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Encyclopedia > Walking

Walking is the main form of animal locomotion on land, distinguished from running and crawling.).[1] [2] When carried out in shallow waters, it is usually described as wading and when performed over a steeply rising object or an obstacle it becomes scrambling or climbing. The word walk is descended from the Old English wealcan "to roll". Look up walking in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... In a general sense, locomotion simply means active movement or travel, applying not just to biological individuals. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... For other uses, see Running (disambiguation). ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... Scrambling on Crib Goch, Snowdonia, Wales Scrambling is a method of ascending rocky faces and ridges. ... For other uses, see Climbing (disambiguation). ... Old English redirects here. ...


Walking is generally distinguished from running in that only one foot at a time leaves contact with the ground: for humans and other bipeds running begins when both feet are off the ground with each step. (This distinction has the status of a formal requirement in competitive walking events, often resulting in disqualification even at the Olympic level.) For horses and other quadrupedal species, the running gaits may be numerous, and walking keeps three feet at a time on the ground. For other uses, see Running (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Foot (disambiguation). ... This article is about modern humans. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Mens 20 km walk during the 2005 World Championships in Athletics in Helsinki, Finland. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... The Zebra is an example of a quadruped. ... Look up Gait in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The average human child achieves independent walking ability between nine and fifteen months old.


While not strictly bipedal, several primarily bipedal human gaits (where the long bones of the arms support at most a small fraction of the body's weight) are generally regarded as variants of walking. These include:

  • Hand walking; an unusual form of locomotion, in which the walker moves primarily using their hands.
  • walking on crutches (usually executed by alternating between standing on both legs, and rocking forward "on the crutches" (i.e., supported under the armpits by them);
  • walking with one or two walking stick(s) or trekking poles (reducing the load on one or both legs, or supplementing the body's normal balancing mechanisms by also pushing against the ground through at least one arm that holds a long object);
  • walking while holding on to a walker, a framework to aid with balance; and
  • scrambling, using the arms (and hands or some other extension to the arms) not just as a backup to normal balance, but, as when walking on talus, to achieve states of balance that would be impossible or unstable when supported solely by the legs.

For humans, walking is the main form of transportation without a vehicle or riding animal. An average walking speed is about 4 to 5 km/h (2 to 3 mph), although this depends heavily on factors such as height, weight, age and terrain. A pedestrian is a walking person, in particular on a road (if available on the sidewalk/path/pavement).[3][4] Hand walking is an unusual form of locomotion, in which the walker moves primarily using their hands. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Hand (disambiguation). ... Crutches are stick-like medical tools that a patient will use as a way of walking in the event that their own leg/s may be injured or unable to support weight. ... The armpit (or axilla) is the area on the human body directly under the joint where the arm connects to the shoulder. ... A walking stick (or two) is a tool used by many people to ease pressure on the legs when walking. ... A pair of typical trekking poles. ... Equilibrioception or sense of balance is one of the physiological senses. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Equilibrioception or sense of balance is one of the physiological senses. ... Scrambling on Crib Goch, Snowdonia, Wales Scrambling is a method of ascending rocky faces and ridges. ... Scree or detritic cone is a term given to broken rock that appears at the bottom of crags, mountain cliffs or valley shoulders. ... The Trikke is a Human Powered Vehicle (HPV) Automobiles are among the most commonly used engine powered vehicles. ... A working animal is an animal that doesnt live in the wild but is kept by humans, and often trained, to perform various tasks, regardless whether they are also used for consumption of meat and milk or for other produce such as leather etc. ... Kilometre per hour (American spelling: kilometer per hour) is a unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector). ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ... Look up Pedestrian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Road (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Contents

Biomechanics

Human walking is accomplished with a strategy called the double pendulum. During forward motion, the leg that leaves the ground swings forward from the hip. This sweep is the first pendulum. Then the leg strikes the ground with the heel and rolls through to the toe in a motion described as an inverted pendulum. The motion of the two legs is coordinated so that one foot or the other is always in contact with the ground. The process of walking recovers approximately sixty per cent of the energy used due to pendulum dynamics and ground reaction force.[5] [6] An example of a double pendulum. ...


Walking differs from a running gait in a number of ways. The most obvious is that during walking one leg always stays on the ground while the other is swinging. In running there is typically a ballistic phase where the runner is airborne with both feet in the air (for bipedals). For other uses, see Running (disambiguation). ... Look up Gait in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Ballistic on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Ballistic may mean: Ballistics, the science that deals with the motion, behavior, and effects of projectiles. ...


Another difference concerns the movement of the center of mass of the body. In walking the body 'vaults' over the leg on the ground, raising the center of mass to its highest point as the leg passes the vertical, and dropping it to the lowest as the legs are spread apart. Essentially kinetic energy of forward motion is constantly being traded for a rise in potential energy. This is reversed in running where the center of mass is at its lowest as the leg is vertical. This is because the impact of landing from the ballistic phase is adsorbed by bending the leg and consequently storing energy in muscles and tendons. In running there is a conversion between kinetic, potential, and elastic energy. In physics, the center of mass of a system of particles is a specific point at which, for many purposes, the systems mass behaves as if it were concentrated. ... The cars of a roller coaster reach their maximum kinetic energy when at the bottom of their path. ... Potential energy can be thought of as energy stored within a physical system. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue, attached on one end to a muscle and on the other to a bone. ... The elastic energy is the energy which causes or is released by the elastic distortion of a solid or a fluid. ...


There is an absolute limit on an individual's speed of walking (without special techniques such as those employed in speed walking) due to the velocity at which the center of mass rises or falls - if it's greater than the acceleration due to gravity the person will become airborne as they vault over the leg on the ground. Typically however, animals switch to a run at a lower speed than this due to energy efficiencies. Mens 20 km walk during the 2005 World Championships in Athletics in Helsinki, Finland. ...


As a leisure activity

Many people walk as a hobby, and in our post-industrial age it is often enjoyed as a form of exercise.[citation needed] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 980 KB) Race walking in Mannerheimintie, Helsinki, Finland in 2005 World Championships in Athletics, August 2005. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 980 KB) Race walking in Mannerheimintie, Helsinki, Finland in 2005 World Championships in Athletics, August 2005. ... Mens 20 km walk during the 2005 World Championships in Athletics in Helsinki, Finland. ... A hobby is a spare-time recreational pursuit. ... The term Exercise can refer to: Physical exercise such as running or strength training Exercise (options), the financial term for enacting and terminating a contract Category: ...


Walking is acclaimed as one of the best exercises.[citation needed]


Advantages of walking are [Cf. Conceptual Stress: Understanding and Management:Dr. Shriniwas Kashalikar].
1. It reduces hypokinetic stress.
2. It can be used as GAMANA VIPASYANA [walking meditation] thereby promoting one's own mental health.
3. It preempts waiting for a particular transport such as bus and hence prevents or alleviates the anxiety.
4. It provides sunlight [vitamin D] and thus rectifies or prevents vitamin D deficiency.
5. It stimulates sweating and thus reduces excretory burden on the kidneys.
6. It improves skin hygiene due to the ingredients in the sweat.
7. It improves the complexion of skin due improvement in subcutaneous circulation.
8. It reduces the chances of skin infection due to improvement in blood supply to skin.
9. Walking or climbing staircases reduces the chances of infection [which are more in enclosed airtight elevators] and also saves electricity.
10. If practiced to reach the working place or for completing errands, then it reduces the number of vehicles on the road and thereby reduces a] accidents b] pollution c] wear and tear of road d] consumption of fuel and expenses over it e] maintenance of vehicles f] traffic congestion and traffic jams.
11. It reduces the anxiety caused often due to increase in fuel consumption.
12. Walking connects us to nature and revitalizes us.
13. Walking, being harmless and risk free, can be practiced by people of any age and any economic stratum.
14. Thus walking, though a simple and natural aspect of life, is extremely useful and instrumental to the Total Well Being of both an individual and the world.


Fitness walkers and others may use a pedometer to count their steps. The types of walking include bushwalking, racewalking, weight-walking, hillwalking, volksmarching, Nordic walking and hiking on long-distance paths. Sometimes people prefer to walk indoors using a treadmill. In some countries walking as a hobby is known as hiking (the typical North American term), rambling (a somewhat dated British expression, but remaining in use because it is enshrined in the title of the important Ramblers' Association), or tramping). Hiking is a subtype of walking, generally used to mean walking in nature areas on specially designated routes or trails, as opposed to in urban environments; however, hiking can also refer to any long-distance walk. More obscure terms for walking include "to go by Marrow-bone stage", "to take one's daily constitutional", "to ride Shank's pony", "to ride Shank's mare", or "to go by Walker's bus." Among search and rescue responders, those responders who walk (rather than ride, drive, fly, climb, or sit in a communications trailer) often are known as "ground pounders".[7][8] An old mechanical pedometer A digital Omron HJ-112 pedometer A pedometer (also known as a Tomish-meter) or step counter is a device, usually portable and electronic, which counts each step a person makes. ... Beautiful natural scenes are common hiking destinations Hiking is a form of walking, undertaken with the specific purpose of exploring and enjoying the scenery. ... Mens 20 km walk during the 2005 World Championships in Athletics in Helsinki, Finland. ... Hillwalking or fellwalking is the recreational practice of hiking in mountainous terrain. ... Volksmarching is a form of non-competitive fitness walking that developed in Europe. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Long-distance trails (or long-distance tracks, paths, footpaths or greenways) are trails or footpaths covering large distances, typically 50 km or more, used for rambling (that is, hiking or backpacking). ... A woman on a treadmill. ... Two hikers in the Mount Hood National Forest Eagle Creek hiking Hiking is a form of walking, undertaken with the specific purpose of exploring and enjoying the scenery. ... The Ramblers Association is the largest organisation in the British Isles to look after the interests of walkers (or ramblers) in Britain. ... This article is about the physical universe. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... Search and Rescue (acronym SAR) is an operation mounted by emergency services, often well-trained volunteers, to find someone believed to be in distress, lost, sick or injured either in a remote or difficult to access area, such as mountains, desert or forest (Wilderness search and rescue), or at sea...


The world's largest registration walking event is the International Four Days Marches Nijmegen. The annual Labor Day walk on Mackinac Bridge draws over sixty thousand participants. The Chesapeake Bay Bridge walk annually draws over fifty thousand participants. Walks are often organized as charity events with walkers seeking sponsors to raise money for a specific cause. Charity walks range in length from two mile or five km walks to as far as fifty miles (eighty km). The MS Challenge Walk is an example of a fifty mile walk which raises money to fight multiple sclerosis. The Oxfam Trailwalker is a one hundred km event. Entry The International Four Day Marches Nijmegen (or Vierdaagse) is the largest marching event in the world. ... The Mackinac Bridge (pronounced , with a silent c), is a suspension bridge spanning the Straits of Mackinac to connect the non-contiguous Upper and Lower peninsulas of the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Not to be confused with Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel. ... This article is about charitable organizations. ... The MS Challenge Walk is a walk-a-thon to raise money for Multiple Sclerosis, a chronic disease that affects the central nervous system. ...

Sheep walking along a road
Sheep walking along a road

In Britain, the Ramblers' Association is the biggest organisation that looks after the interests of walkers. A registered charity, it has 139 000 members. Regular, brisk cycling or walking can improve confidence, stamina, energy, weight control, life expectancy and reduce stress. It can also reduce the risk of coronary heart disease, strokes, diabetes, high blood pressure, bowel cancer and osteoporosis. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 611 KB) Sheep walking down a road in a rural town in Victoria Australia File links The following pages link to this file: Walking User:Fir0002/Fir0002 gallery User:Fir0002/Fir0002 gallery/20D/Animals ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 611 KB) Sheep walking down a road in a rural town in Victoria Australia File links The following pages link to this file: Walking User:Fir0002/Fir0002 gallery User:Fir0002/Fir0002 gallery/20D/Animals ... Species See text. ... The Ramblers Association is the largest organisation in the British Isles to look after the interests of walkers (or ramblers) in Britain. ... This article is about charitable organizations. ... Look up Endurance in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about the measure of remaining life. ... Chronic stress is stress that lasts a long time or occurs frequently. ... Coronary heart disease (CHD), also called coronary artery disease (CAD), ischaemic heart disease, atherosclerotic heart disease, is the end result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the arteries that supply the myocardium (the muscle of the heart) with oxygen and nutrients. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... Arterial hypertension, or high blood pressure is a medical condition where the blood pressure is chronically elevated. ... Diagram of the stomach, colon, and rectum Colorectal cancer includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ... Osteoporosis is a disease of bone - leading to an increased risk of fracture. ...


As transportation

Walking is the most basic and common mode of transportation.[citation needed] Mode of transport (or means of transport or transport mode or transport modality or form of transport) is a general term for the different kinds of transport facilities that are often used to transport people or cargo. ...


There has been a recent focus among urban planners in some communities to create pedestrian-friendly areas and roads, allowing commuting, shopping and recreation to be done on foot. Some communities are at least partially car-free, making them particularly supportive of walking and other modes of transportation. In the United States, the Active Living network is an example of a concerted effort to develop communities more friendly to walking and other physical activities. Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the worlds largest cities. ... Roads can be pedestrian-friendly by measures such as: no other traffic allowed; in addition poles may prevent cars from entering low speed limit for other traffic wide pavements pedestrian crossings, especially with priority for pedestrians restrictions on advertising material cluttering shopping streets a partial or full roof to protect... Commuters on the New York City Subway during rush hour Rush hour at Shinjuku Station, Yamanote Line Traffic jam Commuting is the process of travelling between a place of residence and a place of work. ... It has been suggested that Pedestrian street be merged into this article or section. ... Active Living is a way of life that integrates physical activity into daily routines, like walking to the store or biking to work. ...


Walking is also considered to be clear example of sustainable mode of transport, especially suited for urban use and/or relatively shorter distances. Non Motorised Transport modes such as walking, but also cycling, small-wheeled transport (skates, skateboards, push scooters and hand carts) or wheelchair travel are often key elements of successfully encouraging clean urban transport (Source: Non Motorised Transport, Teaching and Learning Material). A large variety of case studies and good practices (from European cities and some world-wide examples) that promote and stimulate walking as a means of transportation in cities can be found at Eltis, Europe's portal for local transport.[9] Police officer on a bicycle Cycling is a means of transport, a form of recreation and a sport. ... ELTIS (www. ...


On roads with no sidewalks, pedestrians should always walk facing the oncoming traffic for their own and other peoples' safety. For the former Microsoft owned website see: Sidewalk. ... A pedestrian at the intersection of Alinga Street and Northbourne Avenue, Canberra, Australia A pedestrian is a person travelling on foot, whether walking or running. ...


When distances are too great to be convenient, walking can be combined with other modes of transportation, such as cycling, public transport, car sharing, carpooling, hitchhiking, ride sharing, car rentals and taxis. These methods may be more efficient or desirable than private car ownership, being a healthy means of physical exercise. Ugandan bicycle taxi or bodaboda Cargo-bicycle and Trike for rent Bremen. ... Mass transit redirects here. ... Car sharing is a system where a fleet of cars (or other vehicles) is owned by a company or cooperative, which are available for use by members of the car share. ... For the 1996 film, see Carpool (film). ... For other uses, see Hitch hike. ... Car redirects here. ...


The development of specific rights of way with appropriate infrastructure can promote increased participation and enjoyment of walking. Examples of types of investment include malls, and foreshoreways such as oceanways and riverwalks. Car-free zones (also known as auto-free zones and pedestrianised zones) are areas of a city or town in which automobile traffic is prohibited. ... Milwaukee Riverwalk The Milwaukee Riverwalk is a continuous pedestrian walkway along the Milwaukee River in downtown Milwaukee, Wisconsin. ...


In robotics

Main article: Robot locomotion

The first successful attempts at walking robots tended to have 6 legs. The number of legs was reduced as microprocessor technology advanced, and there are now a number of robots that can walk on 2 legs, albeit not nearly as well as a human being. Robot locomotion is the study of how to design robot appendages and control mechanisms to allow robots to move fluidly and efficiently. ... For other uses, see robot (disambiguation). ...


See also

Depending on the context, footpath may refer to Sidewalk, a paved walkway Trail, usually an unpaved path through wild areas This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Two hikers in the Mount Hood National Forest Eagle Creek hiking Hiking is a form of walking, undertaken with the specific purpose of exploring and enjoying the scenery. ... Hillwalking or fellwalking is the recreational practice of hiking in mountainous terrain. ... This is a list of some long-distance footpaths used for walking and hiking. ... The following is a list of United States cities of 100,000+ inhabitants with the 50 highest rates of pedestrian commuting, according to data from the 2000 Census. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Outdoor education (also known as adventure education) usually refers to organized learning that takes place in the outdoors. ... Roads can be pedestrian-friendly by measures such as: no other traffic allowed; in addition poles may prevent cars from entering low speed limit for other traffic wide pavements pedestrian crossings, especially with priority for pedestrians restrictions on advertising material cluttering shopping streets a partial or full roof to protect... A pedometer or step counter is a device, usually portable and electronic, which counts each step a person makes. ... Power walking is walking at a speed at the upper end of the natural range for the walking gait, typically 4. ... Mens 20 km walk during the 2005 World Championships in Athletics in Helsinki, Finland. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Girl on a bicycle in a car free area in Frankfurt Sustainable transport is a phrase which was coined in the late 20th century to describe all forms of transport which minimise emissions of carbon dioxide and pollutants. ... A number of animals have evolved so as to be able to travel over the ground. ... “Footpath” redirects here. ... A walking stick (or two) is a tool used by many people to ease pressure on the legs when walking. ... A mudskipper, a type of walking fish, perched on land. ...

External links

Look up walk in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Walking
  • http://www.eltis.org European Local Transport Information Service] (ELTIS) provides case studies concerning walking as a local transport concept

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... ELTIS (www. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.runningplanet.com/training/running-versus-walking.html Walking v. running
  2. ^ http://www.bartleby.com/28/15.html Walking by David Thoreau
  3. ^ http://www.centre4activeliving.ca/publications/wellspring/2003/Spring/Vol14No2.pdf Watch Your Step: Pedometers and Physical Activity
  4. ^ http://www.medicinenet.com/walking/page5.htm Walking speed
  5. ^ http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/health/HealthRepublish_232296.htm double pendulum walk
  6. ^ http://web.deu.edu.tr/mechatronics/TR/webpagedesignbipedal/humangait.pdf Human gait
  7. ^ http://www.nasar.org/nasar/support_nasar.php Ground pounders
  8. ^ http://www.dog-pound.net/sar-dogs.htm - Ground pounders - unpaid volunteers
  9. ^ http://www.eltis.org European Local Transport Information Service] (ELTIS) provides case studies concerning walking as a local transport concept

  Results from FactBites:
 
Walking - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (853 words)
Walking is the main form of animal locomotion on land, distinguished from running and crawling.
Walking is generally distinguished from running in that only one foot at a time leaves contact with the ground: for humans and other bipeds running begins when both feet are off the ground with each step.
In some countries walking as a hobby is known as hiking (the typical North American term), rambling (a somewhat dated British expression, but remaining in use because it is enshrined in the title of the important Ramblers' Association), or tramping (the invariable term in New Zealand).
WIN - Publication - Walking: A Step in the Right Direction (868 words)
Walking is one of the easiest ways to be physically active.
Your walking partner(s) should be able to walk with you on the same schedule and at the same speed.
Walk in the daytime or at night in well-lighted areas.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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