusbury Cockayne Cust, 5th Baron Brownlow, and his wife Maud Buckle. ... December 7 is the 341st day (342nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Theodore Goddard was an English law firm based in London. ...


The King signed the Instrument of Abdication on December 10, 1936, in the presence of his three surviving brothers, the Duke of York (who would ascend the throne the following day as King George VI), and Dukes of Gloucester and Kent. Special laws passed by the British Parliament, His Majesty's Declaration of Abdication Act 1936 brought Edward's 325-day reign to an end at 1:52 p.m. GMT on 11 December. That day, HRH The Prince Edward made a broadcast to the British people, saying of Wallis, "I have found it impossible to carry the heavy burden of responsibility, and to discharge my duties as King as I would wish to do, without the help and support of the woman I love".[48] December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The title Duke of York is a title of nobility in the British peerage. ... King Richard III held the title of Duke of Gloucester from 1461 until his accession in 1483 The title Duke of Gloucester (pronounced gloss-ter) is a British royal title (after Gloucester), often conferred on one of the sons of the reigning monarch. ... Duke of Kent is a title which has been created various times in the peerages of Great Britain and the United Kingdom, most recently as a royal dukedom for the fourth son of King George V of the United Kingdom. ... His Majestys Declaration of Abdication Act 1936 was the Act of the British Parliament that allowed King Edward VIII to abdicate the throne, and passed succession to Prince Albert, Duke of York. ... December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Afterwards, Prince Edward left the UK and went to Austria, staying at Schloss Enzesfeld, the home of Baron Eugene and Baroness Kitty de Rothschild. Edward had to remain apart from Wallis until there was no danger of compromising the granting of a decree absolute in her divorce proceedings. Upon her divorce being made final in May 1937, she resumed her maiden name of Wallis Warfield. The couple were reunited at the Château de Candé on 4 May 1937.[49] This does not cite its references or sources. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... May 4 is the 124th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (125th in leap years). ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Duchess of Windsor

Free to marry, Wallis and Edward married on June 3, 1937 at Château de Candé, Monts, France, lent to them by Charles Bedaux, who later worked actively for Germany in World War II.[50] No member of the British Royal Family attended the wedding, presumably appalled at the marriage coinciding with George V's birthday.[51] They had no children, though the Duchess had been briefly a stepmother by her marriage to Ernest Simpson, who had a daughter by his first wife. June 3 is the 154th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (155th in leap years), with 211 days remaining. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Edward had previously been created Duke of Windsor by his brother, the new King George VI. However, letters patent, passed by the new King and unanimously supported by the Dominion governments[52], prevented Wallis, now the Duchess of Windsor, from using the style of Her Royal Highness. The King's firm view, that the Duchess should not be given a royal title, was shared by Queen Mary and the Queen.[53] However within the household of the Duke and Duchess she was still addressed as "Her Royal Highness" by those who were close to the couple.[54] The peerage title Duke of Windsor was created in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1937 for The Prince Edward, formerly King of the United Kingdom. ... HRH is an acronym for His Royal Highness or Her Royal Highness. ...

The Duke and Duchess of Windsor with Adolf Hitler.
The Duke and Duchess of Windsor with Adolf Hitler.

The Duke and Duchess lived in France in the pre-war years. In 1937, they visited Germany as personal guests of the Nazi leader Adolf Hitler, a tour much publicised by the German media. Hitler said of the Duchess, "she would have made a good Queen."[55] The visit tended to corroborate the strong suspicions of many in government and society that the Duchess was a German agent.[13] A claim that she acknowledged (but denied) in her letters to the Duke.[56] FBI files compiled in the 1930s also portray her as a possible Nazi sympathiser. The ex-Duke of Wurttemberg told the FBI that she and leading Nazi Joachim von Ribbentrop were lovers.[57] There were even rather improbable reports during World War II that she kept a signed photograph of Ribbentrop on her bedside table,[58] and had continued to pass details to him even during the invasion of France.[59] Image File history File links This work is copyrighted. ... Image File history File links This work is copyrighted. ... The Nazi Party, (German: , or NSDAP, English: National Socialist German Workers Party), was a political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ... Hitler redirects here. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a Federal police force which is the principal investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Philipp Albrecht, Duke of Württemberg (George Philipp Albrecht Carl Maria Joseph Ludwig Hubertus Stanislaus Leopold von Württemberg) was born on 14 November 1893 in Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... Joachim von Ribbentrop with his son. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


World War II

On the outbreak of war in 1939 the Duke was given a military post in the British Army stationed in France. According to the son of William Edmund Ironside, 1st Baron Ironside, the Duchess continued to entertain friends associated with the fascist movement, and leaked details of the French and Belgian defences gleaned from the Duke.[60] When the Germans invaded the north of France and bombed Britain in May 1940, the Duchess told an American journalist, "I can't say I feel sorry for them."[61] As the German troops advanced, the Duke and Duchess fled south, first to Biarritz, then in June to Spain. There, she told the United States ambassador to Spain, A. W. Wedell, that France had lost because it was "internally diseased".[62] In July the pair moved to Lisbon, Portugal, where the British ambassador billeted them at first in the home of a banker who may have been a double agent working for both Nazi Germany and Britain.[63] In August a British warship dispatched the pair to the Bahamas and the Duke was installed as Governor. Ironside (centre) with Polish chief of staff Gen. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... Biarritz (French: Biarritz, pronounced ; Gascon Occitan: Biàrritz; Basque: Miarritze) is a town and commune which lies on the Bay of Biscay, on the Atlantic coast, in southwestern France. ... Lisbon (Portuguese: Lisboa, IPA: ) is the capital and largest city of Portugal. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


She performed her role as the Governor's lady with competence for five years. However, she hated Nassau, calling it "our St Helena" in a reference to Napoleon Bonaparte's final place of exile.[64] She was heavily criticised for her extravagant shopping trips to the United States undertaken when Britain was under rationing and blackout.[13] In 1941 Prime Minister Winston Churchill strenuously objected when she and her husband planned to tour the Caribbean aboard a yacht belonging to a Swedish magnate Axel Wenner-Gren, whom Churchill stated to be "pro-German", and he complained again when the Duke gave a "defeatist" interview.[65] The British establishment distrusted the Duchess, Sir Alexander Hardinge wrote that her anti-British activities were motivated by a desire for revenge against the country that rejected her as its queen.[66] After the war the couple returned to France and retirement. Map of the Bahamas Nassau is the capital city of the Bahamas. ... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Churchill redirects here. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... Axel Lennart Wenner-Gren (June 5, 1881 - November 24, 1961) was a Swedish entrepreneur and one of the wealthiest men in the world during the 1930s. ... Alexander Hardinge, 2nd Baron Hardinge of Penshurst KCB GCVO MC PC (17 May 1894–29 May 1960) was Private Secretary to the Sovereign during the Abdication Crisis of Edward VIII and during most of the Second World War. ...


Later life

The Duchess of Windsor in 1970

On George VI's death in 1952, the Duke returned to England for the funeral. The Duchess did not attend; the previous October whilst staying in London she had told her husband, "I hate this country. I shall hate it to my grave."[67] Later that year they were offered the use of a house by the Paris municipal authorities. The couple lived at 4 rue du Champ d'Entraînement in Neuilly near Paris for most of the remainder of their lives, essentially living a life of easy retirement.[68] They bought a second home in the country, where they soon became close friends of their neighbours former British Union of Fascists leader Oswald Mosley and his wife Diana.[69] Years later, Diana Mosley claimed that the Duke and Duchess shared her and her husband's views that Hitler should have been given a free hand to destroy Communism.[70] As the Duke himself wrote in the New York Daily News of December 13, 1966: "it was in Britain's interest and in Europe's too, that Germany be encouraged to strike east and smash Communism forever…I thought the rest of us could be fence-sitters while the Nazis and the Reds slogged it out."[71] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 339 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (487 × 860 pixel, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Wallis, The Duchess... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 339 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (487 × 860 pixel, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Wallis, The Duchess... Neuilly-sur-Seine is a commune in the Hauts-de-Seine département in France. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... The flag of the British Union of Fascists showing the Flash and Circle symbolic of action within unity The British Union of Fascists (BUF) was a political party of the 1930s in the United Kingdom. ... Sir Oswald Ernald Mosley, 6th Baronet (November 16, 1896 – December 3, 1980), was a British politician known principally as the founder of the British Union of Fascists. ... Diana Mitford (June 17, 1910 - August 11, 2003) was one of Britains noted Mitford sisters. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ...


At first, the British Royal Family did not accept the Duchess and would not receive her formally, although the former king sometimes met his mother and siblings after his abdication. Some biographers have suggested that Queen Elizabeth, Edward's sister-in-law, remained bitter towards Wallis for her role in bringing George VI to the throne[72] and for prematurely behaving as Edward's consort when she was his mistress.[73] But these claims are denied by Queen Elizabeth's close friends, for example the Duke of Grafton wrote that the Queen "never said anything nasty about the Duchess of Windsor, except to say she really hadn't got a clue what she was dealing with."[74] On the other hand, the Duchess of Windsor referred to Princess Elizabeth as "Shirley", as in Shirley Temple, and to the Duchess of York, later Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother alternatively as Mrs Temple or as Cookie, alluding to her solid figure and fondness for food.[75] Members of the Royal Family on the balcony of Buckingham Palace after the Trooping the Colour ceremony The British Royal Family is a shared royal family. ... Look up abdication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon (Elizabeth Angela Marguerite; 4 August 1900 – 30 March 2002) was the Queen Consort of King George VI from 1936 until his death in 1952. ... His Grace Captain Hugh Denis Charles Fitzroy, the 11th Duke of Grafton (b. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Shirley Jane Temple (born April 23, 1928), later known as Shirley Temple Black, is an American diplomat, and a former child actress. ... Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon (Elizabeth Angela Marguerite; 4 August 1900 – 30 March 2002) was the Queen Consort of King George VI from 1936 until his death in 1952. ...


In 1965 the Duke and Duchess visited London as the Duke required eye surgery. The Queen, and Princess Marina visited them. Later, they joined the Royal Family in 1967 for the centenary of Queen Mary's birth.[76] The last occasion they were in England together was the funeral of Princess Marina, Duchess of Kent in 1968.[77] Both the Queen and Prince Charles paid visits to the Windsors in the Duke's later years.[78] 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... HRH Princess Marina, Duchess of Kent Princess Marina, Duchess of Kent (née Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark), (13 December 1906 - 27 August 1968) was a member of the British Royal Family; the wife of Prince George, Duke of Kent, the fourth son of King George V and Queen... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... Mary of Teck (Victoria Mary Augusta Louise Olga Pauline Claudine Agnes; 26 May 1867 – 24 March 1953) was the Queen Consort of George V. Queen Mary was also the Empress of India and Queen of Ireland. ... HRH Princess Marina, Duchess of Kent Princess Marina, Duchess of Kent (née Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark), (13 December 1906 - 27 August 1968) was a member of the British Royal Family; the wife of Prince George, Duke of Kent, the fourth son of King George V and Queen... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ...


Upon the Duke's death from cancer in 1972, the increasingly senile and frail Duchess travelled to England to attend his funeral, staying at Buckingham Palace during her visit.[79] The Duchess lived the remainder of her life as a recluse, supported by both her husband's estate and an allowance from the Queen.[80] In October 1976 she was due to receive the Queen Mother, but as the Duchess was too frail and mentally absent to receive her, her staff cancelled the visit at the last minute. The Queen Mother sent flowers with a card reading, "In Friendship, Elizabeth."[81] After her husband's death, the Duchess gave her legal authority to her French lawyer, Suzanne Blum.[82] This exploitive relationship was explored in Caroline Blackwood's book The Last of the Duchess, written in 1980, but not published until after Blum's death in 1995.[83] Towards the end, she was bed-ridden and did not receive any visitors, apart from her doctor and nurses. 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Buckingham Palace and the Victoria Memorial. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon (Elizabeth Angela Marguerite; 4 August 1900 – 30 March 2002) was the Queen Consort of King George VI from 1936 until his death in 1952. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ...


The Duchess of Windsor died on 24 April 1986 at her home in the Bois de Boulogne, Paris.[2] Her funeral was held at St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle attended by her surviving sisters-in-law Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother and Princess Alice. The Prince and Princess of Wales attended both the funeral ceremony and the burial with the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh. She is buried next to Edward behind the Royal Mausoleum in Windsor Castle's Home Park, as "Wallis, Duchess of Windsor".[84] April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Edouard Manet: Racecourse in the Bois de Boulogne (1864) Inside the Jardin dAcclimatation The Bois de Boulogne is a park located along the western edge of the 16ème arrondissement of Paris, near the suburb of Boulogne-Billancourt. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Members of the public outside St Georges Chapel at Windsor Castle, waiting to watch the Garter Procession St Georges Chapel is the place of worship at Windsor Castle in England. ... Windsor castle. ... Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon (Elizabeth Angela Marguerite; 4 August 1900 – 30 March 2002) was the Queen Consort of King George VI from 1936 until his death in 1952. ... Princess Alice of Gloucester The Lady Alice Christabel Montagu-Douglas-Scott, later Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester GCB CI GCVO GBE (December 25, 1901 – October 29, 2004) was the wife of Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester — the third son of King George V and Queen Mary. ... Frogmore or Frogmore House is a former royal residence in England, in the grounds of Windsor Castle, and is the site of the Frogmore Mausoleum containing the grave of Victoria and Albert. ... Windsor castle. ... The Home Park, previously known as the Little Park (and originally Lydecroft Park), is a private 655 acre British Royal park, administered by the Crown Estate. ...


Most of her £5m estate went to the Pasteur Institute medical research foundation, in recognition of the help France gave to the Duke and Duchess in providing them with a home. The British Royal Family received no major bequests. Mohammed Al Fayed, owner of Harrods department store, bought much of the estate including the lease of the Paris mansion. The bulk of his collection was sold in 1998, the year after his son's death in the car accident that also claimed the life of Diana, Princess of Wales. The sale raised more than £14m for charity. [84] The Pasteur Institute (French: Institut Pasteur) is a French non-profit private foundation dedicated to the study of biology, microorganisms, diseases and vaccines. ... Members of the Royal Family on the balcony of Buckingham Palace after the Trooping the Colour ceremony The British Royal Family is a shared royal family. ... Mohamed Abdel Moneim Fayed (b. ... The Harrods storefront Harrods memorial to Dodi Fayed and Diana, Princess of Wales. ... Diana, Princess of Wales (Diana Frances Mountbatten-Windsor; née Spencer; 1 July 1961 – 31 August 1997) was the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, eldest son and heir apparent of Elizabeth II. Her two sons, Princes William and Harry, are second and third, respectively, in line to the...


Historical speculation

Wallis was plagued by rumours of other lovers. The otherwise homosexual American playboy Jimmy Donahue, an heir to the Woolworth fortune, claimed to have had a liaison with the duchess in the 1950s but Donahue was notorious for his inventive pranks and rumour-mongering.[85] The existence of a so-called "China dossier" (detailing the supposed sexual and criminal exploits of Wallis in China) is denied by virtually all historians and biographers.[86] Although there have been rumours of pregnancy and abortion, most notably involving Count Ciano in China, there is no hard evidence that the Duchess became pregnant by any of her lovers or her three husbands. Claims that she likely suffered from androgen insensitivity syndrome, also known as testicular feminisation,[33] seem improbable given her operation for cancer of the womb in 1951.[87] Foot Locker Inc NYSE: FL (formerly Z) is a United States company specialising in athletic footwear and clothing. ... Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS, or Androgen resistance syndrome) is a set of disorders of sexual differentiation that results from mutations of the gene encoding the androgen receptor. ...


The Duchess published her ghost-written memoirs, The Heart Has Its Reasons, in 1956. Author Charles Higham says of the book: "facts were remorselessly rearranged in what amounted to a self-performed face-lift…reflecting in abundance its author's politically misguided but winning and desirable personality." He describes the Duchess as "charismatic, electric and compulsively ambitious."[88] Hearsay, conjecture and politically-motivated propaganda have clouded assessment of the Duchess of Windsor's life, unhelped by her own manipulation of the truth. But there is no document which proves directly that she was anything other than a victim of her own ambition who lived out a great romance, that became a great tragedy. Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Titles from birth to death

  • Miss Bessie Wallis Warfield (birth - 1916)
  • Mrs. Earl Winfield Spencer (1916 - 1927)
  • Mrs. Warfield Spencer (1927 - 1928) (American social custom for divorcées traditionally links the maiden and married surnames)
  • Mrs. Ernest Aldrich Simpson (1928 - 1937)
  • Mrs. Wallis Simpson (1937)
  • Mrs. Wallis Warfield (1937) (she resumed her maiden name by deed poll prior to the wedding)[43]
  • The Duchess of Windsor (1937 - death)
    • During Edward's term as Governor of the Bahamas (18 August 1940 - 28 July 1945), she was entitled to be known as Her Excellency. However, this was subsumed by the superior appellation Her Grace to which she was entitled as a Duchess.
    • Edward could not accept that his wife had been denied the style Her Royal Highness, and she was unofficially styled within their own household as Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Windsor.

A deed poll is a legal document binding only to a single person or several person acted jointly to express an active intention. ... His / Her Excellency is an honorific title given to certain high-ranking political officials. ...

Footnotes and sources

  1. ^ Windsor, The Duke of (1951). A King's Story. London: Cassell and Co Ltd, p.413. 
  2. ^ a b c d Weir, Alison (1995). Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy Revised edition. Random House, p.328. ISBN 0-7126-7448-9. 
  3. ^ a b c Higham, Charles (2005). Mrs Simpson. Pan Books, p.4. ISBN 0-330-42678-8. 
  4. ^ Higham, p.5
  5. ^ Higham, p.7
  6. ^ Higham, p.8
  7. ^ Higham, pp.12-13
  8. ^ Higham, p.18
  9. ^ Higham, p.20
  10. ^ Higham, pp.23-24
  11. ^ Higham, pp.26-28
  12. ^ Higham, p.29
  13. ^ a b c Ziegler, Philip (2004), "Windsor , (Bessie) Wallis, duchess of Windsor (1896–1986)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, DOI:10.1093/ref:odnb/38277
  14. ^ Higham, p.36
  15. ^ Higham, p.38
  16. ^ Higham, p.46
  17. ^ Higham, p.47
  18. ^ Higham, p.50
  19. ^ a b Higham, pp.50-51
  20. ^ Higham, pp.53-54
  21. ^ Higham, p.58
  22. ^ Higham, p.64
  23. ^ Higham, p.67
  24. ^ Higham, p.68
  25. ^ Higham, p.71
  26. ^ Higham, pp.73-80
  27. ^ Diary of Clive Wigram, 1st Baron Wigram quoted in Bradford, Sarah (1989). George VI. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, pp.145-147. ISBN 0297796674. 
  28. ^ Ziegler, Philip (1991). King Edward VIII: The official biography. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, pp.227-228. ISBN 0-394-57730-2. 
  29. ^ Ziegler, p.231
  30. ^ Beaverbrook, Lord; Edited by A. J. P. Taylor (1966). The Abdication of King Edward VIII. London: Hamish Hamilton, p.111. 
  31. ^ Ziegler, p.238
  32. ^ Higham, p.113 and p.125 ff
  33. ^ a b Fox, James (September 1, 2003), "The Oddest Couple", Vanity Fair
  34. ^ The Duke of Windsor, p.265
  35. ^ Ziegler, pp.277-278
  36. ^ Ziegler, pp.289-292
  37. ^ Broad, Lewis (1961). The Abdication. London: Frederick Muller Ltd, p.44. 
  38. ^ Marriage in Church After a Divorce. The Church of England. Retrieved on 2007-02-26.
  39. ^ Beaverbrook, pp.39-44 and p.122
  40. ^ a b Ziegler, pp.305-307
  41. ^ Sir Horace Wilson writing to Neville Chamberlain quoted in Higham, p.191
  42. ^ Ziegler, p.234 and p.312
  43. ^ a b Ashley, Mike (1998). The Mammoth Book of British Kings and Queens. London: Robinson, p.701. 
  44. ^ The Duke of Windsor, p.359
  45. ^ Beaverbrook, p.57
  46. ^ Tinniswood, Adrian (1992). Belton House. The National Trust, p.34. 
  47. ^ Norton-Taylor, Richard, Evans, Rob. "Edward and Mrs Simpson cast in new light", The Guardian, March 2, 2000. Retrieved on 2007-02-28.
  48. ^ The Duke of Windsor, p.413
  49. ^ Higham, p.224
  50. ^ Howarth, Patrick (1987). George VI. Hutchinson, p.73. ISBN 0091710006. 
  51. ^ Bradford, p.242
  52. ^ Diary of Neville Chamberlain quoted in Bradford, p.243
  53. ^ Home Office memo on the Duke and Duchess's title. National Archives. Retrieved on 2007-02-28.
  54. ^ Higham, p.232
  55. ^ Bowcott, Owen, Bates, Stephen. "Fear that Windsors would 'flit' to Germany", The Guardian, January 30, 2003. Retrieved on 2007-02-28.
  56. ^ Higham, p.203
  57. ^ Evans, Rob, Hencke, David. "Wallis Simpson, the Nazi minister, the telltale monk and an FBI plot", The Guardian, June 29, 2002. Retrieved on 2007-02-28.
  58. ^ Bloch, Michael (1982). The Duke of Windsor’s War. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, p.355. ISBN 0297779478. 
  59. ^ Higham, p.317
  60. ^ Higham, p.305
  61. ^ Higham, p.313
  62. ^ Higham, p.323
  63. ^ Bloch, p.102
  64. ^ Higham, p.330
  65. ^ Howarth, p.130
  66. ^ Howarth, p.113
  67. ^ Higham, p.443
  68. ^ Higham, p.447
  69. ^ Higham, p.449 and Ziegler, p.545
  70. ^ Higham, p.450
  71. ^ Higham, pp.259-260
  72. ^ Higham, p.437
  73. ^ Bradford, p.172
  74. ^ Hogg, James; Mortimer, Michael (2002). The Queen Mother Remembered. BBC books, pp.84-85. ISBN 0-563-36214-6. 
  75. ^ Bloch, Michael (1988). The Secret File of the Duke of Windsor. London: Bantam Books. ISBN 059301667X. 
  76. ^ Higham, pp.466-469
  77. ^ Ziegler, p.556
  78. ^ Higham, p.473
  79. ^ Higham, p.477-479
  80. ^ Ziegler, p.555
  81. ^ Higham, pp.487-488
  82. ^ Higham, p.490
  83. ^ Blackwood, Lady Caroline (1995). The Last of the Duchess. Pantheon. ISBN 0679439706. 
  84. ^ a b "Simple funeral rites for Duchess", BBC, April 29, 1998. Retrieved on 2007-02-28.
  85. ^ Wilson, Christopher (2001). Dancing With the Devil: the Windsors and Jimmy Donahue. London: HarperCollins. 
  86. ^ Higham, p.119 and Ziegler, p.224
  87. ^ Ziegler, p.533
  88. ^ Higham, pp.452-453

Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David Windsor; later The Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was King of Great Britain, Ireland, the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India from the death of his father, George V (1910–36), on... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Clive Wigram, 1st Baron Wigram, GCB GCVO CSI was Private Secretary to the Sovereign 1931–1936. ... Highly regarded British biographer and historian. ... William Maxwell Max Aitken, 1st Baron Beaverbrook, PC (May 25, 1879 – June 9, 1964) was a Canadian – British business tycoon and politician. ... Alan John Percivale Taylor (March 25, 1906–September 7, 1990) was a renowned British historian of the 20th century. ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Vanity Fair is a glossy American glamour magazine monthly that offers a mixture of articles on high-brow culture, jet-set and entertainment-business personalities, politics, and current affairs. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... February 26 is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Sir Horace John Wilson (1882-1972) was a British government official who had a key role in the appeasement-oriented government of Neville Chamberlain just prior to World War II. Wilson is a key character in Michael Dobbs novel Winstons War. ... Arthur Neville Chamberlain(18 March 1869 – 9 November 1940), known as Neville Chamberlain, was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1937 to 1940. ... Belton House, Lincolnshire, The South facade. ... The standard of the National Trust The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, usually known as The National Trust, is a British preservation organization. ... March 2 is the 61st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (62nd in leap years). ... This article is about the year 2000. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Arthur Neville Chamberlain(18 March 1869 – 9 November 1940), known as Neville Chamberlain, was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1937 to 1940. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... June 29 is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 185 days remaining. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 29 is the 119th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (120th in leap years). ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Higham, Charles (2005). Mrs Simpson. Pan Books, p.4. ISBN 0-330-42678-8. 
  • Ziegler, Philip (2004), "Windsor , (Bessie) Wallis, duchess of Windsor (1896–1986)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, DOI:10.1093/ref:odnb/38277

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

Further reading

  • Bloch, Michael (ed.) (1986). Wallis and Edward: Letters 1931-1937. Summit Books. ISBN 0-671-61209-3. 
  • Ziegler, Philip (1985). Mountbatten: the official biography. Collins. 
  • Windsor, The Duchess of (1956). The Heart has its Reasons: The Memoirs of the Duchess of Windsor. New York: Houghton Mifflin. 
Persondata
NAME Wallis, The Duchess of Windsor
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Windsor, Bessie Wallis; Warfield, Bessie Wallis
SHORT DESCRIPTION Wife of Edward VIII of the United Kingdom
DATE OF BIRTH June 19, 1896
PLACE OF BIRTH Blue Ridge Summit, Pennsylvania
DATE OF DEATH April 24, 1986
PLACE OF DEATH Paris, France

 
 

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