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Encyclopedia > Waka (poetry)

Waka (和歌) or Yamato uta is a genre of Japanese poetry. Waka literally means Japanese poem in Japanese. The word was originally coined during the Heian period to differentiate native poetry from the kanshi (漢詩 "Chinese poems") that all educated Japanese people were also familiar with. Grave of the Japanese poet Yosa Buson The best-known forms of Japanese poetry (outside Japan) are haiku and senryu. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Heian Period. ...


For this reason, the word waka originally encompassed a number of differing styles. The main two are tanka (短歌 lit. "short poem") and chōka (長歌 lit. "long poem"), but there are others: bussokusekika (仏足石歌 lit. "rock of the Buddha's footprint poem"), sedōka (旋頭歌 lit. "whirling head poem") and katauta (片歌 lit. "poem fragment") . These last three forms, however, fell into disuse at the beginning of the Heian period, and chōka vanished soon afterwards. Thus, the term waka came in time to simply imply the one sub-form tanka. The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Heian Period. ...


Japanese poet and critic Masaoka Shiki created the term tanka in the early twentieth century for his statement that waka should be renewed and modernized. Until then, poems of this nature had been referred to as waka or simply uta ("song, poem"). Haiku is also a term of his invention, used for his revision of the old hokku form, with the same idea. For economy of thought, we will use here the term tanka for further description. Haiku by Shiki at Horyu-ji (temple): kaki kueba kane ga naru nari Hōryū-ji I bite into a persimmon and a bell resounds— Hōryūji —trans. ... Haiku )   is a mode of Japanese poetry, the late 19th century revision by Masaoka Shiki of the older hokku ), the opening verse of a linked verse form, haikai no renga. ... Haiku ) is a mode of Japanese poetry, the late 19th century revision by Masaoka Shiki of the older hokku ), the opening verse of a linked verse form, haikai no renga. ...


Traditionally waka in general has had no concept of rhyme (indeed, certain arrangements of rhymes, even accidental, were considered dire faults in a poem), or even of line. Instead of lines, waka has the unit (連) and the phrase (句). (Units or phrases are often turned into lines when poetry is translated or transliterated into Western languages, however.) A rhyme is a repetition of identical or similar terminal sounds in two or more different words and is most often used in poetry. ...

Contents

Forms of Waka

Chōka

Chōka consists of 5-7 mora phrases repeated at least twice, and concludes with a 5-7-7 ending. Mora (plural moras or morae) is a unit of sound used in phonology that determines syllable weight (which in turn determines stress) in some languages. ...


The briefest chōka documented was made by Yamanoue no Okura in the Nara period, and goes: Yamanoue no Okura (山上 憶良; Yamanoue no Okura; 660 - 733) was a Japanese poet, the best known for his poems of child and commoners. ... The Nara period ) of the history of Japan covers the years from about AD 710 to 784. ...


瓜食めば子ども思ほゆ栗食めばまして思はゆ何処より来りしものそ眼交にもとな懸りて安眠し寝さぬ (Man'yōshū: 0337), ManyōshÅ« , Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves) is the oldest existing, and most highly revered, collection of Japanese poetry, compiled sometime in the Nara or early Heian periods. ...


which consists of a pattern 5-7 5-7 5-7 5-7-7:

瓜食めば Uri hameba    When I eat melons
子ども思ほゆ Kodomo Omohoyu My children come to my mind;
栗食めば Kuri hameba    When I eat chestnuts
まして思はゆ Mashite Omowayu The longing is even worse.
何処より Izuko yori    Where do they come from,
来りしものそ Kitarishi monoso Flickering before my eyes.
眼交に Manakai ni    Making me helpless
もとな懸りて Motona kakarite Incessantly night after night.
安眠し寝さぬ Yasui shi nesanu Not letting me sleep in peace?

[English translation by Edwin A. Cranston, from A Waka Anthology: Volume One: The Gem-Glistening Cup, Stanford University Press © 1993]


Tanka

Tanka consists of five units (often treated as separate lines when Romanized or translated) usually with the following mora pattern: Mora (plural moras or morae) is a unit of sound used in phonology that determines syllable weight (which in turn determines stress) in some languages. ...

5-7-5 / 7-7.

The 5-7-5 is called the kami-no-ku ("upper phrase"), and the 7-7 is called the shimo-no-ku ("lower phrase").


Tanka is a much older form of Japanese poetry than haiku. In ancient times poems of this form were called hanka ("reverse poem"), since the 5-7-5-7-7 form derived from the conclusion (envoi) of a choka. Sometimes a choka had two envois. Haiku )   is a mode of Japanese poetry, the late 19th century revision by Masaoka Shiki of the older hokku ), the opening verse of a linked verse form, haikai no renga. ... In poetry, an envoi is a short stanza at the end of a poem used either to address an imagined or actual person or to comment on the preceding body of the poem. ...


The choka above is followed by an envoi; 銀も金も玉も何せむに勝れる宝子にしかめやも, also written by Okura.

銀も Shirogane mo    What are they to me,
金も玉も Kogane mo tama mo Silver, or gold, or jewels?
何せんに Nanisen ni    How could they ever
まされる宝 Masareru takara Equal the greater treasure
子にしかめやも Koni shikame yamo That is a child? They can't.

[English translation by Edwin Cranston] Edwin Augustus Cranston is a Professor of Japanese Literature in the Department of East Asian Languages and Cultures at Harvard University. ...


Even in the late Asuka period, waka poets such as Kakinomoto Hitomaro made hanka as an independent work. It was suitable to express their private interest in life and expression, in comparison with choka, which was solemn enough to express serious and deep emotion when facing a significant event. The Heian period saw many tanka. In the early Heian Period (at the beginning of the 10th century), choka was seldom written and tanka became the main form of waka. Since then, the generic term waka became almost identical with tanka. The Heian period also saw the invention of a new tanka-based game: One poet recited or created half of a tanka, and the other finished it off. This sequential, collaborative tanka was called renga ("linked poem"). (The form and rules of renga developed further during medieval times; see the renga article for more details.)When a person sends a 'haiku' to a friend, it is a custom to send back a tanka. The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yamato period. ... Kakinomoto no Hitomaro (柿本 人麻呂; c. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Heian Period. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Other forms

There are still other forms of waka. In ancient times its moraic form was not fixed - it could vary from the standard 5 and 7 to also 3, 4, 6, longer than 7 morae part in a waka. Besides that, there were many other forms like:

  • Bussokusekika: This form carved on a slab of slate- the Bussokuseki (silhouette of Buddha's feet stone) - at the Yakushi-ji temple in Nara. Also recorded in Man'yōshū. The pattern is 5-7-5-7-7-7.
  • Sedoka: Man'yōshū and Kokin Wakashū recorded this form. The pattern is 5-7-7-5-7-7.
  • Katauta: Man'yōshū recorded this form. Katauta means 'Half song' in Japanese. The pattern is 5-7-7, just same as a half part of Sedoka.

Bussokusekika ), also known as Bussokuseki no Uta, are poems inscribed beside the stone Buddha Foot monument at Yakushi Temple in Nara. ... Yakushi-ji Yakushi-ji (薬師寺) is one of the famous imperial and ancient Buddhist temples, located in Nara, Japan. ... Nara ) is the capital city of Nara Prefecture in the Kansai region of Japan. ... Manyōshū , Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves) is the oldest existing, and most highly revered, collection of Japanese poetry, compiled sometime in the Nara or early Heian periods. ... Manyōshū , Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves) is the oldest existing, and most highly revered, collection of Japanese poetry, compiled sometime in the Nara or early Heian periods. ... The Kokin Waka Shū ), usually abbreviated as Kokinshū ), is an early Heian waka Imperial anthology, conceived by Emperor Uda (r. ...

Poetic culture

In ancient times, it was a custom between two writers to exchange waka instead of letters in prose. In particular, it was common between lovers. Reflecting this custom, five of the twenty volumes of the Kokin Wakashū gathered waka for love. In the Heian period the lovers would exchange waka in the morning when lovers met at the woman's home. The exchanged waka were called Kinuginu (後朝), because it was thought the man wanted to stay with his lover and when the sun rose he had almost no time to put on his clothes on which he had lain instead of a mattress (it being the custom in those days). Works of this period, The Pillow Book and Tale of Genji provide us with such examples in the life of aristocrats. Murasaki Shikibu wrote around 950 waka for her Tale of Genji as waka her characters made in the story. Shortly, making and reciting waka became a part of aristocratic culture. They recited a part of appropriate waka freely to imply something on an occasion. The Pillow Book ) is a book of observations and musings recorded by Sei Shōnagon during her time as court lady to Empress Sadako during the 990s in Heian Japan. ... Genji Monogatari (源氏物語), frequently translated as The Tale of Genji, is a classic work of Japanese literature attributed to the Japanese noblewoman Murasaki Shikibu in the early 11th century, around the peak of the Heian period. ... Murasaki Shikibu (紫 式部 Murasaki Shikibu, c. ...


Much like with tea, there were a number of rituals and events surrounding the composition, presentation, and judgment of waka. There were two types of waka party: Utakai and Utaawase. Utakai was a party in which all participants wrote a waka and recited them. Utakai derived from Shikai, Kanshi party and was held in occasion people gathered like seasonal party for the New Year, some celebrations for a newborn baby, a birthday, or a newly-built house. Utaawase was a contest in two teams. Themes were determined and a chosen poet from each team wrote a waka for a given theme. The judge appointed a judge for each theme and gave points to the winning team. The team which received the largest sum was the winner. The first recorded Utaawase was held in around 885. At first, Utaawase was playful and mere entertainment, but as the poetic tradition deepened and grew, it turned into a serious aesthetic contest, with considerably more formality. A woman wearing a kimono performs a tea ceremony outdoors, while seated in seiza position. ... Events Vikings besiege Paris Stephen VI elected pope Oldest known mentioning of Baky Births Emperor Daigo of Japan Deaths Pope Adrian III April 6: Saint Methodius, bishop and Bible translator Categories: 885 ...


History of Waka development

Waka has a long history. It was first recorded in the early of the 8th century in the Kojiki and Man'yōshū. Under influence from other genres like Kanshi, Chinese poetry, novels and stories like Tale of Genji or even Western poetry, it has developed gradually, broadening its repertoire of expression and topics. (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... Kojiki or Furukotofumi (古事記), also known in English as the Records of Ancient Matters, is the oldest surviving historical book recounting events of ancient earth in the Japanese language. ... ManyōshÅ« , Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves) is the oldest existing, and most highly revered, collection of Japanese poetry, compiled sometime in the Nara or early Heian periods. ... Genji Monogatari (源氏物語), frequently translated as The Tale of Genji, is a classic work of Japanese literature attributed to the Japanese noblewoman Murasaki Shikibu in the early 11th century, around the peak of the Heian period. ...


In literary critic's Donald Keene's books, He uses four large categories: Donald Lawrence Keene is a noted Japanologist, scholar, teacher, writer, translator and interpreter of Japanese literature and culture. ...

  1. Early and Heian Literature (Kojiki to past 'The Tale of Genji' to 1185)
  2. The Middle Ages ('chūsei' from 1185, including the Kamakura and Muromachi Periods)
  3. Pre-Modern Era (1600-1867, then subdivided into 1600-1770 and 1770-1867)
  4. Modern Era (post 1867, divided into Meiji (1868-1912), Taishō (1912-1926) and Shōwa (from 1927)).

Kojiki or Furukotofumi (古事記), also known in English as the Records of Ancient Matters, is the oldest surviving historical book recounting events of ancient earth in the Japanese language. ... Ilustration of ch. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Kamakura Period. ... The Muromachi period (Japanese: 室町時代, Muromachi-jidai, also known as the Muromachi era, the Muromachi bakufu, the Ashikaga era, the Ashikaga period, or the Ashikaga bakufu) is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1336 to 1573. ... The Meiji period ) denotes the 45-year reign of Emperor Meiji, running from 8 September 1868 (in the Gregorian calendar, 23 October 1868) to 30 July 1912. ... History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei The Taisho period (大正 Taishō, lit. ... The Shōwa period (Japanese: 昭和時代, Shōwa-jidai, period of enlightened peace) was the time in Japanese history when Emperor Hirohito reigned over the country, from December 25, 1926 to January 7, 1989. ...

Ancient

The earliest waka recorded in the Kojiki and Nihonshoki, were not divided into subcategories of strict forms. Nor did the waka in the Man'yōshū had fixed forms, but poets in the late 7th century, in the time of Empress Saimei began to create Choka and Tanka in the forms extant today. Kojiki or Furukotofumi (古事記), also known in English as the Records of Ancient Matters, is the oldest surviving historical book recounting events of ancient earth in the Japanese language. ... Nihonshoki (Japanese: 日本書紀), sometimes translated as Chronicles of Japan, is the second oldest book of classical Japanese history. ... ManyōshÅ« , Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves) is the oldest existing, and most highly revered, collection of Japanese poetry, compiled sometime in the Nara or early Heian periods. ... Empress Kōgyoku (皇極天皇 Kōgyoku Tennō), also Empress Saimei (斉明天皇 Saimei Tennō) (594–August 24, 661[1]) was the 35th and 37th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ...


The most ancient waka were recorded in the 20 volumes of the Man'yōshū, the oldest surviving waka anthology in Japan. The editor is anonymous, but it is believed that the final editor of the Man'yōshū was Otomo no Yakamochi. He was one of waka poets who belonged to the youngest generation represented in the anthology; indeed, the last volume is dominated by his poems. The first waka of volume 1 was by Emperor Ojin. Nukata no Okimi, Kakinomoto no Hitomaro, Yamabe no Akahito, Yamanoue no Okura, Otomo no Tabito and his son Yakamochi were the greatest poets in this anthology. But the Man'yōshū recorded not only the works of those royals and nobles, but also works of commoners whose name were unrecorded. The main topics of the Man'yōshū were love, sadness specially in occasion of someone's death, and other miscellaneous topics. ManyōshÅ« , Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves) is the oldest existing, and most highly revered, collection of Japanese poetry, compiled sometime in the Nara or early Heian periods. ... Look up anonymous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... ManyōshÅ« , Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves) is the oldest existing, and most highly revered, collection of Japanese poetry, compiled sometime in the Nara or early Heian periods. ... Ōtomo no Yakamochi (大伴家持 c. ... Emperor ÅŒjin (応神天皇 ÅŒjin Tennō) was the 15th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Princess Nukada or Nukata no Okimi or Nukada no Okimi or Nukatano Okimiwas (額田王; c. ... Hitomaro by Kikuchi Yosai Kakinomoto no Hitomaro (from Ogura Hyakunin Isshu) Kakinomoto no Hitomaro (柿本 人麻呂; c. ... Yamabe no Akahito (700 - 40) was a poet of Yamato period in Japan. ... Yamanoue no Okura (山上 憶良; Yamanoue no Okura; 660 - 733) was a Japanese poet, the best known for his poems of child and commoners. ... Otomo no Tabito Otomo no Tabito (大伴旅人 Otomo no Tabito; c. ... ManyōshÅ« , Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves) is the oldest existing, and most highly revered, collection of Japanese poetry, compiled sometime in the Nara or early Heian periods. ... ManyōshÅ« , Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves) is the oldest existing, and most highly revered, collection of Japanese poetry, compiled sometime in the Nara or early Heian periods. ...


Heian revival

During the Nara period and the early Heian period, the court was in favor of the Chinese-style poetry (kanshi) and the waka artform stagnated. But in the 10th century, Japan stopped sending official messengers to the Tang dynasty. The cutting off of ties, and the perilous ocean crossing essentially forced the court to cultivate native talent and look inward, synthesizing what they had learned from the Chinese with local traditions; the localisation of culture proceeded rapidly. The waka form again began flourishing, and Emperor Daigo ordered the creation of an anthology of waka. It was the first waka anthology edited and issued under Imperial auspices; it commenced a long and distinguished tradition of imperial anthologies of waka that continued up to the Muromachi period. The famous waka poets in those days (including Ki no Tsurayuki) gathered waka of ancient poets and their contemporaries. This antique focus gave the anthology its name of "Kokin Wakashū", literally meaning the Ancient-and-Now Anthology. For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Emperor Daigo (醍醐天皇 Daigo Tennō) (January 18, 885– October 23, 930) was the 60th Imperial Ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Ki no tsurayuki (From Ogura Hyakunin Isshu) Ki no Tsurayuki (ç´€ 貫之) 872-945) was a Japanese author, poet and courtier. ... The Kokin Waka ShÅ« ), usually abbreviated as KokinshÅ« ), is an early Heian waka Imperial anthology, conceived by Emperor Uda (r. ...


Medieval

After the Heian period, during the Kamakura period and later, "Renga", a form of collaborative linked poetry began to develop. In the late Heian period, three of the last great waka poets appeared. Fujiwara no Shunzei and his son Fujiwara no Teika, and Emperor Go-Toba. Emperor Go-Toba ordered the creation of a new anthology and joined in editing it. The anthology was named Shin-kokin Wakashu. He edited it again and again until he died in Oki Islands. Teika made copies of ancient books and wrote on the theory of waka. His descendants, and indeed almost all subsequent poets, such as Shotetsu, taught his methods and studied his poems. The courtly poetry scene were historically dominated by a few noble clans and allies, each of which staked out a position. By this peiod, a number of clans had fallen by the wayside, leaving the Reizei and the Nijo family; the former stood for "progressive" approaches, the varied use of the "ten styles" and novelty, while the latter conservatively hewed to already established norms and the "ujin" (deep feelings) style that dominated courtly poetry. Eventually, the Nijo family became defunct, leading to the ascendance of the 'liberal' Rezei family. Their innovative reign was soon deposed by the Asukai family, aided by the Ashikaga shogun, Ashikaga Yoshinori. The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Kamakura Period. ... Fujiwara Shunzei (b. ... Monument to Fujiwara no Teika, Ogura, Kyoto Fujiwara no Teika or Sadaie (藤原定家: 1162–September 26, 1241) was a Japanese waka poet, critic, carigrapher, scribe and scholar of the late Heian and early Kamakura periods. ... Emperor Go-Toba ) (August 6, 1180 – March 28, 1239) was the 82nd imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... The Shin KokinshÅ« ), also known by its longer name of Shin Kokin WakashÅ« ), is a collection of Japanese waka poetry published around 1205 or 1206 CE. Its full name means literally New Collection of Ancient and Modern Waka, and it was meant to be seen as a successor to the... Oki (隠岐) is the name of a group of islands (隠岐諸島 Oki shotō) in the Sea of Japan, 40 to 80 km from the coast of Honshu. ... Shōtetsu (b. ... Nijo can refer to: Emperor Nijo of Japan, 78th Emperor of Japan. ...


In the Muromachi period, Renga began to be popular in the court and people around. It spread to the priestly classes and thence to wealthy commoners. Much the same as waka, some renga anthologies under the Imperial aegis were produced. The Muromachi period (Japanese: 室町時代, Muromachi-jidai, also known as the Muromachi era, the Muromachi bakufu, the Ashikaga era, the Ashikaga period, or the Ashikaga bakufu) is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1336 to 1573. ...


As momentum and popular interest shifted to the renga-form, the tanka style was left to the Imperial court. Conservative tendencies exacberated the loss of life and flexibility. A tradition named Kokin-denju, the heritage of Kokin Wakashū, was developed. It was a system on how to analyze the Kokin Wakashū and included the secret (or precisely lost) meaning of words. Studying waka degenerated into learning the many intricate rules, allusions, theories, and secrets, so as to produce tanka which would be accepted by the court.


There were comical waka already in the Kojiki and the Man'yōshū, but the noble style of waka in the court inhibited and scorned such aspects of waka. Renga was soon in the same position with many codes and strictures reflecting literary tradition. Haikai no renga (also called just Haikai (playful renga)) and Kyōka, comical waka, were a reaction to this seriousness. But in the Edo-period waka itself lost almost all of its flexibility and itself began to echo and repeat old poems and themes. Kojiki or Furukotofumi (古事記), also known in English as the Records of Ancient Matters, is the oldest surviving historical book recounting events of ancient earth in the Japanese language. ... ManyōshÅ« , Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves) is the oldest existing, and most highly revered, collection of Japanese poetry, compiled sometime in the Nara or early Heian periods. ... Haikai is a form of Japanese poetry. ...


Tokugawa shogunate period

In the early Edo period, waka was not a fashionable genre. Newly created haikai no renga featuring the hokku as the opening verse (of which haiku was a late 19th-century revision) was the favored genre. This tendency was kept during this period, but in the late Edo period waka faced new trends out of the court. Motoori Norinaga, the great reviver of the traditional Japanese literature, attempted to revive waka as a way of providing traditional feeling expressed in genuine Japanese way. He wrote waka, and waka became an important form to his followers, the Kokugaku scholars. In Echigo province a Buddhist priest Ryōkan composed many waka in a naïve style intentionally avoiding complex rules and the traditional way of waka. He belonged to another great tradition of waka, waka for expressing religious feeling. But his frank expression of his feeling found many admirers, then and now. In the cities, a comical, ironic and satiric form of waka emerged. It was called kyōka (狂歌), mad poem, and was loved by intellectual people in big cities like Edo and Osaka. It was not precisely a new form; satirical waka was a style known since ancient times. But it was in the Edo period that this aspect of waka developed and reached an artistic peak. But most waka poets kept to ancient tradition or made those reformation another stereotype, and waka was still not a vibrant genre in general at the end of this period. Haiku )   is a mode of Japanese poetry, the late 19th century revision by Masaoka Shiki of the older hokku ), the opening verse of a linked verse form, haikai no renga. ... Motoori Norinaga (Japanese: 本居宣長; 21 June 1730–5 November 1801) was a Japanese philologist and scholar during the Edo period. ... Kokugaku (国学; lit. ... Echigo (越後国; -no kuni) was an old province in north-central Japan, on the Sea of Japan side, northernmost part of the Hokurikudo (北陸道)circuit. ... A statue of Ryōkan. ... Edo (Japanese: , literally: bay-door, estuary, pronounced //), once also spelled Yedo or Yeddo, is the former name of the Japanese capital Tokyo. ... Osaka )   is a city in Japan, located at the mouth of the Yodo River on Osaka Bay, in the Kansai region of the main island of HonshÅ«. The city is the capital of Osaka Prefecture. ...


Modern

The modern revival of tanka began with several poets who began to publish several literary magazines, gathering their friends and disciples to them as contributors. Yosano Tekkan and the poets that were associated with his Myōjō magazine were one example, but that magazine was fairly short-lived. To Myōjō a young high school student Otori You, later known Yosano Akiko as the wife Tekkan and Ishikawa Takuboku contributed. Masaoka Shiki's poems and writing (as well as the work of his friends and disciples) have had a more lasting influence. The magazine Hototogisu (a bird made famous by Basho in a haiku) he founded still publishes. He was a great poet both in his new haiku form and tanka, being sometimes called the Father of Modern Tanka. Actually the term tanka was one of his invented words as a replacement for waka. After the World War Two waka began to be considered rather out-of-date but since the late of 1980s has revived under the example of contemporary poet Tawara Machi. A monument to Yosano Tekkan in Bitchumatsuyama castle This is a Japanese name; the family name is Yosano Yosano Tekkan 26 February 1873 - 26 March 1935) was the pen-name of Yosano Hiroshi, a Japanese author and poet active in late Meiji period, Taisho period and early Showa period Japan. ... Myōjō ) is a monthly poetry magazine published in Japan between between February 1900 and November 1908. ... Yosano Akiko (与謝野 晶子 Yosano Akiko, December 7, 1878 - May 29, 1942) was a Japanese author and poet. ... Statue of Takuboku in Hakodate, Hokkaidō Ishikawa Takuboku ) was a Japanese poet born on February 20, 1886. ... Haiku by Shiki at Horyu-ji (temple): kaki kueba kane ga naru nari Hōryū-ji I bite into a persimmon and a bell resounds— Hōryūji —trans. ... Hototogisu can refer to either: A bird native to Japan A literary magazine External links Hototogisu (bird) Hototogisu (magazine) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A statue of Bashō in Ogaki, Gifu. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... The poor poet A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... Tawara Machi (俵万智 Tawara Machi, born December 31, 1962) is a contemporary Japanese writer, translator and poet. ...


In the Meiji period, Masaoka Shiki claimed the situation with waka should be rectified, and waka should be modernized just the as same as with other things in the country. He praised the style of Man'yōshū, calling it manly, as opposed to the style of Kokin Wakashū which was the ideal type of waka during a thousand year, which he called feminine and denigrated. He also praised Minamoto no Sanetomo, the third Shogun of the Kamakura Shogunate, who was a disciple of Fujiwara Teika and composed waka in a style much like that in the Man'yōshū. After Shiki died, in the Taishō period, Saito Mokichi and his friends gathered a poetry circle Araragi that praised the Man'yōshū. Using their magazine they spread their influence throughout the country. Besides their modernization, in the court the old traditions still prevailed. The court holds many utakai even today both officially and privately. The utakai which the emperor holds at the first in a year is called utakai-hajime and it is an important event for waka poets; the Emperor himself releases a single tanka for the public's perusal. Anyone can apply to it with a waka according to an announced theme before the year, and many people apply in every year. The Meiji period ) denotes the 45-year reign of Emperor Meiji, running from 8 September 1868 (in the Gregorian calendar, 23 October 1868) to 30 July 1912. ... ManyōshÅ« , Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves) is the oldest existing, and most highly revered, collection of Japanese poetry, compiled sometime in the Nara or early Heian periods. ... The Kokin Waka ShÅ« ), usually abbreviated as KokinshÅ« ), is an early Heian waka Imperial anthology, conceived by Emperor Uda (r. ... Tree at Hachiman Shrine. ... Categories: Japan-related stubs | Japanese poets | 1241 deaths ... ManyōshÅ« , Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves) is the oldest existing, and most highly revered, collection of Japanese poetry, compiled sometime in the Nara or early Heian periods. ... The Taishō period (Japanese: 大正時代, Taishō-jidai, period of great righteousness) is a period in the history of Japan dating from 30 July 1912 to 25 December 1926. ... A postal stamp portraying Saito Mokichi alongside tanka poem Saito Mokichi (斎藤茂吉 Saitō Mokichi; 1882 - 1953) was a Japanese poet of Taisho period, the member of Araragi school, and a psychiatrist. ... ManyōshÅ« , Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves) is the oldest existing, and most highly revered, collection of Japanese poetry, compiled sometime in the Nara or early Heian periods. ...


Today there are many circles of waka poets. Many newspapers have a weekly waka column and there are many professional and amateur waka poets. More recently, as a parting gesture in his weekly email to the nation, outgoing Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi offered a tanka poem as thanks to his supporters.


Tanka written in English

The writing of tanka in English started more slowly than the writing of English-language haiku, with the first English-language tanka collections dating from 1974. There is still vastly less tanka written than haiku, but interest in the tanka form in English has been growing, with more outlets for publishing tanka. Haiku )   is a mode of Japanese poetry, the late 19th century revision by Masaoka Shiki of the older hokku ), the opening verse of a linked verse form, haikai no renga. ...


Unlike Japanese poets, who often write primarily or only in one poetry form, many English-language tanka poets also write other short poetry forms including haiku, senryu, and cinquain. Most early English-language tanka appeared in journals that featured a variety of small poem forms (although the main American haiku magazines published only haiku and sometimes senryu). Haiku )   is a mode of Japanese poetry, the late 19th century revision by Masaoka Shiki of the older hokku ), the opening verse of a linked verse form, haikai no renga. ... Senryū (川柳, literally river willow) is a Japanese form of short poetry similar to haiku in construction: three lines with 17 or fewer syllables in total. ... In poetry, a cinquain or quintain is a five line stanza, varied in rhyme and line, usually with the rhyme scheme ababb. ...


Only recently have there been journals devoted exclusively to tanka, including American Tanka (1996) in the United States, edited by Laura Maffei and Tangled Hair in Britain, edited by John Barlow. The first English-language tanka journal, Five Lines Down, began in 1994, edited by Sanford Goldstein and Kenneth Tanemura, but lasted only a few issues. The Tanka Society of America was founded by Michael Dylan Welch in April 2000. This society now publishes the tanka journal Ribbons. Tanka Canada also publishes a journal titled Gusts. American Tanka is a U.S. literary journal devoted to the publication of English language tanka (短歌) poetry. ...


In the late 20th century, a small group of poets began a revival of pre-Shiki "waka," aiming for a more austere and traditional content akin to that of Saigyo, and going under the group name "Mountain Home," an English translation of the title of the famous collection of Saigyo's waka, the Sanka Shu ("Mountain Home Collection"). Saigyō Hōshi (Japanese: 西行法師) (1118 - 1190) is a famous Japanese poet of the late Heian and early Kamakura period. ...


Famous Waka and Tanka Poets

Kakinomoto no Hitomaro (柿本 人麻呂; c. ... Yamabe no Akahito (700 - 40) was a poet of Yamato period in Japan. ... Ōtomo no Yakamochi (大伴家持 c. ... The six most well known Waka poets (六歌仙 Rokkasen) were selected poets of Waka in the early Heian period. ... Henjo (遍昭 or 遍照, 816- February 12, 890) was a Japanese waka poet and Buddhist priest. ... Ariwara no Narihira (在原業平, 825 - July 9, 880) was a Japanese waka poet and aristocrat. ... Kisen Hōshi, from the Hyakunin Isshu. ... Ono no Komachi drawn by Kikuchi Yosai Ono no Komachi (from the Ogura Hyakunin Isshu) Ono no Komachi (小野 小町 おののこまち approximate dates 825–900 A.D.) was a famous Japanese Waka poet, one of the Rokkasen—Six best Waka poets, in the early Heian period. ... Painting of KÅ«kai (774-835). ... Ki no Tsurayuki (紀 貫之; 870 - 945) was a Japanese author and poet. ... Monument to Fujiwara no Teika, Ogura, Kyoto Fujiwara no Teika or Sadaie (藤原定家: 1162–September 26, 1241) was a Japanese waka poet, critic, carigrapher, scribe and scholar of the late Heian and early Kamakura periods. ... Saigyō Hōshi (Japanese: 西行法師) (1118 - 1190) is a famous Japanese poet of the late Heian and early Kamakura period. ... Emperor Go-Toba ) (August 6, 1180 – March 28, 1239) was the 82nd imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Motoori Norinaga (Japanese: 本居宣長; 21 June 1730–5 November 1801) was a Japanese philologist and scholar during the Edo period. ... Ueda Akinari (上田秋成, 1734 - August 8, 1809) was a Japanese novelist, scholar, and waka poet. ... A statue of Ryōkan. ... Haiku by Shiki at Horyu-ji (temple): kaki kueba kane ga naru nari Hōryū-ji I bite into a persimmon and a bell resounds— Hōryūji —trans. ... Yosano Akiko (与謝野 晶子 Yosano Akiko, December 7, 1878 - May 29, 1942) was a Japanese author and poet. ... Statue of Takuboku in Hakodate, Hokkaidō Ishikawa Takuboku ) was a Japanese poet born on February 20, 1886. ... A postal stamp portraying Saito Mokichi alongside tanka poem Saito Mokichi (斎藤茂吉 Saitō Mokichi; 1882 - 1953) was a Japanese poet of Taisho period, the member of Araragi school, and a psychiatrist. ... Ito Sachio (伊藤 左千夫, August 18, 1864 - July 30, 1913) is a Japanese author, editor and tanka poet. ... Nagatsuka Takashi (長塚 節, April 3, 1879 - February 8, 1915) is a Japanese poet and novelist. ... Okamoto Kanoko (岡本 かの子, March 1, 1889 - February 18, 1939) was a Japanese author, tanka poet, and Buddhism scholar during the Taisho and Showa periods. ... Wakayama Bokusui (若山 牧水, August 24, 1885 - September 17, 1928) is a Japanese author. ... Shinobu Orikuchi , February 11, 1887 - September 3, 1953)), also known as ChōkÅ« Shaku ), was a Japanese ethnologist, linguist, folklorist, novelist, and poet. ... Shuji Terayama (Japanese: 寺山修司, terayama shūji) (1935-1983) was an avant-garde Japanese dramatist, writer, and director. ... Tawara Machi (俵万智 Tawara Machi, born December 31, 1962) is a contemporary Japanese writer, translator and poet. ...

Famous Waka collections

Waka collections chosen by a Japanese Emperor (勅撰和歌集)

  • Kokin Wakashū (古今和歌集)
  • Shin Kokinshū (新古今和歌集)
  • Gyokuyoshu (玉葉和歌集)

The Kokin Waka Shū ), usually abbreviated as Kokinshū ), is an early Heian waka Imperial anthology, conceived by Emperor Uda (r. ... The Shin Kokinshū ), also known by its longer name of Shin Kokin Wakashū ), is a collection of Japanese waka poetry published around 1205 or 1206 CE. Its full name means literally New Collection of Ancient and Modern Waka, and it was meant to be seen as a successor to the... The Gyokuyōshū (Collection of Jeweled Leaves, a title which recollects the Kinyōshū) was an imperial anthology of Japanese waka; it was finished somewhere between 1313 and 1314 CE, two or three years after the Retired Emperor Fushimi first ordered it around 1311. ...

Waka collections chosen by an individual (私撰和歌集)

Monument commemorating 700th anniversary of Teikas death The Hyakunin Isshu (百人一首) is an anthology of waka poems. ...

References

Waka anthologies

  • Brower, Robert H., and Earl Miner, Japanese Court Poetry, Stanford University Press, 1961. ISBN 0-8047-1524-6 pbk
527 pp., a standard academic study.
  • Carter, Steven D., editor and translator, Traditional Japanese Poetry: An Anthology. Stanford University Press, 1991.
Waka, tanka, linked poetry, haiku and senryu with translations and annotations.
  • Carter, Steven D., editor and translator, Waiting for the Wind: Thirty-Six Poets of Japan's Late Medieval Age, Columbia University Press, 1989.
  • Cranston, Edwin, editor and translator, A Waka Anthology, Volume One: The Gem-Glistening Cup, Stanford University Press, 1993. ISBN 0-8047-1922-5 cloth ISBN 0-8047-3157-8 pbk
988 pp. includes almost all waka from the Kojiki (Record of Ancient Matters completed 712) through the Man'yōshū (Collection for Ten Thousand Generations c.759) and also includes the Buddha's Footstone Poems (21 Bussokuseki poems carved in stone at the Yakushi-ji temple in Nara, c. 753).
  • Cranston, Edwin, editor and translator, A Waka Anthology, Volume Two: Grasses of Remembrance, Stanford University Press, 2006. ISBN 080474825X cloth
  • Keene, Donald, compiled and edited, Anthology of Japanese Literature from the Earliest Era to the Mid-Nineteenth Century, Grove Press, 1955.
  • McCullough, Helen Craig, Brocade by Night: 'Kokin Wakashū' and the Court Style in Japanese Classical Poetry, Stanford University Press, 1985.
  • McCullough, Helen Craig, Kokin Wakashū: The First Imperial Anthology of Japanese Poetry, with 'Tosa Nikki' and 'Shinsen Waka', Stanford University Press 1985.
  • Miner, Earl, An Introduction to Japanese Court Poetry, Stanford University Press, 1968.
Based on Brower and Miner.
  • Philippi, Donald, translator, This Wine of Peace, the Wine of Laughter: A Complete Anthology of Japan's Earliest Songs, New York, Grossman, 1968.
  • Sato, Hiroaki, and Burton Watson, editors and translators, From the Country of Eight Islands: An Anthology of Japanese Poetry, multiple editions available.

Edwin Augustus Cranston is a Professor of Japanese Literature in the Department of East Asian Languages and Cultures at Harvard University. ... Kojiki or Furukotofumi (古事記), also known in English as the Records of Ancient Matters, is the oldest surviving historical book recounting events of ancient earth in the Japanese language. ... Manyōshū , Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves) is the oldest existing, and most highly revered, collection of Japanese poetry, compiled sometime in the Nara or early Heian periods. ... Bussokusekika ), also known as Bussokuseki no Uta, are poems inscribed beside the stone Buddha Foot monument at Yakushi Temple in Nara. ... Yakushi-ji Yakushi-ji (薬師寺) is one of the famous imperial and ancient Buddhist temples, located in Nara, Japan. ... Nara ) is the capital city of Nara Prefecture in the Kansai region of Japan. ... Edwin Augustus Cranston is a Professor of Japanese Literature in the Department of East Asian Languages and Cultures at Harvard University. ... Donald Lawrence Keene is a noted Japanologist, scholar, teacher, writer, translator and interpreter of Japanese literature and culture. ... Helen Craig McCullough (1918-1998) was an eminent scholar of classical Japanese poetry and prose. ... Helen Craig McCullough (1918-1998) was an eminent scholar of classical Japanese poetry and prose. ... Also sometimes known as Slava Ranko A translator of Japanese and Ainu, known for his translation of the Kojiki. ... Burton Watson (born 1925) is one of the worlds best-known translators of the Chinese and Japanese literary works. ...

Modern tanka anthologies

  • Nakano, Jiro, Outcry from the Inferno: Atomic Bomb Tanka Anthology, Honolulu, Hawaii, Bamboo Ridge Press © 1995 ISBN 0-910043-38-8 [104 pp. 103 tanka by 103 poets]
  • Shiffert, Edith, and Yuki Sawa, editors and translators, Anthology of Modern Japanese Poetry, Rutland, Vermont, Tuttle, 1972
  • Ueda, Makoto, Modern Japanese Tanka: An Anthology, Columbia University Press, © 1996 ISBN 0-231-10432-4 cloth ISBN 0-231-10433-2 pbk [257 pp. 400 tanka by 20 poets]

Bamboo Ridge (in full Bamboo Ridge: Journal of Hawaii Literature and Arts) is a Hawaii-based literary journal and press founded in 1978 by Eric Chock and Darrell H.Y. Lum to publish works by and for the people of Hawaii. ... Makoto Ueda, professor emeritus of Japanese literature at Stanford University, is an author of numerous books about Japanese poetry, including haiku, tanka and senryu. ...

Tanka written in English

  • McClintock, Michael, Pamela Miller Ness and Jim Kacian, eds., The Tanka Anthology: 800 of the Best Tanka in English by 68 of Its Finest Practitioners, Winchester, VA, Red Moon Press © 2003 ISBN 1-893959-40-6
  • Welch, Michael Dylan, ed., Footsteps in the Fog, Foster City, CA USA, Press Here © 1994 ISBN 1-878798-12-X [the first anthology of English-language tanka 48 pp. 115 tanka by 7 poets]

External links

  • Ogura Hyakunin Isshu - 100 Poems by 100 Poets at University of Virginia Library Japanese Text Initiative
  • American Tanka magazine
  • Tanka Society of America
  • Mountain Home forum at Mountains and Rivers
  • Selected Tanka Bibliography with notes

 
 

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