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Encyclopedia > WDC 65C02
WDC 65C02 Microprocessor
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WDC 65C02 Microprocessor

Contents

Image File history File links W65c02s8p-14_lg. ... Image File history File links W65c02s8p-14_lg. ...


Introduction

The W65C02S is a low power, cost effective 8-bit microprocessor. It is a fully static core which allows the primary clock (PHI2) to be slowed down indefinitely or fully stopped in either the high or low state. The variable length instruction set and manually optimized core size make the W65C02S an excellent choice for low power System-on-Chip (SoC) designs.


The Verilog RTL model is available for ASIC design flows. To aid in system development, WDC also provides a Development System that includes a W65C02DB Developer Board, an In-Circuit Emulator (ICE) and the W65CSDS Software Development System.


Features of the W65C02S

8-bit data bus 8-bit ALU, Accumulator, Stack Pointer, Index Registers, Processor Status Register 16-bit Program Counter 69 instructions 16 addressing modes 212 Operation Codes (OpCodes) Wide operating voltage range (Specified at 1.8, 2.5, 3.0, 3.3, 5.0 v +/- 5%) Low Power consumption, 150uA@1MHz 16-bit address bus provides access to 65,536 bytes of memory space Vector Pull (VPB) output indicates when interrupt vectors are being addressed WAit-for-Interrupt (WAI) and SToP (STP) instructions reduce power consumption, decrease interrupt latency and enable synchronization with external events Variable length instruction set enables smaller code optimization over fixed length instruction set processors. This results in low power as well Fully static circuitry allows stopping the clock to conserve power


W65C02S Datasheet

Complete W65C02S Datasheet is available for downloading


The WDC 65C02 8-bit CPU is an upgraded CMOS version of the popular MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor, the redesign being made by Bill Mensch of the Western Design Center (WDC). The 65C02 was second-sourced by NCR, GTE, Rockwell, Synertek and Sanyo. 8-bit refers to the number of bits used in the data bus of a computer. ... Intel 80486DX2 microprocessor in a ceramic PGA package A central processing unit (CPU), or sometimes simply processor, is the component in a digital computer that interprets instructions and processes data contained in software. ... Static CMOS Inverter CMOS (pronounced see-moss), which stands for complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor, is a major class of integrated circuits. ... The MOS Technology 6502 is an 8-bit microprocessor designed by MOS Technology in 1975. ... Microprocessors, including an Intel 80486DX2 and an Intel 80386. ... William D. Mensch is the inventor of the 65C02, and W65816 derivatives of the famous MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor, and head of the Western Design Center. ... If you were looking for the Western Digital Corporation, see Western Digital. ... NCR Corporation is a technology company, specialising in solutions for the retail, and financial industries, as well as decision support systems. ... Verizon Communications (NYSE: VZ) is a major telecom company based in New York City. ... Rockwell International was the ultimate incarnation of a series of companies under the sphere of influence of Willard Rockwell, who had made his fortune after the invention and successful launch of a new bearing system for truck axles in 1919. ... Sanyo Electric Co. ...


Comparison with the 6502

The 65C02 shared its predecessor's 8-bit instruction set architecture and 16-bit memory addressing, but added a small number of documented opcodes, did away with illegal opcodes, and, significantly, fixed the irksome "indirect jump page wrap bug" that caused fits for so many budding assembly language programmers. 8-bit refers to the number of bits used in the data bus of a computer. ... An instruction set, or instruction set architecture (ISA), describes the aspects of a computer architecture visible to a programmer, including the native datatypes, instructions, registers, addressing modes, memory architecture, interrupt and exception handling, and external I/O (if any). ... In computer science, 16-bit is an adjective used to describe integers that are at most two bytes wide, or to describe CPU architectures based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. ... Microprocessors perform operations using binary bits (on/off/1or0). ... An Illegal Opcode, also called an Undocumented Instruction, is an instruction to a CPU that is not mentioned in any official documentation released by the CPUs designer or manufacturer, which nevertheless has an effect. ... A computer bug is an error, flaw, mistake, failure, or fault in a computer program that prevents it from working as intended, or produces an incorrect result. ... Assembly language commonly called assembly or asm, is a human-readable notation for the machine language that a specific computer architecture uses. ... A programmer or software developer is someone who programs computers, i. ...


Another problem with the 6502, fixed in the 65C02, relates to its program status register, which contains eight system flags. Some flags are set or reset under program control. Others reflect the status of the machine after mathematical instructions:

  • N Negative sign flag
  • V Overflow flag
  • 1 Always 1
  • B Break flag, set by the BRK instruction
  • D Decimal mode flag
  • I IRQ disable flag
  • Z Zero flag
  • C Carry Flag

In the 6502 the decimal flag (D) was not initialised during a reset. This meant it would be in an unpredictable state after a reset, and could lead to arbitrary behaviour. This forced programmers to use CLD instructions after resets on all 6502 programs.


The 65SC02 was also available, which was a 65C02 with the individual bit manipulation operations removed (i.e. TRB, TSB, RMB, SMB, BBR and BBS).


Notable uses of the 65C02

Acorn Computers Ltd. ... A BBC Master 128 with monitor and disk drives. ... Apple Computer, Inc. ... The 1977 Apple II, complete with integrated keyboard, color high-resolution graphics, sound, a sleek plastic case, and eight expansion slots. ... The 1977 Apple II, complete with integrated keyboard, color high-resolution graphics, sound, a sleek plastic case, and eight expansion slots. ... For the concept Atari (当たり) in the board game of Go, see Atari (go term). ... The Atari Lynx is Ataris only handheld game console, and the first such machine with a color display. ... NEC Corporation (Jp. ... The PC Engine was a video game console released by NEC, a Japanese company, in 1987. ... For the hip hop group, see Commodore 64 (band). ... MegaHertz (MHz) is the name given to one million (106) Hertz, a measure of frequency. ... The GameKing 8-bit handheld game console has been made by the Chinese company TimeTop since 2003. ...

External links

  • The W65C02S featured on 65xx.com


65xx-series CPUs from MOS Technology, second source/clone vendors, and the Western Design Center

MOS 4510MOS 6501MOS 6502WDC 65C02Hudson HuC6280 ● Ricoh 2A03 ● MOS 6507MOS 6508MOS 6509
MOS 6510 (and 7501, 8500, 8501) ● MOS 8502WDC 65802WDC 65816Ricoh 5A22 ● Nintendo SA-1 Image File history File links MOS_Technology. ... Image File history File links WDClogo_small. ... MOS Technology 65xx is a family of 8-bit microprocessors from MOS Technology, based on the Motorola 6800 (introduced ca. ... Intel 80486DX2 microprocessor in a ceramic PGA package A central processing unit (CPU), or sometimes simply processor, is the component in a digital computer that interprets instructions and processes data contained in software. ... MOS Technology, Inc. ... If you were looking for the Western Digital Corporation, see Western Digital. ... The MOS Technology 4510 was the MOS-manufactured microcomputer chip used in the (unreleased) Commodore 65 8-bit home/personal computer. ... The 6501 is an eight-bit microprocessor, the first sold by MOS Technology. ... The MOS Technology 6502 is an 8-bit microprocessor designed by MOS Technology in 1975. ... The HuC6280 8-bit microprocessor is Japanese company Hudson Softs improved version of the WDC 65C02 CPU. The most notable product using the HuC6280 is NECs TurboGrafx 16 video game console. ... The 6507 is an 8-bit microprocessor from MOS Technology, Inc. ... The MOS Technology 6508 was an 8-bit microprocessor designed by MOS Technology. ... The MOS Technology 6509 was an enhanced version of the popular 6502 microprocessor, capable of addressing up to 1 megabyte of RAM via bank switching. ... The MOS Technology 6510, also known as MOS Technology / Commodore Semiconductor Group (CSG) 8500, is a microprocessor designed by MOS Technology, and is a direct successor of the very successful 6502. ... The MOS Technology 8502 was MOSs microprocessor used as one of the two¹ CPUs in the Commodore 128 home/personal computer. ... The WDC 65816 (also: 65C816), a 16-bit microprocessor CPU developed by the Western Design Center (WDC), is an expanded and compatible successor to the venerable MOS Technology 6502. ... The WDC 65816 (also: 65C816), a 16-bit microprocessor CPU developed by the Western Design Center (WDC), is an expanded and compatible successor to the venerable MOS Technology 6502. ... The Ricoh 5A22 is the microprocessor CPU produced by Ricoh for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES) video game console. ... The Nintendo SA-1 is a microprocessor developed by Nintendo for use in Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES) game cartridges. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
WDC 65C02 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (425 words)
The WDC 65C02 8-bit CPU is an upgraded CMOS version of the popular MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor, the redesign being made by Bill Mensch of the Western Design Center (WDC).
The 65C02 was second-sourced by NCR, GTE, Rockwell, Synertek and Sanyo.
The 65C02 shared its predecessor's 8-bit instruction set architecture and 16-bit memory addressing, but added a small number of documented opcodes, did away with illegal opcodes, and, significantly, fixed the irksome "indirect jump page wrap bug" that caused fits for so many budding assembly language programmers.
WDC 65816/65802 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (606 words)
The WDC 65816 (also: 65C816), a 16-bit microprocessor CPU developed by the Western Design Center (WDC), is an expanded and compatible successor to the venerable MOS Technology 6502.
As of 2006 it is still sold by WDC, and is also used as a CPU core in some systems, such as Winbond's W55V9x series of TV Edutainment ICs.
The 65802 was produced by WDC and GTE during the mid-to-late 1980s and early 1990s.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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