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Encyclopedia > Wake Island
Wake Island
Map of Wake
Owned by United States
Claimed under Guano Islands Act
Island Type Coral
Discovered October 20, 1568
Area 6.5 square kilometers
Population More than 75
Transportation Airstrip,
Uses Military
Orthographic projection over Wake Island
USGS Landsat 7 ETM+ satellite image of Wake Island.

Wake Island (also known as Wake Atoll) is a coral atoll having a coastline of 12 miles (19 kilometers) in the North Pacific Ocean, located about two-thirds of the way from Honolulu (2,300 statute miles or 3,700 km west) to Guam (1,510 miles or 2,430 km east). It is an unorganized, unincorporated territory of the United States, administered by the Office of Insular Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior. Wake is located to the west of the International Date Line and is one day ahead of the 50 states. All operations on the island were suspended and all personnel evacuated in August 2006 with the approach of Hurricane Ioke (category 5), which struck the island with sustained winds of 250 km/h and a 6 m storm surge inflicting major damage. A US Air Force assessment and repair team returned to the island in September and restored limited function to the airfield and facilities. The future status of activities on the island will be determined upon completion of the survey and assessment. Access to the island is restricted, and all current activities on the island are managed by the United States Air Force and the United States Army. Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_States. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Guano Islands Act was federal legislation passed by the U.S. Congress on August 18, 1856 enabling citizens of the U.S. to take possession of islands containing guano deposits. ... Subclasses Alcyonaria Zoantharia See text for orders. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Download high resolution version (631x634, 306 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (631x634, 306 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government. ... Landsat 7 is the latest satellite of the Landsat program. ... Atoll in the western Pacific Ocean Photo: www. ... Honolulu as seen from the International Space Station Honolulu is the largest city and the capital of the U.S. state of Hawai‘i. ... A mile is any of several units of distance, or, in physics terminology, of length. ... The term unorganized territories has several connotations depending the exact usage and context. ... An incorporated territory of the United States is a specific area under the jurisdiction of the United States, over which the United States Congress has determined that the United States Constitution is to be applied in its entirety, in the same manner as it applies to the individual U.S... The Office of Insular Affairs is a unit of the United States Department of the Interior that manages several United States possessions. ... The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is a Cabinet department of the United States government that manages and conserves most federally-owned land. ... The International Date Line around 180° This article is about the line dividing time zones; see Dateline (disambiguation) for other meanings, including the television program. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      A state of the United States is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the... Lowest pressure 920 hPa (mbar) Damages Unknown Fatalities 0 Areas affected Johnston Atoll, Wake Island, Minami Torishima, southwestern and south-central Alaska Part of the 2006 Pacific hurricane season and the 2006 Pacific typhoon season Hurricane Ioke (also Typhoon Ioke, international designation 0612, JTWC designation 01C also sometimes called Super... The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial-warfare branch of the United States armed forces and one of the seven uniformed services. ... The United States Army is one of the armed forces of the United States and has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ...


Although Wake is officially called an island in the singular form, it is actually an atoll comprising three islands (Wake, Wilkes, and Peale) surrounding a central lagoon. Referring to the atoll as an island is the result of a pre-World War II desire by the United States Navy to distinguish Wake from other atolls, most of which were Japanese territory. The largest island (Wake Island) is the center of activity on the atoll and features a 9,800 foot (3,000 m) runway. This mid bay barrier in Narrabeen, a suburb of Sydney (Australia), has blocked what used to be a bay to form a lagoon. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The United States Navy, also known as the USN or the U.S. Navy, is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for conducting naval operations. ...


For statistical purposes, Wake is grouped as one of the United States Minor Outlying Islands. The flag of the United States is used for all of the United States Minor Outlying Islands The United States Minor Outlying Islands, a statistical designation defined by ISO 3166-1, consists of nine insular United States possessions: All of these islands are in the Pacific Ocean except Navassa Island...

Contents

Geography

  • Geographic coordinates: 19°18′N 166°38′ECoordinates: 19°18′N 166°38′E
  • Area (land): 2.5 mi² (6.5 km²)
  • Coastline: Wake Atoll- 21.0 mi (33.8 km) Wake Proper-12.0 mi (19.3 km)
  • Maritime claims
    • exclusive economic zone: 200 nm (370 km)
    • territorial sea: 12 nm (22 km)
  • Elevation extremes:
    • lowest point: Pacific Ocean, 0 feet (0 m)
    • highest point: Ducks Point, 20 feet (6 m)

Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of length. ...

Climate

Wake Island lies in the tropical zone but is subject to periodic temperate storms during the winter. Sea surface temperatures are warm all year long, reaching above 80 °F in summer and fall. Typhoons occasionally pass over the island. Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ...


Typhoon Ioke

On August 28, 2006, the United States Air Force evacuated all 188 residents as category 5 Super Typhoon Ioke headed toward Wake. By August 31, the southwestern eyewall of the storm passed over the island, with winds well over 185 miles per hour (300 km/h)[1], driving a storm surge and waves directly into the lagoon. [2] August 28 is the 240th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (241st in leap years), with 125 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Lowest pressure 920 hPa (mbar) Damages Unknown Fatalities 0 Areas affected Johnston Atoll, Wake Island, Minami Torishima, southwestern and south-central Alaska Part of the 2006 Pacific hurricane season and the 2006 Pacific typhoon season Hurricane Ioke (also Typhoon Ioke, international designation 0612, JTWC designation 01C also sometimes called Super... August 31 is the 243rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (244th in leap years), with 122 days remaining. ... ...


History

Pre-European discovery

Some scant indigenous Marshallese oral tradition suggests that prior to European exploration, nearby Marshall Islanders traveled to what is now Wake Island, which the travelers called Enen-kio after a small orange shrub-flower said to have been found on the atoll. In ancient Marshallese religion, rituals surrounding the tattooing of tribal chiefs, called Iroijlaplap, were done using certain fresh human bones, which required a human sacrifice. A man could save himself from being sacrificed if he obtained a wing bone from a certain very large seabird said to have existed on Enen-kio. Small groups would therefore brave traveling to the atoll in hope of obtaining and returning with this bone, thus saving the life of the potential human sacrifice.[3] The indigenous peoples of Oceania are those peoples identified as indigenous peoples, as per the modern global definition of the term. ... Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ... Exploration is the act of searching or traveling for the purpose of discovery, e. ... Motto: Jepilpilin ke ejukaan Anthem: Forever Marshall Islands Capital (and largest city) Majuro Official languages Marshallese, English Government  - President Kessai Note Independence    - from the United States October 21, 1986  Area  - Total 181 km² (213th) 69. ... The word bush re-directs here; for alternate uses see Bush (disambiguation). ... A Phalaenopsis flower A flower, (<Old French flo(u)r<Latin florem<flos), also known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). ... A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. ... This article is about the tattoo, a design in ink or some other pigment, usually decorative or symbolic, placed permanently under the skin. ... The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view. ... Iroijlaplap is the title given to the Paramount chief in the Marshall Islands. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Sooty Tern is highly aerial and marine and will spend years flying at sea without returning to land. ...


Based upon this oral tradition[4] along with concepts of first-usage lands rights claims commonly held in Micronesian cultures as legitimate for settling indigenous land disputes[5][6][7], a small separatist group of Marshall Island descendents who call themselves the Kingdom of EnenKio lay claim to Wake Island. The Marshall Islands and U.S. governments, who also have competing claims over the island, vigorously deny the claim.[8] No evidence suggests there was ever a permanent settlement of Marshall Islanders on Wake Island.[9] The word culture comes from the Latin root colere (to inhabit, to cultivate, or to honor). ... Legitimacy is the popular acceptance of a governing regime or law. ... Aboriginal land claims are claims of Native or Aboriginal peoples (also referred to as Indigenous peoples) about their ownership of land before the arrival of settlers, primarily Europeans. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Separatism is a term usually applied to describe the attitudes or motivations of those seeking independence or separation of their land or region from the country that governs them. ... Separatist flag of EnenKio The Kingdom of EnenKio, or EnenKio for short, is a small separatist group of Marshall Islander heritage who lay claim to the United States unincorporated Wake Island. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


European discovery and exploration

On October 20, 1568, Álvaro de Mendaña de Neyra, a Spanish explorer with two ships, Los Reyes and Todos Santos, discovered "a low barren island, judged to be eight leagues in circumference," to which he gave the name of "San Francisco." The island was eventually named for Captain William Wake, master of the British trading schooner, Prince William Henry, who visited in 1796[10]. October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 72 days remaining. ... Events March 23 - Peace of Longjumeau ends the Second War of Religion in France. ... Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira or Neyra (1541 - November 1595) was a Spanish navigator. ... League is a unit of distance long common in Europe and Latin America, although no longer an official unit in any nation. ... William Wake (1657-1737), English archbishop, was born in Blandford Forum, Dorset, on January 26 1657, and educated at Christ Church, Oxford. ... Two-masted fishing schooner A schooner (IPA: ) is a type of sailing vessel characterized by the use of fore-and-aft sails on two or more masts. ...


On December 20, 1840, the United States Exploring Expedition commanded by Commodore Charles Wilkes of the U.S. Navy, landed on and surveyed Wake. Wilkes described the atoll as "a low coral one, of triangular form and eight feet above the surface. It has a large lagoon in the centre, which was well filled with fish of a variety of species among these were some fine mullet." He also noted that Wake had no fresh water and that it was covered with shrubs, "the most abundant of which was the tournefortia." The expedition's naturalist, Titian Peale, collected many new specimens, including an egg from a short-tailed albatross and various marine life specimens. December 20 is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The United States Exploring Expedition was an exploring and surveying expedition of the Pacific Ocean (the Southern Seas) conducted by the United States Navy from 1838–1842. ... Commodore is a rank of the United States Navy with a somewhat complicated history. ... Charles Wilkes Charles Wilkes (April 3, 1798 – February 8, 1877) was an American naval officer and explorer. ... A giant grouper at the Georgia Aquarium Fish are aquatic vertebrates that are typically cold-blooded; covered with scales, and equipped with two sets of paired fins and several unpaired fins. ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... Genera Agonostomus Aldrichetta Cestraeus Cahaenomugil Chelon Crenimugil Joturus Liza Moolgarda Mugil Myxus Neomyxus Oedalechilus Rhinomugil Sicamugil Valaomugil Xenomugil The mullets are a family (Mugilidae) of ray-finned fish found worldwide in coastal temperate and tropical waters, and in some species in fresh water also. ... The word bush re-directs here; for alternate uses see Bush (disambiguation). ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now usually viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines. ... Titian Ramsay Peale Titian Ramsay Peale (born November 2, 1799; died March 13, 1885) was a noted American artist, naturalist, entomologist and photographer. ... In biology, specimen is an individual animal or a plant or a microorganism that is used as a representative to study the properties of the whole population of that species. ... In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... Binomial name Phoebastria albatrus Pallas, 1769 The Short-tailed Albatross or Stellers Albatross (Phoebastria albatrus) is a large rare seabird from the North Pacific. ... Marine biology is the study of animal and plant life within saltwater ecosystems. ...


Wreck of the Libelle

Wake Island first received international attention with the wreck of the Libelle. On the night of March 4, 1866, the barque Libelle of Bremen, Germany, struck the eastern reef of Wake Island during a gale. The ship was under the command of Captain Tobias and en route from San Francisco to Hong Kong. Among its passengers were opera singer Anna Bishop, her husband Martin Schultz (a New York diamond merchant), and three other members of an English opera troupe. Shipwreck of the SS American Star Shipwreck in the Saugatuck River mouth in Westport, Connecticut A shipwreck or sunken ship can refer to the remains of a wrecked ship or to the event that caused the wreck, such as the striking of something that causes the ship to sink, the... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (64th in leap years). ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... A barc is a type of sailing vessel. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... A reef surrounding an islet. ... A gale is a wind of at least 28 knots, 32 MPH, or 51km/h; and up to 55 knots, 63 MPH, or 102km/h. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The Teatro alla Scala in Milan, Italy. ... Nickname: Big Apple, Gotham, NYC, City That Never Sleeps, The Concrete Jungle, The City So Nice They Named It Twice Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1676 Government  - Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area... The Teatro alla Scala in Milan, Italy. ...


After 21 days, the 30 stranded passengers and crew set sail in a longboat and a gig for the Spanish island of Guam. The longboat, containing the opera troupe, Mr. Schultz and other passengers, arrived on Guam April 8. The gig, commanded by the Libelle’s captain, was lost at sea. While stranded on Wake Island, Captain Tobias had buried valuable cargo including 1,000 flasks (34,500 kg) of mercury, coins and precious stones worth approximately $150,000, and at least five ships conducted salvage operations in their recovery. The plight of the Libelle, its passengers and cargo was reported by many newspapers. A longboat is a large boat powered by multiple oars and carried on a ship (especially sailed merchant ships). ... A Captains Gig is a boat used on naval ships as the Captains taxi. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (99th in leap years). ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Atomic mass 200. ... ISO 4217 Code USD User(s) the United States, the British Indian Ocean Territory[1], the British Virgin Islands, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Panama, Turks and Caicos Islands, and the insular areas of the United States Inflation 2. ... Salvage may refer to: Look up salvage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


American possession

Wake Island was annexed by the United States (empty territory) on January 17, 1899. In 1935, Pan American Airways constructed a small village, nicknamed "PAAville", to service flights on its U.S.-China route. The village was the first human settlement on the island and relied upon the U.S. mainland for its food and water supplies; it remained in operation up to the day of the first Japanese air raid. January 17 is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Pan American World Airways (Pan Am) was the United States principal international airline from the 1930s until its collapse in 1991, and was credited with many innovations that shaped the international airline industry. ...


Military buildup

In January 1941, the United States Navy constructed a military base on the atoll. On August 19, the first permanent military garrison, elements of the 1st Marine Defense Battalion, totaling 449 officers and men, were stationed on the island, commanded by Commander Winfield Scott Cunningham. Others on the island were 68 U.S. Naval personnel and about 1,221 civilian workers. The United States Navy, also known as the USN or the U.S. Navy, is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for conducting naval operations. ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Commander is a military rank which is also sometimes used as a military title depending on the individual customs of a given military service. ... Winfield Scott Cunningham (16 February 1900 – 3 March 1986) was the Officer in Charge, Naval Activities, Wake Island when the tiny island was attacked by the Japanese on 8 December 1941. ...


They were armed with six used 5 inch (127 mm) cannons, removed from a scrapped cruiser; twelve 3 inch (76.2 mm) M3 anti-aircraft guns (with only a single working anti-aircraft sight among them); eighteen Browning M2 heavy machine guns; and thirty heavy, medium, and light, water or air-cooled machine guns in various conditions but all operational. A small cannon on a carriage, Bucharest. ... Ship breaking or ship demolition involves breaking up of ships for scrap. ... USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser (really an uprated guided missile destroyer), launched in 1992. ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft warfare, or air defense, is any method of engaging military aircraft in combat from the ground. ... Sight of a Sig 550 rifle (muzzle) Sight of a Sig 550 rifle (stock) A sight is an optical device used to assist aim by guiding the eye and aligning it with the weapon or other item to be pointed. ... This article is about the . ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ...


World War II

Battle of Wake Island

Main article: Battle of Wake Island

On December 8, 1941, the same day as the Attack on Pearl Harbor (Wake being on the opposite side of the International Date Line), at least twenty-seven Japanese medium "Nell" bombers flown from bases on Truk in the Caroline Island group attacked Wake Island, destroying eight of the twelve F4F Wildcat fighter aircraft belonging to Marine Corps fighter squadron VMF-211 on the ground. All of the Marine garrison's defensive emplacements were left intact by the raid, which primarily targeted the naval aircraft. Combatants Empire of Japan United States of America Commanders Shigeyoshi Inoue Winfield S. Cunningham Strength 2,500 infantry[1] 523 infantry, 1st Marine Defense Battalion {understrength}, VMF-211, US Navy/US Army personal, Others[2] Casualties 700-900dead, 2 destroyers, 2 patrol boats, 20 aircraft 122 dead, 49 wounded, 12... December 8 is the 342nd day (343rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Husband Kimmel (USN), Walter Short (USA) Chuichi Nagumo (IJN), Mitsuo Fuchida (IJNAS), Shigekazu Shimazaki (IJNAS) Strength 8 battleships, 8 cruisers, 29 destroyers, 9 submarines, ~50 other ships, ~390 planes 6 aircraft carriers, 9 destroyers, 2 battleships, 2 heavy cruisers, 1 light cruiser, 8... A view of Chuuk Chuuk is an island group that comprises one of the four states of the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), along with Kosrae, Pohnpei, and Yap. ... F4F-3 Wildcat of Lt. ... VMA-211 began as Fighter Squadron 4M in 1937, flying the Grumman F-3F biplane fighter aircraft at Naval Air Station San Diego, California. ...


The garrison—supplemented by civilian volunteers—repelled several Japanese landing attempts. After the initial Japanese amphibious assault was beaten back with heavy losses, the American commander was asked by his superiors if he needed anything; the commander was reported (erroneously) as having quipped "Send us more Japs!"


Despite this defiant spirit, the garrison was eventually overwhelmed by the determined and numerically superior Japanese invasion force. American casualties were fifty-two military personnel killed, along with approximately seventy civilians. Japanese losses exceeded 700 killed, with some estimates ranging as high as 900; in addition, the Japanese lost four destroyers and twenty aircraft.


In the aftermath of the battle, some of the captured civilian laborers were pressed into service by the Japanese and tasked with improving the island's defenses. After a successful American air raid on October 5, 1943, the Japanese garrison commander Rear Admiral Shigematsu Sakaibara ordered the execution of the ninety-eight prisoners on the pretext that they were spies. One prisoner escaped the mass execution, but was later personally beheaded by Sakaibara. After the war, Sakaibaira was tried for war crimes, found guilty, and executed at Guam; his subordinate was sentenced to life in prison. October 5 is the 278th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (279th in Leap years). ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... Rear Admiral Shigematsu Sakaibara (died June 18, 1947) was the Japanese garrison commander on Wake Island during World War II. Anticipating an American invasion, on October 7, 1943 Sakabara ordered the execution of 98 American civilians on the island (who had been captured when the Island surrendered almost three years... Espionage (spying) is a practice of obtaining information about an organization or a society that is considered secret or confidential without the permission of the holder of the information. ...


Captain Henry T. Elrod, one of the pilots from VMF-211, was awarded the United States Medal of Honor posthumously for shooting down two Japanese Zero fighters, and many of his comrades were also highly decorated for their roles in the fighting. The Wake Island Device was created for American veterans of the battle. Henry Talmage Elrod (27 September 1905 &#8211; 23 December 1941) was a Marine aviator. ... The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ... Mitsubishi A6M5 Zero Model 52 The Mitsubishi A6M was a light-weight carrier-based fighter aircraft employed by the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1940 to 1945. ... The Wake Island Device is an award of the United States military which is presented as a campaign clasp to both the Navy and Marine Corps Expeditionary Medals. ...


Japanese occupation and surrender

The surrender of the Japanese garrison on Wake island - September 4, 1945. Shigematsu Sakaibara is the Japanese officer in the right-foreground
The surrender of the Japanese garrison on Wake island - September 4, 1945. Shigematsu Sakaibara is the Japanese officer in the right-foreground

The Japanese-occupied island was bombed several times by American air forces; one of these raids was the first mission for future United States President George H.W. Bush. Download high resolution version (590x740, 53 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (590x740, 53 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Rear Admiral Shigematsu Sakaibara (died June 18, 1947) was the Japanese garrison commander on Wake Island during World War II. Anticipating an American invasion, on October 7, 1943 Sakabara ordered the execution of 98 American civilians on the island (who had been captured when the Island surrendered almost three years... The presidential seal was first used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... Order: 41st President Vice President: Dan Quayle Term of office: January 20, 1989 &#8211; January 20, 1993 Preceded by: Ronald Reagan Succeeded by: Bill Clinton Date of birth: June 12, 1924 Place of birth: Milton, Massachusetts First Lady: Barbara Pierce Bush Political party: Republican George Herbert Walker Bush, KBE (born...


On September 4, 1945, the remaining Japanese garrison surrendered to a detachment of the United States Marine Corps. In a brief ceremony, the handover of Wake was officially conducted. September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the U.S. military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces to global crises. ...

US Civilian POWs Memorial
US Civilian POWs Memorial

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (480x640, 66 KB) Copyright holder: Matthew Piatkowski (Wikipedia user: User:Prog1) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (480x640, 66 KB) Copyright holder: Matthew Piatkowski (Wikipedia user: User:Prog1) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Postwar

On October 14, 1950, the island served as a one-day meeting site between General Douglas MacArthur and President Harry S. Truman, meeting to discuss strategy for the Korean War hostilities that had broken out four months earlier. October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... MacArthur landing at Leyte Beach in 1944. ... President Truman announces that Germany had surrendered (May 8 1945) Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was the thirty-third President of the United States (1945–1953); as Vice President, he succeeded to the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea  Australia  Belgium  Luxembourg  Canada  Colombia  Ethiopia  France  Greece  Luxembourg  Netherlands  New Zealand  Philippines  South Africa  Thailand  Turkey  United Kingdom  United States Medical staff:  Denmark  Australia  Italy  Norway  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea  Peoples Republic of China  Soviet Union Commanders...


Since 1974, the island's airstrip has been used by the U.S. military and some commercial cargo planes, as well as for emergency landings. There are over 700 landings a year on the island. There are also two offshore anchorages for large ships. On September 16, 1985, the World War II-related resources on Peale, Wilkes, and Wake Islands were designated a National Historic Landmark (and thereby also listed on the National Register of Historic Places). September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... USS Constitution A National Historic Landmark (NHL) is a building, district, site, structure, or object, almost always within the United States, officially recognized for its historical significance. ... A typical plaque showing entry on the National Register of Historic Places. ...


The United States military personnel have left, and there are no indigenous inhabitants. Wake, with an undelineated maritime boundary with them, is claimed by the Marshall Islands, and some civilian personnel ("contractor inhabitants") remain. As of August 2006, an estimated 200 contractor personnel were present. The island remains a strategic location in the North Pacific Ocean and serves as an emergency landing location for transpacific flights. Some World War II facilities and wreckage remain on the islands. 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Subsequently the island was used for strategic defense and operations during the Cold War. It was administered by the United States Army Space and Missile Defense Command (formerly known as the United States Army Space and Strategic Defense Command). For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command is a specialized major command within the United States Department of the Army [1](SMDC). ...

Wake Island's Main Lagoon
Wake Island's Main Lagoon

Since 1974, from Wake Island, military rockets were launched at 19°17′24″N, 166°37′05″E. These rockets are launched for the test of anti-missile systems and for atmospheric re-entry tests. Image File history File links Template:GFDL-Piatkowski taken by me, on Wake Island March 2004 Copyright (c) 2004 Matthew Piatkowski. ... Image File history File links Template:GFDL-Piatkowski taken by me, on Wake Island March 2004 Copyright (c) 2004 Matthew Piatkowski. ...


From late April until the middle of August 1975, Wake Island was used as a refugee camp for more than 8,000 Vietnamese refugees who fled their homeland after the fall of Saigon that ended the Vietnam War. Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese: Thành Chí Minh) is the largest city in Vietnam, located near the delta of the Mekong River. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


The territorial claim [11] by the Republic of the Marshall Islands on Wake Atoll leaves a certain amount of ambiguity regarding the actual or hypothetical role of the U.S. military, responsible under agreement for the defence of Marshallese territory, in the event of any strategic crisis or hostilities involving Wake. However, the atoll was formally annexed by the U.S. in the 19th century and is still administered by the U.S. Department of the Interior.


Flora and fauna

The flightless Wake Island Rail was the island's only known native landbird. It became extinct when the Japanese garrison, cut off from resupply in 1944-45, turned to hunting and fishing to avoid starvation. Binomial name Gallirallus wakensis (Rothschild, 1903) Synonyms Hypotaenidia wakensis (1903) Rallus wakensis (1903) The extinct Wake Island Rail (Gallirallus wakensis) was a flightless rail and the only native land bird on the Pacific atoll of Wake. ...


References

  • Sloan, Bill. Given up for Dead: America's Heroic Stand at Wake Island. Bantam Books, 2003. ISBN 0-553-80302-6
  • Heine, Dwight and Jon A. Anderson, "Enen-kio: Island of the Kio Flower," Micronesia Reporter, 1971.
  • Urwin, Gregory J.W. "Facing Fearful Odds: The Siege of Wake Island" University of Nebraska Press, 2002. ISBN 0-8032-9562-6
  • This article contains material from the CIA World Factbook which, as a U.S. government publication, is in the public domain.

The World Factbook 2007 (government edtion) cover. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge&#8212;writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others&#8212;in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links

Political divisions of United States
Federal district

District of Columbia Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_States. ... The political units and divisions of the United States include: the fifty states, which units are typically divided into counties and townships, and incorporate cities, villages, towns, and other types of municipalities, and other autonomous or subordinate public authorities and institutions; and the federal state, which unit is the United... Federal districts are subdivisions of a federal system of government. ... Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D...

States

Alabama | Alaska | Arizona | Arkansas | California | Colorado | Connecticut | Delaware | Florida | Georgia | Hawaii | Idaho | Illinois | Indiana | Iowa | Kansas | Kentucky | Louisiana | Maine | Maryland | Massachusetts | Michigan | Minnesota | Mississippi | Missouri | Montana | Nebraska | Nevada | New Hampshire | New Jersey | New Mexico | New York | North Carolina | North Dakota | Ohio | Oklahoma | Oregon | Pennsylvania | Rhode Island | South Carolina | South Dakota | Tennessee | Texas | Utah | Vermont | Virginia | Washington | West Virginia | Wisconsin | Wyoming Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      A state of the United States is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the... Official language(s) English Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Area  Ranked 30th  - Total 52,419 sq mi (135,765 km²)  - Width 190 miles (306 km)  - Length 330 miles (531 km)  - % water 3. ... Official language(s) English Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,855 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ... Official language(s) English Capital Phoenix Largest city Phoenix Area  Ranked 6th  - Total 113,998 sq mi (295,254 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Area  Ranked 29th  - Total 53,179 sq mi (137,002 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 261 miles (420 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... Official language(s) None Capital Dover Largest city Wilmington Area  Ranked 49th  - Total 2,491 sq mi (6,452 km²)  - Width 30 miles (48 km)  - Length 100 miles (161 km)  - % water 21. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Official language(s) English Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) English Capital Indianapolis Largest city Indianapolis Area  Ranked 38th  - Total 36,418 sq mi (94,321 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 270 miles (435 km)  - % water 1. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Official language(s) none Capital Topeka Largest city Wichita Area  Ranked 15th  - Total 82,277 sq mi (213,096 km²)  - Width 211 miles (340 km)  - Length 417 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) de jure: none de facto: English & French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city Baton Rouge [1] Area  Ranked 31st  - Total 51,885 sq mi (134,382 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 16  - Latitude 29°N to 33°N  - Longitude 89°W... Official language(s) None (English de facto; French is also an administrative language) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,417 sq mi (32,160 km²)  - Width 90 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37°53N to 39°43N  - Longitude 75°4W to 79°33... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Official language(s) English Capital Helena Largest city Billings Area  Ranked 4th  - Total 147,165 sq mi (381,156 km²)  - Width 255 miles (410 km)  - Length 630 miles (1,015 km)  - % water 1  - Latitude 44°26N to 49°N  - Longitude 104°2W to 116°2W Population  Ranked... Official language(s) English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Largest metro area Omaha Area  Ranked 16th  - Total 77,421 sq mi (200,520 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 0. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Official language(s) English Capital Concord Largest city Manchester Area  Ranked 46th  - Total 9,359 sq mi (24,239 km²)  - Width 68 miles (110 km)  - Length 190 miles (305 km)  - % water 3. ... Official language(s) None, English de facto Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Area  Ranked 47th  - Total 8,729 sq mi (22,608 km²)  - Width 70 miles (110 km)  - Length 150 miles (240 km)  - % water 14. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... NY redirects here. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... Official language(s) None Capital Oklahoma City Largest city Oklahoma City Area  Ranked 20th  - Total 69,960 sq mi (181,196 km²)  - Width 230 miles (370 km)  - Length 298 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) None Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English, Pennsylvania Dutch Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Providence Largest city Providence Area  Ranked 50th  - Total 1,214* sq mi (3,144* km²)  - Width 37 miles (60 km)  - Length 48 miles (77 km)  - % water 32. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32°430N to 35... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,163 sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English (de facto) See also languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 268,581 sq mi (695,622 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Salt Lake City Largest city Salt Lake City Area  Ranked 13th  - Total 84,876 sq mi (219,887 km²)  - Width 270 miles (435 km)  - Length 350 miles (565 km)  - % water 3. ... Official language(s) None Capital Montpelier Largest city Burlington Area  Ranked 45th  - Total 9,620 sq mi (24,923 km²)  - Width 80 miles (130 km)  - Length 160 miles (260 km)  - % water 3. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... “Washington State” redirects here. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42°30N to 47°3N  - Longitude 86°49W to 92°54W Population  Ranked... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ...

Insular areas

American Samoa | Guam | Northern Mariana Islands | Puerto Rico | U.S. Virgin Islands An insular area is United States territory that is neither a part of one of the fifty states nor a part of the District of Columbia, the nations federal district. ...

Minor outlying islands

Baker Island | Howland Island | Jarvis Island | Johnston Atoll | Kingman Reef | Midway Atoll | Navassa Island | Palmyra Atoll | Wake Island The flag of the United States is used for all of the United States Minor Outlying Islands The United States Minor Outlying Islands, a statistical designation defined by ISO 3166-1, consists of nine insular United States possessions: All of these islands are in the Pacific Ocean except Navassa Island... Orthographic projection centred over Midway. ...


 
 

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