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Encyclopedia > Wafer (electronics)
An etched silicon wafer
An etched silicon wafer

In microelectronics, a wafer is a thin slice of semiconducting material, such as a silicon crystal, upon which microcircuits are constructed by doping (for example, diffusion or ion implantation), chemical etching, and deposition of various materials. Wafers are thus of key importance in the fabrication of semiconductor devices such as integrated circuits. Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Wafer (electronics). ... Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Wafer testing is a step performed during semiconductor device fabrication. ... Image File history File links Etchedwafer. ... Image File history File links Etchedwafer. ... Microelectronics is a subfield of electronics. ... It has been suggested that Silicons ranking be merged into this article or section. ... In semiconductor production, doping refers to the process of intentionally introducing impurities into an intrinsic semiconductor in order to change its electrical properties. ... Ion implantation is a materials engineering process by which ions of a material can be implanted into another solid, thereby changing the physical properties of the solid. ... This page discusses the industrial applications of the etching process. ... Thin-film deposition is any technique for depositing a thin film of material onto a substrate or onto previously deposited layers. ... NASAs Glenn Research Center cleanroom. ... A semiconductor is a solid whose electrical conductivity can be controlled over a wide range, either permanently or dynamically. ... Integrated circuit showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window showing the integrated circuit inside. ...


They are made in various sizes ranging from 1 inch (25.4 mm) to 11.8 inches (300 mm), and thicknesses of the order of 0.5 mm. Generally, they are cut from a boule of semiconductor using a diamond blade or diamond wire, then polished on one or both faces. An order of magnitude is the class of scale or magnitude of any amount, where each class contains values of a fixed ratio to the class preceding it. ... Silicon boule for the production of wafers. ... A diamond blade is a circular saw blade used for cutting hard or abrasive materials. ... Diamond Wire Cutting (DWC)is the process of using wire of various diameters and lengths, impregnated with diamond dust of various sizes to cut through materials. ...

Flats can be used to denote doping and crystallographic orientation. Red represents material that has been removed.
Flats can be used to denote doping and crystallographic orientation. Red represents material that has been removed.

Wafers under 200 mm generally have flats indicating crystallographic planes of high symmetry (usually the {110} face) and, in old-fashioned wafers (those below about 100 mm diameter), the wafer's orientation and doping type (see illustration for conventions). Modern wafers use a notch to convey this information, in order to waste less material [1]. Image File history File links Wafer_flats_convention. ... Image File history File links Wafer_flats_convention. ... In semiconductor production, doping refers to the process of intentionally introducing impurities into an intrinsic semiconductor in order to change its electrical properties. ... Crystallography (from the Greek words crystallon = cold drop / frozen drop, with its meaning extending to all solids with some degree of transparency, and graphein = write) is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in solids. ... Crystallography (from the Greek words crystallon = cold drop / frozen drop, with its meaning extending to all solids with some degree of transparency, and graphein = write) is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in solids. ...


Orientation is important since many of a single crystal's structural and electronic properties are highly anisotropic. For instance, wafer cleavage typically occurs only in a few well-defined directions. Scoring the wafer along cleavage planes allows it to be easily diced into individual chips ("dies") so that the billions of individual circuit elements on an average wafer can be separated into many individual circuits. This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Cleavage, in mineralogy, is the tendency of crystalline materials to split along definite planes, creating smooth surfaces, of which there are several named types: Basal cleavage: cleavage parallel to the base of a crystal, or to the plane of the lateral axes. ... A die in the context of integrated circuits is a small piece of semiconducting material on which a given circuit is fabricated. ... An electronic component is a basic electronic building block packaged in a discrete form with two or more connecting leads or metallic pads. ...


Sources

  1. A website with semiconductor lore.
  2. Federal Standard 1037C
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Wafer (electronics) (241 words)
In microelectronics, a wafer is a thin slice of semiconducting material, such as a silicon crystal, upon which microcircuits are constructed by doping (for example, diffusion or ion implantation), etching, and deposition of various materials.
Wafers are thus of key importance in the fabrication of semiconductor devices such as integrated circuits.
Scoring the wafer along cleavage planes allows it to be easily diced into individual chips ("dies") so that the billions of individual circuit elements on an average wafer can be separated into many individual circuits.
Silicon Wafer - Silicon Wafers - Silicon Wafer Manufacturer - Silicon Wafer Manufacturing - Semiconductor Wafer - ... (392 words)
Silicon Valley Microelectronics, Inc. (SVM) is in its 15th year as a leading distributor of silicon wafers and provider of silicon wafer services for the semiconductor industry.
SVM supplies silicon wafers custom made to your requirement in a variety of diameters and grades.
In addition to same-day delivery, SVM provides a silicon wafer stocking program with cost savings providing you with on time deliveries of high quality silicon wafers only as needed.
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