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Encyclopedia > Wales
Cymru
Wales
Flag of Wales Coat of arms of Wales
Flag Coat of arms
MottoCymru am byth (Welsh)
"Wales Forever"
Anthem"Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau"
(English "Land of my fathers")
Location of Wales
Location of  Wales  (orange)

in the United Kingdom  (camel) Look up Wales in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Wales_2. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The Welsh Dragon on the tailfin of an Air Wales ATR 42 aircraft. ... The Coat of Arms of the Principality of Wales is a coat of arms used by the Prince of Wales. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau (pronounced , usually translated as land of our fathers init, but literally old country of my fathers) is, by tradition, the national anthem of Wales. ... Look up English, english in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Location of Wales
Location of  Wales  (red)

– in the U.K.  (camel & orange)
– in the European Union  (camel) “UK” redirects here. ...

Capital
(and largest city)
Cardiff, Caerdydd
51°29′N, 3°11′W
National Languages Welsh, English
Demonym Welsh, Cymreig
Government Constitutional monarchy
 -  First Minister of Wales Rhodri Morgan AM
 -  Deputy First Minister for Wales Ieuan Wyn Jones AM
 -  Prime Minister (of the UK) Gordon Brown MP
 -  Secretary of State (in the UK government) Paul Murphy MP
 -  Queen (of the UK) Queen Elizabeth II
Unification
 -  by Gruffudd ap Llywelyn 1056 
Area
 -  Total 20,779 km² 
8,022 sq mi 
Population
 -  2008 estimate 3,004,6001 
 -  2001 census 2,903,085 
 -  Density 140/km² 
361/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2006 (for national statistics) estimate
 -  Total US$85.4 billion 
 -  Per capita US$30,546 
HDI (2003) 0.939 (high
Currency Pound sterling (GBP)
Time zone GMT (UTC0)
 -  Summer (DST) BST (UTC+1)
Internet TLD .uk2
Calling code +44
Patron saint David, Dewi
1 Office for National Statistics - UK population grows to more than 60 million
2 Also .eu, as part of the European Union. ISO 3166-1 is GB, but .gb is unused.

Wales (Welsh: Cymru;[1] pronounced /ˈkəmrɨ/ ) is a constituent country[2] within the United Kingdom, located in the west of Great Britain, sharing a land border with England to its east and the Irish Sea and Atlantic Ocean to the west. Wales has a population estimated at three million and is a bilingual constituent country, with English the language spoken by the majority, and Welsh the native tongue. Not to be confused with capitol. ... This is an article about the demographic data of Wales from the 2001 UK census. ... This article is about the capital city of Wales. ... A national language is a language (or language variant, i. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... This article is about Welsh people who are considered to be an ethnic group and a nation. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... The First Minister of Wales is the leader of Wales and of the Welsh Assembly Government, Waless devolved administration. ... Rhodri Morgan, pictured while on an eve of poll visit during the National Assembly of Wales election in 2003. ... The National Assembly for Wales is composed of 60 members known as AMs or assembly members (in Welsh: ACau or Aelodaur Cynulliad). ... The First Minister is the leader of the Welsh Assembly Government, Waless devolved administration. ... Ieuan Wyn Jones (born 22 May 1949) is leader of Plaid Cymru, Deputy First Minister in the Welsh Assembly Government and Member of the National Assembly for Wales for the Ynys Môn constituency. ... The National Assembly for Wales is composed of 60 members known as AMs or assembly members (in Welsh: ACau or Aelodaur Cynulliad). ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... For others with the same or similar names, see Gordon Brown (disambiguation). ... This is a list of Members of Parliament elected to the House of Commons for the Fifty-Fourth Parliament of the United Kingdom at the 2005 general election, arranged by constituency. ... The Secretary of State for Wales is the head of the Wales Office within the United Kingdom cabinet. ... The Right Honourable Paul Peter Murphy (born 25 November 1948) is a British politician for the Labour Party. ... This is a list of Members of Parliament elected to the House of Commons for the Fifty-Fourth Parliament of the United Kingdom at the 2005 general election, arranged by constituency. ... This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Caerphilly Castle. ... See also Gruffydd ap Llywelyn Fawr Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (c. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... GBP redirects here. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... This is a trivia section. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... For other uses, see Saint David (disambiguation). ... ISO 3166-1, as part of the ISO 3166 standard, provides codes for the names of countries and dependent areas. ... Not to be confused with United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ... .gb is a reserved Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the United Kingdom. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... // Constituent country is a phrase used, often by official institutions, in contexts in which a historical, currently non-legally officially recognised country makes up a part of a larger entity or grouping. ... List of Land Borders International borders Country/Region Total Borders Neighbours and Borders Afghanistan 5,529 km China: 76 km Iran: 936 km Pakistan: 2,430 km Tajikistan: 1,206 km Turkmenistan: 744 km Uzbekistan: 137 km Akrotiri N/A N/A Albania 720 km Greece: 282 km The Former... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Relief map of the Irish Sea. ... The term bilingualism (from bi meaning two and lingua meaning language) can refer to rather different phenomena. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ...


Originally (and traditionally) one of the six Celtic nations, a distinct Welsh national identity emerged in the early 5th century, after the Roman withdrawal from Britain.[3] The Edwardian conquest in the 13th Century brought about centuries of English occupation, and Wales was eventually annexed to the English legal system with the formation of the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542, creating the legal entity known today as England and Wales. Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century eventually leading to a devolved legislature and government in 1999, with the formation of the National Assembly for Wales in Cardiff Bay. Today, Wales continues to share political and legal structures to varying degrees with the United Kingdom, while now maintaining more direct ties with various international bodies[4][5] and the business world.[6][7][8][9] The Assembly Government has also increased its direct links with the European Union, although foreign policy remains the reserved responsibility of the UK Government.[10][11] The Six Nations considered the heartland of the modern Celts Celtic nations are areas of Europe inhabited by members of Celtic cultures, specifically speakers of Celtic languages. ... This article is about Welsh people who are considered to be an ethnic group and a nation. ... The Roman departure from Britain was completed by 410. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... The Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 were a series of parliamentary measures by which the legal system of Wales was annexed to England and the norms of English administration introduced in order to create a single state and a single legal jurisdiction, which is frequently referred to as England... Politics in Wales forms a distinctive polity in the wider politics of the United Kingdom, with Wales as one of the four constituent countries of the United Kingdom. ... Look up Devolution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Established 1999 by the Government of Wales Act 1998 Presiding Officer Lord Elis-Thomas AM (Plaid) Since May 12, 1999 Deputy Presiding Officer Rosemary Butler AM (Lab) Leader of the House Carwyn Jones AM (Lab) Chief Executive and Clerk to the Assembly Claire Clancy Political parties 6 Welsh Labour (26... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Established 1999 by the Government of Wales Act 1998 Presiding Officer Lord Elis-Thomas AM (Plaid) Since May 12, 1999 Deputy Presiding Officer Rosemary Butler AM (Lab) Leader of the House Carwyn Jones AM (Lab) Chief Executive and Clerk to the Assembly Claire Clancy Political parties 6 Welsh Labour (26... Cardiff Bay Cardiff Bay (Welsh: Bae Caerdydd) is the regeneration area created by the Cardiff Barrage which impounded two rivers (Taff and Ely) to form a new 500 acre freshwater lake around the former dockland area south of the city centre of Cardiff in south Wales. ... Politics in Wales forms a distinctive polity in the wider politics of the United Kingdom, with Wales as one of the four constituent countries of the United Kingdom. ... Contemporary Welsh Law is a term applied to the body of primary and secondary legislation generated by the National Assembly of Wales, according to newly devolved authority granted in the United Kingdom parliament Government of Wales Act 2006. ... In the United Kingdom reserved matters, also referred to as reserved powers, are those subjects over which power to legislate is retained by Westminster, as stated by the Scotland Act 1998, Northern Ireland Act 1998 or Government of Wales Act 1998. ... The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ...


The capital Cardiff (Caerdydd), located in the more urbanised South Wales, is Wales' largest city with 317,500 people.[12]. Cardiff has been a prosperous city since the Victorian era,[clarify] when it was the biggest coal port in the world.[13][14] Two-thirds of the Welsh population lives in South Wales, with another concentration in northeastern North Wales. This article is about the capital city of Wales. ... Approximate extent of South East Wales. ... The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... Approximate extent of South East Wales. ... Approximate extent of North Wales North Wales (known in some archaic texts as Northgalis) is the northernmost unofficial region of Wales, bordered to the south by Mid Wales. ...


Wales is known for its divergent and often spectacular landscape,[15] and tourism is popular throughout the land.[16][17] From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the "land of song", attributable in part to the revival of the eisteddfod tradition.[18] Historically, the Welsh tradition for storytelling was an oral one, handed-down over the generations. Vocal performers - actors, singers and speakers - are celebrated in Wales today, often attaining international success.[19][20] Wales has in recent years undergone a cultural revival,[citation needed] and the rapidly-developing capital is the home of the largest media centre in the UK outside of London.[21][22] Wales is an emerging tourist destination, with 8,078,900 visitors to National Trust and Welsh Tourist Board destinations in 2002. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The media in Wales is quite varied with there being services for people in both English and Welsh. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Wales is sometimes referred to as a Principality. Llywelyn the Great founded the Principality of Wales in 1216, and following the Edwardian Conquest, Owain Glyndŵr briefly restored its independence in the early 15th century. Traditionally the British Royal Family have used the courtesy title 'Prince of Wales' for the Heir Apparent to the reigning monarch. A principality is a monarchical feudatory or sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a Monarch with the title of prince or princess (a synonym is princedom) or (in the widest sense) a Monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince. ... Llywelyn ap Iorwerth ( 1173–April 11, 1240) was a Prince of Gwynedd and eventually ruler of much of Wales. ... This article is about the historical state known as the Principality of Wales (1267-1542). ... Arms used by Llywelyn ap Gruffydd Llywelyn ap Gruffydd or Llywelyn Ein Llyw Olaf (c. ... Seal of Owain Glyndŵr The Arms of Powys and Deheubarth quartered, adopted by Owain Glyndŵr: Or and Gules, four Lions counterchanged Owain Glyndŵr (Pronounced IPA: ), or Owain Glyn Dŵr, anglicised by Shakespeare into Owen Glendower (c. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Members of the Royal Family, during the lifetime of the late Queen Mother, on the balcony of Buckingham Palace after the Trooping the Colour ceremony. ... A courtesy title is a form of address in systems of nobility used by children, former wives and other close relatives of a peer. ... This article is about the title Prince of Wales. ... Contrasting with heir presumptive, an heir apparent is one who cannot be prevented from inheriting by the birth of any other person. ...

Contents

Etymology

See also: List of meanings of countries' names and History of the term Vlach

The English name "Wales" originates from the Germanic word Walha, meaning "foreigner," probably derived from the term Volcae.[citation needed] The term also appears in the "-wall" of Cornwall. The Welsh call their country Cymru in the Welsh language, which most likely meant "compatriots" in Old Welsh.[23] The name competed for a long time in Welsh literature with the older name Brythoniaid (Brythons). Only after 1100 did the former become as common as the latter;[24] both terms applied originally not only to the inhabitants of what is now called Wales, but in general to speakers of the Brythonic language and its descendants, many of whom lived in "the Old North": the placenames Cymru (Welsh for Wales) and Cumbria are of the same origin.[24] The Angles, Saxons and Jutes were known indiscriminately as Saeson in Welsh (the term is cognate with "Saxon"; compare Gaelic Sassenach); Sais, plural Saeson, is the modern Welsh word for "Englishman." Media:Example. ... Vlach is a Slavic-derived term from the Germanic word Valah/Valach used to designate the Romance speaking peoples of South-Eastern Europe: Romanians, Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians and Istro-Romanians. ... Media:Example. ... The Volcae in the 2nd century BC were a large and powerful Celtic nation of Gallia Transalpina, comprised of two branches, the Volcae Arecomici and the Volcae Tectosages. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Old Welsh (Hen Gymraeg) is the label attached to the Welsh language from the time it developed from the Brythonic language, generally thought to be in the period between the middle of the 6th century and the middle of the 7th century, until the early 12th century when it developed... The term Welsh literature may be used to refer to any literature originating from Wales or by Welsh writers. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Brythonic languages (or Brittonic languages) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family. ... Yr Hen Ogledd or The Old North. Part of northern Britain before the Anglo-Gaelic conquest The Hen Ogledd, or Yr Hen Ogledd, is an Old Welsh term meaning The Old North which refers to the sub-Roman Brythonic kingdoms of what is now northern England and southern Scotland. ... Cumbria (IPA: ), is a shire county in the extreme North West of England. ... White cliffs of Dover in England White cliffs of Rugen down the Baltic coast from Schleswig The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestor of Angeln, a modern district located in Schleswig, Germany. ... For other uses, see Saxon (disambiguation). ... For the coarse vegetable textile fiber, see Jute. ... Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Sassenach is a Scottish term for someone from England - usually a term of abuse. ...


There is also a medieval legend found in the Historia Regum Britanniae of Sieffre o Fynwy (Geoffrey of Monmouth) that derives it from the name Camber, son of Brutus and, according to the legend, the eponymous King of Cymru (Cambria in Latin); this, however, is considered largely the fruit of Geoffrey's vivid imagination. Cumberland and Cumbria in the North of England derive their names from the same Old Welsh word. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: History of the Kings of Britain Geoffrey of Monmouths Historia Regum Britanniae (English: The History of the Kings of Britain) is a pseudohistorical account of British history, written around 1136. ... Geoffrey of Monmouth (in Welsh: Gruffudd ap Arthur or Sieffre o Fynwy) (c. ... Camber may refer to: Camber, East Sussex, a seaside resort in England, near to Camber Sands. ... Brutus of Troy or Brutus I of the Britons (Welsh: Bryttys), according to the accounts of the early Welsh historians Nennius and Geoffrey of Monmouth, was the first king of the Britons. ... Cambria is a latinised form of Cymru, which is the Welsh name for Wales. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Cumberland is one of the 39 traditional counties of England. ... Cumbria (IPA: ), is a shire county in the extreme North West of England. ...


History

Main article: History of Wales

Caerphilly Castle. ...

Colonisation

The first documented history was recorded during the Roman occupation of Britain. At that time the area of modern Wales was divided into many tribes, of which the Silures in the south-east and the Ordovices in the central and north-west areas were the largest and most powerful. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Silures were a powerful and warlike tribe of ancient Britain, occupying approximately the counties of Monmouth, Brecon and Glamorgan. ... The Ordovices were one of the Celtic tribes living in the British Islands, before the Roman invasion of Britain. ...

Bryn Celli Ddu, a late Neolithic chambered tomb on Anglesey
Bryn Celli Ddu, a late Neolithic chambered tomb on Anglesey

The Romans established a string of forts across what is now South Wales, as far west as Carmarthen (Caerfyrddin; Latin: Maridunum), and mined gold at Dolaucothi in Carmarthenshire. There is evidence that they progressed even farther west. They also built the legionary fortress at Caerleon (Latin: Isca Silurum), of which the magnificent amphitheatre is the best preserved in Britain. The Romans were also busy in Northern Wales, and the mediaeval Welsh tale Breuddwyd Macsen Wledig claims that Magnus Maximus (Macsen Wledig), one of the last western Roman Emperors, married Elen or Helen, the daughter of a Welsh chieftain from Segontium, present-day Caernarfon.[25] It was in the 4th century during the Roman occupation that Christianity was introduced to Wales. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3504x2336, 766 KB) Summary Bryn Celli Ddu Môn/ Anglesey Rhion Pritchard Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: History of Wales Bryn Celli Ddu Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3504x2336, 766 KB) Summary Bryn Celli Ddu Môn/ Anglesey Rhion Pritchard Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: History of Wales Bryn Celli Ddu Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Approximate extent of South East Wales. ... , Carmarthen (Welsh Caerfyrddin - caer fort + Myrddin Moridunum, Merlin [origin disputed]) is the county town of Carmarthenshire, Wales. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The Dolaucothi Gold Mines (grid reference SN662399), also known as the Ogofau Gold Mine, are a Roman deep mine located in the valley of the River Cothi, near Pumsaint, Carmarthenshire, Wales. ... Carmarthenshire (Welsh: ) is a one of thirteen historic counties and a principal area in Wales. ... , Caerleon (Welsh: ) is a suburban village and community, situated on the River Usk in the northern outskirts of the city of Newport (of which it is also a electoral ward) in south-east Wales. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The Colosseum in Rome, Italy. ... Magnus Maximus. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... Segontium is a Roman auxiliary fort, located on the outskirts of Caernarfon in north Wales. ... Caernarfon (the original Welsh spelling is now almost always used in preference to the anglicised forms, Caernarvon or Carnarvon) is a royal town in north-west Wales. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...


After the Roman withdrawal from Britain in 410, much of the lowlands were overrun by various Germanic tribes. However, Gwynedd, Powys, Dyfed and Seisyllg, Morgannwg, and Gwent emerged as independent Welsh successor states. They endured, in part because of favourable geographical features such as uplands, mountains, and rivers and a resilient society that did not collapse with the end of the Roman civitas. The Roman departure from Britain was completed by 410. ... Disambiguation: For the region of Scotland please see Scottish Lowlands Lowlands, also known as A Campingflight to Lowlands Paradise, is a music festival, held annually in the Netherlands in August. ... The term Germanic tribes (or Teutonic tribes) applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... For the fictional Kingdom of Gwynedd in the Deryni series of novels, see Gwynedd (fictional). ... Medieval kingdoms of Wales. ... Deheubarth was a south-western kingdom or principality of medieval Wales. ... Mediaeval kingdoms of Wales. ... In the fictional BattleTech universe, the Successor States (named such due to their being the Successors of the Star League) are the major military powers of the Inner Sphere, each governed by one of the Great Houses. ... In the history of the Roman empire, civitas (pl. ...

The Saxons at anchor on the sea always
The Cymry venerable until doomsday shall be supreme
They will not seek books nor be covetous of poets
The presage of this isle will be no other than this.
[ from The Omen of Prydein The Great, Book of Taliesin VI ]

This tenacious survival by the Romano-Britons and their descendants in the western kingdoms was to become the foundation of what we now know as Wales. With the loss of the lowlands, England's kingdoms of Mercia and Northumbria, and later Wessex, wrestled with Powys, Gwent, and Gwynedd to define the frontier between the two peoples. Book of Taliesin (Welsh: Llyfr Taliesin) is one of the most famous Welsh manuscripts. ... The term Romano-British describes the Romanised culture of Britain under the rule of the Roman Empire, when Roman and Christian culture had extensively entered into the life of the native Brythonic and Pictish peoples of Britain. ... The Kingdom of Mercia at its greatest extent (7th to 9th centuries) is shown in green, with the original core area (6th century) given a darker tint. ... Section from Shepherds map of the British Isles about 802 AD showing the kingdom of Northumbria Northumbria is primarily the name of a petty kingdom of Angles which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, from two smaller kingdoms of Bernicia and Diera, and... For the helicopter, see Westland Wessex. ...


Having lost much of the West Midlands to Mercia in the 6th century and early 7th century, a resurgent late 7th century Powys checked Mercian advancement. Aethelbald of Mercia, looking to defend recently acquired lands, had built Wat's Dyke. According to John Davies, this endeavour may have been with Powys king Elisedd ap Gwylog's own agreement, however, for this boundary, extending north from the valley of the River Severn to the Dee estuary, gave Oswestry (Welsh: Croesoswallt) to Powys.[citation needed] King Offa of Mercia seems to have continued this consultative initiative when he created a larger earth work, now known as Offa's Dyke (Welsh: Clawdd Offa). Davies wrote of Cyril Fox's study of Offa's Dyke: The West Midlands is an official Region of England, covering the western half of the Midlands. ... The Kingdom of Mercia at its greatest extent (7th to 9th centuries) is shown in green, with the original core area (6th century) given a darker tint. ... Ethelbald (or Æthelbald) (died 757) was the King of Mercia in England from 716 until his death. ... Wats Dyke is a 40 mile earthwork running through the northern Welsh Marches from Basingwerk on the Dee estuary, passing to the east of Oswestry and onto Maesbury in Shropshire. ... Elisedd ap Gwylog (died c. ... Severn redirects here. ... Oswestry is a town in Shropshire, England, very close to the Welsh border. ... This article is about Offa of Mercia. ... Rough cross-section of Offas Dyke, showing how it was designed to protect Mercia against attacks/raids from Powys. ... Sir Cyril Fred Fox (16 December 1882–15 January 1967) was an English archaeologist. ... Rough cross-section of Offas Dyke, showing how it was designed to protect Mercia against attacks/raids from Powys. ...

In the planning of it, there was a degree of consultation with the kings of Powys and Gwent. On the Long Mountain near Trelystan, the dyke veers to the east, leaving the fertile slopes in the hands of the Welsh; near Rhiwabod, it was designed to ensure that Cadell ap Brochwel retained possession of the Fortress of Penygadden." And for Gwent Offa had the dyke built "on the eastern crest of the gorge, clearly with the intention of recognizing that the River Wye and its traffic belonged to the kingdom of Gwent. River Wye and Lancat and Ban y Gore Nature Reserve The Wye at Hay-on-Wye The Wye at Tintern This article is about the river that flows along the Anglo-Welsh border. ...

Offa's Dyke largely remained the frontier between the Welsh and English, though the Welsh would recover by the 12th century the area between the Dee and the Conwy known then as the Perfeddwlad. By the 8th century the eastern borders with the Anglo-Saxons had broadly been set. Dee might refer to: a name of the letter D a familiar form of the name Mandy, Deanna, Dianne, Diane, Douglas, Denise, Dolores, Deidre, Cordelia, Jody an abbreviation for the dead-end elimination algorithm (DEE) Dee (singer), Canadian electro-pop singer, songwriter and DJ Dee (Actress), Indian bollywood actress Dia... Perfeddwlad, meaning middle country in Welsh, was a name adopted during the twelfth century for the territories in north-east Wales lying between the rivers Conwy and Dee, and comprised the cantrefi of Rhôs, Rhufoniog, Dyffryn Clwyd and Tegeingl. ... The Anglo-Saxons refers collectively to the groups of Germanic tribes who achieved dominance in southern Britain from the mid-5th century, forming the basis for the modern English nation. ...


Following the successful examples of Cornwall in 722 and Brittany in 865, the Britons of Wales made their peace with the Vikings and asked the Norsemen to help the Britons fight the Anglo-Saxons of Mercia to prevent an Anglo-Saxon conquest of Wales. In 878 AD the Britons of Wales unified with the Vikings of Denmark to destroy an Anglo-Saxon army of Mercians. Like Cornwall in 722, this decisive defeating of the Saxons gave Wales some decades of peace from Anglo-Saxon attack. In 1063, the Welsh prince Gruffydd ap Llywelyn made an alliance with Norwegian Vikings against Mercia which, as in 878 AD was successful, and the Saxons of Mercia defeated. As with Cornwall and Brittany, Viking aggression towards the Saxons/Franks ended any chance of the Anglo-Saxons/Franks conquering their Celtic neighbours. For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... This article is about the historical kingdom, duchy and French province, as well as one of the Celtic nations. ... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... The famous parade helmet found at Sutton Hoo, probably belonging to Raedwald of East Anglia circa 625. ... The Kingdom of Mercia at its greatest extent (7th to 9th centuries) is shown in green, with the original core area (6th century) given a darker tint. ... In the period before the Norman Conquest of Wales, several native princes had the name Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (Griffith son of Llywelyn). Two of these were of major importance in the history of Wales. ... This article is about the historical kingdom, duchy and French province, as well as one of the Celtic nations. ... This article is about the European people. ...


Medieval Wales

The southern and eastern lands lost to English settlement became known in Welsh as Lloegyr (Modern Welsh Lloegr), which may have referred to the kingdom of Mercia originally, and which came to refer to England as a whole.[26] The Germanic tribes who now dominated these lands were invariably called Saeson, meaning "Saxons". The Anglo-Saxons, in turn, labelled the Romano-British as Walha, meaning 'foreigner' or 'stranger'. The Welsh continued to call themselves Brythoniaid (Brythons or Britons) well into the Middle Ages, though the first use of Cymru and y Cymry is found as early as 633 in the Gododdin of Aneirin. In Armes Prydain, written in about 930, the words Cymry and Cymro are used as often as 15 times. It was not until about the 12th century however, that Cymry began to overtake Brythoniaid in their writings. The Kingdom of Mercia at its greatest extent (7th to 9th centuries) is shown in green, with the original core area (6th century) given a darker tint. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Saxon (disambiguation). ... The Anglo-Saxons refers collectively to the groups of Germanic tribes who achieved dominance in southern Britain from the mid-5th century, forming the basis for the modern English nation. ... Romano-British is a term used to refer to the Romanized Britons under the Roman Empire (and later the Western Roman Empire) and in the years after the Roman departure exposed to Roman culture and Christian religion. ... brass replica of the Tjurkö Bracteate showing the attestation of the name Walha Walha () is an ancient Germanic word, meaning foreigner or stranger (welsh) or roman. It is attested in the Roman Iron Age Tjurkö Bracteate inscription as walhakurne, probably welsh crown for Roman coin, i. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Gododdin (pronounced god-o-th-in), or Guotodin (Votadini in Latin), refers to both the people and to the region of a Dark Ages Brythonic kingdom south of the Firth of Forth, extending from the Stirling area to the Northumberland kingdom of Brynaich, and including what are now the Lothian... Aneirin, Aneurin or Neirin mab Dwywei (c. ... The term Welsh literature may be used to refer to any literature originating from Wales or by Welsh writers. ...

Dolwyddelan Castle, built by Llywelyn ab Iorwerth in the early 13th century to watch over one of the valley routes into Gwynedd
Dolwyddelan Castle, built by Llywelyn ab Iorwerth in the early 13th century to watch over one of the valley routes into Gwynedd

From the year 800 onwards, a series of dynastic marriages led to Rhodri Mawr's (r. 844-877) inheritance of Gwynedd and Powys. His sons in turn would found three principal dynasties (Aberffraw for Gwynedd, Dinefwr for Deheubarth, and Mathrafal for Powys), each competing for hegemony over the others. Rhodri's grandson Hywel Dda (r.900-950) founded Deheubarth out of his maternal and paternal inheritances of Dyfed and Seisyllwg, oust the Aberffraw dynasty from Gwynedd and Powys, and codify Welsh law in 930, finally going on a pilgrimage to Rome (and allegedly having the Law Codes blessed by the Pope). Maredudd ab Owain (r.986-999) of Deheubarth (Hywel's grandson) would, (again) temporarily oust the Aberffraw line for control of Gwynedd and Powys. Maredudd's great-grandson (through his daughter Princess Angharad) Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (r.1039-1063) would conquer his cousins' realms from his base in Powys, and even extend his authority into England. Owain Gwynedd (1100-1170) of the Aberffraw line was the first Welsh ruler to use the title princeps Wallensium (prince of the Welsh), a title of substance given his victory on the Berwyn Mountains, according to historian John Davies.[citation needed] The Aberffraw dynasty would surge to pre-eminence with Owain Gwynedd's grandson Llywelyn Fawr (the Great) (b.1173-1240), wrestling concessions out of the Magna Carta in 1215 and receiving the fealty of other Welsh lords in 1216 at the council at Aberdyfi, becoming the first Prince of Wales. His grandson Llywelyn II also secured the recognition of the title Prince of Wales from Henry III with the Treaty of Montgomery in 1267. Later however, a succession of disputes, including the imprisonment of Llywelyn's wife Eleanor, daughter of Simon de Montfort, culminated in the first invasion by Edward I. As a result of military defeat, the Treaty of Aberconwy exacted Llywelyn's fealty to England in 1277. Peace was short lived and with the 1282 Edwardian conquest the rule of the Welsh princes permanently ended. With Llywelyn's death and his brother prince Dafydd's execution, the few remaining Welsh lords did homage for their lands to Edward I. Llywelyn's head was then carried through London on a spear; his baby daughter Gwenllian was locked in the priory at Sempringham, where she remained until her death fifty four years later.[27] Image File history File linksMetadata Dolwyddelan_Castle2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Dolwyddelan_Castle2. ... The main keep, which has survived largely intact. ... Llywelyn ap Iorwerth ( 1173–April 11, 1240) was a Prince of Gwynedd and eventually ruler of much of Wales. ... Rhodri the Great a. ... This article is about the county of Wales. ... Powys is a local government principal area and a preserved county in Wales. ... Aberffraw is a small village on the south west coast of Anglesey (Welsh: ), by the west bank of the River Ffraw, at grid reference SH354693. ... Dinefwr was a local government district in Dyfed, Wales from 1974 to 1996. ... Deheubarth was a south-western kingdom or principality of medieval Wales. ... Mathrafal near Welshpool was the seat of the Kings and Princes of Powys probably from the 9th Century until its destruction in 1212 by Llywelyn ap Iorwerth of Gwynedd. ... Look up hegemony in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Howell the Good (880?–950; Welsh: Hywel Dda or Hywel ap Cadell) is listed amongst the kings of Gwynedd. ... Dyfed was one of the ancient kingdoms (or principalities) of Wales prior to the Norman Conquest. ... Seisyllwg was a kingdom of medieval Wales. ... Aberffraw is a small village on the south west coast of Anglesey (Welsh: ), by the west bank of the River Ffraw, at grid reference SH354693. ... Codified by Hywel Dda (Hywell the Good) in the early 10th century, the laws of the Welsh Princes were significantly more complex than would be found in other ares of Western Europe for centuries. ... This article is about the religious or spiritual journey. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... Maredudd ab Owain (died 999) was a Prince of Gwynedd and of Deheubarth. ... Angharad is a popular name in Celtic countries, particularly Wales, having a long association with Celtic royalty, history and myth. ... In the period before the Norman Conquest of Wales, several native princes had the name Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (Griffith son of Llywelyn). Two of these were of major importance in the history of Wales. ... Owain Gwynedd (in English, Owen) (c. ... Cadair Berwyn, with Llyn Lluncaws in the foreground The Berwyn Range is an isolated and sparsely-populated area of moorland located in the north-east of Wales, United Kingdom, roughly bounded by Llangollen in the north-east, Corwen in the north-west, Bala in the south-west, and Oswestry in... There have been several well-known people named John Davies, including: John Davies (writing-master) (1565?-1618) Sir John Davies (poet) (1569-1626) Dr John Davies (Mallwyd) (c. ... Llywelyn ap Iorwerth ( 1173–April 11, 1240) was a Prince of Gwynedd and eventually ruler of much of Wales. ... This article is about the English charter issued in 1215. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... Aberdyfi (sometimes Aberdovey in English) is a village on the estuary of the River Dyfi on the west coast of Wales. ... This article is about the title Prince of Wales. ... Arms used by Llywelyn ap Gruffydd Llywelyn ap Gruffydd or Llywelyn Ein Llyw Olaf (c. ... This article is about the title Prince of Wales. ... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John Lackland as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death. ... By means of the Treaty of Montgomery (1267), Llywelyn ap Gruffydd was able to get his new title Prince of Wales acknowledged by the English king Henry III. Llywelyn ap Gruffydd finished the work his grandfather, Llywelyn the Great, had started: by force and diplomacy all the other Welsh dynasties... Eleanor de Montfort (1252–June 1282) was the only daughter of Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, and became the last princess of Wales before the English Conquest in 1283. ... From the Chamber of the United States House of Representatives Simon V de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester (1208 – August 4, 1265) was the principal leader of the baronial opposition to King Henry III of England. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver or the English Justinian because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and tried to do the same to Scotland. ... The Treaty of Aberconwy was signed in 1277 by King Edward I of England and Llewelyn the Last of modern-day Wales, who had fought each other on and off for years over control of the Welsh countryside. ... Arms used by Llywelyn ap Gruffydd Llywelyn ap Gruffydd or Llywelyn Ein Llyw Olaf (c. ... Dafydd ap Gruffydd (c. ... Welsh peers hold their titles from a variety of sources. ... Edward I; illustration from Cassells History of England circa 1902. ... Gwenllian ferch Llywelyn (circa June 12, 1282-June 7, 1337) was the only known child of Llywelyn the Last. ... A priory is an ecclesiastical circumscription run by a prior. ... Located near Bourne in Lincolnshire, Sempringham is now a small hamlet that gives little clue to the history entwined within its parish boundary. ...


To help maintain his dominance, Edward constructed a series of great stone castles. Beaumaris, Caernarfon, and Conwy were built mainly to overshadow the Welsh royal home and headquarters Garth Celyn, Aber Garth Celyn, on the north coast of Gwynedd. For other uses, see Castle (disambiguation). ... Beaumaris Castle and moat. ... The ward of Caernarfon Castle, showing (from left to right) the Black Tower, the Chamberlains Tower, and the Eagle Tower. ... Conwy Castle in its present state. ... Garth Celyn, Aber Garth Celyn, now Abergwyngregyn, Gwynedd, the home in the thirteenth century of Llywelyn Fawr, Dafydd ap Llywelyn and LLywelyn ap Gruffudd, Tywysog Cymru Aber Garth Celyn, now known as Abergwyngregyn or Aber, is a settlement of great antiquity and on the north coast of Gwynedd. ... Aber Garth Celyn Aber Garth Celyn, now known as Abergwyngregyn or Aber, is a settlement of great antiquity and strategic importance on the north coast of Gwynedd. ...


There was no major uprising except that led by Owain Glyndŵr a century later, against Henry IV of England. In 1404 Owain was reputedly crowned Prince of Wales in the presence of emissaries from France, Spain and Scotland; he went on to hold parliamentary assemblies at several Welsh towns, including Machynlleth. The rebellion was ultimately to founder, however, and Owain went into hiding in 1412, with peace being more or less restored in Wales by 1415. Seal of Owain Glyndŵr The Arms of Powys and Deheubarth quartered, adopted by Owain Glyndŵr: Or and Gules, four Lions counterchanged Owain Glyndŵr (Pronounced IPA: ), or Owain Glyn Dŵr, anglicised by Shakespeare into Owen Glendower (c. ... Henry IV (3 April 1367 – 20 March 1413) was the King of England and France and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413. ... This article is about the title Prince of Wales. ... This article is about the country. ... , Machynlleth (pronounced ; sometimes abbreviated to Mach) is a market town in the traditional county of Montgomeryshire (Sir Drefaldwyn), north Powys in Wales. ...


Although English conquest of Wales took place under the 1284 Statute of Rhuddlan, a formal Union did not occur until 1536, shortly after which Welsh law, which continued to be used in Wales after the conquest, was fully replaced by English law under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535-1542. Wales remains the largest principality in the world. The Statute of Rhuddlan was enacted on 3 March 1284 after the conquest of Wales by the English king Edward I. The Statute of Rhuddlan was issued from Rhuddlan Castle in North Wales, which was built as one of the iron ring of fortresses by Edward I, in his late... The Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 were a series of parliamentary measures by which the legal system of Wales was annexed to England and the norms of English administration introduced in order to create a single state and a single legal jurisdiction, which is frequently referred to as England... A principality is a monarchical feudatory or sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a Monarch with the title of prince or princess (a synonym is princedom) or (in the widest sense) a Monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince. ...


Nationalist revival

See also: History of Plaid Cymru

In the 20th century, Wales saw a revival in its national status. Plaid Cymru was formed in 1925, seeking greater autonomy or independence from the rest of the UK. In 1955, the term England and Wales became common for describing the area to which English law applied, and Cardiff was proclaimed as capital city. In 1962 the Welsh Language Society (Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg) was formed in response to fears that the language might soon die out. Nationalism grew, particularly following the flooding of the Tryweryn valley in 1965, drowning the village of Capel Celyn to create a reservoir supplying water to Liverpool. In 1966 the Carmarthen Parliamentary seat was won by Plaid Cymru at a by-election, their first Parliamentary seat. A terror campaign was waged for a short period by the Free Wales Army and Mudiad Amddiffyn Cymru (MAC - Welsh Defence Movement). In the years leading up to the investiture of Prince Charles as Prince of Wales in 1969, these groups were responsible for a number of bomb blasts destroying water pipes and tax and other offices. In 1967, the Wales and Berwick Act 1746 was repealed for Wales, and a legal definition of Wales, and of the boundary with England was stated. See also Plaid Cymru: The Party of Wales Plaid Genedlaethol Cymru (the National Party of Wales, the founding name) originated after a 1925 National Eisteddfod meeting, held in Pwllheli[1]. Representatives from the Army of the Welsh Home Rulers (Byddin Ymreolwr Cymru) and The Welsh Movement (Y Mudiad Cymreig), both... Plaid Cymru (IPA:; English: ; often referred to simply as Plaid) is a political party in Wales. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... This article is about the capital city of Wales. ... Capital City is a 60-minute television show produced by Euston Films that ran for 13 episodes in 1989 on ITV. This drama focused on the lives of investment bankers in London living and working on the corporate trading floor for the fictional international bank Shane-Longman. ... Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg are campaigning for the language in many fields: education, media and culture, planning, local authorities. ... Capel Celyn was a rural community to the North West of Bala in North Wales, in the Afon Tryweryn Valley. ... Capel Celyn was a rural community to the North West of Bala in North Wales, in the Tryweryn Valley. ... ... For other uses, see Liverpool (disambiguation). ... , Carmarthen (Welsh Caerfyrddin - caer fort + Myrddin Moridunum, Merlin [origin disputed]) is the county town of Carmarthenshire, Wales. ... The Free Wales Army (Welsh: Byddin Rhyddid Cymru) was a paramilitary Welsh nationalist organisation, formed out of Lampeter, West Wales by William Julian Cayo-Evans in 1963 as a replacement for the then supposedly moribund Mudiad Amddiffyn Cymru. ... Mudiad Amddiffyn Cymru (Welsh Defence Movement), abbreviated as MAC, was a Welsh terrorist organisation, modelled to some degree on the Provisional Irish Republican Army, which was responsible for a number of bombing incidents between 1963 and 1969. ... “Prince Charles” redirects here. ... This article is about the title Prince of Wales. ... The Wales and Berwick Act 1746 was an act of Parliament explicitly expressing that all future laws applying to England would likewise also be applicable to Wales and Berwick unless the body of the law explicitly stated otherwise. ...


A referendum on the creation of an assembly for Wales in 1979 (see Wales referendum, 1979) led to a large majority for the "no" vote. However, in 1997 a referendum on the same issue secured a "yes", although by a very narrow majority. The National Assembly for Wales (Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru) was set up in 1999 (as a consequence of the Government of Wales Act 1998) and possesses the power to determine how the central government budget for Wales is spent and administered (although the UK parliament reserves the right to set limits on the powers of the Welsh Assembly). The 1998 Act was amended by the Government of Wales Act 2006 which enhanced the Assembly's powers, giving it legislative powers akin to the Scottish Parliament and Northern Ireland Assembly. Following the 2007 Assembly election, the One Wales Government was formed under a coalition agreement between Plaid Cymru and the Welsh Labour Party, under that agreement, a convention is due to be established to discuss further enhancing Wales' legislative and financial autonomy. In a referendum on St Davids Day (March 1) 1979, the people of Wales voted against proposals by the Labour government of the United Kingdom to establish a Welsh Assembly. ... Established 1999 by the Government of Wales Act 1998 Presiding Officer Lord Elis-Thomas AM (Plaid) Since May 12, 1999 Deputy Presiding Officer Rosemary Butler AM (Lab) Leader of the House Carwyn Jones AM (Lab) Chief Executive and Clerk to the Assembly Claire Clancy Political parties 6 Welsh Labour (26... The Government of Wales Act, 1998 (1998 c. ... The Government of Wales Act 2006 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... The logo of the Northern Ireland Assembly, a six flowered linen or flax plant. ... One Wales (Welsh: Un Cymru IPA: /ɨn ˈkÉ™mrɨ/) is the name of the coalition agreement for the Welsh Assembly between the Welsh Labour Party and Plaid Cymru agreed to by Rhodri Morgan, Welsh First Minister and leader of Welsh Labour, and Ieuan Wyn Jones, leader of Plaid Cymru, on... Plaid Cymru (IPA:; English: ; often referred to simply as Plaid) is a political party in Wales. ... The Wales Labour Party, also known as Welsh Labour, is the part of the Labour Party which operates in Wales. ...


Government and Politics

Main article: Politics of Wales
See also: Politics of the United Kingdom
See also: National Assembly for Wales election, 2007

The head of state in Wales, a constituent part of the United Kingdom, is the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II (since 1952). Executive power is derived by the Queen, and exercised by the Parliament of the United Kingdom at Westminster, with some powers devolved to the National Assembly for Wales in Cardiff. The United Kingdom Parliament retains responsibility for passing primary legislation in Wales. The National Assembly has regulatory authority over laws passed that are applicable to Wales, and has limited power to vary these by secondary legislation. The National Assembly is not a sovereign authority, and the UK Parliament could, in theory, overrule or even abolish it at any time. However, its powers increased under the Government of Wales Act 2006 which allows it to speed up the passage of 'Assembly Measures'. Politics in Wales forms a distinctive polity in the wider politics of the United Kingdom, with Wales as one of the four constituent countries of the United Kingdom. ... The Politics of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland takes place in the framework of a constitutional monarchy in which the Monarch is head of state and the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government. ... The 2007 National Assembly election was the third general election to the National Assembly for Wales and took place on Thursday 3 May, the same day as local elections in England and Scotland, and the Scottish Parliament election. ... This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Speaker of the House of Lords Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist... Westminster is a district within the City of Westminster in London. ... Established 1999 by the Government of Wales Act 1998 Presiding Officer Lord Elis-Thomas AM (Plaid) Since May 12, 1999 Deputy Presiding Officer Rosemary Butler AM (Lab) Leader of the House Carwyn Jones AM (Lab) Chief Executive and Clerk to the Assembly Claire Clancy Political parties 6 Welsh Labour (26... This article is about the capital city of Wales. ... Primary legislation is legislation made by the legislative branch of government. ... Delegated legislation (sometimes referred to as secondary legislation or subordinate legislation) is law made by ministers under powers given to them by parliamentary acts (primary legislation) in order to implement and administer the requirements of the acts. ... The Government of Wales Act 2006 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ...

The Senedd in the daytime (The Welsh Assembly Building)
The Senedd in the daytime (The Welsh Assembly Building)

The National Assembly was first established in 1998 under the Government of Wales Act. There are 60 members of the Assembly, known as "Assembly Members (AM)". Forty of the AMs are elected under the First Past the Post system, with the other 20 elected via the Additional Member System via regional lists in 5 different regions. The largest party elects the First Minister of Wales, who acts as the head of government. The Welsh Assembly Government is the executive arm, and the Assembly has delegated most of its powers to the Assembly Government. The new Assembly Building designed by Lord Rogers was opened by The Queen on St David's Day (March 1) 2006. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 1306 KB) Summary I took this photo myself. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 1306 KB) Summary I took this photo myself. ... The National Assembly for Wales Building at night The Senedd in the daytime The Senedd (Welsh for Parliament or Senate) is the home of the National Assembly for Wales. ... The Government of Wales Act, 1998 (1998 c. ... An Assembly Member (Welsh: ) (AM) is a member of the Welsh Assembly in Wales, UK; or the London Assembly in London, UK. Categories: | ... An example of a plurality ballot. ... The Additional Member System (AMS) is a voting system in which some representatives are elected from geographic constituencies and others are elected under proportional representation from party lists. ... The First Minister of Wales is the leader of Wales and of the Welsh Assembly Government, Waless devolved administration. ... Official logo of the Welsh Assembly Government The Welsh Assembly Government (WAG) (Welsh: , LlCC) was firstly an executive body of the National Assembly for Wales, consisting of the First Minister and his Cabinet from 1999 to 2007. ... Under the doctrine of the separation of powers, the executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law and running the day-to-day affairs of the government or state. ... For the American composer, see Richard Rodgers. ... Elizabeth II in an official portrait as Queen of Canada (on the occasion of her Golden Jubilee in 2002, wearing the Sovereigns badges of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit) Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) (born 21 April 1926), styled HM The... Saint Davids Day (Welsh: Dydd Gŵyl Dewi Sant) is the feast day of Saint David, the patron saint of Wales, and falls on March 1 each year. ...


The current First Minister of Wales is Rhodri Morgan[28] (since 2000), of the Welsh Labour party, with 26 of 60 seats. After the National Assembly for Wales election, 2007 Welsh Labour and Plaid Cymru; The Party of Wales, which favours Welsh independence from the rest of the United Kingdom entered into a coalition partnership to form a stable government with the "historic" One Wales agreement. As the second largest party in the Assembly with 15 out of 60 seats, Plaid Cymru is currently led by Ieuan Wyn Jones, now the Deputy First Minister of Wales. The presiding officer of the Assembly is Plaid Cymru member Lord Elis-Thomas. Other parties include the Conservative Party, currently the loyal opposition with 12 seats, and the Liberal Democrats with six seats. The "LibDems" had previously formed part of a coalition government with Labour in the first Assembly. There is one independent member. Rhodri Morgan, pictured while on an eve of poll visit during the National Assembly of Wales election in 2003. ... The Wales Labour Party, also known as Welsh Labour, is the part of the Labour Party which operates in Wales. ... The 2007 National Assembly election was the third general election to the National Assembly for Wales and took place on Thursday 3 May, the same day as local elections in England and Scotland, and the Scottish Parliament election. ... Plaid Cymru (IPA:; English: ; often referred to simply as Plaid) is a political party in Wales. ... A coalition is an alliance among entities, during which they cooperate in joint action, each in their own self-interest. ... One Wales (Welsh: Un Cymru IPA: /ɨn ˈkəmrɨ/) is the name of the coalition agreement for the Welsh Assembly between the Welsh Labour Party and Plaid Cymru agreed to by Rhodri Morgan, Welsh First Minister and leader of Welsh Labour, and Ieuan Wyn Jones, leader of Plaid Cymru, on... Ieuan Wyn Jones (born 22 May 1949) is leader of Plaid Cymru, Deputy First Minister in the Welsh Assembly Government and Member of the National Assembly for Wales for the Ynys Môn constituency. ... The First Minister of Wales is the leader of Wales and of the Welsh Assembly Government, Waless devolved administration. ... The Presiding Officer (Oifigear-Riaghlaidh in Scots Gaelic) is the person elected by the Members of the Scottish Parliament to chair their meetings. ... Dafydd Elis-Thomas, Baron Elis-Thomas of Nant Conwy, AM, is a UK politician from Wales. ... The Conservative Party, officially though less commonly known as the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... Loyal opposition is the concept that one can be opposed to the actions of the government or ruling party of the day without being opposed to the constitution of the political system. ... The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, are a liberal political party based in the United Kingdom. ...


In the British House of Commons, Wales is represented by 40 MPs (out of a total of 646) in the Welsh constituencies. Currently, Welsh Labour represents 29 of the 40 seats, the Liberal Democrats hold four seats, Plaid Cymru three and the Conservatives three. A Secretary of State for Wales sits in the UK cabinet and is responsible for representing matters that pertain to Wales. The Wales Office is a department of the United Kingdom government, responsible for Wales. The current Secretary of State for Wales is Paul Murphy, who replaced Peter Hain on 24 January 2008 over an investigation on undeclared donations. Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... To see the list in alphabetical order see the categories UK Parliamentary constituencies and UK Parliamentary constituencies (historic). ... The Wales Labour Party, also known as Welsh Labour, is the part of the Labour Party which operates in Wales. ... The Secretary of State for Wales is the head of the Wales Office within the United Kingdom cabinet. ... The Wales Office is a United Kingdom government department. ... The Right Honourable Paul Peter Murphy (born 25 November 1948) is a British politician for the Labour Party. ... Peter Gerald Hain PC MP (born February 16, 1950, Nairobi, Kenya) is a British, Left-wing Labour Party politician and Secretary of State for Work and Pensions (he is also Secretary of State for Wales). ...


Law

Main article: English law
See also: Contemporary Welsh Law

England fully annexed Wales under the Laws in Wales Act 1535, in the reign of King Henry VIII. Prior to that Welsh Law had survived de facto after the conquest up to the 15th century in areas remote from direct English control. The Wales and Berwick Act 1746 provided that all laws that applied to England would automatically apply to Wales (and Berwick-upon-Tweed, a town located on the Anglo-Scottish border) unless the law explicitly stated otherwise. This act, with regard to Wales, was repealed in 1967. However, Wales and England, as part of the legal entity England and Wales, share the same legal system — except for a few changes to accommodate the autonomy recently afforded to Wales. In this sense, English law is the law of Wales. English law is a formal term of art that describes the law for the time being in force in England and Wales. ... Contemporary Welsh Law is a term applied to the body of primary and secondary legislation generated by the National Assembly of Wales, according to newly devolved authority granted in the United Kingdom parliament Government of Wales Act 2006. ... The Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 were a series of parliamentary measures by which the legal system of Wales was annexed to England and the norms of English administration introduced in order to create a single state and a single legal jurisdiction, which is frequently referred to as England... Henry VIII redirects here. ... Codified by Hywel Dda (Hywell the Good) in the early 10th century, the laws of the Welsh Princes were significantly more complex than would be found in other ares of Western Europe for centuries. ... The Wales and Berwick Act 1746 was an act of Parliament explicitly expressing that all future laws applying to England would likewise also be applicable to Wales and Berwick unless the body of the law explicitly stated otherwise. ... Map sources for Berwick-upon-Tweed at grid reference NT9952 Berwick-upon-Tweed from across the river Berwick-upon-Tweed, (pronounced Berrick) situated in the county of Northumberland, is the northernmost town in England, situated on the east coast on the mouth of the river Tweed. ... English law is a formal term of art that describes the law for the time being in force in England and Wales. ...


English law is regarded as a common law system, with no major codification of the law, and legal precedents are binding as opposed to persuasive. The court system is headed by the House of Lords which is the highest court of appeal in the land for criminal and civil cases (although this is due to be replaced by a Supreme Court of the United Kingdom). The Supreme Court of Judicature of England and Wales is the highest court of first instance as well as an appellate court. The three divisions are the Court of Appeal; the High Court of Justice and the Crown Court. Minor cases are heard by the Magistrates' Courts or the County Court. This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... In law, codification is the process of collecting and restating the law of a jurisdiction in certain areas, usually by subject, forming the legal code. ... This article is about the legal term. ... Schematic of court system for England and Wales The Courts of England and Wales are the civil and criminal courts responsible for the administration of justice in England and Wales; they are constituted and governed by the Law of England and Wales and are subordinate to the Parliament of the... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... The future Supreme Court of the United Kingdom The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom was established in law by Part III of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005. ... The Court of First Instance, created in 1989, is a court of the European Union. ... Court of Appeal, Court of Appeals, and Appellate Division redirect here; for a list of specific courts using those titles, see Court of Appeal (disambiguation), Court of Appeals (disambiguation), and Appellate Division (disambiguation). ... Her Majestys Court of Appeal is the second most senior court in the English legal system, with only the Judicial Committee of the House of Lords above it. ... Her Majestys High Court of Justice (known more simply as the High Court) is, together with the Crown Court and the Court of Appeal, part of the Supreme Court of England and Wales in England and Wales: see Courts of England and Wales. ... Crown Court and County Court in Oxford. ... Bedford Magistrates Court A Magistrates Court or court of petty sessions, formerly known as a police court, is the lowest kind of court in England and Wales and many other common law jurisdictions. ... Crown Court and County Court in Oxford. ...


Following devolution in 2006, the Welsh Assembly has authority to draft and approve some laws outside of the UK Parliamentary system to meet the specific needs of Wales. Under powers conferred by Legislative Competency Orders agreed by all parliamentary stakeholders, it is able to pass laws known as Assembly Measures in relation to specific fields, such as health and education. As such, Assembly Measures are a subordinate form of primary legislation, lacking the scope of UK-wide Acts of Parliament, but able to be passed without the approval of the UK parliament or Royal Assent for each 'act'. Through this primary legislation, the Welsh Assembly Government can then also draft more specific secondary legislation. With devolution, the ancient and historic Wales and Chester court circuit was also disbanded and a separate Welsh court circuit was created to allow for any Measures passed by the Assembly. Look up Devolution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The National Assembly for Wales (or NAW) (Welsh: Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru) was established in 1998, following a 1997 referendum in which a small majority of voters (but not the electorate) voted in favour of the Labour Governments plans for devolution. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Speaker of the House of Lords Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist... In Wales, a Legislative Competency Order or LCO is a piece of constitutional legislation in the form of an Order In Council. ... In Wales, an Assembly Measure is Primary legislation that is a category lower than an Act of Parliament. ... Primary legislation is legislation made by the legislative branch of government. ... In Westminster System parliaments, an Act of Parliament is a part of the law passed by the Parliament. ... Official logo of the Welsh Assembly Government The Welsh Assembly Government (WAG) (Welsh: , LlCC) was firstly an executive body of the National Assembly for Wales, consisting of the First Minister and his Cabinet from 1999 to 2007. ... Delegated legislation (sometimes referred to as secondary legislation or subordinate legislation) is law made by ministers under powers given to them by parliamentary acts (primary legislation) in order to implement and administer the requirements of the acts. ...


Principal areas

Clock tower of Cardiff City Hall
Clock tower of Cardiff City Hall
Main article: Subdivisions of Wales
See also: History of local government in Wales

The traditional counties of Wales have changed over the years. For the purposes of local government, Wales was divided into 22 council areas in 1996. These "unitary authorities" are responsible for the provision of all local government services. There are five cities in Wales: Bangor, Cardiff (the capital), Newport, St David's and Swansea. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1168x1752, 983 KB) Description: Tower in Cardiff, Wales, UK Source: Photo taken by Olivier Aumage Date: Created 08. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1168x1752, 983 KB) Description: Tower in Cardiff, Wales, UK Source: Photo taken by Olivier Aumage Date: Created 08. ... City Hall is a civic building in Cathays Park, Cardiff, Wales. ... For local government purposes, Wales is divided into 22 unitary authorities. ... A unitary authority is a term used in a two-tier local government system to describe a unit of local government that operates as a single tier. ... Bangor, in north Wales, is one of the smallest cities in the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital city of Wales. ... This article is about the city of Newport in Wales. ... St Davids (Welsh: Tyddewi) is the smallest city in the United Kingdom, with a population of under 2,000 people. ... For other places with the same name, see Swansea (disambiguation). ...


Unitary authorities of Wales

  1. Merthyr Tydfil (Merthyr Tudful) †
  2. Caerphilly (Caerffili) †
  3. Blaenau Gwent
  4. Torfaen (Tor-faen) †
  5. Monmouthshire (Sir Fynwy)
  6. Newport (Casnewydd) *
  7. Cardiff (Caerdydd) *
  8. Vale of Glamorgan (Bro Morgannwg) †
  9. Bridgend (Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr) †
  10. Rhondda Cynon Taf (Rhondda Cynon Tâf) †
  11. Neath Port Talbot (Castell-nedd Porth Talbot) †
  12. Swansea (Abertawe) *
  13. Carmarthenshire (Sir Gaerfyrddin)
  14. Ceredigion
  15. Powys
  16. Wrexham (Wrecsam) †
  17. Flintshire (Sir y Fflint)
  18. Denbighshire (Sir Ddinbych)
  19. Conwy
  20. Gwynedd
  21. Isle of Anglesey (Ynys Môn)
  22. Pembrokeshire (Sir Benfro)

Areas are Counties, unless marked * (for Cities) or † (for County Boroughs). Welsh language forms are given in parentheses, where they differ from the English. Merthyr Tydfil (Welsh: ) is a town and county borough in Wales, with a population of about 55,000. ... Caerphilly [county borough] is a local government principal area in southern Wales, straddling the boundary between the traditional counties of Glamorgan and Monmouthshire. ... Blaenau Gwent is a county borough and parliamentary constituency in South Wales. ... Torfaen (sometimes hyphenated Tor-faen) is a county borough in South Wales. ... Monmouthshire (Welsh: ) is both a historic county and principal area in south-east Wales. ... This article is about the city of Newport in Wales. ... This article is about the capital city of Wales. ... For other uses, see Vale of Glamorgan (disambiguation). ... Bridgend is a county borough in what was the traditional county of Glamorgan, southern Wales. ... Rhondda Cynon Taff (Welsh: Rhondda Cynon Tâf) is a county borough in Glamorgan, South Wales. ... Neath Port Talbot (Welsh: ) is a county borough in Glamorgan, south Wales. ... For other places with the same name, see Swansea (disambiguation). ... Carmarthenshire (Welsh: ) is a one of thirteen historic counties and a principal area in Wales. ... For other uses please see Ceredigion (disambiguation) Ceredigion is a county and principal area in mid Wales. ... Powys is a local government principal area and a preserved county in Wales. ... Wrexham is a county borough in northern Wales. ... Flintshire (Welsh: ) is a principal area and county in north-east Wales. ... Denbighshire (Welsh: Sir Ddinbych) is a county in North Wales. ... Conwy [county borough] is a local government principal area in north Wales. ... This article is about the county of Wales. ... Anglesey or Anglesea (Welsh: Ynys Môn pronounced Uh-niss Mawn), is an island and county in north-west Wales. ... Pembrokeshire (Welsh: ) is a county in the southwest of Wales in the United Kingdom. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ...

Geography

Political map of Wales
Main article: Geography of Wales

Wales is located on a peninsula in central-west Great Britain. Its area, the size of Wales, is about 20,779 km² (8,023 square miles - about the same size as Massachusetts, Slovenia or El Salvador and about a quarter of the size of Scotland). It is about 274 km (170 miles) north-south and 97 km (60 miles) east-west. Wales is bordered by England to the east and by sea in the other three directions: the Môr Hafren (Bristol Channel) to the south, St. George's Channel to the west, and the Irish Sea to the north. Altogether, Wales has over 1,200 km (750 miles) of coastline. There are several islands off the Welsh mainland, the largest being Ynys Môn (Anglesey) in the northwest. Image File history File links Map_of_Wales. ... Image File history File links Map_of_Wales. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A peninsula in Croatia A peninsula is a piece of land that is bordered on three or more sides by water. ... To help give a rough estimate of land-areas, comparisons are often made to geographic areas with which someone might be more familiar. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the country. ... Look up North in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see South (disambiguation). ... A compass rose For other uses, see East (disambiguation). ... A compass rose with west highlighted This article refers to the cardinal direction; for other uses see West (disambiguation). ... Satellite view of the Bristol Channel Map of the Bristol Channel The Bristol Channel (Welsh: ) is a major inlet in the island of Great Britain, separating South Wales from the West Country and extending from the lower estuary of the River Severn (Afon Hafren) to that part of the North... Relief map of the Irish Sea. ... Relief map of the Irish Sea. ... Anglesey (historically Anglesea; Welsh: , pronounced (IPA)) is a predominantly Welsh-speaking island off the northwest coast of Wales. ...


The main population and industrial areas are in South Wales, consisting of the cities of Cardiff (Caerdydd), Swansea (Abertawe) and Newport (Casnewydd) and surrounding areas, with another significant population in the north-east around Wrexham (Wrecsam). Approximate extent of South East Wales. ... This article is about the capital city of Wales. ... For other places with the same name, see Swansea (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city of Newport in Wales. ... This article is about Wrexham the settlement. ...

The summit of Snowdon (Yr Wyddfa), Gwynedd, highest mountain in Wales
The summit of Snowdon (Yr Wyddfa), Gwynedd, highest mountain in Wales

Much of Wales' diverse landscape is mountainous, particularly in the north and central regions. The mountains were shaped during the last ice age, the Devensian glaciation. The highest mountains in Wales are in Snowdonia (Eryri), and include Snowdon (Yr Wyddfa), which, at 1085 m (3,560 ft) is the highest peak in Wales. The 14 (or possibly 15) Welsh mountains over 3,000 feet (914 m) high are known collectively as the Welsh 3000s. The Brecon Beacons (Bannau Brycheiniog) are in the south (highest point Pen-y-Fan 886 m (2,907 ft)), and are joined by the Cambrian Mountains in Mid Wales, the latter name being given to the earliest geological period of the Paleozoic era, the Cambrian. Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 685 KB)Snowdon from Llyn Llydaw Photograph by User:Gdr File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 685 KB)Snowdon from Llyn Llydaw Photograph by User:Gdr File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Snowdon, the highest mountain in Wales and the highest British mountain south of the Scottish Highlands, is probably the busiest mountain in Britain [1]. It is located in Snowdonia National Park (Welsh: Parc Cenedlaethol Eryri). ... This article is about the county of Wales. ... For other uses, see Mountain (disambiguation). ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... The Devensian glaciation is a name for an ice age period which occurred between 120,000 and 10,000 years ago. ... Tryfans north ridge (seen on the left in this picture) in Snowdonia. ... Snowdon, the highest mountain in Wales and the highest British mountain south of the Scottish Highlands, is probably the busiest mountain in Britain [1]. It is located in Snowdonia National Park (Welsh: Parc Cenedlaethol Eryri). ... The Welsh 3,000s are the mountains of Wales over 3,000 feet high (914. ... Part of the Brecon Beacons, looking from the highest point Pen y Fan, 886 m (2907 feet), to Cribyn, 795 m (2608 feet) The Brecon Beacons (Welsh: Bannau Brycheiniog) are a mountain range located in the south-east of Wales. ... Pen y Fan is the highest mountain in South Wales, UK, situated in the Brecon Beacons national park. ... The Cambrian Mountains are a mountain range in Mid Wales, reaching from the Brecon Beacons in South Wales to Snowdonia in North Wales. ... Mid Wales is the name given to the area of Wales between North Wales and South Wales. ... The Paleozoic Era (from the Greek palaio, old and zoion, animals, meaning ancient life) is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... For other uses, see Cambrian (disambiguation). ...


In the mid 19th century, two prominent geologists, Roderick Murchison and Adam Sedgwick, used their studies of the geology of Wales to establish certain principles of stratigraphy and palaeontology. After much dispute, the next two periods of the Paleozoic era, the Ordovician and Silurian, were named after ancient Celtic tribes from this area. The older rocks underlying the Cambrian rocks were referred to as Pre-cambrian. The Geologist by Carl Spitzweg A geologist is a contributor to the science of geology, studying the physical structure and processes of the Earth and planets of the solar system (see planetary geology). ... Sir Roderick Murchison Sir Roderick Impey Murchison (February 19, 1792 – October 22, 1871), was an influential Scottish geologist who first described and investigated the Silurian era. ... Adam Sedgwick (March 22nd, 1785–January 27, 1873) was one of the founders of modern geology. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Stratigraphy, a branch of geology, studies rock layers and layering (stratification). ... A paleontologist carefully chips rock from a column of dinosaur vertebrae. ... Artist impression of the Ordovician Sea. ... For other uses, see Silurian (disambiguation). ... Diachronic distribution of Celtic peoples:  core Hallstatt territory, by the 6th century BC  maximal Celtic expansion, by the 3rd century BC  the six Celtic nations which retained significant numbers of Celtic speakers into the Early Modern period  areas where Celtic languages remain widely spoken today Celts (pronounced or , see pronunciation... For other uses, see Cambrian (disambiguation). ... The Precambrian (Pre-Cambrian) is an informal name for the supereon comprising the eons of the geologic timescale that came before the current Phanerozoic eon. ...


Wales has three National Parks: Snowdonia, Brecon Beacons and Pembrokeshire Coast. It also has four Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty. These areas include Anglesey, the Clwydian Range, the Gower peninsula and the Wye Valley. The Gower peninsula was the first area in the whole of the United Kingdom to be designated as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, in 1956. This article is about national parks. ... Tryfans north ridge (seen on the left in this picture) in Snowdonia. ... Part of the Brecon Beacons, looking from the highest point Pen y Fan, 886 m (2907 feet), to Cribyn, 795 m (2608 feet) The Brecon Beacons (Welsh: Bannau Brycheiniog) are a mountain range located in the south-east of Wales. ... Pembrokeshire Coast National Park (Parc Cenedlaethol Arfordir Penfro in the Welsh language) is a national park along the Pembrokeshire coast in Wales. ... An Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB) is an area of countryside with significant landscape value in England, Wales or Northern Ireland, that has been specially designated by the Countryside Agency on behalf of the United Kingdom government. ... Anglesey (historically Anglesea; Welsh: , pronounced (IPA)) is a predominantly Welsh-speaking island off the northwest coast of Wales. ... The Clwydian Range is a series of hills in North Wales that runs from Llandegla in the South to Prestatyn in the North, with the highest point being the popular Moel Famau. ... Gower redirects here. ... Tintern Abbey in the Wye Valley, viewed from the Devils Pulpit near Tidenham The Wye Valley Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB) is an internationally important protected landscape area straddling the border between England and Wales. ...

Tor Bay and Three Cliffs Bay, Gower (Gŵyr), Glamorgan.
Tor Bay and Three Cliffs Bay, Gower (Gŵyr), Glamorgan.

Along with its Celtic cousins in Cornwall, the coastline of South and West Wales has more miles of Heritage Coast than anywhere else. The coastline of the Glamorgan Heritage Coast, the Gower peninsula, Pembrokeshire, Carmarthenshire, and Ceredigion is particularly wild and impressive. Gower, Carmarthenshire, Pembrokeshire and Cardigan Bay all have clean blue water, white sand beaches and impressive marine life. Despite this scenic splendour the coast of Wales has a dark side; the south and west coasts of Wales, along with the Irish and Cornish coasts, are frequently blasted by huge Atlantic westerlies/south westerlies that, over the years, have sunk and wrecked many vessels. On the night of October 25, 1859, 114 ships were destroyed off the coast of Wales when a hurricane blew in from the Atlantic; Cornwall and Ireland also had a huge number of fatalities on its coastline from shipwrecks that night. Wales has the somewhat unenviable reputation, along with Cornwall, Ireland and Brittany, of having per square mile, some of the highest shipwreck rates in Europe.[citation needed] The shipwreck situation was particularly bad during the industrial era when ships bound for Cardiff got caught up in Atlantic gales and were decimated by "the cruel sea". Three Cliffs Bay on the Gower peninsular of South Wales. ... Three Cliffs Bay on the Gower peninsular of South Wales. ... Categories: Stub | Bays | Swansea ... Gower redirects here. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... A Heritage Coast is a strip of coastline designated by the Countryside Agency in England and Wales. ... Gower redirects here. ... Pembrokeshire (Welsh: ) is a county in the southwest of Wales in the United Kingdom. ... Carmarthenshire (Welsh: ) is a one of thirteen historic counties and a principal area in Wales. ... For other uses please see Ceredigion (disambiguation) Ceredigion is a county and principal area in mid Wales. ... The term Cardigan Bay, when used by itself, can refer to: A horse called Cardigan Bay A bay in Wales called Cardigan Bay A bay in Prince Edward Island called Cardigan Bay This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... The Westerlies are the prevailing winds in the middle latitudes between 30 and 60 degrees latitude, blowing from the high pressure area in the horse latitudes towards the poles. ... This article is about the historical kingdom, duchy and French province, as well as one of the Celtic nations. ... For other uses, see Shipwreck (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Like Cornwall, Brittany and Ireland, the clean, clear waters of South-west Wales of Gower, Pembrokeshire and Cardigan Bay attract marine visitors including basking sharks, Atlantic grey seals, leatherback turtles, dolphins, porpoises, jellyfish, crabs and lobsters. Pembrokeshire and Ceredigion in particular are recognised as an area of international importance for Bottlenose dolphins, and New Quay in the middle of Cardigan Bay has the only summer residence of bottle nosed dolphins in the whole of the U.K. Binomial name Cetorhinus maximus (Gunnerus, 1765) Range (in blue) The basking shark, Cetorhinus maximus, is the second largest fish, after the whale shark. ... Binomial name (Fabricius, 1791) Grey Seal range (in blue) The Grey Seal (Halichoerus grypus) is found on both shores of the North Atlantic Ocean. ... Turtles and terapins may mean: plural of turtle Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles The Turtles band Turtles band Turtles Music stores See also: Turtle (disambiguation) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... This article is about the dolphin mammal. ... Genera Neophocaena Phocoena - Harbor porpoises Phocoenoides - Dalls porpoises The porpoises are small cetaceans of the family Phocoenidae; they are related to whales and dolphins. ... For other uses, see Jellyfish (disambiguation). ... Phthirus pubis Pubic lice (Phthirus pubis), also known as crabs , are one of the many varieties of lice (singular louse) specialized to live on different areas of different animals. ... Clawed lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae) of large marine crustaceans. ... Binomial name Montagu, 1821 Bottlenose Dolphin range (in blue) The Bottlenose Dolphin is one of the most common and well-known dolphins. ... New Quay (Welsh: Cei Newydd) is a seaside town in Ceredigion, Wales, lying on Cardigan Bay. ...


The modern border between Wales and England was largely defined in the 16th century, based on medieval feudal boundaries. The boundary line (which very roughly follows Offa's Dyke up to 40 miles (64 km) of the northern coast) separates Knighton from its railway station, virtually cuts off Church Stoke from the rest of Wales, and slices straight through the village of Llanymynech (where a pub actually straddles the line). The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the late modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the... Rough cross-section of Offas Dyke, showing how it was designed to protect Mercia against attacks/raids from Powys. ... For other places with the same name, see Knighton (disambiguation). ... Churchstoke or Church Stoke (Welsh: Yr Ystog) is a small village in Powys on the Welsh border, on one of the principal routes between Wales and England. ... A town in Powys, Wales about 9 miles (14 kilometres) north of Welshpool. ...


The Seven Wonders of Wales is a list in doggerel verse of seven geographic and cultural landmarks in Wales probably composed in the late 18th century under the influence of tourism from England.[29] All the "wonders" are in north Wales: Snowdon (the highest mountain), the Gresford bells (the peal of bells in the medieval church of All Saints at Gresford), the Llangollen bridge (built in 1347 over the River Dee, Afon Dyfrdwy), St Winefride's Well (a pilgrimage site at Holywell, Treffynnon) in Flintshire), the Wrexham (Wrecsam) steeple (16th century tower of St. Giles Church in Wrexham), the Overton Yew trees (ancient yew trees in the churchyard of St. Mary's at Overton-on-Dee) and Pistyll Rhaeadr (Wales' tallest waterfall, at 240 ft (73 m)). The wonders are part of the rhyme: The Seven Wonders of Wales is a traditional list of notable landmarks in Wales, commemorated in an anonymous rhyme: Pistyll Rhaeadr and Wrexham steeple, Snowdons mountain without its people, Overton yew trees, St Winefride wells, Llangollen bridge and Gresford bells. ... Doggerel describes verse considered of little literary value. ... Snowdon, the highest mountain in Wales and the highest British mountain south of the Scottish Highlands, is probably the busiest mountain in Britain [1]. It is located in Snowdonia National Park (Welsh: Parc Cenedlaethol Eryri). ... See also: The Gresford Disaster Gresford is a former mining village near Wrexham, north-east Wales. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... See also: The Gresford Disaster Gresford is a former mining village near Wrexham, north-east Wales. ... Llangollen (IPA: ) is a small town in Denbighshire, north-east Wales, situated on the River Dee and on the edge of the Berwyn mountains. ... For other Rivers Dee in the UK, see River Dee. ... St Winefrides Well is a holy well located in Holywell, in Flintshire in Wales. ... This article is about the religious or spiritual journey. ... Holywell (Welsh: ) is the fifth largest town in Flintshire, north Wales, lying to the west of the estuary of the River Dee. ... Flintshire (Welsh: ) is a principal area and county in north-east Wales. ... Steeple is a the name of a number of settlements: In the United Kingdom Steeple, Cumbria Steeple, Dorset Steeple, Essex Steeple is also an architectural term. ... Saint Giles (Latin Ægidius) was a 7th-8th century Christian hermit saint. ... This article is about Wrexham the settlement. ... Overton may refer to: People: Robert Overton (abt 1609–1678) a Major General in the New Model Army Richard Overton Places: Overton, Texas Overton, Nebraska Overton-on-Dee, North Wales Cold Overton, Rutland, England Market Overton, Rutland, England This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages... Species Taxus baccata - European Yew Taxus brevifolia - Pacific Yew Taxus canadensis - Canadian Yew Taxus chinensis - Chinese Yew Taxus cuspidata - Japanese Yew Taxus floridana - Florida Yew Taxus globosa - Mexican Yew Taxus sumatrana - Sumatran Yew Taxus wallichiana - Himalayan Yew Yews are small coniferous trees or shrubs in the genus Taxus in the... Genera Taxaceae sensu stricto Taxus Pseudotaxus Austrotaxus — Cephalotaxaceae Torreya Amentotaxus Cephalotaxus The family Taxaceae, commonly called the yew family, includes three genera and about 7 to 12 species of coniferous plants, or in other interpretations (see Classification, below), six genera and about 30 species. ... Gabriel delivering the Annunciation to Mary. ... Overton-on-Dee (often abbreviated to Overton; Welsh name Owrtyn) is a small town in north Wales, UK, on the river Dee. ... Pistyll Rhaeadr is the tallest waterfall in Wales. ... For other uses, see Waterfall (disambiguation). ...

Pistyll Rhaeadr and Wrexham steeple,
Snowdon's mountain without its people,
Overton yew trees, St Winefride's Wells,
Llangollen bridge and Gresford bells.

Pistyll Rhaeadr is the tallest waterfall in Wales. ... This article is about Wrexham the settlement. ... Snowdon, the highest mountain in Wales and the highest British mountain south of the Scottish Highlands, is probably the busiest mountain in Britain [1]. It is located in Snowdonia National Park (Welsh: Parc Cenedlaethol Eryri). ... Overton may refer to: People: Robert Overton (abt 1609–1678) a Major General in the New Model Army Richard Overton Places: Overton, Texas Overton, Nebraska Overton-on-Dee, North Wales Cold Overton, Rutland, England Market Overton, Rutland, England This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages... Yew Tree may refer to: The Yew Yew Tree, West Bromwich This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... St Winefrides Well is a holy well located in Holywell, in Flintshire in Wales. ... Llangollen (IPA: ) is a small town in Denbighshire, north-east Wales, situated on the River Dee and on the edge of the Berwyn mountains. ... See also: The Gresford Disaster Gresford is a former mining village near Wrexham, north-east Wales. ...

Climate

See also: List of towns in Wales

The degree Celsius (°C) is a unit of temperature named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701–1744), who first proposed a similar system in 1742. ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... Hawarden Bridge is a railway bridge over the River Dee, near to Shotton, Flintshire, Wales. ... Flintshire (Welsh: ) is a principal area and county in north-east Wales. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The A470 passing through Rhayader Rhayader (Welsh: ) is a busy and historic market town in Mid Wales. ... Radnorshire (Welsh: ) is one of thirteen historic counties and former administrative counties of Wales. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Brecknockshire (Welsh: ), also known as Breconshire, or the County of Brecon is one of thirteen historic counties of Wales, and a former administrative county. ... Glamorgan or Glamorganshire (Welsh: ) is one of thirteen historic counties and former administrative counties of Wales. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a link page for towns in Wales. ...

Economy

Main article: Economy of Wales

Parts of Wales have been heavily industrialised since the 18th century and the early Industrial Revolution. Coal, copper, iron, silver, lead, and gold have been extensively mined in Wales, and slate has been quarried. By the second half of the 19th century, mining and metallurgy had come to dominate the Welsh economy, transforming the landscape and society in the industrial districts of south and north-east Wales. The Economy of Wales ranks as the smallest of the four economies of the United Kingdom in terms of GDP(2002). ... An industrial factory located in Ilmenau, Germany around 1860 Industrialisation is social and economic change where a human group is made into a societly inquireing a lot of businesses. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Fe redirects here. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... For other uses, see Slate (disambiguation). ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... Georg Agricola, author of De re metallica, an important early book on metal extraction Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their compounds, which are called alloys. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ...


From the early 1970s, the Welsh economy faced massive restructuring with large numbers of jobs in traditional heavy industry disappearing and being replaced eventually by new ones in light industry and in services. Over this period Wales was successful in attracting an above average share of foreign direct investment (FDI) in the UK. However, much of the new industry has essentially been of a 'branch factory' type, often routine assembly employing low skilled workers. Heavy industry does not have a single fixed meaning compared to light industry. ... Heavy industry does not have a single fixed meaning compared to light industry. ... The tertiary sector of industry, also called the service sector or the service industry, is one of the three main industrial categories of a developed economy, the others being the secondary industry (manufacturing and primary goods production such as agriculture), and primary industry (extraction such as mining and fishing). ... This article is about economics. ... Modern car assembly line. ... Skill is human (usually learned) ability to perform actions. ...

The main building of Cardiff University
The main building of Cardiff University

Wales has struggled to develop or attract high value-added employment in sectors such as finance and research and development, attributable in part to a comparative lack of economic mass (i.e. population) - Wales lacks a large metropolitan centre and most of the country, except south east Wales, is sparsely populated. The lack of high value-added employment is reflected in lower economic output per head relative to other regions of the UK - in 2002 it stood at 90% of the EU25 average and around 80% of the UK average. However, care is needed in interpreting these data, which do not take account of regional differences in the cost of living. The gap in real living standards between Wales and more prosperous parts of the UK is not pronounced. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 585 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cardiff University Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 585 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cardiff University Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... The main building of Cardiff University Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Cardiff University Cardiff University (Welsh: Prifysgol Caerdydd) is a leading university located in the civic centre of Cardiff, Wales. ... Value added refers to the additional value created at a particular stage of production or through image and marketing. ... The field of finance refers to the concepts of time, money and risk and how they are interelated. ... The phrase research and development (also R and D or, more often, R&D), according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, refers to creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the... Output is the term denoting either an exit or changes which exits a system and which activate/modify a process. ... Averages redirects here. ... For other uses, see The Cost of Living. ... The Standard of living refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people. ...


In 2002, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Wales was just over £26 billion ($48 billion), giving a per capita GDP of £12,651 ($19,546). As of 2006, the unemployment rate in Wales stood at 5.7% - above the UK average, but lower than in the majority of EU countries. GDP redirects here. ...


Due to poor-quality soil, much of Wales is unsuitable for crop-growing, and livestock farming has traditionally been the focus of agriculture. The Welsh landscape (protected by three National Parks) and 42 Blue Flag beaches, as well as the unique culture of Wales, attract large numbers of tourists, who play an especially vital role in the economy of rural areas.[4] Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For other uses, see Soil (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see crop (disambiguation). ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about national parks. ... The Blue flag iris (Iris versicolor, also known as the wild iris) is a member of the Iris family native to Canada and America. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... A tourist boat travels the River Seine in Paris, France Tourism can be defined as the act of travel for the purpose of recreation, and the provision of services for this act. ...


Healthcare

Main article: NHS Wales
The logo of NHS Wales

Public healthcare in Wales is provided by NHS Wales which was originally formed as part of the same NHS structure created by the National Health Service Act 1946 but with powers over the NHS in Wales coming under the Secretary of State for Wales in 1969[30]. In turn, responsibility for NHS Wales was passed to the Welsh Assembly and Executive under devolution in 1999. NHS Wales provides public healthcare in Wales and employs some 90,000 staff, making it Wales’ biggest employer.[31]The Minister for Health and Social Services is the person within the Welsh Assembly Government who holds cabinet responsibilities for both health and social care in Wales. The logo of NHS Wales NHS Wales is the name for the National Health Services activities in Wales. ... Image File history File links NHS_logo_in_Wales. ... Image File history File links NHS_logo_in_Wales. ... The National Health Service Act 1946 came into effect on 5 July 1948 and created the National Health Service in the United Kingdom. ...


Demography

Main articles: Demography of Wales and Demography of the United Kingdom

The population of Wales in the United Kingdom Census 2001 was 2,903,085, which has risen to 2,958,876 according to 2005 estimates. This would make Wales the 132nd largest country by population if it were a sovereign state. Demographics of Wales as at the 2001 UK Census: Population: 2,903,085, Male: 1,403,782 Female: 1,499,303 Percentage of the population born in: Wales: 75. ... See also: Demography of England; Demography and politics of Northern Ireland; Demography of Scotland; Demography of Wales According to the 2001 census, the United Kingdoms population was 58,789,194 - the third-largest in the European Union (behind Germany and metropolitan France) and the 21st-largest in the world. ... UK Census 2001 logo A nationwide census, commonly known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday 29 April 2001. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ...


According to the 2001 census, 96% of the population was White British, and 2.1% non-white (mainly of Asian origin).[32] Most non-white groups were concentrated in the southern port cities of Cardiff, Newport and Swansea. Welsh Asian communities developed mainly through immigration since World War II. More recently, parts of Wales have seen an increased number of immigrants settle from recent EU accession countries such as Poland - although some Poles also settled in Wales in the immediate aftermath of World War II. Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ... ... The term British Asian is used to denote a person of Southern Asian ancestry or origin, or sometimes Western Asian origin, who was born in or was an immigrant to the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital city of Wales. ... This article is about the city of Newport in Wales. ... For other places with the same name, see Swansea (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The European Union (EU) was created by six founding states in 1957 (following the earlier establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952) and has grown to 27 member states. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

In the 2001 Labour Force Survey, 72% of adults in Wales considered their national identity as wholly Welsh and another 7% considered themselves to be partly Welsh (Welsh and British were the most common combination). A recent study estimated that 35% of the Welsh population have surnames of Welsh origin (5.4% of the English population and 1.6% of the Scottish also bore 'Welsh' names).[33] However, some names identified as English (such as 'Greenaway') may be corruptions of Welsh ('Goronwy'). Other names common in Wales, such as 'Richards', may have originated simultaneously in other parts of Britain. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 435 pixels Full resolution (3696 × 2010 pixel, file size: 810 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Torchwood Institute Metadata This file... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 435 pixels Full resolution (3696 × 2010 pixel, file size: 810 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Torchwood Institute Metadata This file... Roald Dahl Plass as the exterior of the Hub Roald Dahl Plass (Welsh: Plas Roald Dahl) is a public plaza in Cardiff Bay, part of Cardiff, Wales. ... This article is about the capital city of Wales. ... Look up Welsh, welsh in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In 2001 a quarter of the Welsh population were born outside Wales, mainly in England; about 3% were born outside the UK. The proportion of people who were born in Wales differs across the country, with the highest percentages in the South Wales Valleys, and the lowest in Mid Wales and parts of the north-east. In both Blaenau Gwent and Merthyr Tydfil 92% were Welsh-born, compared to only 51% in Flintshire and 56% in Powys.[34] One of the reasons for this is that the locations of the most convenient hospitals in which to give birth are over the border in England. The South Wales Valleys are a number of industrialised valleys in South Wales. ... Mid Wales is the name given to the area of Wales between North Wales and South Wales. ... Blaenau Gwent is a county borough and parliamentary constituency in South Wales. ... Merthyr Tydfil (Welsh: ) is a town and county borough in Wales, with a population of about 55,000. ... Flintshire (Welsh: ) is a principal area and county in north-east Wales. ... Powys is a local government principal area and a preserved county in Wales. ...


Languages

Main articles: English language and Welsh language

The Welsh Language Act 1993 and the Government of Wales Act 1998 provide that the Welsh and English languages be treated on a basis of equality. However, even English has only de facto official status in the UK (see Languages of the United Kingdom) and this has led political groups like Plaid Cymru to question whether such legislation is sufficient to ensure the survival of the Welsh language.[35] The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... The Welsh Language Act 1993 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which put the Welsh language on an equal footing with the English language in Wales with regard to the public sector. ... The Government of Wales Act, 1998 (1998 c. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The United Kingdom does not have a constitutionally defined official language. ... Plaid Cymru (IPA:; English: ; often referred to simply as Plaid) is a political party in Wales. ...


English is spoken by almost all people in Wales and is therefore the de facto main language (see Welsh English). However, northern and western Wales retain many areas where Welsh is spoken as a first language by the majority of the population and English is learnt as a second language. 21.7% of the Welsh population is able to speak or read Welsh to some degree (based on the 2001 census), although only 16% claim to be able to speak, read and write it, which may be related to the stark differences between colloquial and literary Welsh. According to a language survey conducted in 2004, a larger proportion that 21.7% claim to have some knowledge of the language.[36] Today there are very few truly monoglot Welsh speakers, other than small children, but individuals still exist who may be considered less than fluent in English and rarely speak it. There were still many monoglots as recently as the middle of the 20th century.[37] Road signs in Wales are generally in both English and Welsh; where place names differ in the two languages, both versions are used (e.g. "Cardiff" and "Caerdydd"). Welsh English, Anglo-Welsh, or Wenglish (see below) refers to the dialects of English spoken in Wales by Welsh people. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ...


During the 20th century a number of small communities of speakers of languages other than English or Welsh, such as Bengali or Cantonese, have established themselves in Wales as a result of immigration. This phenomenon is almost exclusive to urban Wales. The Italian Government funds the teaching of Italian to Welsh residents of Italian ancestry. These other languages do not have legal equality with English and Welsh, although public services may produce information leaflets in minority ethnic languages where there is a specific need, as happens elsewhere in the United Kingdom. Bangla redirects here. ... This article is about all of the Cantonese (Yue) dialects. ...


Code-switching is common in all parts of Wales, and the result is known by various names, such as "Wenglish" or (in Caernarfon) "Cofi". Code-switching is a term in linguistics referring to alternation between one or more languages, dialects, or language registers in the course of discourse between people who have more than one language in common. ... Caernarfon (the original Welsh spelling is now almost always used in preference to the anglicised forms, Caernarvon or Carnarvon) is a royal town in north-west Wales. ...


Religion

The largest religion in Wales is Christianity, with 72% of the population describing themselves as Christian in the 2001 census. The Presbyterian Church of Wales is the largest denomination and was born out of the Welsh Methodist revival in the 18th century and seceded from the Church of England in 1811. The Church in Wales is the next largest denomination, and forms part of the Anglican Communion. It too was part of the Church of England, and was disestablished by the British Government under the Welsh Church Act 1914 (the act did not take effect until 1920). The Roman Catholic Church makes up the next largest denomination at 3% of the population. Non-Christian religions are small in Wales, making up approximately 1.5% of the population. 18% of people declare no religion. The Apostolic Church holds its annual Apostolic Conference in Swansea each year, usually in August. Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The Presbyterian church of Wales (Welsh: Eglwys Bresbyteraidd Cymru), also known as The Calvinistic Methodist Church (Welsh: Yr Eglwys Fethodistaidd Galfinaidd), is a denomination of Protestant Christianity. ... The Welsh Methodist revival of the 18th century was one of the most significant religious and social movements in the history of Wales. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ... Flag of the Church in Wales The Church in Wales (Welsh: Yr Eglwys Yng Nghymru) is a member Church of the Anglican Communion, consisting of six dioceses in Wales. ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... The Welsh Church Act 1914 is an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom under which the Welsh part of the Church of England was separated and disestablished. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ...


The patron saint of Wales is Saint David (Welsh: Dewi Sant), with St David's Day (Welsh: Dydd Gŵyl Dewi Sant) celebrated annually on March 1. Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... For other uses, see Saint David (disambiguation). ... Saint Davids Day (Welsh: Dydd Gŵyl Dewi Sant) is the feast day of Saint David, the patron saint of Wales, and falls on March 1 each year. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1904, there was a religious revival (known by some as the 1904-1905 Welsh Revival or simply The 1904 Revival) which started through the evangelism of Evan Roberts and took many parts of Wales by storm with massive numbers of people voluntarily converting to Nonconformist and Anglican Christianity, sometimes whole communities. Many of the present-day Pentecostal churches in Wales claim to have originated in this revival. The 1904–1905 Welsh Revival was the largest full scale Christian Revival of Wales of the 20th century. ... Evan Roberts may refer to: Evan Roberts (radio personality) Evan Roberts (minister), a famous figure in the 1904-1905 Welsh Revival This human name article is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that might otherwise share the same title, which is a persons or persons name. ... A nonconformist is an English or Welsh Protestant of any non-Anglican denomination, chiefly advocating religious liberty. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The Pentecostal movement within Protestant Christianity places special emphasis on the gifts of the Holy Spirit. ...


Islam is the largest non-Christian religion in Wales, with over 30,000 reported Muslims in the 2001 census. There are also communities of Hindus and Sikhs mainly in the South Wales cities of Newport, Cardiff and Swansea, while curiously the largest concentration of Buddhists is in the western rural county of Ceredigion. Judaism was the first non-Christian faith (excluding pre-Roman animism) to be established in Wales, however as of the year 2001 the community has declined to approximately 2,000.[38] For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ), founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Northern India, is the fifth-largest religion in the world. ... Approximate extent of South East Wales. ... This article is about the city of Newport in Wales. ... This article is about the capital city of Wales. ... For other places with the same name, see Swansea (disambiguation). ... Buddhism is a Dharmic religion and philosophy[1] with between 230 to 500 million adherents worldwide. ... For other uses please see Ceredigion (disambiguation) Ceredigion is a county and principal area in mid Wales. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Culture

In June 2008, Wales made history by becoming the first nation in the world to be awarded Fairtrade Status.[citation needed]

Main article: Culture of Wales

This does not cite any references or sources. ...

Sport

Main article: Sport in Wales
Millennium Stadium
Millennium Stadium

The most popular sports in Wales are Rugby Union and football. Wales, like other constituent nations, enjoys independent representation in major world sporting events such as the FIFA World Cup, Rugby World Cup and in the Commonwealth Games (however as Great Britain in the Olympics). As in New Zealand, rugby is a core part of the national identity, although football has traditionally been more popular sport in the North Wales, possibly due to its close proximity to England's north-west. Wales has its own governing bodies in rugby, the Welsh Rugby Union and in football, the Football Association of Wales (the third oldest in the world) and most other sports. Many of Wales' top athletes, sportsmen and sportswomen train at the Welsh Institute of Sport and National Indoor Athletics Centre in Cardiff, the Wales National Velodrome in Newport and the Wales National Pool in Swansea. However the Cardiff International Swimming Pool is the only Olympic standard pool in Wales. The most popular sports in Wales are football and rugby union. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1000x1504, 906 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Wales Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1000x1504, 906 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Wales Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... Soccer redirects here. ... The FIFA World Cup, sometimes called the Football World Cup or the Soccer World Cup, but usually referred to simply as the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the mens national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the... For the rugby league competition, see Rugby League World Cup. ... Current flag of the Commonwealth Games Federation Locations of the games, and participating countries Commonwealth Games Federation seal, adopted in 2001 The Commonwealth Games is a multinational, multi-sport event. ... Olympic Games Summer Olympic Games Medal count Winter Olympic Games Medal count Olympic sports Medal counts Participating NOCs Olympic symbols Olympics WikiProject Olympics Portal Athens 2004 • Beijing 2008 Torino 2006 • Vancouver 2010 ... Approximate extent of North Wales North Wales (known in some archaic texts as Northgalis) is the northernmost unofficial region of Wales, bordered to the south by Mid Wales. ... The Welsh Rugby Union (WRU) (Welsh: ) is the governing body of rugby union in Wales, recognised by the International Rugby Board. ... The Football Association of Wales is the governing body of football in Wales, being a member of both FIFA and UEFA. Established in 1876, it is the third-oldest association in the world, and is one of the four associations (with the English Football Association, the Scottish Football Association, the... The Welsh Institute of Sport is an organisation set up in 1972 to assist in the development of the top athletes in Wales. ... Newport International Sports Village is located in the southeast of the city of Newport just off the A48 Southern Distributor Road. ... The Wales National Pool in the Sketty area of Swansea, south Wales is a 50m swimming pool built to FINA standards. ...


The Welsh national rugby union team takes part in the annual Six Nations Championship, and the Rugby World Cup. Welsh teams also play in the European Heineken Cup and Magners League (rugby union) alongside teams from Ireland and Scotland, the EDF Energy Cup and the European Heineken Cup. Wales hosted the 1999 Rugby World Cup. Wales most recognised club teams include Llanelli, Swansea, Neath, Newport and Cardiff. With the recent regional rugby setup however these teams were relegated to an amateur game with the four professional regions (Llanelli Scarlets, Cardiff Blues, Newport Gwent Dragons and Neath-Swansea Ospreys) competing in the aforementioned tournaments. Wales has produced ten members of the International Rugby Hall of Fame including Gareth Edwards, JPR Williams and Gerald Davies. Newport Rugby Club also achieved an historic win over the 'invincible' New Zealand Rugby team of 1963. A similar feat was achieved by Llanelli Rugby Club in October 1972, although the 1972 New Zealand squad is often seen as an inferior touring team to the 1963 squad. First international  England 30 – 0 Wales  (19 February 1881) Largest win  Japan 0 – 98 Wales  (26 November 2004) Worst defeat  South Africa 96 – 13 Wales  (27 June 1998) World Cup Appearances 6/6 (First in 1987) Best result Third 1987 The Wales national rugby union team represent Wales in international... The RBS 6 Nations Championship, (referred to as RBS 6 Nations for sponsorship reasons) known before 2000 as the Five Nations Championship, is an annual international rugby union competition held between six European sides: France, England, Ireland, Italy, Scotland and Wales. ... For the rugby league competition, see Rugby League World Cup. ... The Heineken Cup sponsored by Heineken (known as the H Cup in France due to alcohol advertising laws) is an annual rugby union competition involving leading club, regional and provincial teams from England, France, Ireland, Italy, Scotland and Wales. ... The Celtic League (also known as the Magners League for sponsorship reasons) is an annual rugby union competition involving regional sides from Ireland, Scotland and Wales. ... This article is about the country. ... The EDF Energy Cup, also known as the Anglo-Welsh Cup an the English & Welsh rugby union knock-out cup competition featuring all 12 Guinness Premiership clubs and all 4 Welsh Regions. ... The Heineken Cup sponsored by Heineken (known as the H Cup in France due to alcohol advertising laws) is an annual rugby union competition involving leading club, regional and provincial teams from England, France, Ireland, Italy, Scotland and Wales. ... The 1999 Rugby World Cup, the first to be held in rugby unions professional era,[2] was hosted by Wales, with some matches also played in England, France, Scotland and Ireland. ... Official website www. ... The Swansea RFC club badge Official website www. ... Official website www. ... Official website www. ... Cardiff Rugby Football Club was founded 1876. ... Official website www. ... Official website www. ... The Newport Gwent Dragons (Welsh: Dreigiau Gwent Casnewydd) are a Rugby Union team from Wales. ... Official website www. ... Not to be confused with IRB Hall of Fame. ... Gareth Edwards, born 12 July 1947 in Pontardawe, Wales, is a former Welsh rugby union footballer who plays scrum-half, considered by many to be the greatest player in the history of the game. ... John Peter Rhys Williams (born 2 March 1949 in Cardiff), known universally as JPR Williams, played rugby union for Wales between 1969 and 1981. ... Gerald Davies CBE (February 7, 1945–) is one of the acknowledged giants of Welsh rugby, playing for the side between 1966 and 1978. ... First international Australia 3 - 22 New Zealand (15 August 1903) Largest win New Zealand 145 - 17 Japan (4 June 1995) Worst defeat Australia 28 - 7 New Zealand (28 August 1999) World Cup Appearances 6 (First in 1987) Best result Champions, 1987 All Black redirects here. ... Official website www. ...


Wales has had its own football league since 1992 although, for historical reasons, two Welsh clubs (Cardiff City, and Swansea City) play in the English Football League and another four Welsh clubs in its feeder leagues. (Wrexham, Newport County, Merthyr Tydfil, and Colwyn Bay.) The Welsh Premiership is the national football league for Wales and is at the top of the Welsh football league system. ... Current season Cardiff City Football Club (Welsh: Clwb Pêl-droed Dinas Caerdydd) is a football team based in Cardiff. ... Swansea City F.C. are a Welsh football team currently playing in the English Football League, specifically in Football League Two. ... The Football League is a league competition featuring professional football clubs from England and Wales. ... Wrexham Football Club (nicknamed The Red Dragons, or more traditionally, The Robins) are a football team based in Wrexham in north-east Wales. ... Newport County AFC are a football club with a chequered history. ... Merthyr Tydfil F.C. is a Welsh football team from Merthyr Tydfil, Glamorgan. ... Club logo Colwyn Bay F.C. are a Welsh football club who currently play in the Northern Premier League First Division. ...


Rugby league is now developing in Wales. There has been a national league since 2003 and the admission of the Bridgend-based Celtic Crusaders to National League Two in 2006 brought the semi-professional game to Wales. Rugby league football is a full-contact team sport played with a prolate spheroid-shaped ball by two teams of thirteen on a rectangular grass field. ... For other uses, see Bridgend (disambiguation). ... The Celtic Crusaders are a rugby league club based in Bridgend, Wales, United Kingdom. ... The Rugby League National Leagues (currently known as the LHF Healthplan National Leagues as a result of sponsorship) form the basis for rugby league competition in Great Britain below Super League. ...


In international cricket, England and Wales field a single representative team which is administered by the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB). There is a separate Wales team that occasionally participates in limited-overs domestic competition. Glamorgan County Cricket Club is the only Welsh participant in the England and Wales County Championship. A Wales team also plays in the English Minor Counties competition. However there has been recent debate as to whether Welsh players (such as Simon Jones) should play for an England team, and not an England and Wales team. This article is about the sport. ... The England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB) is the governing body of cricket in England and Wales. ... The Welsh cricket team has appeared on a number of occasions. ... Glamorgan County Cricket Club is one of the 18 major county clubs which make up the English and Welsh domestic cricket structure, representing the historic county of Glamorgan aka Glamorganshire (Welsh: ). Glamorgan CCC is the only Welsh first-class cricket club. ... The minor counties are the cricketing counties of England that are not afforded first class status. ... Simon Philip Jones MBE (born 25 December 1978 in Swansea, Glamorgan) is a Welsh cricketer who plays for Glamorgan County Cricket Club and England. ...


Wales' other bat-and-ball sport is British Baseball, which is chiefly confined to Cardiff and Newport, two cities with very long baseball traditions. The sport is governed by the Welsh Baseball Union. The origins of the sport known as British baseball, or sometimes as Welsh baseball, date to 1892 when the governing bodies of England and Wales agreed to change the name of their sport from rounders to baseball. ... This article is about the capital city of Wales. ... This article is about the city of Newport in Wales. ...


The Isle of Anglesey/Ynys Môn is a member island of the International Island Games Association. The next Island Games will be held in 2007 on Rhodes (Greece). In the 2005 Games, held on the Shetland Islands, the Isle of Anglesey/Ynys Môn came 11th on the medal table with 4 gold, 2 silver and 2 bronze medals. Anglesey (historically Anglesea; Welsh: , pronounced (IPA)) is a predominantly Welsh-speaking island off the northwest coast of Wales. ... The International Island Games Association (IGA) is an organization the sole purpose of which is to organise the Island Games, a friendly biennial athletic competition between teams from several islands. ...


Wales has produced several world class snooker players such as Ray Reardon, Terry Griffiths, Mark Williams, Matthew Stevens and Ryan Day. Amateur participation in the sport is very high. The rugged terrain of the country also gives plenty of opportunities for rally driving and Wales currently hosts the finale of the World Rally Championship. Glamorgan compete in county cricket competitions and the Cardiff Devils were once a strong force in British ice hockey. Wales has also produced a number of athletes who have made a mark on the world stage, including the 110 m hurdler Colin Jackson who is a former world record holder and the winner of numerous Olympic, World and European medals as well as Tanni Grey-Thompson who has won many Paralympic gold medals and Marathon victories in her illustrious career. Snooker is a cue sport that is played on a large baize-covered table with pockets in each of the four corners and in the middle of each of the long side cushions. ... Ray Reardon is a retired Welsh snooker player. ... Terry Griffiths (born October 16, 1947, Llanelli) is a retired Welsh snooker player. ... Mark Williams is the name of the following people: Mark Williams (politician) - British Member of Parliament for Ceredigion Mark Williams (snooker) - professional snooker player Mark Williams (actor) - British actor and comedian Mark Williams (AFL footballer and coach) - Australian football (coach of Port Adelaide, player with Brisbane and Collingwood) Mark Williams... Matthew Stevens (born 11 September 1977, Carmarthen, Wales) is a Welsh professional snooker player. ... Ryan Day is a Welsh professional snooker player. ... The World Rally Championship (WRC) is a rallying series organised by the FIA, culminating with a champion driver and manufacturer. ... Glamorgan County Cricket Club is one of the 18 major county clubs which make up the English and Welsh domestic cricket structure, representing the historic county of Glamorgan aka Glamorganshire (Welsh: ). Glamorgan CCC is the only Welsh first-class cricket club. ... The Cardiff Devils are a British Ice Hockey club from Cardiff, Wales who are members of the Elite Ice Hockey League. ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... Adam El-gifari== Adam El-gifari == ... Dame Tanni Grey-Thompson DBE (born 26 July 1969) is a Welsh athlete and TV presenter. ...


There is also some success in boxing. Joe Calzaghe the half-Welsh, half-Italian boxer has been WBO World Super-Middleweight Champion since 1997 and recently won the WBA, WBC and Ring Magazine super middleweight titles. Former World champions include Enzo Maccarinelli, Gavin Rees, Colin Jones, Howard Winstone, Percy Jones, Jimmy Wilde, Steve Robinson and Robbie Regan. Joe Calzaghe MBE (born 23 March 1972 in Hammersmith, London) is a Welsh boxer currently living in Newbridge, Newport, and is pound for pound one of the top 10 boxers in the world. ... The World Boxing Organization (WBO) is one of the sanctioning organizations currently recognizing world boxing champions. ... Enzo Maccarinelli (born August 20, 1980 in Swansea, Wales) is a professional boxer in the cruiserweight division. ... Gavin Rees (born May 10, 1980 in Gwent, Wales) is a professional boxer and is the current WBA super-lightweight champion. ... Colin Jones (21 March 1959 – ?) was a Welsh welterweight boxer. ... Howard Winstone was born on 15th April 1939 in Merthyr Tydfil and died on 30th September 2000. ... Rhonddas Percy Jones became the first Welshman ever to win a World Title when he took the World Flyweight Championship from Bill Ladbury in 1914. ... Jimmy Wilde (May 12, 1892 in Tylorstown – March 10, 1969 in Cardiff) was a former boxer of Welsh origin. ... Robbie Regan is a Welsh former professional boxer. ...


Two Welsh drivers have competed in the Formula One championship: the first was Alan Rees at the 1967 British Grand Prix, who finished in ninth position, four laps behind the winner, Jim Clark. Tom Pryce was the more notable of the two drivers, as he finished on the podium twice and, at the 1975 British Grand Prix, qualified in pole position. Pryce's career was cut short after he collided with volunteer marshal, Jansen Van Vuuren, killing both instantly. As well as Formula One, Wales have had some notability in the World Rally Championship, producing two championship winning Co-Drivers, those being Nicky Grist, who helped Colin McRae to victory in 1995 and Phil Mills who helped Petter Solberg win the 2003 title. Wales hosts the British and final leg of the World Rally Championship. F1 redirects here. ... Alan Rees was a Formula One driver from Britain. ... Results from the 1967 Formula One British Grand Prix held at Silverstone on July 15, 1967. ... This article is about the racing driver Jim Clark. ... Thomas Maldwyn Pryce (June 11, 1949—March 5, 1977) was a British Formula One racing driver from Wales. ... Results from the 1975 Formula One British Grand Prix held at Silverstone on July 19, 1975 Classification Notes Fastest Lap: Clay Regazzoni 120. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Frederick Jansen Van Vuuren (1958—March 5, 1977) was a volunteer safety marshall in the 1977 South African Grand Prix at Kyalami. ... The World Rally Championship (WRC) is a rallying series organised by the FIA, culminating with a champion driver and manufacturer. ... Nicky Grist (born November 1, 1961 in Ebbw Vale) is a Welsh rally co-driver. ... Colin Steele McRae, MBE (5 August 1968 – 15 September 2007) was a Scottish rally driver born in Lanark. ... Phil Mills (born (30 August 1963 in Trefeglwys, Powys) is a Welsh rallying co-driver. ... Petter Hollywood Solberg (born November 18, 1974 in Askim), from Spydeberg i Østfold, Norway, is a professional rally driver. ... Rally GB, or Rally Great Britain, is the largest and most high profile motor rally in the United Kingdom. ...


Freddie Williams was World Motorcycle speedway champion twice - in 1950 and 1953 - and the country has a professional speedway team, Newport Wasps. The Millennium Stadium in Cardiff hosts the annual British Speedway Grand Prix, the United Kingdom's round of the World Championship. Motorcycle speedway, normally referred to as Speedway, is a motorcycle sport that involves usually 4 and sometimes up to 6 riders competing over 4 laps of an oval circuit. ... The Newport Wasps are a British Speedway team. ... The Millennium Stadium (Welsh: Stadiwm y Mileniwm), is the national stadium of Wales, located in the capital Cardiff, and is used primarily for rugby union and football home internationals. ... This article is about the capital city of Wales. ... Speedway Grand Prix are a series of stand-alone speedway events over the course of a season used to determine the Speedway World Champion. ...


Other notable Welsh sports people include 11 times gold medal winning paralympic athlete Tanni Grey-Thompson, footballer Ryan Giggs who is currently playing for Manchester United in the English Premiership and is recognised as the most successful player in English football history, BDO world darts champions Richie Burnett and Mark Webster, international champion cyclists Nicole Cooke and Geraint Thomas, who competed in the 2007 Tour de France and Commonwealth Games gold and bronze medallist in shooting Dave Phelps. Silver 2004 The Paralympic Games are an official equivalent of the Olympics for athletes with physical disabilities. ... Dame Tanni Grey-Thompson DBE (born 26 July 1969) is a Welsh athlete and TV presenter. ... Ryan Joseph Giggs OBE[1] (born Ryan Joseph Wilson on 29 November 1973 in Ely, Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom) is a Welsh footballer who has played for Manchester United as a midfielder for the entirety of his club career to-date, and is famed as one of the greatest wingers... Manchester Uniteds emblem Manchester United F.C. (often abbreviated to Man United or just Man U, pronounced man-yoo) is an English football club based at Old Trafford in Greater Manchester. ... For the British doo-wop revival band of the 1970s and 1980s, see Darts (band). ... Richie Burnett (born February 7, 1967 in Cwymparc, Rhondda) is a former World Champion, Welsh darts player. ... Nicole Cooke (born April 13, 1983) is a British racing cyclist. ... Geraint Thomas (born 25 May 1986 in Cardiff, Wales), is a British professional cyclist who rides for the UCI Professional Continental team Barloworld. ... For other uses, see Tour de France (disambiguation). ... Current flag of the Commonwealth Games Federation Locations of the games, and participating countries Commonwealth Games Federation seal, adopted in 2001 The Commonwealth Games is a multinational, multi-sport event. ...


Since 2006, Wales has had its own professional golf tour, the Dragon Tour. Notable Welsh golfers include Brian Huggett, Ian Woosnam and Phillip Price. The Celtic Manor in Newport will host the 2010 Ryder Cup. This article is about the game. ... Brian Huggett (born 18 November 1936), is a Welsh golfer. ... The cover of Ian Woosnams 2003 autobiography. ... Phillip Price (born in Newport on 21 October 1966) is a Welsh golfer who plays on the European Tour. ... The Celtic Manor Resort is a golf-based resort in the city of Newport, Wales, United Kingdom owned by Welsh billionaire Sir Terry Matthews. ... This article is about the city of Newport in Wales. ... The Ryder Cup is a golf trophy contested biennially in an event called the Ryder Cup Matches by teams from Europe and the United States. ...


Media

Main article: Media in Wales
See also: Media in Cardiff

Cardiff is home to the Welsh national media. BBC Wales is based in Llandaff, Cardiff and produces Welsh-oriented output for BBC One and BBC Two channels. BBC 2W is the Welsh digital version of BBC Two, and broadcasts between 8.30pm and 10pm each week night for specific Wales based programming. ITV the UK's main commercial broadcaster has a Welsh-oriented service branded as ITV Wales, whose studios are in Culverhouse Cross, Cardiff. S4C, based in Llanishen, Cardiff, broadcasts mostly Welsh-language programming at peak hours, but shares English-language content with Channel 4 at other times. S4C Digidol (S4C Digital), on the other hand, broadcasts mostly in Welsh. Channel 4 and Channel 5 are now available in most parts of the country via digital television and satellite. The media in Wales is quite varied with there being services for people in both English and Welsh. ... BBC Wales (Welsh: ) is a division of the British Broadcasting Corporation for Wales. ... Llandaff electoral ward of Cardiff Llandaff (Welsh Llandaf llan church + Taf) is a district in the city of Cardiff, Wales, having been incorporated into the city in 1922, and is also the name of a diocese of the Church in Wales, covering the most populous area of south Wales. ... For the BBC radio station, see BBC Radio 1. ... For the BBC radio station, see BBC Radio 2. ... For other uses, see ITV (disambiguation). ... Culverhouse Cross Culverhouse Cross (Welsh: Croes Cwrlwys) is suburban district of the city of Cardiff, Wales. ... S4C (Sianel Pedwar Cymru, which is Welsh for Channel Four Wales) is a television channel in Wales. ... Llanishen electoral ward of Cardiff Llanishen (Welsh Llanisien llan church + Isien Saint Isan) is a district of the city of Cardiff, Wales. ... This article is about the British television station. ...


BBC Radio Wales is Wales's only national English-language radio station, while BBC Radio Cymru broadcasts throughout Wales in Welsh. There are also a number of independent radio stations across Wales. Radio stations around the country include Red Dragon FM, Xfm South Wales, Marcher Sound, Coast FM, Swansea Sound, 96.4FM The Wave, Radio Pembrokeshire, Radio Carmarthenshire, Champion 103, Radio Ceredigion and Real Radio. Most of the newspapers sold and read in Wales are national newspapers sold and read throughout Britain, unlike in Scotland where many newspapers have rebranded into Scottish based titles. Wales-based newspapers include: South Wales Echo, South Wales Argus, South Wales Evening Post, Liverpool Daily Post (Welsh edition) and Y Cymro, a Welsh language publication. The Western Mail is the main daily newspaper and includes a Sunday edition Wales on Sunday. Both are published by the UK's largest newspaper corporation -- Trinity Mirror. The Western Mail and South Wales Echo have their offices in Thomson House, Cardiff city centre BBC Radio Wales is the BBCs national radio station broadcasting to Wales in the English language. ... BBC Radio Cymru is BBC Wales Welsh language radio station, broadcasting throughout Wales on FM since 1979. ... Red Dragon FM is the commercial radio station serving the Cardiff and Newport areas. ... XFM South Wales was a UK Regional Radio Station owned by GCap Media broadcasting alternative music to an 18-25 audience in South Wales. ... MFM 103. ... Part of the largest radio group in Europe - G-Cap Media Categories: United Kingdom broadcasting stubs | Radio stations in the United Kingdom ... Radio Pembrokeshire is an independent local radio station (ILR) located in Narberth, Pembrokeshire, UK. It was launched officially at 10am on Sunday, 14th July 2002. ... Real Radio is a brand of regional radio stations in the United Kingdom owned by GMG Radio. ... The South Wales Echo is the top-selling evening newspaper in Wales. ... The South Wales Argus is a daily evening newspaper printed in the city of Newport. ... The South Wales Evening Post is a newspaper that serves the south of Wales. ... The Liverpool Echo and Liverpool Daily Post are two newspapers published by Trinity Mirror on Merseyside in the United Kingdom. ... Y Cymro (The Welshman) is a Welsh language newspaper, first published in 1932. ... The Western Mail is a daily newspaper published by Western Mail and Echo Ltd in Cardiff, Wales. ... Trinity Mirror is a large United Kingdom newspaper and magazine publisher. ... Cardiff city centre is a large and sprawling area that spreads out from Butetown in the south to Cathays Park in the north, and from Canton and Grangetown in the west to Adamsdown in the east. ...


The first Welsh language daily, Y Byd, was due to commence on 3 March 2008.[39] However, on 15 February 2008, it was announced that plans for Y Byd had been abandoned because of funding problems.[40]. Y Byd (The World) is scheduled to be the first Welsh language daily newspaper, and will be published five days a week, from Monday to Friday. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...


In addition to English-language magazines, a number of weekly and monthly Welsh-language magazines are published. Wales has some 20 publishing companies, publishing mostly English titles. However, some 500-600 titles are published each year in Welsh[5].


Notably, the recent hit revival of cult classic series Doctor Who was and is conceived in Wales (BBC Wales), with many episodes set in Cardiff. Most of the filming and production takes place in locations all over Wales and attracts staggering audiences worldwide. Its adult spin-off Torchwood, fronted by John Barrowman, is also set in Cardiff, with many links to Doctor Who. This article is about the television series. ... This article is about the capital city of Wales. ... For plants known as torchwood, see Burseraceae. ... John Barrowman (born 11 March 1967 in Mount Vernon, Glasgow, Scotland) is a Scottish actor, musical performer, dancer, singer, and TV presenter who has lived and worked both in the United Kingdom and the United States. ...


Food

Main article: Welsh cuisine

About 80% of the land surface of Wales is given over to agricultural use. However, very little of this is arable land; the vast majority consists of permanent grass pasture or rough grazing for herd animals such as sheep and cows. Although both beef and dairy cattle are raised widely, especially in Carmarthenshire and Pembrokeshire, Wales is more well-known for its sheep farming, and thus lamb is the meat traditionally associated with Welsh cooking. Welsh cuisine is the cuisine of Wales. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... A Holstein dairy cow. ... Carmarthenshire (Welsh: ) is a one of thirteen historic counties and a principal area in Wales. ... Pembrokeshire (Welsh: ) is a county in the southwest of Wales in the United Kingdom. ... Species See text. ... For other uses, see Meat (disambiguation). ...


Some traditional dishes include laverbread (made from seaweed), bara brith (fruit bread), Cawl a lamb stew and cawl cennin (leek soup), Welsh cakes, Welsh rarebit, and Welsh lamb. Cockles are sometimes served with breakfast bacon. [6] Laverbread (Welsh: Bara Lawr) is a traditional Welsh delicacy made from the seaweed laver. ... Ascophyllum nodosum exposed to the sun in Nova Scotia, Canada Dead Mans Fingers (Codium fragile) off Massachusetts coast For the band, see; Seaweed (band) For the rock musician, see; Seaweed (musician) Seaweeds are any of a large number of marine benthic algae. ... Bara brith ( in argentine spanish: Torta Negra ), sometimes known as speckled bread, is a fruit bread which originated in Wales. ... Cawl is a traditional Welsh stew-like dish consisting of meat and vegetables. ... It has been suggested that Lambing be merged into this article or section. ... Beef Stew A stew is a combination of solid food ingredients that have been cooked in water or other water-based liquid, typically by simmering, and that are then served without being drained. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Leek soup is a kind of soup that is made out of salt, water and leeks. ... The Welsh cake is a traditional Welsh snack, somewhat similar to a scone. ... Rarebit, Welsh rarebit, or Welsh rabbit (the original name, dating from the 18th century[1]), is traditionally a sauce made from a mixture of cheese and butter, poured over toasted bread which has been buttered. ... Genera Acanthocardia Americardia Cardium Cerastoderma Clinocardium Corculum Ctenocardia Dinocardium Discors Fragum Fulvia Laevicardium Lophocardiium Lyrocardium Lunulicardia Microcardium Nemocardium Papyridea Parvicardium Plagiocardium Ringicardium Trachycardium Trigoniocardia Serripes Cockles are the family Cardiidae of bivalve mollusks. ...


In 2005 the Welsh National Culinary Teams returned from the Culinary World Cup in Luxembourg with eight gold, 15 silver and seven bronze medals, and were placed 7th in the world.[citation needed]


Music

Main article: Music of Wales

The principal Welsh festival of music and poetry is the National Eisteddfod. This takes place annually in a different town or city. The Llangollen International Eisteddfod echoes the National Eisteddfod but provides an opportunity for the singers and musicians of the world to perform. Wales is a part of the United Kingdom, but is a culturally and politically separate Celtic country. ... The Eisteddfod (literally sitting) is a Welsh festival of literature, music, and song. ... The International Eisteddfod is a music festival which takes place every year during the second week of July in Llangollen, North Wales. ...


Wales is often referred to as "the land of song",[41] being particularly famous for harpists, male voice choirs, and solo artists including Sir Geraint Evans, Dame Gwyneth Jones, Dame Anne Evans, Ivor Novello, Madam Adelina Patti, John Cale, Sir Tom Jones, Charlotte Church, Bonnie Tyler, Bryn Terfel, Mary Hopkin, Katherine Jenkins, Meic Stevens, Shirley Bassey , Duffy and Aled Jones. For other uses, see Harp (disambiguation). ... The Welsh baritone Geraint Llewellyn Evans (16 February 1922 – 19 September 1992) was a well-known opera singer, noted for such roles as Papageno in The Magic Flute, Falstaff, and title-role of Wozzeck, among others. ... Gwyneth Jones in the title role of Die ägyptische Helena (album cover photo from Decca recording) Dame Gwyneth Jones (born November 7, 1936 in Pontnewynydd, Wales) is a Welsh soprano. ... Dame Anne Evans DBE (born August 20, 1941, London) is an internationally successful Welsh soprano, knighted by Queen Elizabeth II in 2000. ... David Ivor Davies (January 15, 1893 – March 6, 1951), better known as Ivor Novello, was a Welsh composer, singer and actor who became one of the most popular British entertainers of the early 20th century. ... Patti as Marguerite in Faust, 1875. ... Not to be confused with J. J. Cale. ... For other uses, see Tom Jones (disambiguation). ... Charlotte Church (born Charlotte Maria Reed on February 21, 1986) is a Welsh singer and television presenter who rose to international fame in childhood as a popular classical singer with a precociously mature dramatic operatic voice, in particular in its tonal qualities. ... Bonnie Tyler (born June 8, 1951 in Skewen, Wales, United Kingdom) is a Welsh rock singer. ... Bryn Terfel The Welsh baritone Bryn Terfel, CBE (born November 9, 1965) is one of the best-known contemporary opera and concert singers. ... Mary Hopkin Mary Hopkin (born May 3, 1950) is a Welsh folk singer. ... Katherine Jenkins (born 29 June 1980 in Neath, Wales[1]) is an award-winning Welsh mezzo-soprano. ... Meic Stevens is a Welsh singer-songwriter. ... Dame Shirley Veronica Bassey, DBE, CBE (born January 8, 1937 in Cardiff, Wales), is a Welsh singer. ... Aled Jones (born 29 December 1970) is a Welsh singer and television/radio personality and broadcaster who first came to fame as a boy soprano. ...


Indie bands like the Manic Street Preachers, Catatonia, Stereophonics, Feeder, Super Furry Animals, and Gorky's Zygotic Mynci, in the 1990s, and later Goldie Lookin' Chain, mclusky, The Automatic, Steveless. Other, less mainstream bands have emerged from Wales, such as Skindred, The Blackout, Lostprophets,Kids In Glass Houses, Bullet For My Valentine, Funeral for a Friend and were preceded by Man in the 1970s. The Beatles-nurtured power pop group Badfinger also has its roots in Wales (both the founder Peter Ham and drummer Mike Gibbins from Swansea). Another famous Welsh singer is pop icon Jem who has recorded songs for/performed on TV programmes such as Las Vegas and The OC, and movies such as Eragon. The popular New Wave/synthpop group Scritti Politti was a vehicle for singer/songwriter and Cardiff native Green Gartside. In popular music, indie music (from independent) is any of a number of genres, scenes, subcultures and stylistic and cultural attributes, characterised by perceived independence from commercial pop music and mainstream culture and an autonomous, do-it-yourself (DIY) approach. ... Manic Street Preachers (often known colloquially as the Manics) are a Welsh rock band, consisting of James Dean Bradfield (lead vocals, guitar), Nicky Wire (bass guitar, vocals) and Sean Moore (drums, vocals). ... Not to be confused with Katatonia, a Swedish metal band. ... Stereophonics are a rock band from Wales with members Kelly Jones, Richard Jones (no relation to Kelly) and Javier Weyler. ... Feeder are an award-winning British/Japanese rock band that formed in Newport, South Wales. ... Super Furry Animals (also known as SFA, the Furries and the Super Furries) are a Welsh rock band, with leanings towards psychedelic rock and electronic experimentation. ... Gorkys Zygotic Mynci were a Welsh popular music band, formed in Carmarthen, west Wales in 1991. ... Goldie Lookin Chain are a hip hop group based in Newport, South Wales. ... mclusky was a three-piece rock group from Cardiff, Wales. ... Not to be confused with The Automatics. ... Steveless are a band from Pontyclun, South Wales, UK. They were a favourite of John Peel, who summed them up thus; ... Skindred is a four-piece band from Newport, South Wales, UK. Their genre is a mix of metal, punk, hip hop, reggae, and ragga known as Ragga-punk by the band and fans alike. ... This article about a musical group, band, singer, musician, album, or song does not make it clear whether the subject meets the WikiProject Music criteria for importance. ... Lostprophets (IPA: ) are a Welsh band formed in 1997. ... Kids in Glass Houses are a five-piece powerpop rock band from Cardiff, the capital of Wales. ... Bullet for My Valentine are a four-piece metalcore band from Bridgend, Wales. ... For the Elton John song, see Funeral for a Friend/Love Lies Bleeding. ... Man are a legendary rock band from south Wales, originally the second incarnation of Welsh rock harmony group The Bystanders: Micky Jones, Clive John, Ray Williams and Jeffrey Jones. ... Power pop is a long-standing musical genre that draws its inspiration from 1960s British and American pop music. ... Badfinger were a rock/pop band formed in Swansea, Wales in 1965, and one of the earliest representatives of the power pop genre. ... William Peter Ham (April 27, 1947 – April 23, 1975) was a Welsh singer and songwriter, best known as the leader of the ill-fated group Badfinger. ... Jemma Griffiths (born June 18, 1975 in Penarth, nr. ... Las Vegas is a dramatic comedy, or dramedy, television series about a team of people working in the fictional Montecito Resort and Casino in Las Vegas—dealing with issues that arise within the working environment, ranging from valet parking and restaurant management to casino security. ... The O.C. ( stands for Orange County) is an American television drama/soap opera program broadcast on the Fox Network. ... This article is about the film. ... The New Wave was a movement in American, Australian and British popular music, in the late 1970s and early 1980s, growing out of the New York City musical scene centered around the club CBGB. The term itself is a source of much confusion. ... Synthpop is a subgenre of New Wave in which the synthesizer is the dominant musical instrument. ... Scritti Politti are a Welsh musical band. ... This article is about the Welsh capital. ... Green Gartside is the primary force behind Scritti Politti, a band best known for their work in the 1980s, but who have recently enjoyed a renaissance through the 2006-released White Bread Black Beer. ...


The Welsh traditional and folk music scene, long overshadowed by its Irish and Scottish cousins, is in resurgence with performers and bands such as Crasdant, Carreg Lafar, Fernhill, Siân James, Robin Huw Bowen, Llio Rhydderch, KilBride and The Hennessys. Traditional music and dance in Wales is supported by a myriad of societies. Welsh Folk Song Society (Cymdeithas Alawon Gwerin Cymru) has published a number of collections of songs and tunes. The Welsh Folk Dance Society (Cymdeithas Ddawns Werin Cymru) supports a network of national amateur dance teams and publishes support material. Clear (Traditional instruments society) runs workshops to promote the harp, telyn deires (triple harp), fiddle, crwth, pibgorn (hornpipe) and other instruments. The Cerdd Dant Society promotes its specific singing art primarily through an annual one-day festival. The traditional music development agency, trac, runs projects in communities throughout Wales and advocates on behalf of traditional music. There are also societies for Welsh hymnology, oral history, small eisteddfodau, oral history, and poetry. Folk song redirects here. ... This article is about the country. ... Carreg Lafar is one of the bands at the forefront of the Welsh traditional music scene. ... Robin Huw Bowen an stage at the Festival Interceltique de Lorient in 2002 Robin Huw Bowen is a player of the Welsh Triple Harp, known in Welsh as Telyn Deires (English: ), and is recognised internationally as the leading exponent of the instrument. ... Iolo, Frank and Dave on stage at the Festival Interceltique de Lorient, Brittany The Hennessys are one of Wales foremost traditional folk music groups. ... It is the Triple Harp which lays claim to the prime place in the history of the harp in Wales. ... A modern crwth in its case The crwth is an archaic stringed musical instrument, associated particularly with Wales, although once played widely in Europe. ... Cerdd Dant or Penillion is the art of vocal improvisation over a given melody. ... For other uses, see Hymn (disambiguation). ...


The 'Sîn Roc Gymraeg' (Welsh language Rock Scene) in Wales is thriving, with acts ranging from rock to hip-hop which routinely attracts immense crowds and audiences. The Welsh-language Rock scene presently is stated as 'the best yet,' with more bands, and more audiences than the 'Sin Roc Gymraeg' has ever seen in its existence. Dolgellau, in the heart of Snowdonia has held the annual Sesiwn Fawr (mighty session) festival since 1992. From humble beginnings the festival has grown to be Wales' largest Welsh-Language Music Festivals. Dolgellau (pronounced , occasionally ) is a market town in Gwynedd, north-west Wales, lying on the River Wnion, a tributary of the Mawddach. ... Tryfans north ridge (seen on the left in this picture) in Snowdonia. ...


The BBC National Orchestra of Wales performs in Wales and internationally. The world-renowned Welsh National Opera now has a permanent home at the Wales Millennium Centre in Cardiff Bay. The BBC National Orchestra of Wales is the main full scale professional orchestra in Wales. ... The Canolfan Mileniwm Cymru or Wales Millenium Centre, a new performing arts centre which opended in 2004, is the home of the Welsh National Opera (WNO), a touring operatic company founded in Cardiff in 1943. ... The Wales Millennium Centre The Millennium Centre on its opening night The Wales Millennium Centre (Welsh: Canolfan Mileniwm Cymru) is a £106 million performing arts complex located on the Cardiff Bay waterfront. ... Cardiff Bay Cardiff Bay (Welsh: Bae Caerdydd) is the regeneration area created by the Cardiff Barrage which impounded two rivers (Taff and Ely) to form a new 500 acre freshwater lake around the former dockland area south of the city centre of Cardiff in south Wales. ...


Literature

Main article: Welsh Literature
Further information: List of Welsh writers

The term Welsh literature may be used to refer to any literature originating from Wales or by Welsh writers. ... List of Welsh writers is an incomplete alphabetical list of Welsh writers. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Transport

Main article: Transport in Wales

The main road artery linking cities and other settlements along the South Wales coast is the M4 motorway which also provides a link with England and eventually London. The Welsh section of the motorway, managed by the Welsh Assembly Government, runs from the Second Severn Crossing to Pont Abraham in West Wales, connecting cities such as Cardiff, Newport and Swansea. In North Wales the A55 expressway performs a similar role along the north Wales coast providing connections for places such as Holyhead and Bangor with Wrexham and Flintshire and also with England, principally Chester. The main north-south Wales link is the A470 which runs from Cardiff to Llandudno. Cardiff International Airport is the only large and international airport in Wales, offering links domestically and to European and North American destinations, located some 12 miles (19 km) south-west of Cardiff city centre, in the Vale of Glamorgan. This article is about means of transport in Wales. ... Approximate extent of South East Wales. ... The M4 motorway is a motorway in Great Britain linking London with Wales. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Motorway symbol in UK, Australia, Spain, France and Ireland. ... The National Assembly for Wales (or NAW) (Welsh: Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru) was established in 1998, following a 1997 referendum in which a small majority of voters (but not the electorate) voted in favour of the Labour Governments plans for devolution. ... The Second Severn crossing, seen here from the English side of the river, carries the M4 motorway between England and Wales. ... The main building from the upper car park. ... West Wales is the west area of Wales bordered by South Wales to the east. ... This article is about the capital city of Wales. ... This article is about the city of Newport in Wales. ... For other places with the same name, see Swansea (disambiguation). ... Approximate extent of North Wales North Wales (known in some archaic texts as Northgalis) is the northernmost unofficial region of Wales, bordered to the south by Mid Wales. ... The A55 at Warren Mountain The A55, also known as the North Wales Expressway, is a major road in Britain. ... Holyhead (Welsh: Caergybi, the fort of St. ... // Bangor is a place-name found in a number of countries Bangor, New South Wales Bangor, South Australia Bangor, Tasmania Bangor, Nova Scotia Bangor, Ontario Bangor, Prince Edward Island Bangor (city), Saskatchewan Bangor (town), Saskatchewan Bangor Lodge, Saskatchewan Bangor Road, Prince Edward Island Bangor, Morbihan, Brittany Bangor, County Down, Northern... This article is about Wrexham the settlement. ... Flintshire (Welsh: ) is a principal area and county in north-east Wales. ... For the larger local government district, see Chester (district). ... The A470 at Bwlch Oerddrws The A470 is a major road in Wales, running from Cardiff to Llandudno. ... This article is about the capital city of Wales. ... , This article is about the town in Wales. ... Cardiff International Airport (Welsh: Maes Awyr Rhyngwladol Caerdydd) (IATA: CWL, ICAO: EGFF) is a major British airport located in the town of Rhoose, Vale of Glamorgan, approximately 12 miles (19 km) south-west of the Welsh capital, Cardiff, serving all of South and Mid Wales. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... North American redirects here. ... Cardiff city centre is a large and sprawling area that spreads out from Butetown in the south to Cathays Park in the north, and from Canton and Grangetown in the west to Adamsdown in the east. ... For other uses, see Vale of Glamorgan (disambiguation). ...


The country also has a significant railway network managed by the Welsh Assembly Government which has a programme of reopening old railway lines and extending rail usage. Cardiff Central and Cardiff Queen Street are the busiest and the major hubs on the internal and national network. Beeching cuts in the 1960s mean that most of the remaining network is geared toward east-west travel to or from England. Services from North to South Wales operate through the English towns of Chester and Shrewsbury. Valley Lines services operate in Cardiff, the South Wales Valleys and surrounding area and are heavily used as commuter lines. This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... Official logo of the Welsh Assembly Government The Welsh Assembly Government (WAG) (Welsh: , LlCC) was firstly an executive body of the National Assembly for Wales, consisting of the First Minister and his Cabinet from 1999 to 2007. ... Cardiff Central railway station (Welsh: Caerdydd Canolog) is a major British railway station in Cardiff, Wales. ... Cardiff Queen Street railway station (Welsh Caerdydd Heol y Frenhines) is seen by many as the main hub of the Valley Lines network around Cardiff - the solitary connection to Cardiff Bay is seen as part of the reason for this. ... Many railway lines were closed as a result of the Beeching Axe The Beeching Axe is an informal name for the British Governments attempt in the 1960s to reduce the cost of running the British railway system. ... For the larger local government district, see Chester (district). ... For other places with the same name, see Shrewsbury (disambiguation). ... British Rail Class 143 unit, no. ... This article is about the capital city of Wales. ... The South Wales Valleys are a number of industrialised valleys in South Wales. ...


Arriva Trains Wales is the major operator of rail services within Wales. It operates routes from South East Wales to Crewe, Manchester and Cheltenham. Virgin Trains operate services from North Wales to London as part of the West Coast Main Line. First Great Western operate services from Cardiff and Swansea via Newport to London and services from Cardiff and Newport to southern England. CrossCountry offer services from Cardiff to Nottingham and Newcastle upon Tyne via the West Midlands, East Midlands and Yorkshire. Arriva Trains Wales (Welsh: ) is a train operating company that operates urban and inter urban passenger services in Wales and the Welsh Marches. ... , This article is about Crewe in England. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... For other places with the same name, see Cheltenham (disambiguation). ... Virgin Trains is a train operating company in the United Kingdom, which currently provides services from London Euston to the North West, West Midlands and Scotland on the West Coast Main Line. ... Approximate extent of North Wales North Wales (known in some archaic texts as Northgalis) is the northernmost unofficial region of Wales, bordered to the south by Mid Wales. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The WCML running alongside the M1 motorway at Watford Gap in Northamptonshire A Virgin Pendolino and freight train on the WCML The West Coast Main Line (WCML) is one of the most important intercity railway lines in the United Kingdom, part of the British railway system. ... First Great Western is the operating name of First Greater Western Ltd,[1] a British train operating company owned by FirstGroup, which operates services in the west and south west of England and South Wales. ... This article is about CrossCountry trains. ... For other uses, see Nottingham (disambiguation). ... This article is about a city in the United Kingdom. ... The West Midlands is an official Region of England, covering the western half of the Midlands. ... This article is about the region. ... For other uses, see Yorkshire (disambiguation). ...


Regular ferry services operate from Holyhead and Fishguard to Ireland. The ferryboat Dongan Hills, filled with commuters, about to dock at a New York City pier, circa 1945. ... Holyhead (Welsh: Caergybi, the fort of St. ... Lower Fishguard Fishguard (Welsh: = Mouth of the River Gwaun) is a coastal town in Pembrokeshire, Wales, with a population of 3,300 (est. ...


National symbols

The Flag of Saint David (Baner Dewi Sant)
The Flag of Saint David (Baner Dewi Sant)
The banner of Llywelyn, the last Prince of Wales before complete annexation by England
The banner of Llywelyn, the last Prince of Wales before complete annexation by England
Woman wearing a Welsh hat
  • The Flag of Wales incorporates the red dragon (Y Ddraig Goch) of Prince Cadwalader along with the Tudor colours of green and white. It was used by Henry VII at the battle of Bosworth in 1485 after which it was carried in state to St. Paul's Cathedral. The red dragon was then included in the Tudor royal arms to signify their Welsh descent. It was officially recognised as the Welsh national flag in 1959. The British Union Flag incorporates the flags of Scotland, Ireland and England but does not have any Welsh representation. Technically, however, it is represented by the flag of England due to the Laws in Wales act of 1535 which annexed Wales following the 13th century conquest.
  • The flag of Owain Glyndŵr, which has 4 squares alternating in red and yellow and then a rampant lion in each square of the opposite colour. Some believe that this is the true flag of Wales arguing that Owain Glyndŵr was the last real Prince of Wales.
  • The Dragon, part of the national flag design, is also a popular Welsh symbol. The oldest recorded use of the dragon to symbolise Wales is from the Historia Brittonum, written around 820, but it is popularly supposed to have been the battle standard of King Arthur and other ancient Celtic leaders. This myth is likely to have originated from Merlin's vision of a Red (The Native Britons) and White (The Saxon Invaders) dragon battling, with the Red dragon being victorious. Following the annexation of Wales by England, the dragon was used as a supporter in the English monarch's coat of arms.
  • The leek is also a national emblem of Wales. According to legend, Saint David ordered his Welsh soldiers to identify themselves by wearing the vegetable on their helmets in an ancient battle against the Saxons that took place in a leek field. It is still worn on St David's Day each March 1
  • The daffodil is the national flower of Wales, and is worn on St David's Day each March 1. (In Welsh, the daffodil is known as "Peter's Leek", cenhinen Bedr.)
  • The Sessile Oak is the national tree of Wales.
  • The Flag of Saint David is sometimes used as an alternative to the national flag (and used in part of Cardiff City FC's crest), and is flown on St David's Day.
  • The Coat of Arms of the Principality of Wales which are the historic arms of the Kingdom of Gwynedd are used by Charles, Prince of Wales in his personal standard.
  • The Prince of Wales's feathers, the heraldic badge of the Prince of Wales is sometimes adapted by Welsh bodies for use in Wales. The symbolism is explained on the article for Edward, the Black Prince, who was the first Prince of Wales to bear the emblem; see also John, King of Bohemia. The Welsh Rugby Union uses such a design for its own badge. The national sport is often considered rugby union, though football is very popular too.
  • The red kite is sometimes named as the national symbol of wildlife in Wales.[42]
  • Patriotic anthems for "the land of Song" include "Hen Wlad fy Nhadau" ("Land of My Fathers") (national anthem), "Men of Harlech", "Cwm Rhondda" (national hymn), "Delilah", "Calon Lan", "Sosban Fach".

Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_David. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_David. ... Arms used by Llywelyn ap Gruffydd Llywelyn ap Gruffydd or Gruffudd (c. ... Welsh lady with hat Source: http://www. ... Welsh lady with hat Source: http://www. ... Welsh lady with hat The Welsh hat worn by women as part of Welsh national costume is a tall stovepipe-style hat. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The Welsh Dragon on the tailfin of an Air Wales ATR 42 aircraft. ... For other uses, see Red (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dragon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tudor (disambiguation). ... The Tudor Rose: a combination of the Red Rose of Lancaster and the White Rose of York Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), born Henry Tudor, was the first monarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... The Battle of Bosworth or Bosworth Field was an important battle during the Wars of the Roses in 15th century England. ... St Pauls Cathedral is a cathedral on Ludgate Hill, in the City of London in London, and the seat of the Bishop of London. ... Union Jack redirects here. ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Seal of Owain Glyndŵr The Arms of Powys and Deheubarth quartered, adopted by Owain Glyndŵr: Or and Gules, four Lions counterchanged Owain Glyndŵr (Pronounced IPA: ), or Owain Glyn Dŵr, anglicised by Shakespeare into Owen Glendower (c. ... This article is about the title Prince of Wales. ... Y Ddraig Goch on the Flag of Wales Y Ddraig Goch (IPA: ) (Welsh for the red dragon) appears on the national Flag of Wales (the flag itself is also called Y Ddraig Goch), and is the most famous dragon in Britain. ... The Historia Britonum, or The History of the Britons, is a historical work that was first written sometime shortly after AD 820, and exists in several recensions of varying difference. ... For other uses, see King Arthur (disambiguation). ... This article is about the European people. ... Merlin dictating his poems, as illustrated in a French book from the 13th century For other uses, see Merlin (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Allium ampeloprasum (Linnaeus) J. Gay The Leek (Allium ampeloprasum var. ... For other uses, see Saint David (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Saxon (disambiguation). ... Saint Davids Day (Welsh: Dydd Gŵyl Dewi Sant - Day of the Festival of Saint David) is the day that the patron saint of Wales, Saint David, is celebrated. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Species ????? Daffodils are a group of large flowered members of the genus Narcissus. ... A national emblem is a symbol that represents a nation. ... Saint Davids Day (Welsh: Dydd Gŵyl Dewi Sant - Day of the Festival of Saint David) is the day that the patron saint of Wales, Saint David, is celebrated. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... St Peter redirects here. ... Binomial name Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl. ... -1... The Flag of St David The Flag of St David is normally a gold cross on a black field, although it appears in many forms including a black cross on a gold field, or with an engrailed cross. ... Cardiff City Association Football Club is a football team based in Cardiff. ... Saint Davids Day (Welsh: Dydd Gŵyl Dewi Sant - Day of the Festival of Saint David) is the day that the patron saint of Wales, Saint David, is celebrated. ... The Coat of Arms of the Principality of Wales is a coat of arms used by the Prince of Wales. ... For the fictional Kingdom of Gwynedd in the Deryni series of novels, see Gwynedd (fictional). ... “Prince Charles” redirects here. ... The badge of the Prince of Wales The Prince of Waless feathers is the heraldic badge of the Prince of Wales. ... This article is about the title Prince of Wales. ... Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales, KG (15 June 1330 – 8 June 1376), popularly known as the Black Prince, was the eldest son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, and father to King Richard II of England. ... This article is about the title Prince of Wales. ... John I, Count of Luxemburg John the Blind (Luxembourgish: Jang de Blannen; German: Johann der Blinde von Luxemburg; Czech: Jan Lucemburský) (10 August 1296 – 26 August 1346) was the Count of Luxembourg from 1309, King of Bohemia, and titular King of Poland from 1310. ... The Welsh Rugby Union (WRU) (Welsh: ) is the governing body of rugby union in Wales, recognised by the International Rugby Board. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Milvus milvus Linnaeus, 1758 The Red Kite (Milvus milvus) is a medium-large bird of prey in the family Accipitridae, which also includes many other diurnal raptors such as eagles, buzzards and harriers. ... Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau (pronounced , usually translated as land of our fathers init, but literally old country of my fathers) is, by tradition, the national anthem of Wales. ... Men of Harlech or The March of the Men of Harlech (in Welsh: Rhyfelgyrch GwÅ·r Harlech) is a song and military march which is traditionally said to describe events during the seven year long siege of Harlech Castle between 1461 and 1468. ... Cwm Rhondda, the Welsh name for the Rhondda Valley, is a popular hymn tune written by John Hughes (1873-1932). ... Delilah was a song written by Les Reed and Barry Mason and recorded by Tom Jones in 1968. ... Calon Lân is a Welsh hymn, whose words were written in the 1800s by Daniel James (23 January 1848 - 11 March 1920) to a tune by John Hughes (1872-1914). ... Sosban Fach (Welsh for Little Saucepan) is a traditional Welsh folk song that catalogues the troubles of an harassed housewife, mostly associated with Llanelli RFC and, more recently, the Llanelli Scarlets region. ...

Photos of Wales

Welsh people

See main article Welsh people

This article is about Welsh people who are considered to be an ethnic group and a nation. ...

See also

Welsh peers hold their titles from a variety of sources. ... Welsh nationalism is a popular political and cultural movement that emerged during the nineteenth-century. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Plaid Cymru (IPA:; English: ; often referred to simply as Plaid) is a political party in Wales. ... Wales Council for Voluntary Action (WCVA) is the national infrastructure body for the voluntary sector in Wales. ... Visit Wales is an Assembly Sponsored Public Body. ... The Welsh settlement in Argentina began in the 19th century. ... The Seven Wonders of Wales is a traditional list of notable landmarks in Wales, commemorated in an anonymous rhyme: Pistyll Rhaeadr and Wrexham steeple, Snowdons mountain without its people, Overton yew trees, St Winefride wells, Llangollen bridge and Gresford bells. ... This article is about the Welsh capital. ... The Eisteddfod (literally sitting) is a Welsh festival of literature, music, and song. ... Madoc (Madog or Madawg) ap Owain Gwynedd was a Welsh prince who, according to legend, discovered America in 1170, over three hundred years before Christopher Columbuss voyage in 1492. ... In the 2000 Census, 1. ...

References

  1. ^ Also spelled "Gymru", "Nghymru" or "Chymru" in certain contexts, as Welsh is a language with initial mutations – see Welsh morphology.
  2. ^ Countries within a country www.number-10.gov.uk
  3. ^ Davies, John, A History of Wales, Penguin, 1994, Welsh Origins pg 54, ISBN 0-14-01-4581-8
  4. ^ "Welsh Assembly Government - International Affairs". 
  5. ^ Ties with Middle East strengthened, BBC News, May 30, 2002. Accessed May 17, 2008.
  6. ^ Welsh European Funding Office (WEFO).
  7. ^ Welsh Assembly government - Wales: A Vibrant Economy.
  8. ^ Business Support Wales.
  9. ^ The Welsh Ministers' Business Scheme (Government of Wales Act 2006, Section 75).
  10. ^ Welsh Assembly Government - European Union.
  11. ^ Welsh Assembly Government EU Office.
  12. ^ The Film, TV and Multimedia Sector in Cardiff (PDF). Economic Development Division, Cardiff County Council (2003-12-01). Retrieved on 2008-01-17.
  13. ^ Template error: argument title is required. 
  14. ^ "Cardiff: the building of a capital". 
  15. ^ UK Travel Destinations, www.map-of-uk.com, Accessed May 4, 2008
  16. ^ Top facts on tourism in Wales.
  17. ^ New survey boost for tourism, BBC News, January 19, 2004. Accessed May 17, 2008. }}
  18. ^ The Welsh Academy Encyclopedia of Wales. Cardiff: University of Wales Press 2008
  19. ^ Why the Welsh voice is so musical, BBC News, June 8, 2006. Accessed May 17, 2008.
  20. ^ Johnson, Martin. Revival has Wales singing in the rain, Daily Telegraph, March 17, 2008. Accessed May 17, 2008.
  21. ^ Cardiff - A Capital City.
  22. ^ Devichand, Mukul. Tongue tied, BBC News. Accessed May 17, 2008.
  23. ^ Online Etymological Dictionary Cymric
  24. ^ a b Davies, John (1990/2007). A History of Wales. London: Penguin Books, 68–69. 
  25. ^ For the original Middle Welsh text see, Ifor Williams (ed.), Breuddwyd Maxen (Bangor, 1920). Discussion of the tale and its context in, M.P. Charlesworth, The Lost Province (Gregynog Lectures series, 1948, 1949).
  26. ^ The earliest instance of Lloegyr occurs in the early 10th century prophetic poem Armes Prydein. It seems comparatively late as a place name, the nominative plural Lloegrwys, "men of Lloegr", being earlier and more common. The English were sometimes referred to as an entity in early poetry (Saeson, as today) but just as often as Eingl (Angles), Iwys (Wessex-men), etc. Lloegr and Sacson became the norm later when England emerged as a kingdom. As for its origins, some scholars have suggested that it originally referred only to Mercia - at that time a powerful kingdom and for centuries the main foe of the Welsh. It was then applied to the new kingdom of England as a whole (see for instance Rachel Bromwich (ed.), Trioedd Ynys Prydein, University of Wales Press, 1987). "The lost land" and other fanciful meanings, such as Geoffrey of Monmouth's monarch Locrinus, have no etymological basis. (See also Discussion, article 40)
  27. ^ "Tribute to lost Welsh princess", bbc.co.uk date 12 June 2000, URL retrieved on 5 March 2007
  28. ^ Official Welsh Government biography of Morgan.
  29. ^ See Meic Stephens (ed.), Companion to Welsh Literature. The doggerel verse was composed in English, probably for the benefit of visitors from across Offa's Dyke.
  30. ^ Introduction to NHS Wales 1960's www.wales.nhs.uk
  31. ^ Introduction to NHS Wales - Staff www.wales.nhs.uk
  32. ^ National Statistics Online
  33. ^ wales.gov.uk
  34. ^ National Statistics Online
  35. ^ A Bilingual Wales, Accessed April 27, 2008
  36. ^ 2004 Welsh Language Survey, www.bwrdd-yr-iaith.org.uk, Accessed April 28, 2008
  37. ^ 41,155 (1951 Census: Wales total monoglots)
  38. ^ Paganism and Wicca are also growing in Wales. Many Pagans and Wiccans also visit Wales because of the Ancient Celtic history the country has. BBC - Wales - History of religion : Multicultural Wales
  39. ^ Welsh language paper is unveiled. BBC News (20 June 2007). Retrieved on 2007-08-27.
  40. ^ Daily Welsh newspaper abandoned. BBC News Online (15 February 2008).
  41. ^ "Wales: Cultural life: Music, literature and film". Britannica (Online). (2006). 
  42. ^ The RSPB: Red kite voted Wales' Favourite Bird

The morphology of the Welsh language shows many characteristics perhaps unfamiliar to speakers of English or continental European languages like French or German, but has much in common with the other modern Insular Celtic languages, Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Manx, Cornish, and Breton. ... Professor John Davies is Waless a historian, and a television and radio broadcaster. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Rachel Bromwich (born 1915) is a British scholar. ... The Welsh Triads (Welsh, Trioedd Ynys Prydein) is used to describe any of the related Medieval collection of groupings of three that preserve a major portion of Welsh folklore and Welsh literature. ... Geoffrey of Monmouth (in Welsh: Gruffudd ap Arthur or Sieffre o Fynwy) (c. ... Rough cross-section of Offas Dyke, showing how it was designed to protect Mercia against attacks/raids from Powys. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Pagan may refer to: A believer in Paganism or Neopaganism Bagan, a city in Myanmar also known as Pagan Pagan (album), the 6th album by Celtic metal band Cruachan Pagan Island, of the Northern Mariana Islands Pagan Lorn, a metal band from Luxembourg, Europe (1994-1998) Pagans Mind, is... This article is about the European people. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News website in June 2007. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...

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The British–Irish Council (sometimes known as the Council of the Isles) is a body created by the Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement). ... The British-Irish Inter-Parliamentary Body (BIIPB) was established in 1990 to bring together 25 members of the United Kingdom Parliament and 25 members of the Oireachtas (the Irish parliament) to develop understanding between elected representatives of the UK and Ireland . ... The Common Travel Area includes the UK, the Isle of Man, Jersey, Guernsey, and the Republic of Ireland The Common Travel Area (or, informally, the passport free zone) refers to the fact that citizens of the Republic of Ireland, the United Kingdom and the Crown Dependencies (the Isle of Man... The North/South Ministerial Council (NSMC, Irish: An Chomhairle Aireachta Thuaidh/Theas, Ulster-Scots: The Noarth-Sooth Cooncil o Männystèrs) is a body established under the Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement) to co-ordinate activity and exercise certain limited governmental powers across the whole... This article is about the British dependencies. ... Map showing location of the islands The Islands of the lower Firth of Clyde is the smallest of the three major Scottish island groups after the Hebrides and the Northern Isles. ... This article is about the Hebrides islands in Scotland. ... Scilly redirects here. ... The Northern Isles are a chain of islands off the north coast of Scotland. ... Location Geography Area Ranked 16th  - Total 990 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Kirkwall ISO 3166-2 GB-ORK ONS code 00RA Demographics Population Ranked 32nd  - Total (2006) 19,800  - Density 20 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics Orkney Islands Council http://www. ... For other uses, see Shetland (disambiguation). ... This is a list of islands of the Isle of Man: Isle of Man (Population - c. ... This is a list of the islands of England, the mainland of which is part of the island of Great Britain, as well as a table of the largest English islands by area. ... This is a list of the islands of Scotland, the mainland of which is part of the island of Great Britain, as well as a table of the largest Scottish islands. ... This is a list of the islands of Wales, the mainland of which is part of Great Britain, as well as a table of the largest Welsh islands by area. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to Norman conquest of England, a moment that defined much of the history of the British Isles since. ... The history of England is similar to the history of Britain before the arrival of the Saxons. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Stirling Castle has stood for centuries atop a volcanic crag defending the lowest ford of the River Forth. ... Caerphilly Castle. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Motto Latin: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) (Scots: Wha daur meddle wi me) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the... This article is about the Irish kingdom existing from 1541 to 1800. ... This article is about the historical state known as the Principality of Wales (1267-1542). ... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... This article is about the historical state called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1927). ... This article is about the prior state. ... Auregnais or Aurignais was the Norman dialect of the Channel Island of Alderney (French:Aurigny, Auregnais:Aoeurgny/Auregny). ... British Sign Language (BSL) is the sign language used in the United Kingdom (UK), and is the first or preferred language of an unknown number of Deaf people in the UK (published estimates range from 30,000 to 250,000 but it is likely that the lower figures are more... For the Cornish-English dialect, see West Country dialects. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Guernésiais, also known as Dgèrnésiais, Guernsey French, Guernsey Norman French, is the variety of Norman language spoken in Guernsey. ... Irish Sign Language (ISL) is the sign language of Ireland, used primarily in the Republic of Ireland. ... Jèrriais is the form of the Norman language spoken in Jersey, in the Channel Islands. ... Northern Ireland Sign Language (NISL) is a sign language used in Northern Ireland, mainly Belfast. ... This article is about the Anglic language of Scotland. ... Ulster Scots, also known as Ullans, Hiberno-Scots, or Scots-Irish, refers to the variety of Scots (sometimes referred to as Lowland Scots) spoken in parts of the province of Ulster, which spans the six counties of Northern Ireland and three of the Republic of Ireland. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Sercquiais also known as Sarkese or Sark-French is the Norman dialect of the Channel Island of Sark. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... This article concerns those peoples who consider themselves, or have been considered by others, to be Celts in modern times, ie post 1800. ... The Cornish people are a British ethnic group originating in Cornwall. ... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... Romnichal or Romanichal is the name by which groups of Romani people (often known as Gypsies) found in some parts of the United Kingdom, notably England, are called in their own language, Anglo-Romany. ... Irish Travellers (sometimes known as Tinkers) are a nomadic or itinerant people of Irish origin living in Ireland, Great Britain and the United States. ... This article is about the Scottish people as an ethnic group. ... This article is about Welsh people who are considered to be an ethnic group and a nation. ... This is a list of topics related to the United Kingdom. ... The United Kingdom The subdivisions of the United Kingdom are complex, multi-layered and non-uniform, varying between England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the constituent country. ... This article is about the country. ... The Isle of Man is situated in the Irish Sea between Great Britain and Ireland, and the bailiwicks of Jersey and Guersey are situated in the English Channel to the west of the Cotentin Crown dependencies are possessions of The Crown in Right of the United Kingdom, as opposed to... Location of the British Overseas Territories The British Overseas Territories are fourteen[1] territories which the United Kingdom considers to be under its sovereignty, but not as part of the United Kingdom itself. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a timeline of British history. ... The history of England is similar to the history of Britain before the arrival of the Saxons. ... Stirling Castle has stood for centuries atop a volcanic crag defending the lowest ford of the River Forth. ... Caerphilly Castle. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... The History of British society demonstrates innumerable changes over many centuries. ... The United Kingdom (UK) is a major player in international politics, with interests throughout the world. ... The Middlesex Guildhall will be home to the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom has three distinct legal systems. ... The United Kingdom does not have a single unified judicial system: England and Wales have one system, Scotland another, and Northern Ireland another. ... British nationality law is the law of the United Kingdom concerning British citizenship and other categories of British nationality. ... United Kingdom legislation comes from a number of different sources. ... The Politics of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland takes place in the framework of a constitutional monarchy in which the Monarch is head of state and the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Speaker of the House of Lords Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; for further information, see Commonwealth realm, Elizabeth II, and British Royal Family. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Her Majestys Government of the United Kingdom contains a number of Ministers and Secretaries of State. ... The United Kingdom has five distinct types of elections: general, local, regional, European and mayoral. ... This is a list of political parties in the United Kingdom. ... Geological map of Great Britain. ... This is a links page to the hills and mountains to be found in the United Kingdom (England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales), and includes lists of the highest mountains in each of the constituent countries. ... The list of Lakes of the United Kingdom is a link page for the lakes of the United Kingdom (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland). ... This is a list of rivers of Great Britain. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... GBP redirects here. ... // The table shows the main independent British banks. ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Governor Mervyn King Central Bank of United Kingdom Currency Pound sterling ISO 4217 Code GBP Base borrowing rate 5. ... // Introduction and history Until 1982, the main civil telecommunications system in the UK was a state monopoly known as Post Office Telecommunications. ... The armed forces of the United Kingdom are known as the British Armed Forces or Her Majestys Armed Forces, officially the Armed Forces of the Crown. ... British military history is a long and varied topic, extending from the prehistoric and ancient historic period, through the Roman invasions of Julius Caesar and Claudius and subsequent Roman occupation; warfare in the Mediaeval period, including the invasions of the Saxons and the Vikings in the Early Middle Ages, the... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... RAF redirects here. ... The United Kingdom is one of the five official nuclear weapon states under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and has an independent nuclear deterrent. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with English population statistics. ... Historically, city status was associated with the presence of a cathedral, such as York Minster. ... In England, Wales and Northern Ireland, a town is any settlement which has received a charter of incorporation, more commonly known as a town charter, approved by the monarch. ... Union Flag The culture of the United Kingdom is rich and varied, and has been influential on culture on a worldwide scale. ... Rain, Steam and Speed — The Great Western Railway by William Turner (1844). ... British cuisine is shaped by the countrys temperate climate, its island geography and its history. ... The British Isles The various terms used to describe the different (and sometimes overlapping) allegiances of people living within the the British Isles are often a source of confusion for people from other parts of the world, and even for the inhabitants of those islands themselves. ... British literature is literature from the United Kingdom, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. ... The United Kingdom has a diverse range of different types of media. ... Music from the United Kingdom has achieved great international popularity since the 1960s, when a wave of British musicians helped to popularise rock and roll. ... These are the national holidays of the United Kingdom for 2007 [1] [2]. Workers in the United Kingdom are not automatically entitled to time off on a public holiday. ...

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Wales travel guide - Wikitravel (4054 words)
Wales is ruled from the national parliament in London, though a move to devolve certain powers of decision making began with the the creation of the non-elected Welsh Office and the appointment of a Secretary of State for Wales in 1964.
Wales has its own language, Welsh (Welsh: Cymraeg), which is spoken by some 21% of the population (though this varies geographically, from under 7% in the southeast to over 61% in the northwest).
Wales is considered to be one of the safest parts of the United Kingdom, though visitors should be aware that criminal activity including violent crime is not uncommon.
Wales (United Kingdom) (2007 words)
Edward, Prince of Wales', flag was quartered red lion on yellow and yellow lion on red, and is known as the flag of Llewelyn.
Wales was already subsumed as a principality in England long before that, so was never considered to have a "portion" of the flag.
Wales was united with England under the Statute of Wales, passed on 19 February 1284.
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