FACTOID # 13: New York has America's lowest percentage of residents who are veterans.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Wallachia" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Wallachia
Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow.
Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow.

Wallachia (also spelled Walachia; Romanian: Ţara Românească or "The Romanian Land") is a historical and geographical region of Romania. It is situated north of the Danube and south of the Southern Carpathians. Wallachia is sometimes referred to as Muntenia, through identification with the larger of its two traditional sections; the smaller being Oltenia. Map of Romania with Wallachia highlighted File links The following pages link to this file: Wallachia Categories: GFDL images | Romania maps ... Historically, Romania was divided into the following regions: Dobrogea Cadrilater Moldavia Bessarabia Budjak Bukovina Transylvania Banat CriÅŸana MaramureÅŸ Wallachia Muntenia Oltenia See also Development regions of Romania — divisions used currently and which are loosely based on the borders of historical regions Counties of Romania Categories: | ... This article is about the Danube River. ... Southern Carpathians (also called Transylvanian Alps; in Romanian: Carpaţii Meridionali) are located between the Prahova river in the east and the Timiş river and Cerna river in the west. ... Map of Romania with Muntenia highlighted Muntenia or Greater Wallachia is a historical province of Romania, usually considered Wallachia-proper (Muntenia, Å¢ara Românească, and the seldomly used Valahia are synonyms in Romanian). ... Map of Romania with Oltenia highlighted Oltenia or Lesser Wallachia is a historical province of Romania. ...


Wallachia was founded as a principality in the early 14th century by Basarab I, after a rebellion against Charles I of Hungary. In 1415, Wallachia accepted the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire; this lasted until the 19th century, albeit with brief periods of Russian occupation between 1768 and 1854. In 1862, Wallachia united with Moldavia (the other Danubian Principality), to form the state of Romania. A principality is a monarchical feudatory or sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a Monarch with the title of prince or princess (a synonym is princedom) or (in the widest sense) a Monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince. ... Posada Battle Basarab I was an early ruler of the principality of Wallachia, known as Întemeietorul (The Founder) (c. ... Charles I of Hungary Charles I of Hungary (Anjou France 1288 or 1291–Visegrád, Hungary July 16, 1342), also called Charles Robert, Carobert and Charles I Robert, was the king of Hungary from August 27, 1310. ... Suzerainty refers to a situation in which a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which allows the tributary some limited domestic autonomy but controls its foreign affairs. ... “Ottoman” redirects here. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Contents

Name

The name Wallachia, generally not used by Romanians themselves (but present in some contexts as Valahia or Vlahia), is derived from the Valachs - a word of German origin also present as the Slavic Vlachs - used by foreigners in reference to Romanians (see also: History of the term Vlach). This article does not cite any references or sources. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... Vlach is a Slavic-derived term from the Germanic word Valah/Valach used to designate the Romance speaking peoples of South-Eastern Europe: Romanians, Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians and Istro-Romanians. ...


For long periods before the 14th century, Wallachia was referred to as Vlaško by Bulgarian sources (and Vlaška by Serbian sources). The traditional Hungarian name for Wallachia is Havasalföld, or literally "Snowy Lowlands" (the older form is Havaselve, which means "Land beyond the snowy mountains"). The name Ungrovlahia ("Hungarian Wallachia"), mostly used in an Orthodox Church context to refer to the Metropolitan seat, denotes the neighborhood position in regard to the Hungarian Kingdom, meaning "Wallachia near the Hungarian Crown".[1] In Ottoman Turkish and Turkish, Eflak, a word derived from "Vlach", is used. Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... The Romanian Orthodox Church (Biserica Ortodoxă Română in Romanian) is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches. ... The Kingdom of Hungary is the name of a multiethnic kingdom that existed in Central Europe from 1000 to 1918. ... Ottoman Turkish (Turkish: or , Ottoman Turkish: ‎ ) was the variant of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire. ...


Geography

Wallachia is situated north of the Danube (and of present-day Serbia and Bulgaria) and south of the Southern Carpathians, and is traditionally divided between Muntenia in the east (as the political center, Muntenia is often understood as being synonymous with Wallachia), and Oltenia (a former banat) in the west. The division line between the two is the Olt River. This article is about the Danube River. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Southern Carpathians (also called Transylvanian Alps; in Romanian: Carpaţii Meridionali) are located between the Prahova river in the east and the Timiş river and Cerna river in the west. ... Map of Romania with Muntenia highlighted Muntenia or Greater Wallachia is a historical province of Romania, usually considered Wallachia-proper (Muntenia, Å¢ara Românească, and the seldomly used Valahia are synonyms in Romanian). ... Map of Romania with Oltenia highlighted Oltenia or Lesser Wallachia is a historical province of Romania. ... Ban is a title of either Avar or Illyrian origin, the title was used in some states in central and south-eastern Europe between the 7th century and the 20th century. ... The Olt (Romanian and Hungarian; in German: Alt; in Latin: Aluta) is a river in Romania. ...


Wallachia's traditional border with Moldavia coincided with the Milcov River for most of its length. To the east, over the Danube north-south bend, Wallachia neighbours Dobruja (Northern Dobruja). Over the Carpathians, Wallachia shared a border with Transylvania; Wallachian princes have for long held possession of areas north of the this line (Amlaş, Ciceu, Făgăraş, and Haţeg), which are generally not considered part of Wallachia-proper. For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... The Milcov River is a tributary of the Putna River in eastern Romania. ... Map of Romania with Northern Dobruja highlighted in orange and Bulgaria with Southern Dobruja highlighted in yellow. ... Map of Romania with Northern Dobruja highlighted Northern Dobruja (Dobrogea in Romanian; Северна Добруджа, Severna Dobrudzha in Bulgarian) is the part of Dobruja that is part of Romania. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ... Below is the list of Wallachian rulers, since the first mentioned until the unification with Moldavia in 1859. ... County Harghita County Status Commune Mayor József Balló, Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania, since 2004 Population (2002) 2,628 Geographical coordinates Ciceu or Csíkcsicsó (Romanian: ; Hungarian: ) is a commune in Romania, located in Harghita County. ... County BraÅŸov County Status Municipality Mayor Ioan Barbuti, Social Democratic Party, since 2004 Population (2002) 40,126 Geographical coordinates , Web site http://www. ... HaÅ£eg (German: Wallenthal; Hungarian: Hatszeg) is a town in Hunedoara County, Romania with a population of 12,507. ...


The capital city changed over time, from Câmpulung to Curtea de Argeş, then to Târgovişte and, after the late 1500s, to Bucharest. Câmpulung (Câmpulung Muscel) is a city in the Arges county, Romania. ... Curtea de ArgeÅŸ is a town in Romania, situated on the right bank of the ArgeÅŸ river, where it flows through a valley of the lower Carpathians, on the railway from PiteÅŸti to the Rothenthurm Pass. ... County DâmboviÅ£a County Status County capital Mayor Iulian Furcoiu, Social Democratic Party, since 2000 Population (2002) 89,429 Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ... Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official mentioned) Government  - Mayor Adriean Videanu Area  - City 228 km²  (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ...


History

From Roman rule to the state's establishment

In the Second Dacian War (105 AD) western Oltenia became part of the Roman province of Dacia, with parts of Wallachia included in the Moesia Inferior province. The Roman limes was initially built along the Olt River (119), before being moved slightly to the east in the 2nd century — during which time it stretched from the Danube up to Rucăr in the Carpathians. The Roman line fell back to the Olt in 245, and, in 271, the Romans pulled out of the region. The Romanians (also sometimes referred to along with other Balkan Latin peoples as Vlachs) are a nation speaking Romanian, a Romance language, and living in Central and Eastern Europe. ... This article (also known as Romania in the Dark Ages) treats the history of Romania and of the Romanian people, and refers to the time period roughly from the 5th century to the 10th century, that is between the Hunnic invasion, to the last phase of the Age of Migrations. ... Combatants Dacians Roman Empire Commanders Decebal Trajan Strength around 100,000 (based on population estimate) 70,000-80,000 Casualties Unknown Unknown The Dacian Wars (101-102, 105-106) were two short wars between the Roman Empire and Dacia during Emperor Trajans rule. ... Events Roman Empire Trajan starts the second expedition against Dacia. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after 120. ... The provinces of the Roman Empire in 120, with Dacia highlighted. ... Moesia is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... The limes Germanicus, 2nd century. ... Events Roman Empire Roman Emperor Hadrian stations the Legio VI Victrix in Roman Britain, to assist in quelling a local rebellion. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... Rucăr is a commune in the north-eastern part of ArgeÅŸ County, Romania. ... Events Roman emperor Philip the Arabian entrusted future emperor Gaius Messius Quintus Trajanus with an important command on the Danube Trieu Thi Trinh Vietnamese warrior women begins her three year resistance against the invading Chinese. ... Events Goths forced to withdraw across the Danube Roman Emperor Aurelian withdraws troops to the Danube frontier, abandoning Dacia. ...


The area was subject to Romanization sometime during the Migration Period, when most of present-day Romania was also subject to the presence of Goths and Sarmatian peoples know as the Mureş-Cerneahov culture, followed by waves of other nomadic peoples. In 328, the Romans built a bridge between Sucidava (Celei) and Oescus (near Gigen) which indicates that there was a significant trade with the peoples north of the Danube (a short period of Roman rule in the area is attested under Emperor Constantine I).[2] The Goths attacked the Roman Empire south of the Danube in 332, settling north of the Danube then later to the south. The period of Goth rule ended when the Huns arrived in the Pannonian Plain, and, under Attila, attacked and destroyed some 170 settlements on both sides of the Danube. Romanization was a gradual process of cultural assimilation, in which the conquered barbarians (non-Greco-Romans) gradually adopted and largely replaced their own native culture (which in many cases were quite developed, like the culture of the Gauls or Carthage) with the culture of their conquerors - the Romans. ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... This article is about the Germanic tribes. ... Sarmatian Cataphract Sarmatians, Sarmatae or Sauromatae (the second form is mostly used by the earlier Greek writers, the other by the later Greeks and the Romans) were a people whom Herodotus (4. ... Chernyakhiv culture is shown in orange, the third-century Wielbark Culture in red. ... Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ... Events May 9: Athanasius is elected bishop of Alexandria Births Valens, Roman Emperor Wong Tai Sin Deaths April 17: Alexander I, Patriarch of Alexandria Categories: 328 ... This is a list of towns in Scythia Minor that were mentioned in ancient writings. ... Oescus was an ancient town in Moesia. ... Gigen (Гиген) is a village in northern Bulgaria, part of Pleven Province. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... For other uses, see Constantine I (disambiguation). ... Events Constantine the Great emperor of the Roman Empire, engaged the Visigoths in battle and was victorious. ... The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ... The Pannonian Plain is a large plain in Central Europe that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea (see below) dried out. ... For other uses, see Attila (disambiguation). ...


Byzantine influence is evident during the 5th to 6th century, such as the site at Ipoteşti-Cândeşti, but from the second half of the 6th century and in the 7th century Slavic peoples crossed the territory of Wallachia and settled in it, on their way to Byzantium, occupying the southern bank of the Danube.[3] In 593, the Byzantine commander-in-chief Priscus defeated Slavs, Avars and Gepids on future Wallachian territory, and, in 602, Slavs suffered a crucial defeat in the area; Flavius Mauricius Tiberius, who ordered his army to be deployed north of the Danube, encountered his troops' strong opposition.[4] “Byzantine” redirects here. ... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... The Gepids (Latin Gepidae, A-S Gifðas (Beowulf, Widsith) possibly from *Gibiðos, givers [1] or gepanta, see below) were an East Germanic Gothic tribe most famous in history for defeating the Huns after the death of Attila. ... A solidus of Maurikios reign. ...


Wallachia was under the control of the First Bulgarian Empire from its establishment in 681, until approximately the Magyar conquest of Transylvania at the end of the 10th century. With the decline and subsequent fall of the Bulgarian state to Byzantium (in the second half of the 10th century up to 1018), Wallachia came under the control of the Pechenegs (a Turkic people) who extended their rule west through the 10th and 11th century, until defeated around 1091, when the Cumans of southern Russia took control of the lands of Moldavia and Wallachia.[5] Beginning with the 10th century, Byzantine, Bulgarian, Hungarian, and later Western sources mention the existence of small polities, possibly peopled by, among others, Vlachs/Romanians led by knyazes and voivodes - at first in Transylvania, then in the 12th-13th centuries in the territories east and south of the Carpathians. Imperial Emblem Bulgarian Empire at its greatest extent c. ... // Events August 9 - The Bulgars win the war with the Byzantine Empire; the latter signs a peace treaty, which is considered as the birth-date of Bulgaria Wilfrid of York is expelled from Northumbria by Ecgfrith and retires into Sussex Births Deaths January 10 - Pope Agatho Ebroin, Mayor of the... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ... // Team# 1018 Pike High School Robotics Team Team #1018 FIRST Logo Check Out Our FIRST WIKI Page Events Bulgaria becomes part of the Byzantine Empire. ... Pechenegs or Patzinaks (Armenian: Badzinag, Bulgarian/Russian: Pechenegi (Печенеги), Greek: Patzinaki/Petsenegi (Πατζινάκοι/Πετσενέγοι) or less commonly Πατζινακίται, Hungarian: Besenyő, Latin: Расinасае, Old Turkish (assumed): *Beçenek, Turkish: Peçenekler) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people of the Central Asian steppes speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Turkic language family. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Cuman, also called Polovtsy, Polovtsian, or the Anglicized Polovzian (Russian: , Ukrainian: , Turkish: , Bulgarian: , Romanian: , Hungarian: ), is a Western European exonym for the western Kipchaks. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Kniaz’ or knyaz is a word found in some Slavic languages, denoting a nobility rank. ... Voivode (as it is spelled in the Oxford English Dictionary), or less commonly voivod, is a Slavic word that originally denoted the principal commander of a military force. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ...


In 1241, during the Mongol invasion of Europe, Cuman domination was ended - a direct Mongol rule over Wallachia was not attested, but it remains probable.[6] Part of Wallachia was probably briefly disputed by the Hungarian Kingdom and Bulgarians in the following period,[7] but it appears that the severe weakening of Hungarian authority during the Mongol attacks contributed to the establishment of the new and stronger polities attested in Wallachia for the following decades.[8] Events April 5 - Mongols of Golden Horde under the command of Subotai defeat feudal Polish nobility, including Knights Templar, in the battle of Liegnitz April 27 - Mongols defeat Bela IV of Hungary in the battle of Sajo. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: , Mongolyn Ezent Güren; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous empire in history, covering over 33 million km²[1] (12 million square miles) at its zenith, with an estimated population of over 100 million people. ... The Mongol invasions of Europe were centered in their destruction of the Ruthenian states, especially Kiev, under the leadership of Subutai. ... The Kingdom of Hungary is the name of a multiethnic kingdom that existed in Central Europe from 1000 to 1918. ...


Creation

One of the first written evidence of local voivodes is in connection with Litovoi (1272), who ruled over land each side of the Carpathians (including Făgăraş in Transylvania), and refused to pay tribute to the Hungarian King Ladislaus IV. His successor was his brother Bărbat (1285-1288). The continuing weakening of the Hungarian state by further Mongol invasions (1285-1319) and the fall of the Árpád dynasty opened the way for the unification of Wallachian polities, and to independence from Hungarian rule. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Combatants Kingdom of Hungary Wallachia Commanders Charles I Robert Basarab I Strength 30,000 possibly 10,000 Casualties Almost all killed minimum The Battle of Posada (November, 1330) was a battle between the Wallachian Prince Basarab I and Charles I Robert, which resulted in a major Wallachian victory. ... A miniature from the Chronicon Pictum. ... Litovoi was a Voivode of Wallacia on the East of the river Olt, and became the first Prince of Wallachia after merging his Voivodeship with that of Seneslau, (1247-1277). ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... County BraÅŸov County Status Municipality Mayor Ioan Barbuti, Social Democratic Party, since 2004 Population (2002) 40,126 Geographical coordinates , Web site http://www. ... A tribute (from Latin tribulum, contribution) is wealth one party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance. ... This is a list of all rulers of the Kingdom of Hungary since Árpád. ... Ladislaus IV the Cuman (Hungarian: IV László, Slovak: Ladislav IV)(1262 - July 10, 1290), also known as Laszlo IV, king of Hungary, was the son of Stephen V, whom he succeeded in 1272. ... Bărbat succeeded his brother Litovoi as voivode of the principality on the West bank of the river Olt. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Events Magnus VII ascends the throne of Norway and unites the country with Sweden. ... The Arpads or Árpáds (Hungarian: Árpádok, Slovak: Arpádovci, Croatian: Arpadovići) was a dynasty ruling in historic Hungary from the late 9th century to 1301 (with some interruptions, e. ...


Wallachia's creation, held by local traditions to have been the work of one Radu Negru, is historically connected with Basarab I (1310-1352), who rebelled against Charles I of Hungary and took up rule on either side of the Olt River, establishing his residence in Câmpulung as the first ruler in the House of Basarab. Basarab refused to grant Hungary the lands of Făgăraş, Amlaş and the Banat of Severin, defeated Charles in the Battle of Posada (1330), and extended his lands to the east, to comprise lands as far as Kilia (in the Bujak, as the origin of Bessarabia);[9] rule over the latter was not preserved by following princes, as Kilia fell to the Nogais ca.1334.[10] Negru VodÇŽ Radu Negru (probably in the 13th century) (Radu [the] Black) also known as Radu Vodă (Voivod Radu), Radu Negru Voievod, was a mythical early leader of Wallachia. ... Posada Battle Basarab I was an early ruler of the principality of Wallachia, known as ÃŽntemeietorul (The Founder) (c. ... Charles I of Hungary Charles I of Hungary (Anjou France 1288 or 1291–Visegrád, Hungary July 16, 1342), also called Charles Robert, Carobert and Charles I Robert, was the king of Hungary from August 27, 1310. ... The Olt (Romanian and Hungarian; in German: Alt; in Latin: Aluta) is a river in Romania. ... Câmpulung (Câmpulung Muscel) is a city in the Arges county, Romania. ... The Basarabs were an early dynasty which had an important role in the establishing of the Wallachian Principality. ... County BraÅŸov County Status Municipality Mayor Ioan Barbuti, Social Democratic Party, since 2004 Population (2002) 40,126 Geographical coordinates , Web site http://www. ... County Status County capital Mayor Dinu Constantin, Social Democratic Party, since 2004 Area 55 km² Population (2002) 104,557 (2002 census) 109,450 (as of July 1, 2004)[1] Density 1900 inh/km² Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ... Combatants Kingdom of Hungary Wallachia Commanders Charles I Robert Basarab I Strength 30,000 possibly 10,000 Casualties Almost all killed minimum The Battle of Posada (November, 1330) was a battle between the Wallachian Prince Basarab I and Charles I Robert, which resulted in a major Wallachian victory. ... Events The Bulgars under Michael III are beaten by the Serbs at Velbuzhd, and large parts of Bulgaria fall to Serbia. ... Kilia or Kiliya (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ; Romanian: Chilia) is a town in south-western Ukraine, located in the Danube Delta in Odessa Oblast (province). ... Budjak or Budzhak is the southern part of Bessarabia, now part of the Odessa Oblast (province) of Ukraine. ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia (Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian, Besarabya in Turkish) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... The Nogais, also spelled Nogay, Noghai, and often called the Caucasian Mongols (Caucasian refers to their geographic position, in the Caucasus mountains, not to their ethnicity), are a Turkic people, and an important ethnic group in the Daghestan region who speak the Turkic Nogai language. ... Events Births January 4 - Amadeus VI of Savoy, Count of Savoy (died 1383) January 13 - King Henry II of Castile (died 1379) May 25 - Emperor Suko of Japan, third of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders (died 1398) August 30 - King Peter I of Castile (died 1369) James I of Cyprus (died...


Basarab was succeeded by Nicolae Alexandru, followed by Vladislav I. Vladislav attacked Transylvania after Louis I occupied lands south of the Danube, conceded to recognize him as overlord in 1368, but rebelled again in the same year; his rule also witnessed the first confrontation between Wallachia and the Ottoman Turks (a battle in which Vladislav was allied with Ivan Shishman of Bulgaria).[11] Under Radu I and his successor Dan I, the realms in Transylvania and Severin continued to be disputed with Hungary.[12] Nicolae Alexandru was a ruler of the principality of Wallachia, (1352-1364). ... Vladislav I, also known as Vlaicu-Vodă, was a ruler of the principality of Wallachia, (1364 - circa 1377). ... Louis the Great. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... In feudalism, an overlord is a supreme lord; one who is the lord of other lords. ... Events Timur ascends throne of Samarkand. ... The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... Tsar Ivan Shishman of Bulgarian was the son of Tsar Ivan Alexander and his second wife Theodora. ... Radu I was a ruler of the principality of Wallachia, (circa 1377 - circa 1383). ... Dan I was a ruler of the principality of Wallachia, (circa 1383 - 1386). ...


1400-1600

// Main article: Romania in the Dark Ages The Dark Ages in what is now Romania ended around the 11th century, following the period in which the Romanian lands had been part of the First Bulgarian Empire (802-1018). ...

Mircea the Elder to Radu the Great

Wallachia and possessions, ca. 1390
Wallachia and possessions, ca. 1390[13]

As the entire Balkan Peninsula become an integral part of the emerging Ottoman Empire (a process which concluded with the fall of Constantinople to Sultan Mehmed II in 1453), Wallachia became engaged in frequent confrontations and, in the final years of Mircea the Elder's reign, became an Ottoman subject. Mircea (reigned 1386-1418), initially defeated the Ottomans in several battles (including that of Rovine in 1394), driving them away from Dobruja and briefly extending his rule to the Danube Delta, Dobruja and Silistra (ca.1400-1404).[14] He oscillated between alliances with Sigismund of Hungary and Jagiellon Poland (taking part in the Battle of Nicopolis),[15] and accepted Ottoman suzerainty in 1415, after Mehmed I took control of Turnu and Giurgiu — the two ports remained part of the Ottoman state, with brief interruptions, until 1829. In 1418-1420, Mihail I defeated the Ottomans in Severin, only to be killed in battle by the counter-offensive; in 1422, the danger was averted for a short while when Dan II inflicted a defeat on Murad II with the help of Pippo Spano.[16] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (865x510, 60 KB) Summary Wallachia cca 1390, according to an internal document of 1387 and the Treaty with Poland of 1390 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (865x510, 60 KB) Summary Wallachia cca 1390, according to an internal document of 1387 and the Treaty with Poland of 1390 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... “Ottoman” redirects here. ... Combatants  Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †[1] Mehmed II, ZaÄŸanos Pasha Strength 7,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] 10,000 civilian dead[5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of... The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, ErtuÄŸrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ... Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى , Turkish: ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... // Events Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, travels with King Richard II of England to Ireland. ... Map of Romania with Northern Dobruja highlighted in orange and Bulgaria with Southern Dobruja highlighted in yellow. ... Danube Delta - Landsat satellite photo (2000) The Danube Delta (Delta Dunării in Romanian), split between Tulcea County of Romania and Odessa Oblast of Ukraine, is the largest and best preserved of European deltas, with an area of 3446 km², after the Volga Delta. ... Silistra (Bulgarian: , historically Bulgarian Дръстър (Drastar, ) and Romanian Dârstor) is a port city of northeastern Bulgaria, lying on the southern side of the lower Danube at the countrys border with Romania. ... Events Henry IV quells baron rebellion and executes The Earls of Kent, Huntingdon and Salisbury for their attempt to have Richard II of England restored as King Jean Froissart writes the Chronicles Medici family becomes powerful in Florence, Italy Births December 25 - John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley, Lord Lieutenant of... Events June 14 - Owain Glyndwr of Wales allies with the French against the English and the Henry of Lancaster. ... Sigismund, aged approximately 50, depicted by unknown artist in the 1420s — the only contemporary portrait. ... Poland and Lithuania in 1387 The Jagiellon Era 1385-1569, was dominated by the union of Poland with Lithuania under the Jagiellon Dynasty, founded by the Lithuanian grand duke Jogaila. ... // Combatants Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Hungary, France, Wallachia, Holy Roman Empire Commanders Bayezid I Sigismund of Hungary, John of Nevers #, Mircea the Elder Strength About 100,000 About 100,000 estimated to be more due capabilites of the coilition (120,000-200,000) Casualties About 35,000 About 35,000... Suzerainty refers to a situation in which a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which allows the tributary some limited domestic autonomy but controls its foreign affairs. ... Events Friedrich I Hohenzollern (b. ... Sultan Mehmet I Mehmed I Çelebi (nicknamed Kirisci, the Executioner) (1389 – May 26, 1421) was a sultan of the Ottoman Empire. ... County Teleorman County Status Mayor Nicolae Mohanu, since 2000 Area  km² Population (2002) 30,187 Density  inh/km² Geographical coordinates 43°46 N / 24°55 E Web site Turnu Măgurele, is a city in Teleorman County, Romania. ... County Giurgiu County Status County capital Mayor Lucian Iliescu, National Liberal Party, since 2000 Population (2002) 73,586 Geographical coordinates , Web site http://www. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Mihail I was a ruler of the principality of Wallachia, (1418-1420). ... Dan II was a ruler of the principality of Wallachia in the 15th Century, ruling an extraordinary 5 times, and succeeded 4 times by Radu II Chelul, his rival for the throne. ... Murad II (June 1404, Amasya – February 3, 1451, Edirne) (Ottoman Turkish: مراد ثانى Murād-ı sānÄ«, Turkish:) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1421 to 1451 (except for a period from 1444 to 1446). ... Pipo of Ozora or Ozorai Pipo in Hungarian (Filippo Scolari, Lo Scolari or Pippo Spano in Italian; 1369 - December 1426), son of a Florentine destitute merchant, was a general, strategist and confidant of Sigismund of Hungary. ...

Wallachia as pictured in the 1493 Nuremberg Chronicle
Wallachia as pictured in the 1493 Nuremberg Chronicle

The peace signed in 1428 inaugurated a period of internal crisis, as Dan had to defend himself against Radu Prasnaglava, who led the first in a series of boyar coalitions against established princes (in time, these became overtly pro-Ottoman in answer to repression).[17] Victorious in 1431 (the year when the boyar-backed Alexandru I Aldea took the throne), boyars were dealt successive blows by Vlad II Dracul (1436-1442; 1443-1447), who nevertheless attempted to compromise between the Porte and the Holy Roman Empire.[18] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 563 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2174 × 2313 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 563 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2174 × 2313 pixel, file size: 1. ... Depiction of God creating the world Juvenal The Nuremberg Chronicle is one of the best documented early printed books. ... Events October 12 - English forces under Thomas Montacute, 4th Earl of Salisbury besiege Orléans. ... Radu II Chelul (Radu II the Bald) was a ruler of the principality of Wallachia in the 15th Century, ruling for 4 terms, each time preceded by Dan II, his rival for the throne, and each time succeeded by him. ... A boyar (also spelled bojar, Romanian: ) was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Bulgarian, Romanian, and Russian aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes, from the 10th century through the 17th century. ... Year 1431 was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Alexandru I (1397; 1436)was a ruler of the principality of Wallachia, (1431-1436). ... Vlad II (also known as Dracul or The Dragon) (c. ... Synonym of the government of the Ottoman Empire. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ...


The following decade was marked by the conflict between the rival houses of Dăneşti and Drăculeşti, the influence of John Hunyadi, Regent of the Kingdom of Hungary, and, after the neutral reign of Vladislav II,[19] by the rise of Vlad III Dracula. Vlad, during whose rule Bucharest was first mentioned as a princely residence, exercised terror on rebellious boyars, cut off all links with the Ottomans, and, in 1462, defeated Mehmed II's offensive during The Night Attack before being forced to retreat to Târgovişte and accepting to pay an increased tribute.[20] His parallel conflicts with the pretenders Radu cel Frumos and Laiotă Basarab brought occupations of Wallachia by the troops of Matthias Corvinus of Hungary and the Moldavian prince Stephen III (1473; 1476-1477).[21] Radu the Great (1495-1508) reached several compromises with the boyars, ensuring a period of internal stability that contrasted his clash with Bogdan the Blind of Moldavia.[22] DăneÅŸti may refer to several places in Romania: DăneÅŸti, a commune in Gorj County DăneÅŸti, a commune in Harghita County DăneÅŸti, a commune in Vaslui County DăneÅŸti, a village in Frăsinet Commune, CălăraÅŸi County Dăne... Mircea the Elder The DrăculeÅŸti were one of two major rival lines of Wallachian voivodes of the House of Basarab, the other being the DăneÅŸti. ... John Hunyadi, as imagined by a 17th century artist John Hunyadi (Medieval Latin: Ioannes Corvinus, German: Johann Hunyadi; Hungarian: Hunyadi János, Romanian: Iancu or Ioan de Hunedoara) (c. ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Vladislav II was a ruler of the principality of Wallachia, between the years 1447-1448, and again from 1448 to 1456. ... Portrait of Vlad III in the Innsbruck Ambras Castle Vlad III Basarab (other names: Vlad Å¢epeÅŸ IPA: in Romanian, meaning Vlad the Impaler; Vlad Draculea in Romanian, transliterated as Vlad Dracula in some documents; Kazıklı Bey in Turkish, meaning Impaler Prince), (November or December, 1431 – December 1476). ... Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official mentioned) Government  - Mayor Adriean Videanu Area  - City 228 km²  (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ... Events Settlers from Portugal begin to settle the Cape Verde islands. ... Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى , Turkish: ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... // Combatants Wallachia Ottoman Empire Commanders Vlad III Dracula Mehmed II Strength up to 30,000[1] most realistic source mentions 60,000 regulars and 20-30,000 irregulars (90,000); 120 cannons[2] Casualties 5,000 [3] 15,000 [3] The Night Attack (Romanian: ) was a skirmish fought between Vlad... County DâmboviÅ£a County Status County capital Mayor Iulian Furcoiu, Social Democratic Party, since 2000 Population (2002) 89,429 Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ... Radu cel Frumos (Radu the Handsome), (c. ... Basarab Laiotă cel Bătrân Basarab Laiotă cel Bătrân was a ruler of the principality of Wallachia in the 15th Century, repeating the achievement of Dan II in being elected by the boyars as Prince on five different occasions. ... Matthias Corvinus as depicted in Chronica Hungarorum by Carl van Vechten Matthias Corvinus (Matthias the Just) (February 23, 1443 (?) – April 6, 1490) was King of Hungary, ruling between 1458 and 1490. ... This is a list of rulers of Moldavia. ... Stephen III of Moldavia or Stephen III (c. ... Radu cel Mare was Voivode (Prince) of Wallachia from 1495 to 1508. ... Bogdan III the Blind Bogdan III cel Orb or Bogdan cel Chior (Bogdan III the Blind or Bogdan the One-Eyed; b. ...


Mihnea cel Rău to Petru Cercel

The late 1400s saw the ascension of the powerful Craioveşti family, virtually independent rulers of the Oltenian banat, who sought Ottoman support in their rivalry with Mihnea cel Rău (1508-1510) and replaced him with Vlăduţ; after the latter proved to be hostile to the bans, the House of Basarab formally ended with the rise of Neagoe Basarab, a Craioveşti.[23] Neagoe's peaceful rule (1512-1521), noted for its cultural aspects (the building of the Curtea de Argeş Cathedral and Renaissance influences), also saw an increase in influence for the Saxon merchands in Braşov and Sibiu, and Wallachia's alliance with Louis II of Hungary.[24] Under Teodosie, the country was again under a four-month-long Ottoman occupation, a military administration which seemed to be an attempt to create a Wallachian Pashaluk.[25] This danger rallied all boyars in support of Radu de la Afumaţi (four rules between 1522 and 1529), who lost the battle after an agreement between the Craioveşti and Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent; Prince Radu eventually confirmed Süleyman's position as suzerain, and agreed to pay an even higher tribute.[26] The CraioveÅŸti, later BrâncoveneÅŸti, were a boyar family in Wallachia who gave the country several of its Princes and held the title of Ban of Oltenia (whether of Strehaia or Craiova) for ca. ... Map of Romania with Oltenia highlighted Oltenia or Lesser Wallachia is a historical province of Romania. ... Ban is a title of either Avar or Illyrian origin, the title was used in some states in central and south-eastern Europe between the 7th century and the 20th century. ... Mihnea cel Rău is the son of Vlad Å¢epeÅŸ (Dracula) and ruler of Wallachia from 1508 until 1509. ... Neagoe Basarab and his son Theodosie (greek icon from the Dionysiou Monastery) Neagoe Basarab was the ruler of Wallachia between 1512 and 1521. ... The Cathedral in 1880 The Cathedral of Curtea de ArgeÅŸ is one of the most famous buildings in Romania, and stands in the grounds of a monastery, 1 1/2 m north of the city. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... The Transylvanian Saxons (German: ; Hungarian: ; Romanian: ) are a people of German origin who settled in Transylvania (German: ) from the 12th century onwards. ... County BraÅŸov County Status County capital Mayor George Scripcaru, Democratic Party, since 2004 Area 267. ... County Status County capital Mayor Klaus Johannis, from the Democratic Forum of Germans of Romania, since 2000 Area 121. ... Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia. ... Ottoman Empire, 1481-1683 The Ottoman Empire existed from 1299 to 1922 and, at the height of its power in the 16th century, it included nearly 20 million km² in Anatolia (Asia Minor), the Middle East, parts of North Africa, and much of south-eastern Europe, and the Caucasus. ... Suleiman the Magnificent Suleiman I (Modern Turkish: Süleyman; Arabic: Sulaymān) (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth Osmanli Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, and its longest-serving, reigning from 1520 to 1566. ...

Wallachia (highlighted in green) towards the end of the 16th century
Wallachia (highlighted in green) towards the end of the 16th century

Ottoman suzerainty remained virtually unchallenged throughout the following 90 years. Radu Paisie, who was deposed by Süleyman in 1545, ceded the port of Brăila to Ottoman administration in the same year; his successor Mircea Ciobanul (1545-1554; 1558-1559), a prince without any claim to noble heritage, was imposed on the throne and consequently agreed to a decrease in autonomy (increasing taxes and carrying out an armed intervention in Transylvania — supporting the pro-Turkish John Zápolya).[27] Conflicts between boyar families became stringent after the rule of Pătraşcu cel Bun, and boyar ascendancy over rulers was obvious under Petru the Younger (1559-1568; a reign dominated by Doamna Chiajna and marked by huge increases in taxes), Mihnea Turcitul, and Petru Cercel.[28] Image File history File links Mihai_1600. ... Image File history File links Mihai_1600. ... Radu Paisie and his son Marco Radu Paisie also known as Petru de la ArgeÅŸ was a ruler of the principality of Wallachia in the 16th Century. ... County Status County capital Mayor Constantin Sever Cibu, National Liberal Party, since 2004 Area 33. ... Mircea V Ciobanul (Mircea the Shepherd) (d. ... “Taxes” redirects here. ... John I Zápolya (Hungarian: ; Croatian: ) or John Szapolyai (Hungarian: ) (2 February 1487 – July 22, 1540) was a voivode of Transylvania and, along with Archduke Ferdinand I, a claimant to the throne of the Kingdom of Hungary between 1526 and 1540. ... Mihnea Turcitul (Mihnea the Turned-Turk) was Voivode (Prince) of Walachia between September 1577 and July 1583, and again from April 1585 to May 1591. ... Petru Cercel (Peter Earring or Earring Peter; d. ...


The Ottoman Empire increasingly relied on Wallachia and Moldavia for the supply and matainance of its military forces; the local army, however, soon disappeared due to the increased costs and the much more obvious efficiency of mercenary troops.[29] The military of Ottoman Empire was structured in three organizational structures Army, Navy, and Air Force. ... For other uses, see Mercenary (disambiguation). ...


1600s

Main article: Early Modern Romania
Fighting between Michael the Brave and the Ottomans in Giurgiu, 1595
Fighting between Michael the Brave and the Ottomans in Giurgiu, 1595

Initially profiting from Ottoman support, Michael the Brave ascended to the throne in 1593, and attacked the troops of Murad III north and south of the Danube in an alliance with Transylvania's Sigismund Báthory and Moldavia's Aron Vodă (see Battle of Călugăreni). He soon placed himself under the suzerainty of Rudolf II, the Holy Roman Emperor, and, in 1599-1600, intervened in Transylvania against Poland's king Sigismund III Vasa, placing the region under his authority; his brief rule also extended to Moldavia later in the following year.[30] Following Michael's downfall, Wallachia was occupied by the Polish-Moldavian army of Simion Movilă (see Moldavian Magnate Wars), who held the region until 1602, and was subject to Nogai attacks in the same year.[31] It has been suggested that Byzantium after Byzantium be merged into this article or section. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1461x1029, 946 KB) Michael the Brave defeating the Turks in Giurgiu, October 1595. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1461x1029, 946 KB) Michael the Brave defeating the Turks in Giurgiu, October 1595. ... County Giurgiu County Status County capital Mayor Lucian Iliescu, National Liberal Party, since 2000 Population (2002) 73,586 Geographical coordinates , Web site http://www. ... Engraving of Michael the Brave Mihai Viteazu redirects here. ... Events May 18 - Playwright Thomas Kyds accusations of heresy lead to an arrest warrant for Christopher Marlowe. ... Murad III Murad III (July 4, 1546 – January 15, 1595) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1574 until his death. ... Sigismund Bathory (1572-1613) (Báthory Zsigmond in Hungarian), Prince of Transylvania and of the Holy Roman Empire, was the son of Christopher, prince of Transylvania, and nephew of the Stefan Batory, elected king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... The Battle of Calugareni was one of the most important battles in the history of mediæval Romania. ... Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II Rudolph IIs personal imperial crown, later crown of the Austrian Empire Rudolf II Habsburg was an emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, king of Bohemia, and king of Hungary. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Year 1599 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1600 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Mieszko I. BolesÅ‚aw I Chrobry. ... Sigismund III Vasa (Polish: ) (20 June 1566 – 30 April 1632 N.S.) was King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1587 to 1632, and King of Sweden (where he was known simply as Sigismund) from 1592 until he was deposed in 1599. ... Simion Movilă, a boyar of the MovileÅŸti family, was twice Prince of Wallachia (October 1600 - 3 July 1601; August 1601 - August 1602) and Prince of Moldavia on one occasion (10 July 1606 - 24 September 1607). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This page is about the year. ... The Nogais, also spelled Nogay, Noghai, and often called the Caucasian Mongols (Caucasian refers to their geographic position, in the Caucasus mountains, not to their ethnicity), are a Turkic people, and an important ethnic group in the Daghestan region who speak the Turkic Nogai language. ...


The last stage in the Growth of the Ottoman Empire brought increased pressures on Wallachia: political control was accompanied by Ottoman economical hegemony, the discarding of the capital in Târgovişte in favour of Bucharest (closer to the Ottoman border, and a rapidly-growing trade center), the establishment of serfdom under Michael the Brave as a measure to increase manorial revenues, and the decrease in importance of low-ranking boyars (threatened with extinction, they took part in the seimeni rebellion of 1655).[32] Furthermore, the growing importance of appointment to high office in front of land ownership brought about an influx of Greek and Levantine families, a process already resented by locals during the rules of Radu Mihnea in the early 1600s.[33] Matei Basarab, a boyar appointee, brought a long period of relative peace (1632-1654), with the noted exception of the 1653 Battle of Finta, fought between Wallachians and the troops of Moldavian prince Vasile Lupu — ending in disaster for the latter, who was replaced with Prince Matei's favourite, Gheorghe Ştefan, on the throne in Iaşi. A close alliance between Gheorghe Ştefan and Matei's successor Constantin Şerban was maintained by Transylvania's George II Rákóczi, but their designs for independence from Ottoman rule were crushed by the troops of Mehmed IV in 1658-1659.[34] The reigns of Gheorghe Ghica and Grigore I Ghica, the sultan's favourites, signified attempts to prevent such incidents; however, they were also the onset of a violent clash between the Băleanu and Cantacuzino boyar families, which was to mark Wallachia's history until the 1680s.[35] The Cantacuzinos, threatened by the alliance between the Băleanus and the Ghicas, backed their own choice of princes (Antonie Vodă din Popeşti and George Ducas)[36] before promoting themselves — with the ascension of Şerban Cantacuzino (1678-1688). This article is in need of attention. ... County DâmboviÅ£a County Status County capital Mayor Iulian Furcoiu, Social Democratic Party, since 2000 Population (2002) 89,429 Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ... Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official mentioned) Government  - Mayor Adriean Videanu Area  - City 228 km²  (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ... “Serf” redirects here. ... Generic plan of a mediaeval manor; open-field strip farming, some enclosures, triennial crop rotation, demesne and manse, common woodland, pasturage and meadow Manorialism or Seigneurialism is the organization of rural economy and society in medieval western and parts of central Europe, characterised by the vesting of legal and economic... Seimeni designates the group of infantry mercenaries charged with guarding the voivode and his Court in XVIIth and XVIIth century Wallachia and Moldavia. ... Events March 25 - Saturns largest moon, Titan, is discovered by Christian Huygens. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Radu Mihnea Radu Mihneas tombstone with the coats of arms of Wallachia and Moldavia (detail) Radu Mihnea (1586–1626) was Voivode (Prince) of Wallachia between September 1601 and March 1602, and again between March and May 1611, September 1611 and August 1616, August 1620 and August 1623, and Voivode... Matei Basarab Matei Basarab was a Wallachian voivode between 1632 and 1654. ... Events February 2 - New Amsterdam (later renamed New York City) is incorporated. ... The Battle of Finta (May 1653) was a confrontation between Matei Basarabs Wallachian army and a combined Moldo-Cossack force under Vasile Lupu and Tymofiy Khmelnytsky. ... Vasile Lupu (1595—1661) was a Moldavian Voivode (Prince) between 1634 and 1653. ... Gheorghe Åžtefan (seldomly referred to as Burduja; d. ... County Status Municipality Mayor Gheorghe Nichita, Social Democratic Party, since 2003 Area 93. ... Constantin Åžerban was a Wallachian voivode between 1654 and 1658, bastard son to Radu Åžerban (it must be noted that, according to custom, being born out of wedlock did not disqualify Constantin from becoming Prince). ... George II Rákóczi (January 30, 1621–June 7, 1660), was the eldest son of George I and Susannah Lorantffy. ... Sultan Mehmed IV Mehmed IV (also known as Dördüncü, fourth, and Avci, hunter) (January 2, 1642–1693) (Arabic: محمد الرابع) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1648 to 1687. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by... // Events May 25 - Richard Cromwell resigns as Lord Protector of England following the restoration of the Long Parliament, beginning a second brief period of the republican government called the Commonwealth. ... Gheorghe Ghica (1600-1664), founder of the Ghica family, is said to have been a playmate of another Albanian known to history as Ktipruli Aga, the famous vizier, who recognized Gheorghe while he was selling melons in the streets of Constantinople and helped him on to high positions. ... Grigore I Ghica Grigore I Ghica, Prince of Wallachia: September 1660 - December 1664 and March 1672 - November 1674. ... The sarcophagus of Princess BălaÅŸa Cantacuzino, kept in the National Museum of Romanian History The Cantacuzino (Cantacuzène) family is an old boyar family of Wallachia that claims to have its roots in the Byzantine Greek emperor John VI Kantakouzenos. ... Ghica family was a Romanian noble family. ... Antonie din PopeÅŸti was ruler of Wallachia from March 1669 to 1672. ... Voivode George Ducas (Greek: Γεώργιος Δούκας, Romanian: Gheorghe Duca) (d. ... Åžerban Cantacuzino (1640-1688) was a voivode of Wallachia in Romania between 1678 and 1688. ...


Russo-Turkish Wars and the Phanariotes

Main articles: History of the Russo-Turkish Wars and Phanariotes
The Balkans in 1699
The Balkans in 1699

Wallachia became a target for Habsburg incursions during the last stages of the Great Turkish War ca.1690, when the ruler Constantin Brâncoveanu secretly and unsuccessfully negotatied an anti-Ottoman coalition. Brâncoveanu's reign (1688-1714), noted for its late Renaissance cultural achievements (see Brâncovenesc style), also coincided with the rise of Imperial Russia under Emperor Peter the Great — he was approached by the latter during the Russo-Turkish War of 1710-1711, and lost his throne and life sometime after sultan Ahmed III caught news of the negotiations.[37] Despite his denounciation of Brâncoveanu's policies, Ştefan Cantacuzino attached himself to Habsburg projects and opened the country to the armies of Prince Eugene of Savoy; he was himself deposed and executed in 1716.[38] This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... An image of the extravagance attributed to Phanariotes in Wallachia: Nicholas Mavrogenes riding through Bucharest in a deer-drawn carriage (late 1780s) Phanariotes, Phanariots, or Phanariote Greeks (Greek: Φαναριώτες, Romanian: FanarioÅ£i) were members of those prominent Greek families residing in Phanar[1] (Φανάρι, modern Fener),[2] the chief Greek quarter of... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ... The Great Turkish War refers to a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and contemporary European powers, then joined into a Holy League, during the second half of the 17th century. ... Events Giovanni Domenico Cassini observes differential rotation within Jupiters atmosphere. ... Constantin Brâncoveanu Constantin Brâncoveanu (1654 - August 26, 1714) was prince of Wallachia between 1689 and 1710. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... At different times, a ruler in Kievan Rus/Rus principalities/Imperial Russia bore the title of Kniaz (translated as Duke or Prince), Velikiy Kniaz (translated as Grand Duke, Grand Prince or Great Prince), Tsar, Emperor. ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekse`yevich, Пётр Великий Pyotr Veli`kiy) (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his... Russo-Turkish War of 1710-1711 was the southernmost theatre of the Great Northern War. ... Sultan Ahmed III Köçeks at a fair. ... Stefan Cantacuzino, a Serbian, the Voivode of Wallachia from 1714 to 1716, was killed by the Turks together with his father Constantine Cantacuzino. ... Prince Eugen von Savoyen in a contemporary painting François-Eugène, Prince of Savoy-Carignan, known as Prinz Eugen von Savoyen in German and Eugenio, Principe di Savoia in Italian (October 18, 1663 – April 24, 1736) was arguable the greatest general to serve the Habsburgs. ...


Immediately following the depostion of Prince Ştefan, the Ottomans renounced the purely nominal elective system (which had by then already witnessed the decrease in importance of the Boyar Divan over the sultan's decision), and princes of the two Danubian Principalities were appointed from the Phanariotes of Istanbul. Inaugurated by Nicholas Mavrocordatos in Moldavia after Dimitrie Cantemir, Phanariote rule was brought to Wallachia in 1715 by the very same ruler.[39] The tense relations between boyars and princes brought a decrease in the number of taxed people (as a privilege gained by the former), a subsequent increase in total taxes,[40] and the enlarged powers of a boyar circle in the Divan.[41] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The National Assembly is either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... An image of the extravagance attributed to Phanariotes in Wallachia: Nicholas Mavrogenes riding through Bucharest in a deer-drawn carriage (late 1780s) Phanariotes, Phanariots, or Phanariote Greeks (Greek: Φαναριώτες, Romanian: FanarioÅ£i) were members of those prominent Greek families residing in Phanar[1] (Φανάρι, modern Fener),[2] the chief Greek quarter of... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Nicholas Mavrocordatos Nicholas Mavrocordatos (Greek: Νικόλαος Μαυροκορδάτος, Romanian: Nicolae Mavrocordat; May 3, 1670—September 3, 1730) was a Greek member of the Mavrocordatos family, Grand Dragoman to the Divan (1697), and consequently the first Phanariote Hospodar of the Danubian Principalities - Prince of Moldavia, and Prince of Wallachia (both on two separate occasions). ... Dimitrie Cantemir (-Romanian, Дмитрий Кантемир in Russian, KantemiroÄŸlu in Turkish, Kantymir in Polish), (October 26, 1673 - 1723) was a Moldavian Voivode (Prince; March-April 1693 and 1710-1711), philosopher, historian, composer, linguist and scholar. ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about permission granted by law or other rules. ...


In parallel, Wallachia became the battleground in a succession of wars between the Ottomans on one side and Russia or the Habsburg Monarchy on the other. Mavrocordatos himself was deposed by a boyar rebellion, and arrested by Habsburg troops during the Austro-Turkish War of 1716-18, as the Ottomans had to concede Oltenia to Charles VI of Austria (the Treaty of Passarowitz).[42] The region, subject to an enlightened absolutist rule that soon disenchanted local boyars, was returned to Wallachia in 1739 (the Treaty of Belgrade, upon the close of the Austro-Turkish War of 1737-39). Prince Constantine Mavrocordatos, who oversaw the new change in borders, was also responsible for the effective abolition of serfdom in 1746 (which put a stop to the exodus of peasants into Transylvania);[43] during this period, the ban of Oltenia moved his residence from Craiova to Bucharest, signalling, alongside Mavrocordatos' order to merge his personal treasury with that of the country, a move towards centralism.[44] The Treaty of Karlowitz (1699) was not an acceptable long-standing agreement for the Ottoman Empire. ... Map of Romania with Oltenia highlighted Oltenia or Lesser Wallachia is a historical province of Romania. ... Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI Charles VI, (German Karl VI; in full Karl Josef Franz)Holy Roman Emperor (October 1, 1685 – October 20, 1740) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1711 to 1740 and the second son of Leopold I with his third wife, Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg. ... The Treaty of Passarowitz was the peace treaty signed in Požarevac, Serbia (German: Passarowitz, Turkish Pasarofça, Hungarian: Pozsarevác) on July 21, 1718 between the Ottoman Empire on one side and the Habsburg Monarchy of Austria and the Republic of Venice on the other. ... enlightened desportism is the act when a prist lies in order to become better in the eyes of the churchEnlightened absolutism (also known as benevolent or enlightened despotism) is a form of despotism in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment, a historical period. ... // About the number 1739 1739 is the smallest integer that can be written as sum of three perfect cubes, in two ways. ... The Treaty of Belgrade was the peace treaty signed on September 18, 1739 in Belgrade, Serbia by the Ottoman Empire on one side and the Austria on the other. ... Constantine Mavrocordatos (February 27, 1711-November 23, 1769) (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Μαυροκορδάτος, Romanian: Constantin Mavrocordat ) was Prince of Wallachia and Prince of Moldavia at several intervals. ... “Serf” redirects here. ... // Events Catharine de Ricci (born 1522) canonized. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ... Ban is a title of either Avar or Illyrian origin, the title was used in some states in central and south-eastern Europe between the 7th century and the 20th century. ... County Dolj County Status County capital Mayor Antonie Solomon, Democratic Party, since 2004 Area 81. ... Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official mentioned) Government  - Mayor Adriean Videanu Area  - City 228 km²  (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ... The term treasury was first used in classical times to describe the votive buildings erected to house gifts to the gods, such as the Siphnian Treasury in Delphi or the many buildings put up in Olympia, Greece by competing city-states, to impress each other during the Ancient Olympic Games. ... A government in which power is concentrated in a central authority to which local governments are subject. ...

The troops of Prince Josias of Coburg in Bucharest, 1789
The troops of Prince Josias of Coburg in Bucharest, 1789

In 1768, during the Fifth Russo-Turkish War, Wallachia was placed under its first Russian occupation (helped along by the rebellion of Pârvu Cantacuzino).[45] The Treaty of Kucuk Kaynarca (1774) allowed Russia to intervene in favour of Eastern Orthodox Ottoman subjects, curtailing Ottoman pressures — including the decrease in sums owed as tribute[46] — and, in time, relatively increasing internal stability while opening Wallachia to more Russian interventions.[47] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Prince Frederick Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (26 December 1737 – 26 February 1815), a son of Duke Josias Francis of Coburg (German: Koburg) became a famous general of the Holy Roman Empire. ... Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official mentioned) Government  - Mayor Adriean Videanu Area  - City 228 km²  (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ... 1768 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Pârvu or Pîrvu Cantacuzino (d. ... The Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji (Küçük Kaynarca) was signed on July 21, 1774, between Russia (represented by Field-Marshal Rumyantsev) and the Ottoman Empire after the Ottoman Empire was defeated in the Russo-Turkish War of 1768-1774. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith... A tribute (from Latin tribulum, contribution) is wealth one party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance. ...


Habsburg troops, under Prince Josias of Coburg, again entered the country during the Russo-Turkish-Austrian War, deposing Nicholas Mavrogenis in 1789.[48] A period of crisis followed the Ottoman recovery: Oltenia was devastated by the expeditions of Osman Pazvantoğlu, a powerful rebellious pasha whose raids even caused prince Constantine Hangerli to lose his life on suspicion of treason (1799), and Alexander Mourousis to renounce his throne (1801).[49] In 1806, the Russo-Turkish War of 1806-1812 was partly instigated by the Porte's deposition of Constantine Ypsilantis in Bucharest — in tune with the Napoleonic Wars, it was instigated by the French Empire, and also showed the impact of the Treaty of Kucuk Kaynarca (with its permissive attitude towards Russian political influence in the Danubian Principalities); the war brought the invasion of Mikhail Andreyevich Miloradovich.[50] Prince Frederick Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (26 December 1737 – 26 February 1815), a son of Duke Josias Francis of Coburg (German: Koburg) became a famous general of the Holy Roman Empire. ... The Russo-Turkish War of 1787-1792 was a futile attempt by the Ottoman Empire to regain lands lost to Russia in the course of the Russo-Turkish War, 1768-1774. ... Nicholas Mavrogenes Nicholas Mavrogenes (or Mavrogenous; Greek: Νικόλαος Μαυρογένης/Nikolaos Mavrogenis, Romanian: Nicolae Mavrogheni) (d. ... Year 1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Osman PazvantoÄŸlu (also spelled Osman Passvan-Oglou or Pasvanoglu, Pazvan Oglu/OÄŸlu; 1758—January 27, 1807, Vidin) was an ethnic Bosniak Ottoman pasha, a governor of the Vidin district after 1794, and, eventually, a rebel against Ottoman rule. ... Pasha, pascha or bashaw (Turkish: paÅŸa) was a high rank in the Ottoman Empire political system, typically granted to governors and generals. ... Constantine or Constantin Hangerli (also known as Constantin Hangerliu; d. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Alexander Mourousis welcoming the British ambassador in Curtea Nouă Alexander Mourousis (Greek: Αλεξανδρος Μουρουζης - Alexandros Mourouzis, Romanian: Alexandru Moruzi; d. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Russo-Turkish War, 1806-1812 was one of many wars fought between Imperial Russia and Ottoman Empire. ... Synonym of the government of the Ottoman Empire. ... Constantine Ypsilanti (Greek: Κωνσταντινος Υψηλαντης - Constantinos Ypsilantis; Romanian: Constantin Ipsilanti, d. ... Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Sicily  Spain[3]  Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Italy Naples [5] Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark-Norway [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich João Francisco de Saldanha Oliveira e Daun Gebhard von... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era Napoleonic... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Count Mikhail Andreyevich Miloradovich (October 1 (O.S.), 1771 - December 14 (O.S.), 1825) was a Russian general prominent during the Napoleonic wars. ...

Principality of Wallachia, 1793-1812, highlighted in green
Principality of Wallachia, 1793-1812, highlighted in green

After the Peace of Bucharest, the rule of Ioan Gheorghe Caragea, although remembered for a major plague epidemic, was notable for its cultural and industrial ventures.[51] During the period, Wallachia increased its strategic importance for most European states interested in supervising Russian expansion; consulates were opened in Bucharest, having an indirect but major impact on Wallachian economy through the protection they extended to sudiţi traders (who soon competed successfully against local guilds).[52] Image File history File links Rom1793-1812. ... Image File history File links Rom1793-1812. ... Treaty of Bucharest of 1812 was signed on 28 May 1812 by the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire, at the end of the Russian-Turkish war (1806-1812). ... Ioan Gheorghe Caragea was a phanariot hospodar of Wallachia (reigned 1812-1818). ... Carageas plague (Romanian: Ciuma lui Caragea) was a bubonic plague epidemic that occurred in Wallachia, mainly in Bucharest, in the years 1813 and 1814, during the rule of the Phanariote Domn Ioan Gheorghe Caragea. ... For the uses of Consul as Chief Magistrate of a (city) state, see Consul. ... People in Bucharest during the late 1700s The SudiÅ£i (plural of Sudit - Romanian language, from Italian suddito, meaning subject or citizen) were inhabitants of the Danubian Principalities (Wallachia and Moldavia) who, for the latter stage of the 18th and a large part of the 19th century — during and after... A guild is an association of craftspeople in a particular trade. ...


From Wallachia to Romania

During the period of Austro-Hungarian rule in Transylvania and Ottoman suzerainty over Wallachia and Moldavia, most Romanians were in the situation of being second-class citizens (or even non-citizens) in their own country. ...

Early 1800s

The death of prince Alexander Soutzos in 1821, coinciding with the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence, established a boyar regency which attempted to block the arrival of Scarlat Callimachi to his throne in Bucharest. The parallel uprising in Oltenia, carried out by the Pandur leader Tudor Vladimirescu, although aimed at overthrowing the ascendancy of Greeks,[53] compromised with the Greek revolutionaries in the Filiki Eteria and allied itself with the regents,[54] while seeking Russian support[55] (see also: Rise of nationalism under the Ottoman Empire). Alexandru SuÅ£u 1758 - January 18/19, 1821, Bucharest) was a Prince of Moldavia (July 10, 1801 - October 1, 1802 and Prince of Wallachia (July 2, 1802 - August 30, 1802; August 24, 1806 - October 15, 1806; December 1806; November 17, 1818 - January 19, 1821. ... Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Greek revolutionaries United Kingdom France Russian Empire  Ottoman Empire Egyptian Khedivate Commanders Theodoros Kolokotronis Alexander Ypsilanti Georgios Karaiskakis Omer Vryonis Mahmud Dramali Pasha ReÅŸid Mehmed Pasha Ibrahim Pasha. ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... Two related men in Moldavian/Romanian history: Scarlat Callimachi (hospodar), 18th Century ruler of Moldavia Scarlat Callimachi (communist activist), 20th Century Romanian journalist Categories: | ... The Wallachian uprising of 1821 was an uprising in Wallachia (a region of Romania) which happened in 1821. ... Pandurs were a non-linear (irregular) army, whose main objective was to assassinate enemy officers, conduct guerrilla warfare, and to fight in extended formations. ... Tudor Vladimirescu (1780, Vladimiri - 27 May 1821 Târgovişte) was a Romanian revolutionary hero and the leader of the Wallachian uprising of 1821. ... The Filiki Eteria (spelt also Philikí Etaireía), meaning Friendly Society in Greek, was a secret organisation working in the early 19th century, whose purpose was to overthrow the Ottoman rule over Greece and to establish an independent Greek state. ... With the rise of national states and their histories, it is very hard to find reliable sources on the Ottoman concept of a nation. ...


On March 21, 1821, Vladimirescu entered Bucharest. For the following weeks, relations between him and his allies worsened, especially after he sought an agreement with the Ottomans;[56] Eteria's leader Alexander Ypsilantis, who had established himself in Moldavia and, after May, in northern Wallachia, viewed the alliance as broken — he had Vladimirescu executed, and faced the Ottoman intervention without Pandur or Russian backing, suffering major defeats in Bucharest and Drăgăşani (before retreating to Austrian custody in Transylvania).[57] These violent events, which had seen the majority of Phanariotes siding with Ypsilantis, made Sultan Mahmud II place the Principalities under its occupation (evicted by a request of several European powers),[58] and sanction the end of Phanariote rules: in Wallachia, the first prince to be considered a local one after 1715 was Grigore IV Ghica. Although the new system was confirmed for the rest of Wallachia's existence as a state, Ghica's rule was abruptly ended by the devastating Russo-Turkish War of 1828-1829.[59] is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Alexander Ypsilantis, Ypsilanti, or Alexandros Ypsilantis, (Greek: Αλέξανδρος Υψηλάντης; Romanian: Alexandru Ipsilanti) (1792—1828) was a Phanariot Greek military commander and national hero. ... Drăgăşani is a town in the Vâlcea county, Romania, near the right bank of the Olt river, and on the railway between Caracal and Râmnicu Vâlcea. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ... The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, ErtuÄŸrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ... The stylized signature of Mahmud II was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... Grigore IV Ghica Grigore IV Ghica or Grigore Dimitrie Ghica was Prince of Wallachia between 1822 and 1828. ... The Russo-Turkish War of 1828-1829 was sparked by the Greeks struggle for independence. ...

The Legislative Assembly of Wallachia in 1837
The Legislative Assembly of Wallachia in 1837

The 1829 Treaty of Adrianople, without overturning Ottoman suzerainty, placed Wallachia and Moldavia under Russian military rule, awarding them the first common institutions and the semblance of a constitution (see Regulamentul Organic). Wallachia was returned ownership of Brăila, Giurgiu (both of which soon developed into major trading cities on the Danube), and Turnu Măgurele.[60] The treaty also allowed Moldavia and Wallachia to freely trade with countries other than the Ottoman Empire, which signalled substantial economic and urban growth, as well as improving the peasant situation.[61] Many of the provisions had been specified by the 1826 Akkerman Convention between Russia and the Ottomans (it had never been fully implemented in the three-year interval).[62] The duty of overseeing of the Principalities was left to Russian general Pavel Kiselyov; this interval was marked by a series of major changes, including the reestablishment of a Wallachian Army (1831), a tax reform (which nonetheless confirmed tax exemptions for the privileged), as well as major urban works in Bucharest and other cities.[63] In 1834, Wallachia's throne was occupied by Alexandru II Ghica — a move in contradiction with the Adrianople treaty, as he had not been elected by the new Legislative Assembly; removed by the suzerains in 1842, he was replaced with an elected prince, Gheorghe Bibescu.[64] Image File history File links ObÅŸteasca_Adunare,_1837. ... Image File history File links ObÅŸteasca_Adunare,_1837. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The National Assembly is either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The 1829 peace treaty of Adrianople (called also Treaty of Edirne), was settled between Russia and the Ottoman Empire. ... Suzerainty refers to a situation in which a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which allows the tributary some limited domestic autonomy but controls its foreign affairs. ... The National Assembly of Wallachia in 1837 Regulamentul Organic (Romanian name, translated as Organic Statute or Organic Regulation; French: Règlement Organique, Russian: Oрганический регламент, Organichesky reglament)[1] was a quasi-constitutional organic law enforced in 1831–1832 by the Imperial Russian authorities in Moldavia and Wallachia (the two Danubian Principalities... County Status County capital Mayor Constantin Sever Cibu, National Liberal Party, since 2004 Area 33. ... County Giurgiu County Status County capital Mayor Lucian Iliescu, National Liberal Party, since 2000 Population (2002) 73,586 Geographical coordinates , Web site http://www. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... County Teleorman County Status Mayor Nicolae Mohanu, since 2000 Area  km² Population (2002) 30,187 Density  inh/km² Geographical coordinates 43°46 N / 24°55 E Web site Turnu Măgurele, is a city in Teleorman County, Romania. ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Inside the fortress of Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi (Ukrainian: , transliteration: Bilhorod-Dnistrovs’kyi) is a city situated on the right bank of the Dniester Liman (on the Dniester estuary leading to the Black Sea) in the Odessa Oblast (province) of southwestern Ukraine, in the historical region of Bessarabia. ... Count Pavel D. Kiselyov (portrait by Franz Krüger, 1851). ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Tax reform is the process of changing the way taxes are collected or managed by the government. ... A tax exemption is an exemption to the tax law of a state or nation in which part of the taxes that would normally be collected from an individual or an organization are instead foregone. ... This article is about permission granted by law or other rules. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Alexandru II or Alexandru D. Ghica (1796 - 1862), a member of the Ghica family, was caimacam (regent) of Wallachia (4 July 1856- October 1858); between April 1834 and 7 October 1842, he was Prince of Wallachia. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The National Assembly is either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Gheorghe Bibescu (1804-1873), was a hospodar (Prince) of Wallachia between 1843 and 1848. ...


1840s-1850s

Main article: 1848 Wallachian revolution
1848 Revolutionaries carrying an early version of the Romanian flag
1848 Revolutionaries carrying an early version of the Romanian flag

Opposition to Ghica's arbitrary and highly conservative rule, together with the rise of liberal and radical currents, was first felt with the protests voiced by Ion Câmpineanu (quickly repressed);[65] subsequently, it became increasingly conspiratorial, and centered on those secret societies created by young officers such as Nicolae Bălcescu and Mitică Filipescu.[66] People in Bucharest during the 1848 events, carrying the Romanian tricolor The Wallachian Revolution of 1848 was a Romanian liberal and Romantic nationalist uprising in the principality of Wallachia. ... This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The national flag of Romania is a vertical tricolor of blue, yellow, and red. ... Ths article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... This article is part of or related to the Liberalism series Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | Liberalism by country | Romanian political parties ... The term Radical (latin radix meaning root) was used from the late 18th century for proponents of the Radical Movement and has since been used as a label in political science for those favouring or trying to produce thoroughgoing political reforms which can include changes to the social order to... In a political sense, conspiracy refers to a group of persons united in the goal of usurping or overthrowing an established political power. ... For the Europe album, see Secret Society (Europe album). ... Nicolae Bălcescu Nicolae Bălcescu (1819-1852) was a Romanian historian, writer, and revolutionary. ...


Frăţia, a clandestine movement created in 1843, began planning a revolution to overthrow Bibescu and repeal Regulamentul Organic in 1848 (inspired by the European rebellions of the same year). Their pan-Wallachian coup d'état was initially successful only near Turnu Măgurele, where crowds cheered the Islaz Proclamation (June 21); among others, the document called for political freedoms, independence, land reform, and the creation of a national guard.[67] On June 11-12, the movement was successful in deposing Bibescu and establishing a Provisional Government. Although sympathetic to the anti-Russian goals of the revolution, the Ottomans were pressured by Russia into repressing it: Ottoman troops entered Bucharest on September 13.[68] Russian and Turkish troops, present until 1851, brought Barbu Dimitrie Ştirbei to the throne, during which interval most participants in the revolution were sent into exile. Year 1843 (MDCCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a revolutionary wave which erupted in Sicily and then, further triggered by the revolutions of 1848 in France, soon spread to the rest of Europe and as far afield as... // A coup dÉtat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, often through illegal means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... County Teleorman County Status Mayor Nicolae Mohanu, since 2000 Area  km² Population (2002) 30,187 Density  inh/km² Geographical coordinates 43°46 N / 24°55 E Web site Turnu Măgurele, is a city in Teleorman County, Romania. ... The 1849 Proclamation of Islaz written in Romanian Cyrillic. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... -1... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1851 (MDCCCLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Barbu Dimitrie Åžtirbei (1796 ? - Nice, 1869) was a hospodar of Wallachia twice, between 1848-1853 and 1854-1856, member of the Bibescu boyar family. ...


Briefly under renewed Russian occupation during the Crimean War, Wallachia and Moldavia were given a new status with a neutral Austrian administration (1854-1856) and the Treaty of Paris: a tutelage shared by Ottomans and a Congress of Great Powers (the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Second French Empire, the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, the Austrian Empire, Prussia, and, albeit never again fully, Russia), with a kaymakam-led internal administration. The emerging movement for a union of the Danubian Principalities (a demand first voiced in 1848, and a cause cemented by the return of revolutionary exiles) was advocated by the French and their Sardinian allies, supported by Russia and Prussia, but was rejected or suspicioned by all other overseers.[69] Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Treaty of Paris of 1856 settled the Crimean War between Russia and Ottoman Empire and its allies France and Britain. ... One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right1 Anthem God Save the King (Queen) Territory of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Capital London Language(s) English² Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1801–1820 George III  - 1820–1830 George IV  - 1830–1837 William IV  - 1837–1901... Map of the French Second Empire Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1852-1870 Napoleon III Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French coup of 1851 December 2 1851  - Established 1852  - Disestablished September 4, 1870 Currency French Franc The Second French Empire or... Kingdom of Sardinia, in 1839: Mainland Piedmont with Savoy, Nice, and Sardinia in the inset. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Kaymakam (Turkish term; also rendered as kaimakam) was the Ottoman title used by provincial governors. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Wallachia's ad-hoc divan in 1857
Wallachia's ad-hoc divan in 1857

After an intense campaign, a formal union was ultimately granted: nevertheless, elections for the ad-hoc divans of 1859 profited from a legal ambiguity (the text of the final agreement specified two thrones, but did not prevent any single person from simultaneously taking part in and winning elections in both Bucharest and Iaşi). Alexander John Cuza, who ran for the unionist Partida Naţională, won the elections in Moldavia on January 5; Wallachia, which was expected by the unionists to carry the same vote, returned a majority of anti-unionists to its divan.[70] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... County Status Municipality Mayor Gheorghe Nichita, Social Democratic Party, since 2003 Area 93. ... Alexander John Cuza Alexandru Ioan Cuza (March 20, 1820, GalaÅ£i – May 15, 1873, Heidelberg), more commonly known in English as Alexander John Cuza, was the domnitor (ruler) of the United Principalites of Romania between 1859 and 1866. ... The Partida NaÅ£ională (English: National Party) was a liberal Romanian political party active between 1856 and 1859. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Those elected changed their allegiance after a mass protest of Bucharest crowds,[71] and Cuza was voted prince of Wallachia on February 5 (January 24 Old Style), consequently confirmed as Domnitor of the United Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia (of Romania from 1861). Internationally recognized only for the duration of his reign, the union was irreversible after the ascension of Carol I in 1866 (coinciding with the Austro-Prussian War, it came at a time when Austria, the main opponent of the decision, was not in a position to intervene). is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... Domnitor (pl. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Carol I, original name Karl Eitel Friedrich Zephyrinus Ludwig von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (April 20, 1839 - October 10, 1914) was elected Domnitor (prince) of Romania in April 1866 following the overthrow of Alexander John Cuza, and proclaimed king on March 26, 1881. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Combatants Austria, Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Hanover and some minor German States (formerly as the German Confederation) Prussia, Italy, and some minor German States Strength 600,000 Austrians and German allies 500,000 Prussians and German allies 300,000 Italians Casualties 20,000 dead or wounded 37,000 dead...


See also

The coat of arms of Bucharest in 1868 The history of Bucharest covers the time from the early settlements on the localitys territory (and that of the surrounding area in Ilfov County) until its modern existence as a city, capital of Wallachia, and present-day capital of Romania. ... Below is the list of Wallachian rulers, since the first mentioned until the unification with Moldavia in 1859. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Dinu C. Giurescu, Istoria ilustrată a românilor, Editura Sport-Turism, Bucharest, 1981, p.236
  2. ^ Giurescu, p.37; Ştefănescu, p.155
  3. ^ Giurescu, p.38
  4. ^ Warren Treadgold, A Concise History of Byzantium, New York, St Martin's Press, 2001
  5. ^ Giurescu, p.39-40
  6. ^ Giurescu, p.39
  7. ^ Giurescu, p.39
  8. ^ Ştefănescu, p.111
  9. ^ Ştefănescu, p.114
  10. ^ Ştefănescu, p.119
  11. ^ Ştefănescu, p.93-94
  12. ^ Ştefănescu, p.94
  13. ^ Petre Dan, Hotarele românismului în date, Litera International, 2005, ISBN 973-675-278-X, pp. 32, 34
  14. ^ Ştefănescu, p.139[unreliable source?]
  15. ^ Ştefănescu, p.97
  16. ^ Ştefănescu, p.105
  17. ^ Ştefănescu, p.105-106
  18. ^ Ştefănescu, p.106
  19. ^ Ştefănescu, p.110
  20. ^ Ştefănescu, p.115-118
  21. ^ Ştefănescu, p.117-118; 125
  22. ^ Ştefănescu, p.146
  23. ^ Ştefănescu, p.140-141
  24. ^ Ştefănescu, p.141-144
  25. ^ Ştefănescu, p.144-145
  26. ^ Ştefănescu, p.144-145
  27. ^ Ştefănescu, p.162
  28. ^ Ştefănescu, p.163-164
  29. ^ Berza; Djuvara, p.24-26
  30. ^ Ştefănescu, p.169-180
  31. ^ Giurescu, p.65, 68
  32. ^ Giurescu, p.68-69, 73-75
  33. ^ Giurescu, p.68-69, 78, 268
  34. ^ Giurescu, p.74
  35. ^ Giurescu, p.78
  36. ^ Giurescu, p.78-79
  37. ^ Djuvara, p.31, 157, 336
  38. ^ Djuvara, p.31, 336
  39. ^ Djuvara, p.31-32
  40. ^ Djuvara, p.67-70
  41. ^ Djuvara, p.124
  42. ^ Djuvara, p.48, 92; Giurescu, p.94-96
  43. ^ Djuvara, p.48, 68, 91-92, 227-228, 254-256; Giurescu, p.93
  44. ^ Djuvara, p.59, 71; Giurescu, p.93
  45. ^ Djuvara, p.285; Giurescu, p.98-99
  46. ^ Berza
  47. ^ Djuvara, p.76
  48. ^ Giurescu, p.105-106
  49. ^ Djuvara, p.17-19, 282; Giurescu, p.107
  50. ^ Djuvara, p.284-286; Giurescu, p.107-109
  51. ^ Djuvara, p.165, 168-169; Giurescu, p.252
  52. ^ Djuvara, p.184-187; Giurescu, p.114, 115, 288
  53. ^ Djuvara, p.89, 299
  54. ^ Djuvara, p.297
  55. ^ Giurescu, p.115
  56. ^ Djuvara, p.298
  57. ^ Djuvara, p.301; Giurescu, p.116-117
  58. ^ Djuvara, p.307
  59. ^ Djuvara, p.321
  60. ^ Giurescu, p.122, 127
  61. ^ Djuvara, p.262, 324; Giurescu, p.127, 266
  62. ^ Djuvara, p.323
  63. ^ Djuvara, p.323-324; Giurescu, p.122-127
  64. ^ Djuvara, p.325
  65. ^ Djuvara, p.329; Giurescu, p.134
  66. ^ Djuvara, p.330; Giurescu, p.132-133
  67. ^ Djuvara, p.331; Giurescu, p.133-134
  68. ^ Djuvara, p.331; Giurescu, p.136-137
  69. ^ Giurescu, p.139-141
  70. ^ Giurescu, p.142
  71. ^ Giurescu, p.142

References

  • Mihai Berza, "Haraciul Moldovei şi al Ţării Româneşti în sec. XV–XIX", in Studii şi Materiale de Istorie Medie, II, 1957, p.7–47
  • Neagu Djuvara, Între Orient şi Occident. Ţările române la începutul epocii moderne, Humanitas, Bucharest, 1995
  • Constantin C. Giurescu, Istoria Bucureştilor. Din cele mai vechi timpuri pînă în zilele noastre, Ed. Pentru Literatură, Bucharest, 1966
  • Ştefan Ştefănescu, Istoria medie a României, Vol. I, Bucharest, 1991

Neagu Djuvara was a Romanian diplomat, historian, and writer. ...

External links

  • The Romanian Group for an Alternative History Website - provides monument information, original documents, books, studies and other info concerning the Romanian Middle Ages

  Results from FactBites:
 
Wallachia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1987 words)
Wallachia (also spelt Walachia, known as Ţara Românească, "the Romanian Land" in Romanian) is a historical region in Southern Romania, corresponding to a principality formed in the late Middle Ages and in existence until the mid-19th century.
Wallachia was situated north of the Danube and south of the Carpathian Mountains.
Wallachia is represented by an eagle in the Coat of Arms of Romania.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m