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Encyclopedia > Waco Siege
Waco Siege or Battle of Mt. Carmel

The Mount Carmel Center in flames on April 19, 1993.
Date February 28 - April 19, 1993
Location Mount Carmel Center, Waco, Texas, ( Flag of the United States United States)
Result Assault: Compound attacked resulting in the ATF retreat
Siege: Compound burned resulting in the mass number of deaths
Combatants
ATF, FBI, U.S. Army Branch Davidians
Commanders
Assault: Phil Chojnacki
Siege: Many
David Koresh
Strength
Assault: 75 ATF agents
Siege: Hundreds of federal agents and soldiers
50+ men,
75+ women and children
Casualties
4 dead, 21 wounded in assault 6 dead and 3+ wounded in assault, 79 dead in fire

On February 28, 1993, the United States Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) attempted to execute a search warrant at the Branch Davidian ranch at Mount Carmel, a property located nine miles (14 km) east-northeast of Waco, Texas. An exchange of gunfire resulted in the deaths of four agents and six Davidians. A subsequent 51-day siege by the Federal Bureau of Investigation ended on April 19 when the complex was destroyed by fire. Seventy-nine people, including 21 children and Davidian leader David Koresh, died in the incident. This has come to be known as the Waco Siege, Battle of Mt. Carmel, or the Waco Massacre. Image File history File linksMetadata Waco4. ... Mount Carmel Center was the name of the Branch Davidian home outside of Waco Texas led by Benjamin Roden and later David Koresh. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Mount Carmel Center was the name of the Branch Davidian home outside of Waco Texas led by Benjamin Roden and later David Koresh. ... For the Branch Davidian siege in Waco, Texas, see Waco Siege. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... ATF Seal The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (abbreviated ATF, sometimes BATF or BATFE) is a United States federal agency; more specifically a specialized law enforcement and regulatory organization within the United States Department of Justice. ... F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... The Branch Davidians are a religious group originating from the Seventh_day Adventist church. ... David Koresh (August 17, 1959 – April 19, 1993), (born Vernon Wayne Howell), was the leader of the Branch Davidians religious sect, believing himself to be the final prophet, until a 1993 raid by the U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives and subsequent siege by the FBI ended... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... ATF Seal The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (abbreviated ATF, sometimes BATF or BATFE) is a United States federal agency; more specifically a specialized law enforcement and regulatory organization within the United States Department of Justice. ... The Branch Davidians are a religious sect who originated from a schism in 1955 from the Davidian Seventh Day Adventists, themselves former members of the Seventh-day Adventist Church who were disfellowshipped during the 1930s. ... Mount Carmel Center was the name of the Branch Davidian home outside of Waco Texas led by Benjamin Roden and later David Koresh. ... For the Branch Davidian siege in Waco, Texas, see Waco Siege. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... David Koresh (August 17, 1959 – April 19, 1993), (born Vernon Wayne Howell), was the leader of the Branch Davidians religious sect, believing himself to be the final prophet, until a 1993 raid by the U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives and subsequent siege by the FBI ended...

Contents

History

Main article: Branch Davidian

The Branch Davidian Seventh Day Adventist Church was formed in Los Angeles, California, during the 1930s, breaking away from the Seventh-day Adventist Church. As the group gained members, the leadership moved the church to a hilltop several miles west of Waco, which they named Mount Carmel, after a mountain in Israel mentioned in the Bible. A few years later, they moved again to a much larger site east of the city. The Branch Davidians are a religious sect who originated from a schism in 1955 from the Davidian Seventh Day Adventists, themselves former members of the Seventh-day Adventist Church who were disfellowshipped during the 1930s. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... The Seventh-day Adventist (abbreviated Adventist[1]) Church is a Christian denomination which is distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the seventh day of the week, as the Sabbath. ... A view of Mount Carmel in 1894 For other uses, see Mount Carmel (disambiguation). ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ...


The new Mount Carmel Center consisted of a main church building (constructed primarily of thin plywood, taking advantage of a lack of building codes at the time), administrative and storage buildings, and homes for the leadership and important visitors.


The church announced at some point that the Second Coming of Jesus Christ was about to take place, and members were told to gather at the center to await this event. Many built houses, others stayed in tents, trucks or buses, and most sold their possessions. The compound was also called Ranch Apocalypse by the members, due to Koresh's apocalyptic teachings.[1] This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...


By 1992, most of the land belonging to the group had been sold, and most of the buildings had been removed, or were being salvaged for construction materials to convert much of the main chapel and a tall water tank into apartments for the resident members of the group. Many of the members of the group had been involved with the Davidians for a few generations, and many had large families.[2]


Accusations

Interviews with surviving Davidians state that David Koresh was intimately versed in the Bible and "knew it like he wrote it".[3] Koresh taught that the U.S. government was the enemy of the Davidians, and that they would have to defend themselves. In a video made by the Davidians and released during the siege,[3] Koresh stated that he had been told by God to procreate with the women in the groups to establish a "House of David", his "Special People". This involved married couples in the group dissolving their marriages and agreeing that only Koresh could have sexual relations with the wives. On the tape, Koresh is also shown with several minors who claimed to have had babies fathered by Koresh. In total, Koresh had fourteen young children who stayed with him in the compound. This article describes the government of the United States. ...


A video clip of an interview between Koresh and an Australian television station notes that he was accused of impregnating the aged widow of the founder of Branch Davidianism. He sarcastically said that if the charges were true, if he had "made an 82 year-old woman pregnant... I do miracles, I'm God!"


On February 27, 1993 the Waco Tribune-Herald began what it called the “Sinful Messiah” series of articles. [2] It alleged that Koresh had physically abused children in the compound and had taken underage brides, even raping one of them. Koresh was also said to advocate polygamy for himself, and declared himself married to several female residents of the small community. According to the paper, Koresh declared that he was entitled to at least 140 wives, that he was entitled to claim any of the females in the group as his, that he had fathered at least a dozen children by the harem and that some of these mothers became brides as young as twelve or thirteen years old. is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... The Waco Tribune-Herald is an American daily newspaper serving Waco, Texas and vicinity. ... Child abuse is the physical, sexual, or emotional maltreatment or neglect of children by parents, guardians, or others. ... The term polygamy (many marriages in late Greek) is used in related ways in social anthropology, sociobiology, and sociology. ...


Reports from Joyce Sparks, an investigator from the Texas agency responsible for protective services, stated that she had found significant evidence that the allegations were true in her visits to the Mount Carmel site over a period of months. However, she said that the investigation was difficult as she was not permitted to speak with the children alone, nor was she permitted to inspect all areas of the site. She noted that safety concerns over construction sites at Mount Carmel were either ignored or slowly corrected.[3]. Carol Moore, author of the 1994 "The Massacre Of The Branch Davidians—A Study Of Government Violations Of Rights, Excessive Force And Cover Up", [4] published by The Committee For Waco Justice, writes: Carol Moore is an ethicist and systems theorist best known for her theories of secession and her analysis of Mahatma Gandhis methods as an intuitive systems theorist. She is considered an influential critic of globalization; Although not widely read or followed in the protest-oriented wing of the anti_globalization...

(Rick) Ross told the Houston Chronicle that Koresh is "your stock cult leader. They're all the same. Meet one and you've met them all. They're deeply disturbed, have a borderline personality and lack any type of conscience...No one willingly enters into a relationship like this. So you're talking about deception and manipulation (by the leader), people being coached in ever so slight increments, pulled in deeper and deeper without knowing where it's going or seeing the total picture."[4] Rick Alan Ross (born 1952 in Cleveland, Ohio, United States and later named Ricky Alan Ross) is a consultant and lecturer in the area of cults. ...

Prelude

In 1992 the ATF became concerned over reports of automatic gunfire coming from the Carmel compound. Subsequent investigations, including sending in one agent undercover, revealed that there were over 150 weapons and 8,000 rounds of ammunition in the complex. Most of the weapons were legal semi-automatics; however, the ATF alleged there were also a number of these fire-arms that had been illegally modified to fire full-automatic.[3]


The ATF began surveillance from a house across the road from the compound, but their cover was noticeably poor (the "college students" were in their 30s, not registered at the local schools, and they did not keep a schedule which would have fit any legitimate employment or classes).[5]


Alleging that the Davidians had violated federal law, the ATF obtained search and arrest warrants for Koresh and specific followers on weapons charges due to the many firearms they had accumulated, and they planned their raid for March 1, 1993, with the code name "Showtime".[6] However, the raid was moved up a day in response to the Waco Tribune-Herald "Sinful Messiah" article (which the ATF had tried to prevent from being published).[3] is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...


The initial assault

ATF Agents taking cover behind a vehicle on February 28, 1993.

The ATF mounted the raid on a Sunday morning, February 28, 1993. Any advantage of surprise was lost as a reporter, who had been tipped off on the raid, asked for directions from a U.S. Postal Service mail carrier who was Koresh's brother-in-law,[3] and the assault team assembled within view of the upper stories of the Mount Carmel main building. Koresh then confronted the ATF agent who had infiltrated the Branch Davidians and told him that they knew a raid was coming. Koresh and his male followers then began arming and taking up defensive positions, while the women and children were told to take cover in their rooms.[3] Image File history File linksMetadata Waco2. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... USPS and Usps redirect here. ...


Despite being informed that the Davidians knew the raid was coming, the ATF commander ordered that the raid go ahead, even though their plan had depended on reaching the compound without the Davidians having armed.[3]


Agents approached the site in cattle trailers pulled by pickup trucks owned by individual ATF agents. It is not known who fired the first shots.[3] It is reported that the first firing occurred at the double front entry doors; ATF agents stated that they heard shots coming from within the building, while Branch Davidian survivors claimed that the first shots came from the ATF agents outside.


Within a minute of the raid starting, a Davidian, Wayne Martin, called 911 pleading for them to stop shooting. The resident asked for a ceasefire, and audiotapes clearly caught him saying "Here they come again!" and "That's them shooting, that's not us!" A ceasefire is a temporary stoppage of a war or any armed conflict, where each side of the conflict agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions. ...


The local sheriff then attempted to contact the ATF force, but initially could not get through as the ATF communications officer had turned his radio off. Eventually the sheriff got through and negotiated a ceasefire.[3] This conflicts with Gazecki's documentary, where the sheriff of Mclellan county at the time states that the ATF agents withdrew only once they were out of ammunition. ".[7]


After the ceasefire, the Davidians, who still had ample ammunition, allowed the dead and wounded to be removed and held their fire during the ATF retreat. Steve Willis, Robert Williams, Todd McKeehan and Conway LeBleu were the ATF agents killed during the raid, with another 16 having been injured. The Davidians killed were Winston Blake, Peter Gent, Peter Hipsman, Perry Jones and Jaydean Wendel. Michael Schroeder was shot dead by ATF agents when he fired a Glock 19 pistol at agents as he attempted to reenter the compound around 5 p.m. with Woodrow Kendrick and Norman Allison.[3] His wife claims that he was merely returning from work and had not participated in the day's earlier altercation."[7] The Glock 19 is a pistol designed and manufactured by Glock. ...


The local sheriff, in audiotapes broadcast after the incident, said he was not apprised of the raid.


Chronology of events 28 February

Time Event
05:00 76 agents assemble at Fort Hood for the drive to the staging area at the Bellmead Civic Center. According to a later Treasury Department Review, the agents drove in an 80-vehicle convoy that stretched for a mile with a cattle trailer at either end.
09:45 ATF agents move in on the compound. A gun battle begins.
09:48 Branch Davidian Wayne Martin, a Waco attorney, calls 911
11:30 Cease fire reached
16:00 (4:00 p.m.) The first message from Koresh is relayed over KRLD Radio In Dallas
16:55 (4:55 p.m.) Michael Schroeder is shot dead returning to the compound
17:00 (5:00 p.m.) ATF spokesman Ted Royster says gunfire has continued sporadically through the afternoon
19:30 (7:30 p.m.) David Koresh is interviewed by CNN. The FBI instructs CNN not to conduct further interviews
20:15 (8:15 p.m.) ATF spokesperson Sharon Wheeler says negotiations continue with Davidians and gunfire has ended
22:00 (10:00 p.m.) By now 4 children have exited (2 Sonobe children, 2 Fagan children)
22:05 (10:05 p.m.) Koresh talks for about 20 minutes on KRLD, describing his beliefs and saying he is the most seriously wounded of the Davidians

Fort Hood, named after Confederate General John Bell Hood, is a U.S. Army post located halfway between Austin and Waco within the U.S. state of Texas. ... KRLD NewsRadio 1080 is a dual format news and talk radio station located in Dallas, Texas. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... KRLD NewsRadio 1080 is a dual format news and talk radio station located in Dallas, Texas. ...

The siege

ATF agents established contact with Koresh and others inside the building after they withdrew. The FBI took command soon after as a result of the deaths of Federal agents. They placed the FBI Special Agent in Command of San Antonio, Jeff Jamar, in charge of the siege. The tactical team was headed by Richard Rogers, who had previously been criticized for his actions at the Ruby Ridge incident. F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Texas Coordinates: Counties Bexar County Government  - Mayor Phil Hardberger Area  - City  412. ... Jeff Jamar is an Special Agent in Charge of the FBI. 1982 - Informant Coordinator 1990 - SAC for the FBIs Minneapolis field office 1993 - SAC for the FBIs San Antonio field office Waco Jamar served as the siege commander during the 1993 Waco Raid, aided by agents Robert Ricks... Ruby Ridge refers to a violent confrontation and siege involving Randy Weaver, his family, Weavers friend Kevin Harris, federal agents from the United States Marshals Service and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. ...


For the next 51 days, communication with those inside was by telephone by a group of 25 FBI negotiators[3] (who reportedly were not always in touch with the tactical units surrounding the building)[citation needed].


In the first few days the FBI believed they had made a breakthrough when they negotiated with Koresh an agreement that the Davidians would peaceably leave the compound in return for a message, recorded by Koresh, being broadcast on national radio.[3] The broadcast was made, but Koresh then told negotiators that God had told him to remain in the building and "wait".[3]


Despite this, soon afterwards negotiators managed to facilitate the release of 19 children, ranging in age from five months to 12 years old, without their parents.[1] These children were released in groups of two- this was considered an allusion to Noah's Ark by Koresh, while 98 people remained in the compound.[3] The children were then interrogated by the FBI and Texas Rangers, sometimes for hours at a time.[1] A painting by the American Edward Hicks (1780–1849), showing the animals boarding Noahs Ark two by two. ...


On day nine the Davidians released a video tape to show the FBI that there were no hostages, but in fact everyone was seemingly staying inside on their own free will. This video also included a message from Koresh.[3] Videos also showed the 23 children still inside Ranch Apocalypse, and child care professionals on the outside prepared to take care of those children as well as the previous 21 released.[1]


As the stand-off continued, Koresh negotiated more time, allegedly so he could write religious documents he said he needed to complete before he surrendered. His conversations, dense with biblical imagery, alienated the federal negotiators who treated the situation as a hostage crisis.


As the siege wore on, two factions developed within the FBI,[3] one believing negotiation to be the answer, the other, force. Increasingly aggressive techniques were used to try to make the Davidians leave. Outside the building nine dis-armed Bradley Fighting Vehicles and five combat engineering vehicles (CEVs) obtained from the US Army began patrolling.[3] The armored vehicles were used to destroy outbuildings and crush cars belonging to Koresh.[3] Loud music (heavily distorted) and disturbing sounds were played at high volume.[3] Eventually all power and water was cut off to the complex, forcing those inside to survive on rain water and stockpiled United States Army Meal, Ready-to-Eat rations.[3] The M2 Bradley IFV (Infantry Fighting Vehicle) and M3 Bradley CFV (Cavalry Fighting Vehicle) are American infantry fighting vehicles manufactured by BAE Systems Land and Armaments, (formerly United Defense, originally FMC). ... The EBG combat engineering vehicle, based on the AMX 30 tank, is used by the engineers of the French Army for a variety of missions. ... An MRE packet, containing a spaghetti with meat sauce main course. ...


Criticism was later leveled at the tactic of loud noises against Koresh by Schneider's attorney, Jack Zimmerman:

The point was this - they were trying to have sleep disturbance and they were trying to take someone that they viewed as unstable to start with, and they were trying to drive him crazy. And then they got mad 'cos he does something that they think is irrational![8]

Despite the increasingly aggressive tactics, Koresh ordered a group of followers to leave. Eleven people left and were arrested as material witnesses, with one person charged with conspiracy to murder.[3]


The children's willingness to stay with Koresh disturbed the negotiators who were unprepared to work around the Davidians' religious zeal. However, as the siege went on, the children were aware that an earlier group of children who had left with some women were immediately separated, and the women arrested.


During the siege a number of scholars who study apocalypticism in religious groups attempted to persuade the FBI that the siege tactics being used by government agents would only create the impression within the Davidians that they were part of a Biblical "end times" confrontation that had cosmic significance.[9] This would likely increase the chances of a violent and deadly outcome (in a subsequent stand-off with the Montana Freemen, the Justice Department incorporated this advice to end the confrontation peacefully). The religious scholars pointed out that while on the outside, the beliefs of the group may have appeared to be extreme, to the Davidians, their religious beliefs were deeply meaningful, and they were willing to die for them.[9] Look up Apocalypse in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Montana Freemen were a Christian patriot group based in Montana, United States, near the town of Jordan. ...


Koresh's discussions with the negotiating team became increasingly difficult. He proclaimed that he was the second coming of Christ and had been commanded by his father in heaven to remain in the compound.[3]


Many of Koresh's statements about religion that baffled government negotiators were understood by religious scholars as references to his idiosyncratic interpretations of the Book of Revelation, and his claimed role in the End Times battle between good and evil.


The final assault

The FBI became increasingly concerned that the Davidians were going to commit mass suicide, as had happened at Jonestown when 900 people killed themselves at their leader's behest. The then-newly appointed U.S. Attorney General Janet Reno approved the recommendations of the FBI to mount an assault after being told that conditions were deteriorating and children were being abused inside the compound. Because the Davidians were heavily armed, the FBI's arms included .50 caliber guns and armored vehicles (CEVs). A plan was formed which would see the CEVs use booms to punch holes in the walls of buildings and then pump in CS gas ("tear gas") to try to flush out the Davidians without harming them. The plan called for increasing amounts of gas to be pumped in over two days to increase pressure. No armed assault was to be made, and loudspeakers were used to tell the Davidians that there was no armed assault and to ask them not to fire on the vehicles. Despite this, several Davidians opened fire. Instead of returning fire, the FBI increased the amount of gas being used.[3] After more than six hours no Davidians had left the building, sheltering instead in an underground bunker or using gas masks. The CEVs were used to punch several large holes in the building to provide exits for those inside. However several of these were blocked when the floor above collapsed, and Davidians were scared that they would be shot if they left.[3] At around noon, three fires started almost simultaneously in different parts of the building. Even then, as the fire spread, only nine people left the building.[3] The remaining Davidians remained inside as fire engulfed the building, with footage being broadcast worldwide by television. In all, 74 died. Jeff Jamar prohibited fire crews access to the burning buildings until after the blaze had burned itself out, due to the danger of explosives within the fire and possible weapons fire from surviving Davidians.[citation needed] Nothing remains of the compound today, as the entire site was bulldozed by the ATF just two weeks after the end of the siege. Only a small chapel stands on the site, used by a small number of Branch Davidians.[3] For other uses, see Jonestown (disambiguation). ... In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ... Janet Reno (born July 21, 1938) was the first female Attorney General of the United States (1993–2001). ... Related Compounds Related compounds SDBS Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...

Chronology of events 19 April

Time Event
05:50 Agents call Davidian compound to warn they are going to begin tank activity and advise residents "to take cover". Agents say the Davidian who answered the phone doesn't reply, but instead throws the phone and phone line out of the front door
05:55 FBI Hostage Rescue Team deploys two armored combat engineering vehicles (CEV) to the compound. CEV1 goes to the left of the building, CEV2 to the right.[10]
06:00 Surveillance tapes[specify] record a man inside the compound saying "Everybody wake up, let's start to pray", then, "Pablo have you poured it yet" ..."Huh" ... "Have you poured it yet"... "in the hallway"... "things are poured, right?" CEV1 receives orders to spray two bottles of tear gas into left corner of building.[10]
06:04 Armored vehicle with ram and delivery device to pump tear gas into compound with pressurized air rips into front wall just left of front door leaving a hole 8 feet high and 10 feet wide. Agents claimed the holes not only allowed insertion of the gas, but also provided a means of escape. Agents allege that 75 rounds are fired from inside compound at this time.[citation needed] Agent sees shots from inside the compound directed at CEVs.[10]
06:10 Surveillance tapes[specify] record "don't pour it all out, we might need some later"... "throw the tear gas back out" FBI negotiator Byron Sage is recorded saying "It's time for people to come out." Surveillance tapes[specify] records a man saying "what?" then, "no way."
06:12 Surveillance tapes[specify] record Davidians saying "They're gonna kill us", then "They don't want to kill us."
6:31 The entire building is gassed.[10]
6:47 FBI fires plastic, nonincendiary tear gas rounds through windows.[10]
07:23 Surveillance tapes[specify] record a male Davidian saying, "The fuel has to go all around to get started." Then a second male says, "Well, there are two cans here, if that's poured soon."
07:30 CEV1 is redeployed, breaching the building and inserting tear gas. Davidians fire shots at CEV1.[10]
07:48 On tapes of the siege, FBI agent requests permission to fire military-style tear gas shells to break through underground concrete bunker. Gets permission, fires two shells.[10]
07:58 CEV2, with battering ram, rips hole into second floor of compound and then minutes later another hole is punched into the backside of the compound. The vehicles then withdraw.[10]
08:08 Agent in CEV reports that one military shell bounced off bunker, did not penetrate.[10]
08:24 Audio portion of FBI videotape ends, at request of pilot.[10]
09:00 The Davidians unfurl a banner which reads "We want our phone fixed."
09:13 CEV1 breaks through front door to deliver more gas[10]
09:16 Surveillance tapes[specify] record conversation between two males identified as David Koresh and Steve Schneider[citation needed].
Koresh: "They got two cans of Coleman fuel down there? Huh?"
Schneider: "Empty"
Koresh: "All of it?"
Schneider: "Nothing left."
10:00 A man is seen waving a white flag on the southeast side of the compound. He is advised over loudspeakers that if he is surrendering he should come out. He doesn't. At the same time a man believed to be Schneider comes out to retrieve the phone and phone line
11:30 More gas inserted through front, punching another big hole,[citation needed]; original CEV2 has mechanical difficulties (damaged tread), replacement breaches through back side of compound[10]
11:40 Surveillance tapes[specify] record a man saying "I want a fire around the back", then later, "Let's keep that fire going."[citation needed]
11:43 Another gas insertion takes place, with the armored vehicle moving well into the building to reach the concrete interior room where the FBI believe Davidians are trying to avoid gas
11:45 Wall on right rear collapses[10]
12:03 Armored vehicle turret knocks away first floor corner on right side
12:07 First visible flames appear in two spots in the front of the building, first on the left of the front door on the second floor (a wisp of smoke then a small flicker of flame) then a short time later on the far right side of the front of the building, and at a third spot on the back side. Agents say Branch Davidian members ignited the fires, alleging that observers saw a man dressed in black bend over with cupped hands and then saw flames as he lifted his hands
12:09 Ruth Riddle exits with computer disk in her jacket containing Koresh's Manuscript on the Seven Seals. Third fire detected on first floor.[10]
12:10 Flames spread quickly through entire building, fanned by high winds. The building burns very quickly
12:12 911 call placed for fire department. Two Waco FD trucks are dispatched. Shortly after, Bellmead FD dispatches two trucks
12:22 Waco fire trucks arrive at checkpoint where they are halted[citation needed]; Bellmead follows shortly after
12:25 There is a large explosion on the left side. One object hurtles into air, bounces off the top of white bus and lands on grass
12:30 Part of the roof collapses. Around this time there are several further explosions and witnesses report the sound of gunfire, attributed by the FBI to live ammunition cooking off throughout the compound because of fire
12:43 Fire trucks arrive in compound according to fire department logs
12:55 Fire begins to burn out, compound leveled
15:45 (3:45 p.m.) Law enforcement source says David Koresh is dead

Cooking off is when ammunition is set off prematurely due to heat in the surrounding environment. ...

Aftermath

Various gun-control groups, such as Handgun Control Incorporated and the Violence Policy Center have claimed that the Branch Davidans had used .50 caliber rifles and that therefore these types of firearms should be banned.[11][12]. However, the US Treasury Department, in a memorandum to the press dated July 13, 1995 titled "Weapons Possessed by the Branch Davidians", provided an inventory of all the firearms and firearm-related items that were recovered from the Branch Davidian's compound. The inventory shows no .50 rifles or machine guns, only 4 .50 magazines, 3 .50 magazine springs and .50 belt links.[13] Several years later, the General Accounting Office in response to a request from Henry Waxman released a briefing paper titled, "Criminal Activity Associated with .50 Caliber Semiautomatic Rifles" which claims that the Branch Davidians did have access to and use .50 rifles.[14] The GAO's claim is based on an unsourced BATF claim that the Branch Davidians fired on the BATF with a .50 rifle. There has not been a reconciliation between the Treasury Department's account and the GAO's. The Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act, also known as the Brady Bill, was passed by Congress and signed into law by President Bill Clinton on November 30, 1993. ... The Violence Policy Center (VPC) is a Washington, DC based organization that conducts studies that serve the aim of furthering gun control legislation. ... The United States Department of the Treasury is a Cabinet department, a treasury, of the United States government established by an Act of U.S. Congress in 1789 to manage the revenue of the United States government. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is the audit, evaluation, and investigative agency of the United States Congress. ... Henry Arnold Waxman (born September 12, 1939 in Los Angeles, California) is an American politician. ... The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (BATFE or ATFE) is a law enforcement agency within the United States Department of Justice. ...


Trial

The events at Waco spurred both criminal prosecution and civil litigation. On August 3, 1993, a federal grand jury returned a superseding 10-count indictment against twelve of the surviving Davidians. The grand jury charged, among other things, that the Davidians had conspired to, and aided and abetted in, murder of federal officers, and had unlawfully possessed and used various firearms. is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...


The Government dismissed the charges against one of the twelve Davidians, Kathryn Schroeder, pursuant to a plea bargain. After a jury trial lasting nearly two months, the jury acquitted four of the Davidians on all counts with which they were charged. Additionally, the jury acquitted all of the Davidians on the murder-related charges, but convicted five of them on the lesser-included offense of aiding and abetting the voluntary manslaughter of federal agents. Eight Davidians were convicted on firearms charges.


Six of the eight Davidians appealed both their sentences and their convictions. They raised a host of issues, challenging the constitutionality of the prohibition on possession of machineguns, the jury instructions, the district court’s conduct of the trial, the sufficiency of the evidence, and the sentences imposed. The United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit vacated the defendants’ sentences for use of machineguns, determining that the district court had made no finding that they had “actively employed” the weapons. The Court of Appeals left the verdict undisturbed in all other respects.


On remand, the district court found that the defendants had actively employed machineguns, and re-sentenced five of them to substantial prison terms. The defendants again appealed. The Fifth Circuit affirmed. The Davidians pressed this issue before the United States Supreme Court. The Supreme Court reversed, holding that the word “machinegun” in the relevant statute created an element of the offense to be determined by a jury, rather than a sentencing factor to be determined by a judge, as had happened in the trial court.


The convicted Davidians were:

  • Kevin A. Whitecliff—convicted of voluntary manslaughter and using a firearm during a crime.
  • Jaime Castillo—convicted of voluntary manslaughter and using a firearm during a crime.
  • Paul Gordon Fatta—convicted of conspiracy to possess machine guns and aiding Davidian leader David Koresh in possessing machine guns.
  • Renos Lenny Avraam—convicted of voluntary manslaughter and using a firearm during a crime.
  • Graeme Leonard Craddock—convicted of possessing a grenade and using or possessing a firearm during a crime.
  • Brad Eugene Branch—convicted of voluntary manslaughter and using a firearm during a crime.
  • Livingstone Fagan—convicted of voluntary manslaughter and using a firearm during a crime.
  • Ruth Riddle—convicted of using or carrying a weapon during a crime.
  • Kathryn Schroeder—sentenced to three years after pleading guilty to a reduced charge of forcibly resisting arrest.

Several of the surviving Davidians, as well as more than a hundred family members of those who had died or were injured in the confrontation, brought civil suits against the United States, numerous federal officials, the former governor of Texas, and members of the Texas National Guard. They sought money damages under the Federal Tort Claims Act (“FTCA”), civil rights statutes, the Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organizations Act, and Texas state law. The bulk of these claims were dismissed because they were insufficient as a matter of law or because the plaintiffs could advance no material evidence in support of them. Only FTCA claims related to the initial raid on the compound, the actions of the FBI during the insertion of tear gas on April 19, 1993, and the final fire proceeded to trial. is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...


The court, after a month-long trial, rejected the Davidians’ case. The court found that, on February 28, 1993, the Davidians initiated a gun battle when they fired at federal officers who were attempting to serve lawful warrants. ATF agents returned gunfire to the compound, the court ruled, in order to protect themselves and other agents from death or serious bodily harm. The court found that the government's planning of the siege--i.e. the decisions to use tear gas against the Davidians; to insert the tear gas by means of military tanks; and to omit specific planning for the possibility that a fire would erupt—was a discretionary function for which the government could not be sued. The court also found that the use of tear gas was not negligent. Further, even if the United States were negligent by causing damage to the compound before the fires broke out, thus either blocking escape routes or enabling the fires to speed faster, that negligence did not legally cause the plaintiffs' injuries because the Davidians started the fires. The court found that the FBI's decision not initially to allow fire trucks on the property was reasonable because of the risk of injury or death to firefighters who might encounter hostile gunfire from the Davidian compound. February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...


The Davidians appealed. Their only serious contention was that the trial court judge, Walter S. Smith, Jr., should have recused himself from hearing their claims on account of his relationships with defendants, defense counsel, and court staff; prior judicial determinations; and comments during trial. The Fifth Circuit concluded that these allegations did not reflect conduct that would cause a reasonable observer to question Judge Smith’s impartiality, and it affirmed the take-nothing judgment.


Controversies

In the aftermath of the initial raid, the ATF drew heavy criticism for proceeding, despite being aware that the Davidians knew of the offensive and of the months-long surveillance of Mount Carmel. Some critics also continue to ask why the ATF agents turned down a direct invitation given months before the initial assault, in which Koresh spoke with the agents by phone and asked that they come talk with him about their concerns. There is also controversy over what the exact content of the original search warrants were. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...


Some critics claim that ATF documentation from their observations of Mount Carmel proved that they knew that Koresh left the property every day for a run. The ATF has so far not responded to questions about why they did not wait for Koresh to leave his property on the day of the raid and then arrest him instead of staging a raid.


Who fired first?

Helicopters had been obtained from the Texas National Guard on the pretext that there was a drug laboratory at Mount Carmel.[15] There were, however, no drug related charges on the arrest warrant served on the morning of February 28, 1993. While the official version of events has always stated that the helicopters were merely used as a diversion, and that the Davidians were not targeted by sharpshooters within them, in transcripts of the negotiations, one negotiator admitted that the occupants were armed, and may have opened fire: Seal of the National Guard Bureau Seal of the Army National Guard Seal of the Air National Guard The United States National Guard is a significant component of the United States armed forces military reserve. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...

Koresh: "No! Let me tell you something. That may be what you want the media to believe, but there's other people that saw too! Now, tell me Jim, again - you're honestly going to say those helicopters didn't fire on any of us?"
Jim Cavanaugh: "What I'm saying is the helicopters didn't have mounted guns. Ok? I'm not disputing the fact that there might have been fire from the helicopters."[16]

An Austin Chronicle article noted, "Long before the fire, the Davidians were discussing the evidence contained in the doors. During the siege, in a phone conversation with the FBI, Steve Schneider, one of Koresh's main confidantes, told FBI agents that "the evidence from the front door will clearly show how many bullets and what happened."[5] Houston attorney Dick DeGuerin, who went inside Mount Carmel during the siege, testified at the trial that protruding metal on the inside of the right-hand entry door made it clear that the bullet holes were made by incoming rounds. DeGuerin also testified that only the right-hand entry door had bullet holes, while the left-hand entry door was intact. The government presented the left-hand entry door at the trial, claiming that the right-hand entry door had been lost. The left-hand door contained numerous bullet holes made by both outgoing and incoming rounds. Texas Trooper Sgt. David Keys testified that he witnessed two men loading what could have been the missing door into a U-Haul van shortly after the siege had ended, but he did not see the object itself. And Michael Caddell, the lead attorney for the Davidians' wrongful death lawsuit explained, "The fact that the left-hand door is in the condition it's in tells you that the right-hand door was not consumed by the fire. It was lost on purpose by somebody." Caddell offered no evidence to support this allegation, which has never been proved. [6]


The fire

Critics suggest that during the final raid the CS gas was injected into the building by armored vehicles in an unsafe manner, which could have started a fire. However, two of the three fires were started well inside the building, away from where the CS gas was pumped in.


Attorney General Reno had specifically directed that no pyrotechnic devices be used in the assault.[10] Between 1993 and 1999, FBI spokesmen denied (even under oath) the use of any sort of pyrotechnic devices during the assault; non-pyrotechnic Flite-Rite CS gas grenades had been found in the rubble immediately following the fire. In 1999, FBI spokesmen were forced to admit that they had used the grenades, however they claimed that these devices, which dispense CS gas through an internal burning process, had been used during an early morning attempt to penetrate a covered, water-filled construction pit 40 yards away,[10] and were not fired into the building itself. According to FBI claims, the fires started approximately three hours after the grenades had been fired.[10] When the FBI's documents were turned over to Congress for an investigation in 1994, the page listing the use of the pyrotechnic devices was missing.[10] The failure for six years to disclose the use of pyrotechnics despite her specific directive led Reno to demand an investigation.[10] A senior FBI official told Newsweek that as many as 100 FBI agents had known about the use of pyrotechnics, but no one spoke up until 1999.[10] The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ...


FBI-released video and audio tapes, and aerial infra-red videotape shot by the FBI, shows flashes of light that some have suggested might be heat signatures consistent with the launching of CS gas grenades moments before the first heat plume of fire appears. Several expert studies concluded that the flashes were caused by reflected infrared radiation and not muzzle blasts.


The FBI has also admitted to using incendiary flares during the stand-off to illuminate areas at night, but claims not to have used illumination flares during the assault, all of which took place during daylight hours.


The Branch Davidians had given ominous warnings involving fire on several occasions.[7] This may or may not be indicative of the Davidians' future actions, but could be construed as evidence that the fire was started by the Davidians.


On May 12, less than a month after the incident, Texas state authorities bulldozed the site, rendering further gathering of forensic evidence impossible. is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Gunfire

Several documentaries[specify] suggest that the FBI fired weapons into the building, which the FBI denies. The main evidence for gunfire is bright flashes in aerial infra-red recordings from Forward looking infrared (FLIR) cameras on government aircraft flying overhead. Edward Allard, a former government specialist on infra-red imagery, submitted an affidavit in which he declared that the video revealed bursts of automatic gunfire coming from government agents. Another independent FLIR expert, Carlos Ghigliotti, also confirms gunfire, when shown the original video kept by government officials. A forward looking infrared (FLIR) system is a camera that takes pictures using the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. ...


International experts hired by the Office of Special Counsel claimed that the flashes were not gunfire because (1) they lasted too long, (2) there were no guns or people on the tapes anywhere near the flashes; and (3) the flashes were consistent with reflections of debris and other materials near the building. Edward Allard commented on the reflection theory, saying that it was impossible for the flashes on the FLIR film to be reflections, because FLIR does not record light, it records heat, and reflections do not produce enough heat to be noticeable on tape. Actually, FLIR records infrared radiation, which can be reflected or absorbed by different materials. Maurice Cox, a former analyst from the US intelligence community, tested the reflection theory using the principles of solar geometry. Cox's Sun Reflection Report concluded that the flashes seen on the FLIR footage could only be from gunfire.


In January, 1999 Mr Cox challenged FBI director Louis Freeh and FBI scientists to dispute his findings. There was no response.


Secondary proof was a summary of a statement made by FBI sniper Charles Riley several weeks after the incident to an FBI investigator. Riley stated that he had heard shots fired from a nearby sniper position, Sierra 1. This sniper team included Lon Horiuchi, who had killed the unarmed Vicki Weaver in the Ruby Ridge incident the preceding August, and Christopher Curran, who had also been at Ruby Ridge. Lon Tomohisa Horiuchi (born June 9, 1954) is a U.S. FBI sniper who became infamous after he was charged with manslaughter following the shootings during the Ruby Ridge standoff. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Ruby Ridge refers to a violent confrontation and siege involving Randy Weaver, his family, Weavers friend Kevin Harris, federal agents from the United States Marshals Service and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. ... Christopher Curran was an FBI sniper who served at both the Ruby Ridge standoff and the siege at Waco. ...


In 1995, when attorneys submitted the summary of Riley's statement as evidence to Judge Smith, the FBI produced an additional interview in which Riley clarified that he had heard the statement "shots fired" from Sierra 1, which meant that agents at Sierra 1 had observed shots being fired at FBI vehicles by the Davidians.


Finally, .308 cartridge cases found at Sierra 1 were examined by ballistics experts hired by the Branch Davidians. They agreed with government experts that the casings matched guns used by the ATF during the first raid on February 28, and the Davidians dropped the Sierra 1 shooting claim from their lawsuit against the government. February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Autopsies

Autopsies of the dead revealed that some women and children found beneath a fallen concrete wall of a storage room died of skull injuries. Photographs taken after the fire show that the M728 CEV that penetrated the building while injecting CS gas did not come close enough to cause the collapse, which was more likely the result of the fire; photographs show signs of spalling on the concrete, which suggests that it was damaged by the intense heat. Some claim that the cooking off of some of the ammunition stored in the bank vault damaged the walls. Post-mortem, postmortem and post mortem redirect here. ... The M728 Combat Engineer Vehicle (CEV) is a combat engineering vehicle of the United States Army, consisting of an M60A1 tank with a dozer blade mounted on the front, and an A-frame crane hinged on each side of the turret. ... Very high speed photography of a small projectile impacting a thin aluminium plate at 7000 m/s. ... Cooking off is when ammunition is set off prematurely due to heat in the surrounding environment. ...


Autopsy photographs of other children locked in what appear to be spasmic death poses have been attributed by some to cyanide poisoning produced by burning CS gas. [7] This article is about the chemical compound. ...


Autopsy records indicate that at least 20 Davidians were shot, including five children under the age of 14, and three-year-old Dayland Gent was stabbed in the chest. The expert retained by the Office of Special Counsel concluded that many of the gunshot wounds "support self-destruction either by overt suicide, consensual execution (suicide by proxy), or less likely, forced execution."[8]


Documentary films and related issues

The Waco siege has been the subject of a number of documentary films. The first of these was a made for television film, In the Line of Duty: Ambush at Waco, which was made before the final assault on the church and essentially promoted the government's view of the initial ambush. This article is about motion pictures. ...


The first film that was critical of the official reports was Waco: The Big Lie, [9] produced by Linda Thompson followed by Waco II: The Big Lie Continues. The Linda Thompson videos were controversial and made a number of allegations, the most famous of which was footage of a tank with what appears to be light reflected from it; Thompson's narration claimed this was a flame-thrower attached to the tank. Thompson's subsequent activities, such as declaring an armed march on Washington, D.C. and her denunciation of many other researchers into the Waco siege as part of a cover-up, limited her credibility in most circles. Other researchers released footage showing the "flame" to have been a reflection on aluminized insulation that was torn from the wall and snagged on the M728 CEV, which is a vehicle that does not come equipped with a flamethrower. In fact, no flamethrowers were in service in the US military at the time or even today. Linda Thompson is an American attorney and the founder of the American Justice Federation. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... The M728 Combat Engineer Vehicle (CEV) is a combat engineering vehicle of the United States Army, consisting of an M60A1 tank with a dozer blade mounted on the front, and an A-frame crane hinged on each side of the turret. ...


Thompson's "creative editing" was exposed by the film Waco: An Apparent Deviation (produced by a group led by Michael McNulty, as the result of a comprehensive investigation by people associated with the Citizens' Organization for Public Safety.)


The next film was Day 51: The True Story of Waco, which featured Ron Cole, a self-proclaimed militia member from Colorado who was later prosecuted for weapons violations. [10] The Linda Thompson and Ron Cole films, along with extensive coverage given to the Branch Davidian siege on some talk radio shows, galvanized support for the Branch Davidians among some sections of the right including the Nascent Militia Movement, while critics on the left also denounced the government siege on civil liberties grounds. Ron David Cole is a former member of the Branch Davidians and a figure in the militia movement in the United States. ... Lebanese Kataeb militia A Militia is an army composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency or paramilitary service, or those engaged in such activity. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... For other uses, see Talk Radio. ... “Right wing” redirects here. ... “Leftism” redirects here. ... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ...


The New Alliance Party produced a report blaming the siege on the influence of the Cult Awareness Network. [11] The New Alliance Party was an American political party formed by psychotherapists Fred Newman and Lenora Fulani. ... Cult Awareness Network - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Timothy McVeigh cited the Waco Siege as a primary motivation for the Oklahoma City bombing and was known to be a fan of both the Linda Thompson and Ron Cole videos. In March 1993, McVeigh drove from Arizona to Waco in order to observe firsthand the federal siege. Along with other protesters, he was photographed by the F.B.I.[17] Timothy James McVeigh (April 23, 1968 – June 11, 2001), commonly referred to as the Oklahoma City bomber, was convicted of eleven federal offenses and ultimately executed as a result of his role on the April 19, 1995, Oklahoma City bombing. ... The Oklahoma City bombing was an attack on April 19, 1995 aimed at the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, a U.S. government office complex in downtown Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. ...


Perhaps because most of the critical views were seen as coming from the political fringes of the right and left, most mainstream media discounted any critical views presented by early documentary films.


This changed when professional film makers Dan Gifford and Amy Sommer produced their Emmy Award winning documentary, Waco: The Rules of Engagement. [12] This film presents a history of the Branch Davidian movement and, most important, a critical examination of the conduct of law enforcement, both leading up to the raid and through the aftermath of the fire. The film features footage of the Congressional hearings on Waco, and juxtaposition of official government spokespeople with footage and evidence often directly contradicting the government spokespeople. The documentary also shows infra-red footage demonstrating that the FBI likely used incendiary devices to start the fire which consumed the building and that the FBI did indeed fire on, and kill, Branch Davidians attempting to flee the fire. An Emmy Award. ...


Subsequent government-funded studies (see for example: a, b, c, d, and e) conclude that the infra-red evidence does not support the view that the FBI improperly used incendiary devices or fired on Branch Davidians. Infra-red experts continue to disagree, and film maker Amy Sommer stands by the original conclusions presented in the Waco: The Rules of Engagement documentary.


Waco: The Rules of Engagement was nominated for a 1997 Academy Award for best documentary and was followed by another film: Waco: A New Revelation. [13] Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ...


America Wake Up (Or Waco) was another film released in 2000 by Alex Jones which documents the 1993 Waco incident with the Branch Davidians. For other persons of the same name, see Alex Jones. ...


The Assault on Waco was released on September 16, 2006 on the Discovery channel, and it details the entire attack on Waco. is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Professor Kenneth Newport's book, "The Branch Davidians of Waco" (2006), claims that starting the fire themselves was consistent with the Branch Davidians' theology.


Inside Waco is an Anglo-American documentary that attempts to show what really happened inside by piecing together accounts from the parties involved. It was produced jointly by Channel 4 and HBO. It aired on More4 in the UK on 1 February 2007 and the 10 February 2007. This article is about the British television station. ... For other uses, see HBO (disambiguation). ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Investigation

By 1999, as a result of certain of the documentaries discussed above, as well as allegations made by advocates for Davidians during litigation, public opinion held that the federal government had engaged in serious misconduct at Waco. A Time magazine poll conducted on August 26, 1999, for example, indicated that 61 percent of the public believed that federal law enforcement officials started the fire at the Branch Davidian complex. In September of that year, Attorney General Janet Reno appointed former United States Senator John C. Danforth as Special Counsel to investigate the matter. In particular, the Special Counsel was directed to investigate charges that government agents started or spread the fire at the Mt. Carmel complex, directed gunfire at the Branch Davidians, and unlawfully employed the armed forces of the United States. is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Janet Reno (born July 21, 1938) was the first female Attorney General of the United States (1993–2001). ... John Claggett Danforth (born September 5, 1936), also referred to as Jack Danforth, is a former United States Ambassador to the United Nations and former United States Senator from Missouri. ... The Office of Special Counsel in the United States Department of Justice (DOJ) replaces the former Office of the Independent Counsel. ...


A yearlong investigation ensued, during which the Office of the Special Counsel interviewed 1,001 witnesses, reviewed over 2.3 million pages of documents, and examined thousands of pounds of physical evidence. In his final report of November 8, 2000, Special Counsel Danforth concluded that the allegations were meritless. The report found, however, that certain government employees had failed to disclose during litigation against the Davidians the use of pyrotechnic devices at the complex, and had obstructed the Special Counsel’s investigation. Disciplinary action was pursued against those individuals. is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ...


Allegations that the government started the fire were based largely on an FBI agent’s having fired three “pyrotechnic” tear gas rounds, which are delivered with a charge that burns. The Special Counsel concluded that, because the FBI fired the rounds nearly four hours before the fire started, at a concrete construction pit partially filled with water, 75 feet away and downwind from the main living quarters of the complex, the rounds did not start or contribute to the spread of the fire. The Special Counsel noted, by contrast, that recorded interceptions of Davidian conversations included such statements as “David said we have to get the fuel on” and “So we light it first when they come in with the tank right . . . right as they’re coming in.” Davidians who survived the fire acknowledged that other Davidians started the fire. FBI agents witnessed Davidians pouring fuel and igniting a fire, and noted these observations contemporaneously. Lab analysis found accelerants on the clothing of Davidians, and investigators found deliberately punctured fuel cans and a homemade torch at the site. Based on this evidence and testimony, the Special Counsel concluded that the fire was started by the Davidians.


Charges that government agents fired shots into the complex on April 19, 1993, were based on Forward Looking Infrared (“FLIR”) video recorded by FBI Nightstalker aircraft. These tapes showed 57 flashes, with some occurring around government vehicles that were operating near the complex. The Office of Special Counsel conducted a field test of FLIR technology on March 19, 2000, to determine whether gunfire caused the flashes. The testing was conducted under a protocol agreed to and signed by attorneys and experts for the Davidians and their families, as well as for the government. Analysis of the shape, duration, and location of the flashes indicated that they resulted from a reflection off debris on or around the complex, rather than gunfire. Additionally, independent expert review of photography taken at the scene showed no people at or near the points from which the flashes emanated. Interviews of Davidians, government witnesses, filmmakers, writers, and advocates for the Davidians found that none had witnessed any government gunfire on April 19. Finally, none of the Davidians who died on that day displayed evidence of having been struck by a high velocity round, as would be expected had they been shot from outside of the complex by government sniper rifles or other assault weapons. In view of this evidence, the Special Counsel concluded that the claim that government gunfire occurred on April 19, 1993, amounted to “an unsupportable case based entirely upon flawed technological assumptions.” is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... A forward looking infrared (FLIR) system is a camera that takes pictures using the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...


The Special Counsel considered whether the use of active duty military at Waco violated the Posse Comitatus Act or the Military Assistance to Law Enforcement Act. These statutes generally prohibit direct military participation in law enforcement functions, but do not preclude indirect support such as loaning equipment, training in the use of equipment, offering expert advice, and providing equipment maintenance. The Special Counsel noted that the military provided “extensive” loans of equipment to the ATF and FBI including, among other things, two tanks the offensive capability of which had been disabled. Additionally, the military provided more limited advice, training, and medical support. The Special Counsel concluded that these actions amounted to indirect military assistance within the bounds of applicable law. The Texas National Guard, in its state status, also provided substantial loans of military equipment, as well as performing reconnaissance flights over the Davidian complex. Because the Posse Comitatus Act does not apply to the National Guard in its state status, the Special Counsel determined that the National Guard lawfully provided its assistance. The Posse Comitatus Act is a United States federal law (18 U.S.C. Â§ 1385) passed on June 16, 1878 after the end of Reconstruction. ... The United States National Guard is a reserve forces component of the United States Army (the Army National Guard) and the United States Air Force (the Air National Guard). ...


See also

This article is becoming very long. ... Ruby Ridge refers to a violent confrontation and siege involving Randy Weaver, his family, Weavers friend Kevin Harris, federal agents from the United States Marshals Service and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. ... A militia is a group of citizens organized to provide paramilitary service. ... Edward Lewis Brown (born 1942) and his wife, Elaine Alice Brown (born c. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d [Psychotherapy Networker, March/April 2007, "Stairway to Heaven; Treating children in the crosshairs of trauma". Excerpt from the book The Boy Who Was Raised as a Dog by Bruce Perry and Maia Szalavitz.
  2. ^ , Ten years after Waco, People Weekly, 2003-04-28.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Neil Rawles. Inside Waco [Television documentary]. Channel 4/HBO.
  4. ^ Carol Moore, "The Massacre Of The Branch Davidians—A Study Of Government Violations Of Rights, Excessive Force And Cover Up", 1994 published by Gun Owners of America
  5. ^ http://www.time.com/time/daily/newsfiles/waco/101193.html Time.com, Tripped Up By Lies: A report paints a devastating portrait of ATF's Waco planning -- or, rather, the lack of it, October 11, 1993
  6. ^ Eric Christensen, Reno's halfway house, [[{{{publisher}}}]], 2001-06-18.
  7. ^ a b c William Gazecki. Waco - The Rules of Engagement [Film documentary]. New Yorker Video.
  8. ^ Testimony to the Subcommitee on National Security et al, loc cite. Congressional Record, July, 1995
  9. ^ a b U.S. ignores religion's fringes. 'USA Today' (2001-10-04).
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Daniel Klaidman & Michael Isikoff, A fire that won't die, Newsweek, 1999-07-20.
  11. ^ Brady Campaign "Selling High Powered Military Weapons in the Suburbs" http://www.bradycampaign.org/facts/issues/?page=50cal#13
  12. ^ VPC Criminal Use of the .50 Caliber Sniper Rifle http://www.vpc.org/snipercrime.htm
  13. ^ US Treasury Department July 13, 1995 Memorandum to the Press "Weapons Possessed by the Branch Davidians" http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/waco/treasury.html
  14. ^ Office of Special Investigations, U.S. General Accounting Office, Briefing Paper: Criminal Activity Associated with .50 Caliber Semiautomatic Rifles, Number, presented to GAO/OSI-99-15R of the U.S. House Committee on Government Reform, 15 July 1999 Page 5 http://archive.gao.gov/f0502/162586.pdf
  15. ^ House investigators determined that "someone" at BATF lied to the military about the Davidians being involved with drugs in order to get U.S. Army Special Forces and other military aid, in violation of the Posse Comitatus Act. Subcommittee on National Security, International Affairs, and Criminal Justice of the Committee on Government Reform and Oversight and the Subcommittee on Crime of the Committee on the Judiciary at the Oversight Hearings on Federal Law Enforcement Conduct in Relation to the Branch Davidian Compound near Waco, Texas, and appended documents, Congressional Record, July, 1995
  16. ^ The conversation is replayed in full, and undisputed by the FBI, on the documentary "Waco:The Rules of Engagement" [1]
  17. ^ Vidal, Gore (2001), "The Meaning of Timothy McVeigh", Vanity Fair (no. September), <http://www.isebrand.com/Gore_Vidal_McVeigh_2001.htm>

People is a weekly American magazine of celebrity and human interest stories, published by Time Inc. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Carol Moore is an ethicist and systems theorist best known for her theories of secession and her analysis of Mahatma Gandhis methods as an intuitive systems theorist. She is considered an influential critic of globalization; Although not widely read or followed in the protest-oriented wing of the anti_globalization... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Gun Owners of America is the second largest gun rights organization in America. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The Posse Comitatus Act is a United States federal law (18 U.S.C. Â§ 1385) passed on June 16, 1878 after the end of Reconstruction. ... Eugene Luther Gore Vidal (born October 3, 1925) (pronounced and , ) is an American author of novels, stage plays, screenplays, and essays, and the scion of a prominent political family. ...

Bibliography

  • Anthony, D. and T. Robbins (1997). "Religious totalism, exemplary dualism and the Waco tragedy." In Robbins and Palmer 1997, 261–284.
  • Christopher Whitcomb. Cold Zero: Inside the FBI Hostage Rescue Team. ISBN 0-552-14788-5. (Also covers Ruby Ridge.)
  • Docherty, Jayne Seminare. Learning Lessons From Waco: When the Parties Bring Their Gods to the Negotiation Table (Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 2001). ISBN 0-8156-2751-3
  • Heymann, Philip B. (U.S. Department of Justice). Lessons of Waco: Proposed Changes in Federal Law Enforcement (Washington: USDOJ, 1993). ISBN 0-16-042977-3
  • Kerstetter, Todd. "'That's Just the American Way': The Branch Davidian Tragedy and Western Religious History", Western Historical Quarterly, Vol. 35, No. 4, Winter 2004.
  • Kopel, David B. and Paul H. Blackman. No More Wacos: What’s Wrong With Federal Law Enforcement and How to Fix It (Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books, 1997). ISBN 1-57392-125-4
  • Lewis, James R. (ed.). From the Ashes: Making Sense of Waco (Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 1994). ISBN 0-8476-7915-2 (cloth) ISBN 0-8476-7914-4 (paper)
  • Linedecker, Clifford L. Massacre at Waco, Texas: The Shocking Story of Cult Leader David Koresh and the Branch Davidians (New York: St. Martin’s Paperbacks, 1993). ISBN 0-312-95226-0
  • Lynch, Timothy. No Confidence: An Unofficial Account of the Waco Incident (Washington: Cato Institute, 2001).
  • Moore, Carol. The Davidian Massacre: Disturbing Questions Abut Waco Which Must Be Answered." (Virginia: Gun Owners Foundation, 1995). ISBN 1-880692-22-8
  • Newport, Kenneth G. C. "The Branch Davidians of Waco: The History and Beliefs of an Apocalyptic Sect" (Oxford University Press, 2006). ISBN 0199245746
  • Reavis, Dick J. The Ashes of Waco: An Investigation (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995). ISBN 0-684-81132-4
  • Tabor, James D. and Eugene V. Gallagher. Why Waco?: Cults and the Battle for Religious Freedom in America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995). ISBN 0-520-20186-8
  • Thibodeau, David and Leon Whiteson. A Place Called Waco: A Survivor's Story (New York: PublicAffairs, 1999). ISBN 1-891620-42-8
  • Wright, Stuart A. (ed.). Armageddon in Waco: Critical Perspectives on the Branch Davidian Conflict (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995).

Ruby Ridge refers to a violent confrontation and siege involving Randy Weaver, his family, Weavers friend Kevin Harris, federal agents from the United States Marshals Service and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. ...

Legal and governmental

  • United States v. Branch, W.D. Texas Criminal Case No. 6:93cr46, trial transcript 1/10/94 - 2/26/94; 91 F.3d 699 (5th Cir. 1996)
  • United States v. Castillo, 179 F.3d 321 (1999); Castillo v. United States, 120 S.Ct. 2090 (2000); on remand, 220 F.3d 648 (5th Cir. 2000)
  • Andrade v. United States, W.D. Texas Civil Action No. W-96-CA-139, trial transcript 6/19/2000 - 7/14/2000; 116 F.Supp.2d 778 (W.D. Tex. 2000)
  • Andrade v. Chojnacki, 338 F.3d 448 (5th Cir. 2003)
  • United States Department of Justice. Recommendations of Experts for Improvements in Federal Law Enforcement After Waco (Washington: USDOJ, 1993). ISBN 0-16-042974-9
  • Ammerman, Nancy T. (1993). "Report to the Justice and Treasury Departments regarding law enforcement interaction with the Branch Davidians in Waco, Texas." Submitted September 3, 1993. Recommendations of Experts for Improvements in Federal Law Enforcement After Waco. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice and U.S. Department of the Treasury. Online
  • Stone, Alan A. (1993). "Report and Recommendations Concerning the Handling of Incidents Such As the Branch Davidian Standoff in Waco Texas." Submitted November 10, 1993. Recommendations of Experts for Improvements in Federal Law Enforcement After Waco. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice and U.S. Online.
  • Final Report to the Deputy Attorney General concening the 1993 confrontation at the Mt. Carmel Complex, Waco, Texas, John C. Danforth, Special Council (November 8, 2000)
  • Committee on the Judiciary (in conjunction with the Committee on Government Reform and Oversight, House of Representatives, 104th Congress, Second Session. Materials Relating to the Investigation Into the Activities of Federal Law Enforcement Agencies Toward the Branch Davidians (Washington: USGPO, 1997). ISBN 0-16-055211-7 Online.
  • Texas Department of Public Safety, Texas Rangers Branch Davidian Evidence Reports
  • Sept 1999 http://www.txdps.state.tx.us/director_staff/public_information/branch_davidian/index.htm
  • Jan 2000 Part 1 http://www.txdps.state.tx.us/director_staff/public_information/Branch_Davidian_2/BD%20part1.pdf
  • Jan 2000 Part 2 http://www.txdps.state.tx.us/director_staff/public_information/Branch_Davidian_2/BD%20part2.pdf
  • Jan 2000 Part 3 http://www.txdps.state.tx.us/director_staff/public_information/Branch_Davidian_2/BD%20part3.pdf
  • Jan 2000 Part 4 http://www.txdps.state.tx.us/director_staff/public_information/Branch_Davidian_2/BD%20part4.pdf

Coordinates: 31°35′45″N, 96°59′17″W is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Branch Davidian - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1822 words)
They are best known for the 1993 siege of their Mount Carmel Center near Waco, Texas, by the BATF and the FBI, which resulted in the deaths of eighty-two of the church's members, including head figure David Koresh.
The group established a settlement outside of Waco, Texas, on the property previously occupied by the Davidian group.
In 1977, Benjamin Roden's wife Lois claimed to have a message of her own, one element of which was that the Holy Spirit is feminine in gender, causing much controversy in the group.
Waco Siege - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5104 words)
The FBI took command of the scene soon after the initial raid, placing FBI SAC of San Antonio Jeff Jamar in charge of the siege, and the tactical team was headed by Richard Rogers, whose actions at the Ruby Ridge incident had been criticized earlier.
Timothy McVeigh cited the Waco siege as a primary motivation for the Oklahoma City bombing and was known to be a fan of both the Linda Thompson and Ron Cole videos.
Waco: The Rules of Engagement was nominated for a 1997 Academy Award for best documentary and was followed by another film: Waco: A New Revelation [14].
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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