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Encyclopedia > WASP
Wasp
Ophion luteus (Ichneumonidae)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Suborder

Apocrita
See text for explanation. A wasp is any insect in the order Hymenoptera that is not a bee or an ant. ... Subfamilies Lycorininae Orthopelmatinae Orthocentrinae Tersilochinae Microleptinae Mesochorinae Xoridinae Acaenitinae Ophioninae Anomaloninae Cremastinae Porizontinae Diplazontinae Metopiinae Scolobatinae Tryphoninae Banchinae Ephialtinae (=Pimplinae) Gelinae (=Crytinae) Ichneumoninae The Ichneumonidae is a family of the Ichneumonoidea Categories: Insect stubs ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Suborders Apocrita Symphyta Hymenoptera is one of the larger orders of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees, and ants. ... Superfamilies Apoidea Ceraphronoidea Chalcidoidea Chrysidoidea Cynipoidea Evanioidea Ichneumonoidea Megalyroidea Proctotrupoidea Sphecoidea Stephanoidea Triganalyoidea Vespoidea Many families, see article Apocrita is a suborder of insects in the order Hymenoptera. ...

The term wasp is typically defined as any insect of the order Hymenoptera and suborder Apocrita that is neither a bee nor ant[1]. Almost every pest insect species has at least one wasp species that preys upon it or parasitizes it, making wasps critically important in natural control of their numbers, or natural biocontrol. Parasitic wasps are increasingly used in agricultural pest control as they prey mostly on pest insects and have little impact on crops. Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Suborders Apocrita Symphyta Hymenoptera is one of the larger orders of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees, and ants. ... Superfamilies Apoidea Ceraphronoidea Chalcidoidea Chrysidoidea Cynipoidea Evanioidea Ichneumonoidea Megalyroidea Proctotrupoidea Sphecoidea Stephanoidea Triganalyoidea Vespoidea Many families, see article Apocrita is a suborder of insects in the order Hymenoptera. ... For other uses, see Western honey bee and Bee (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ant (disambiguation). ... Biological control of pests and diseases Overview A key belief of the organic gardener is that diversity furthers health. ... The term parasitic wasp refers to a large, artificial assemblage of Hymenopteran superfamilies which are primarily parasitoids of other animals, mostly other arthropods. ... A crop duster applies low-insecticide bait that is targeted against Western corn rootworms Pest control refers to the regulation or management of another species defined as a pest, usually because it is believed to be detrimental to a persons health, the ecology or the economy Pest control is...

Contents

Taxonomy

Wasp stinger, with droplet of venom

The majority of wasp species (well over 100,000 species) are "parasitic" (technically known as parasitoids), and the ovipositor is used simply to lay eggs, often directly into the body of the host. The most familiar wasps belong to Aculeata, a division of Apocrita, whose ovipositors are adapted into a venomous sting, though a great many aculeate species do not sting. Aculeata also contains ants and bees, and many wasps are commonly mistaken for bees, and vice-versa. In a similar respect, insects called "velvet ants" (the family Mutillidae) are technically wasps. It has been suggested that sting (biology) be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Snake poison be merged into this article or section. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The name Aculeata is used to refer to a monophyletic lineage of Hymenoptera. ... Wasp sting, with droplet of venom Venom (literally, poison of animal origin) is any of a variety of toxins used by animals, for the purpose of defense and hunting. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Venom. ... Subfamilies Mutillinae Myrmillinae Myrmosinae Pseudophotopsidinae Rhopalomutillinae Sphaeropthalminae Ticoplinae Mutillidae or velvet ants, also known as cow killers, are not actually ants but a type of wasp. ...


The suborder Symphyta, known commonly as sawflies, differ from members of Apocrita by lacking a sting, and having a broader connection between the mesosoma and metasoma. In addition to this, Symphyta larvae are mostly herbivorous and "caterpillarlike", whereas those of Apocrita are largely predatory or parasitoids. Families (Cephoidea)   Cephidae-stem sawflies (Megalodontoidea)   Megalodontidae   Pamphilidae-leaf-rolling      & web-spinning sawflies (Orussoidea)   Orussidae-parasitic wood wasps (Siricoidea)   Siricidae- horntails (Tenthredinoidea)   Argidae-argid sawflies   Blasticotomidae   Cimbicidae-cimbicid sawflies   Diprionidae-conifer sawflies   Pergidae-pergid sawflies   Tenthredinidae-common sawflies (Xyeloidea)   Anaxyelidae-cedar sawflies   Xyelidae-xyelid sawflies   Xiphydriidae-wood wasps Symphyta is... Superfamilies and families Superfamily Cephoidea    Family Cephidae (stem sawflies) Superfamily Megalodontoidea    Family Megalodontesidae    Family Pamphiliidae (leaf-rolling & web-spinning sawflies) Superfamily Orussoidea    Family Orussidae (parasitic wood wasps) Superfamily Siricoidea    Family Anaxyelidae (cedar wood wasps)    Family Siricidae (horntails) Superfamily Tenthredinoidea    Family Argidae (argid sawflies)    Family Blasticotomidae (fern sawflies)    Family Cimbicidae (cimbicid... Scorpion anatomy: 1 = Prosoma; 2 = Mesosoma; 3 = Metasoma The mesosoma is clearly visible on this ant: it is the midlle section, in between the head and the petiole The mesosoma is the middle part of the body, or tagma, of arthropods whose body is composed of three parts, the other... Scorpion anatomy: 1 = Prosoma; 2 = Mesosoma; 3 = Metasoma The metasoma is clearly visible on this ant: it is the posterior section, including the petiole The metasoma is the posterior part of the body, or tagma, of arthropods whose body is composed of three parts, the other two being the prosoma... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage Herbivores are animals that are adapted to eat plants. ... For other uses, see Caterpillar (disambiguation). ... Predator and Prey redirect here. ...


A much narrower and simpler but popular definition of the term wasp is any member of the aculeate family Vespidae, which includes (among others) the genera known in North America as yellowjackets (Vespula and Dolichovespula) and hornets (Vespa); in many countries outside of the Western Hemisphere, the vernacular usage of wasp is even further restricted to apply strictly to yellowjackets (e.g., the "common wasp"). Genera The vespids are a family of wasps, including all social wasps and some solitary wasps. ... North American redirects here. ... Yellowjacket or yellow-jacket is the common name in North America for wasps of the genera Vespula and Dolichovespula. ... This article refers collectively to all true hornets. ... The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... Yellowjacket or yellow-jacket is the common name in North America for wasps of the genera Vespula and Dolichovespula. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The common wasp (Vespula vulgaris) is a wasp found in much of the Northern Hemisphere, and introduced to Australia and New Zealand. ...

Categorization

The various species of wasps fall into one of two main categories: solitary wasps and social wasps. Adult solitary wasps generally live and operate alone, and most do not construct nests (below); all adult solitary wasps are fertile. By contrast, social wasps exist in colonies numbering up to several thousand strong and build nests—but in some cases not all of the colony can reproduce. In the more advanced species, just the wasp queen and male wasps can mate, whilst the majority of the colony is made up of sterile female workers. For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ...

Characteristics

Spider Hunting Wasp, heterodotonyx bicolor, and prey
Wings Antenna Thorax Leg Head Stinger Abdomen Female Yellowjacket
The basic morphology of a female Yellowjacket wasp

The following characteristics are present in most wasps:

Wasps are critically important in natural biocontrol. Almost every pest insect species has at least one wasp species that is a predator or parasite upon it. Parasitic wasps are also increasingly used in agricultural pest control. Wasps also constitute an important part of the food chain. Wing structure of a dragonfly (family Gomphidae) Insect wings are outgrowths of the insect exoskeleton that enable insects to fly. ... Subfamilies Mutillinae Myrmillinae Myrmosinae Pseudophotopsidinae Rhopalomutillinae Sphaeropthalminae Ticoplinae Mutillidae or velvet ants, also known as cow killers, are not actually ants but a type of wasp. ... Genera Many, see text. ... Subfamilies Lycorininae Orthopelmatinae Orthocentrinae Tersilochinae Microleptinae Mesochorinae Xoridinae Acaenitinae Ophioninae Anomaloninae Cremastinae Porizontinae Diplazontinae Metopiinae Scolobatinae Tryphoninae Banchinae Ephialtinae (=Pimplinae) Gelinae (=Crytinae) Ichneumoninae The Ichneumonidae is a family of the Ichneumonoidea Categories: Insect stubs ... Subfamilies Adeliinae Agathidinae Alysiinae Amicrocentrinae Aphidiinae Apozyginae Betylobraconinae Blacinae Braconinae Cardiochilinae Cenocoeliinae Cheloninae Dirrhopinae Doryctinae Ecnomiinae Euphorinae Exothecinae Gnamptodontinae Helconinae Histeromerinae Homolobinae Hormiinae Khoikhoiiinae Ichneutinae Macrocentrinae Masoninae Mendesellinae Mesostoinae Meteorideinae Meteorinae Microgastrinae Microtypinae Miracinae Neoneurinae Opiinae Orgilinae Pselaphaninae Rhyssalinae Rogadinae Sigalphinae Telengaiinae Trachypetinae Vaepellinae Ypsistocerinae Xiphozelinae Braconidae is a family... Genera Diamma Myzinum Tiphia (etc. ... Subfamilies Scelioninae Teleasinae Telenominae The Hymenopteran family Scelionidae is a very large cosmopolitan group (over 3000 described species in some 160 genera) of exclusively parasitoid wasps, mostly small (0. ... Rhopalosomatidae is an odd family of hymenoptera Categories: Insect stubs ... Diversity 3 subfamilies c. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that sting (biology) be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the body feature. ... Subfamilies Scoliinae Proscoliinae Scoliidae, the Scoliid wasps, are represented by 20 genera and about the same number of species in North America. ... Predator and Prey redirect here. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Genera many (35 in North America)   Spider wasps, also called pompilid wasps or spider-hunting wasps, are insects belonging to a diverse family named Pompilidae, of the order Hymenoptera. ... Genera Pepsis Hemipepsis The tarantula hawk is the common name for species in the genera Pepsis and Hemipepsis of the family Pompilidae, in the insect Order Hymenoptera. ... For other uses, see Spider (disambiguation). ... The term parasitic wasp refers to a large, artificial assemblage of Hymenopteran superfamilies which are primarily parasitoids of other animals, mostly other arthropods. ... Biological control of pests and diseases Overview A key belief of the organic gardener is that diversity furthers health. ... A crop duster applies low-insecticide bait that is targeted against Western corn rootworms Pest control refers to the regulation or management of another species defined as a pest, usually because it is believed to be detrimental to a persons health, the ecology or the economy Pest control is... Food chains, food webs and/or food networks describe the feeding relationships between species to another within an ecosystem. ...

Biology

Genetics

In wasps, as in other Hymenoptera, sexes are significantly genetically different. Females have a diploid (2n) number of chromosomes and come about from fertilized eggs. Males, in contrast, have a haploid (n) number of chromosomes and develop from an unfertilized egg. Wasps store sperm inside their body and control its release for each individual egg as it is laid; if a female wishes to produce a male egg, she simply lays the egg without fertilizing it. Therefore, under most conditions in most species, wasps have complete voluntary control over the sex of their offspring. Suborders Apocrita Symphyta Hymenoptera is one of the larger orders of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees, and ants. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Diploid (meaning double in Greek) cells have two copies (homologs) of each chromosome (both sex- and non-sex determining chromosomes), usually one from the mother and one from the father. ... For information about chromosomes in genetic algorithms, see chromosome (genetic algorithm). ... Haploid (meaning simple in Greek) cells have only one copy of each chromosome. ...

Anatomy and gender

Wasp ocelli (simple eyes) and dorsal part of the compound eyes; also showing fine, unbranched hairs

Anatomically, there is a great deal of variation between different types of wasp. Like all insects, wasps have a hard exoskeleton covering their three main body parts. These parts are known as the head, mesosoma and metasoma. Wasps also have a constricted region joining the first and second segments of the abdomen (the first segment is part of the mesosoma, the second is part of the metasoma) known as the petiole. Like all insects, wasps have three sets of two legs. In addition to their compound eyes, wasps also have several simple eyes known as ocelli. These are typically arranged in a triangular formation just forward of an area of the head known as the vertex. An ocellus (plural: ocelli) is a type of photoreceptor organ in animals. ... In anatomy, the dorsum is the upper or back side of an animal, as opposed to the ventrum. ... Compound eye of a dragonfly A compound eye is a visual organ found in arthropods such as insects and crustaceans. ... An exoskeleton is an external anatomical feature that supports and protects an animals body, in contrast to the internal endoskeleton of, for example, a human. ... For other uses, see Head (disambiguation). ... Scorpion anatomy: 1 = Prosoma; 2 = Mesosoma; 3 = Metasoma The mesosoma is clearly visible on this ant: it is the midlle section, in between the head and the petiole The mesosoma is the middle part of the body, or tagma, of arthropods whose body is composed of three parts, the other... Scorpion anatomy: 1 = Prosoma; 2 = Mesosoma; 3 = Metasoma The metasoma is clearly visible on this ant: it is the posterior section, including the petiole The metasoma is the posterior part of the body, or tagma, of arthropods whose body is composed of three parts, the other two being the prosoma... The petiole of this ant consists of two segments In entomology, the term petiole is most commonly used to refer to the constricted first (and sometimes second) metasomal segment of members of the Hymenopteran suborder Apocrita; it may be used to refer to other insects with similar body shapes, where... Compound eye of a dragonfly A compound eye is a visual organ found in certain arthropods (some insects and crustaceans). ... Ocelli is one of the types of photoreceptor organs in animals. ... In arthropod and vertebrate anatomy, the vertex (or cranial vertex) refers to the upper surface of the head. ...


It is possible to distinguish between genders of some wasp species based on the number of divisions on their antennae. Male yellowjacket wasps, for example, have 13 divisions per antenna, while females have 12. Males can in some cases be differentiated from females by virtue of having an additional visible segment in the metasoma. The difference between sterile female worker wasps and queens also varies between species but generally the queen is noticeably larger than both males and other females. Insects display a wide variety of antennal shapes. ... Scorpion anatomy: 1 = Prosoma; 2 = Mesosoma; 3 = Metasoma The metasoma is clearly visible on this ant: it is the posterior section, including the petiole The metasoma is the posterior part of the body, or tagma, of arthropods whose body is composed of three parts, the other two being the prosoma...


Wasps can be differentiated from bees, which have a flattened hind basitarsus. Unlike bees, wasps generally lack plumose hairs. An insect leg The arthropod leg is a form of jointed appendage of arthropods, usually used for walking. ...

Diet

Sand wasp (Bembix oculata, family Crabronidae) removing body fluids from a fly after having paralysed it with the sting

Generally wasps are parasites or parasitoids as larvae, and feed only on nectar as adults. Many wasps are predatory, using other insects (often paralyzed) as food for their larvae. A few social wasps are omnivorous, feeding on a variety of fallen fruit, nectar, and carrion. Some of these social wasps, such as yellowjackets, may scavenge for dead insects to provide for their young. In many social species the larvae provide sweet secretions that are fed to the adults. Binomial name (Fabricius, 1775) Philanthus triangulum, or the European beewolf is a solitary wasp, that lives in Southern Europe and Northern Africa, although sightings have been found as far north as the Isle of Wight. ... Philanthus triangulum paralysing a bee The European beewolf (Philanthus triangulum), also called the bee-eating philanthus (from the now obsolete synonym Philanthus apivorus), is a solitary wasp that lives in Europe and Northern Africa. ... In Greek mythology, nectar and ambrosia are the food of the gods. ... Genera Bembecinus Bembix Bicyrtes Editha Glenostictia Microbembex Stictiella Stictia Zyzzyx, etc. ... Genera Many, see text Crabronidae (Latreille, 1802) is a family of wasps. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


In parasitic species, the first meals are almost always provided by the animal that the adult wasp used as a host for its young. Adult male wasps sometimes visit flowers to obtain nectar to feed on in much the same manner as honey bees. Occasionally, some species, such as yellowjackets, invade honey bee nests and steal honey and/or brood.[citation needed] In Greek mythology, nectar and ambrosia are the food of the gods. ... For other uses, see Honey bee (disambiguation). ... Yellowjacket or yellow-jacket is the common name in North America for wasps of the genera Vespula and Dolichovespula. ... For other uses, see Honey bee (disambiguation). ... Wild Honey redirects here. ... Recently hatched honey bee larvae are feeding on royal jelly for three days. ...

Wasp parasitism

With most species, adult parasitic wasps themselves do not take any nutrients from their prey, and, much like bees, butterflies, and moths, those that do feed as adults typically derive all of their nutrition from nectar. Parasitic wasps are typically parasitoids, and extremely diverse in habits, many laying their eggs in inert stages of their host (egg or pupa), or sometimes paralyzing their prey by injecting it with venom through their ovipositor. They then insert one or more eggs into the host or deposit them upon the host externally. The host remains alive until the parasitoid larvae are mature, usually dying either when the parasitoids pupate, or when they emerge as adults. The term parasitic wasp refers to a large, artificial assemblage of Hymenopteran superfamilies which are primarily parasitoids of other animals, mostly other arthropods. ... Nutrients and the body A nutrient is any element or compound necessary for or contributing to an organisms metabolism, growth, or other functioning. ... Families Andrenidae Anthophoridae Apidae Colletidae Ctenoplectridae Halictidae Heterogynaidae Megachilidae Melittidae Oxaeidae Sphecidae Stenotritidae This article is about the insect. ... Superfamilies and families Superfamily Hedyloidea: Hedylidae Superfamily Hesperioidea: Hesperiidae Superfamily Papilionoidea: Papilionidae Pieridae Nymphalidae Lycaenidae Riodinidae A butterfly is an insect of the order Lepidoptera. ... For other uses, see Moths. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... Cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha) pupa A pupa (Latin pupa for doll, pl: pupae or pupas) is the life stage of some insects undergoing transformation. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Chrysalis of Gulf Fritillary in Georgetown, South Carolina Pupation of Inachis io A pupa (plural: pupae or pupas) is the life stage of some insects undergoing transformation. ...

Nesting habits

Various wasp nests
Tiphiid wasp, a solitary wasp
Paper pulp type wasp colony on maple tree, photographed near Maple Lake in Cook County, Illinois in October 2008

The type of nest produced by wasps can depend on the species and location. Many social wasps produce paper pulp nests on trees, in attics, holes in the ground or other such sheltered areas with access to the outdoors. By contrast solitary wasps are generally parasitic or predatory and only the latter build nests at all. Unlike honey bees, wasps have no wax producing glands. Many instead create a paper-like substance primarily from wood pulp. Wood fibers are gathered locally from weathered wood, softened by chewing and mixing with saliva. The pulp is then used to make combs with cells for brood rearing. More commonly, nests are simply burrows excavated in a substrate (usually the soil, but also plant stems), or, if constructed, they are constructed from mud. Genera Diamma Myzinum Tiphia (etc. ... Cook County is a county located in the U.S. state of Illinois. ... For other uses, see Honey bee (disambiguation). ... For the rock song by Nirvana, see Beeswax (song). ... A gland is an organ in an animals body that synthesizes a substance for release such as hormones, often into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland). ...

Solitary wasps

The nesting habits of solitary wasps are more diverse than those of social wasps. Mud daubers and pollen wasps construct mud cells in sheltered places typically on the side of walls. Potter wasps similarly build vase-like nests from mud, often with multiple cells, attached to the twigs of trees or against walls. Most other predatory wasps burrow into soil or into plant stems, and a few do not build nests at all and prefer naturally occurring cavities, such as small holes in wood. A single egg is laid in each cell, which is sealed thereafter, so there is no interaction between the larvae and the adults, unlike in social wasps. In some species, male eggs are selectively placed on smaller prey, leading to males being generally smaller than females. Families Some Sphecidae and Crabronidae Mud dauber (sometimes dirt dauber or dirt dobber in the southern U.S.) is a name commonly applied to a number of wasps from either the family Sphecidae or Crabronidae that build their nests from mud. ... Genera Celonites Ceramius Quartinia Pseudomasaris >10 others Pollen wasps are unusual wasps that are typically treated as a subfamily of Vespidae, but have in the past sometimes been recognized as a separate family, Masaridae. ... Genera many (>200) Potter wasps (or mason wasps)also known as Dirt daubers are cosmopolitan wasps that are typically treated as a subfamily of Vespidae, but have in the past sometimes been recognized as a separate family, Eumenidae. ...

Social wasps

The nests of some social wasps, such as hornets, are first constructed by the queen and reach about the size of a walnut before sterile female workers take over construction. The queen initially starts the nest by making a single layer or canopy and working outwards until she reaches the edges of the cavity. Beneath the canopy she constructs a stalk to which she can attach several cells; these cells are where the first eggs will be laid. The queen then continues to work outwards to the edges of the cavity after which she adds another tier. This process is repeated, each time adding a new tier until eventually enough female workers have been born and matured to take over construction of the nest leaving the queen to focus on reproduction. For this reason, the size of a nest is generally a good indicator of approximately how many female workers there are in the colony. Social wasp colonies often have populations exceeding several thousand female workers and at least one queen. Polistes and some related types of paper wasp do not construct their nests in tiers but rather in flat single combs. Wasps of the cosmopolitan genus Polistes are the most familiar of the polistine wasps, and are the most common type of paper wasp. ...

Social wasp reproductive cycle (temperate species only)

A young paper wasp queen founding a new colony

Wasps do not reproduce via mating flights like bees. Instead social wasps reproduce between a fertile queen and male wasp; in some cases queens may be fertilized by the sperm of several males. After successfully mating, the male's sperm cells are stored in a tightly packed ball inside the queen. The sperm cells are kept stored in a dormant state until they are needed the following spring. At a certain time of the year (often around autumn), the bulk of the wasp colony dies away, leaving only the young mated queens alive. During this time they leave the nest and find a suitable area to hibernate for the winter. A spermatozoon or spermatozoan ( spermatozoa), from the ancient Greek σπέρμα (seed) and (living being) and more commonly known as a sperm cell, is the haploid cell that is the male gamete. ... hibernate redirects here. ...

First stage

After emerging from hibernation during early summer, the young queens search for a suitable nesting site. Upon finding an area for their colony, the queen constructs a basic wood fiber nest roughly the size of a walnut into which she will begin to lay eggs. In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ...

Second stage

The sperm that was stored earlier and kept dormant over winter is now used to fertilize the eggs being laid. The storage of sperm inside the female queen allows her to lay a considerable number of fertilized eggs without the need for repeated mating with a male wasp. For this reason a single female queen is capable of building an entire colony from only herself. The queen initially raises the first several sets of wasp eggs until enough sterile female workers exist to maintain the offspring without her assistance. All of the eggs produced at this time are sterile female workers who will begin to construct a more elaborate nest around their queen as they grow in number. Categories: Biology stubs ... IT FEELS REALLY GOOD IF YOU IMATATE THE ANIMALS. LOL! “Mounting” redirects here. ...

Third stage

European paper wasp (Polistes dominula) with a regurgitated droplet of water

By this time the nest size has expanded considerably and now numbers between several hundred and several thousand wasps. Towards the end of the summer, the queen begins to run out of stored sperm to fertilize more eggs. These eggs develop into fertile males and fertile female queens. The male drones then fly out of the nest and find a mate thus perpetuating the wasp reproductive cycle. In most species of social wasp the young queens mate in the vicinity of their home nest and do not travel like their male counterparts do. The young queens will then leave the colony to hibernate for the winter once the other worker wasps and founder queen have started to die off. After successfully mating with a young queen, the male drones die off as well. Generally, young queens and drones from the same nest do not mate with each other; this ensures more genetic variation within wasp populations, especially considering that all members of the colony are theoretically the direct genetic descendants of the founder queen and a single male drone. In practice, however, colonies can sometimes consist of the offspring of several male drones. Wasp queens generally (but not always) create new nests each year, probably because the weak construction of most nests render them uninhabitable after the winter. Polistes dominula (typically misspelled[citation needed] as dominulus), sometimes referred to as the European paper wasp,1 is one of the more common and well-known species of social wasps in Europe. ... Fertility is the natural capability of giving life. ... The reproduction of many organisms follows a cyclical pattern, known as the reproductive cycle, which regulates the conception and birth of offspring. ... Genetic variation is the variation in the genetic material of a population, and includes the nuclear, mitochodrial, ribosomal genomes as well as the genomes of other organelles. ...


Unlike honey bee queens, wasp queens typically live for only one year. Also queen wasps do not organize their colony or have any raised status and hierarchical power within the social structure. They are more simply the reproductive element of the colony and the initial builder of the nest in those species which construct nests. A hierarchy (Greek: hierarchia (ἱεραρχία), from hierarches, leader of sacred rites) is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc. ...

Social wasp caste structure

A wasp gathering wood fibers

Not all social wasps have castes that are physically different in size and structure. In many polistine paper wasps and stenogastrines, for example, the castes of females are determined behaviorally, through dominance interactions, rather than having caste predetermined. All female wasps are potentially capable of becoming a colony's queen and this process is often determined by which female successfully lays eggs first and begins construction of the nest. Evidence suggests that females compete amongst each other by eating the eggs of other rival females. The queen may, in some cases, simply be the female that can eat the largest volume of eggs while ensuring that her own eggs survive (often achieved by laying the most). This process theoretically determines the strongest and most reproductively capable female and selects her as the queen. Once the first eggs have hatched, the subordinate females stop laying eggs and instead forage for the new queen and feed the young; that is, the competition largely ends, with the losers becoming workers, though if the dominant female dies, a new hierarchy may be established with a former "worker" acting as the replacement queen. Polistine nests are considerably smaller than many other social wasp nests, typically housing only around 250 wasps, compared to the several thousand common with yellowjackets, and stenogastrines have the smallest colonies of all, rarely with more than a dozen wasps in a mature colony. Polistes wasp, common name- Paper wasp. ... The Stenogastrinae (sometimes referred to as hover wasps) are a subfamily of Indomalayan and New Guinean Vespid wasps with a diverse biology from solitary to social. ...

Common families

See also

References

  1. ^ Norman F. Johnson, Charles A. Triplehorn. 2004. Borror's Introduction to the Study of Insects. 7th Edition.

External links

Sister projects

--220.236.207.29 (talk) 08:22, 6 May 2010 (UTC) Genera Many, see text. ... Subfamilies Agaoninae Epichrysomallinae Otitesellinae Sycoecinae Sycophaginae Sycoryctinae Fig wasps are wasps of the family Agaonidae which pollinate figs or are otherwise associated with figs. ... Diversity 5 subfamilies c. ... Subfamilies Amiseginae Chrysidinae Cleptinae Loboscelidiinae Commonly known as cuckoo wasps, the Hymenopteran family Chrysididae is a very large cosmopolitan group (over 3000 described species) of parasitoid or cleptoparasitic wasps, often highly sculptured, with brilliantly metallic bodies and bright coloration (thus the common names jewel wasp, gold wasp, or emerald wasp... Subfamilies Amiseginae Chrysidinae Cleptinae Loboscelidiinae Commonly known as cuckoo wasps, the Hymenopteran family Chrysididae is a very large cosmopolitan group (over 3000 described species) of parasitoid or cleptoparasitic wasps, often highly sculptured, with brilliantly metallic bodies and bright coloration (thus the common names jewel wasp, gold wasp, or emerald wasp... Genera Many, see text Crabronidae (Latreille, 1802) is a family of wasps. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... ... Gall wasps (Cynipidae), also called Gallflies, are a family of the order Hymenoptera and are classified with the Apocrita suborder of wasps in the superfamily Cynipoidea. ... Diversity 2 subfamilies c. ... Diversity 5 subfamilies c. ... Diversity 3 subfamilies c. ... Subfamilies Lycorininae Orthopelmatinae Orthocentrinae Tersilochinae Microleptinae Mesochorinae Xoridinae Acaenitinae Ophioninae Anomaloninae Cremastinae Porizontinae Diplazontinae Metopiinae Scolobatinae Tryphoninae Banchinae Ephialtinae (=Pimplinae) Gelinae (=Crytinae) Ichneumoninae The Ichneumonidae is a family of the Ichneumonoidea Categories: Insect stubs ... Subfamilies Adeliinae Agathidinae Alysiinae Amicrocentrinae Aphidiinae Apozyginae Betylobraconinae Blacinae Braconinae Cardiochilinae Cenocoeliinae Cheloninae Dirrhopinae Doryctinae Ecnomiinae Euphorinae Exothecinae Gnamptodontinae Helconinae Histeromerinae Homolobinae Hormiinae Khoikhoiiinae Ichneutinae Macrocentrinae Masoninae Mendesellinae Mesostoinae Meteorideinae Meteorinae Microgastrinae Microtypinae Miracinae Neoneurinae Opiinae Orgilinae Pselaphaninae Rhyssalinae Rogadinae Sigalphinae Telengaiinae Trachypetinae Vaepellinae Ypsistocerinae Xiphozelinae Braconidae is a family... Subfamilies Mutillinae Myrmillinae Myrmosinae Pseudophotopsidinae Rhopalomutillinae Sphaeropthalminae Ticoplinae Mutillidae or velvet ants, also known as cow killers, are not actually ants but a type of wasp. ... Subfamilies Mutillinae Myrmillinae Myrmosinae Pseudophotopsidinae Rhopalomutillinae Sphaeropthalminae Ticoplinae Mutillidae or velvet ants, also known as cow killers, are not actually ants but a type of wasp. ... Diversity 0-2 subfamilies c. ... Diversity 0-2 subfamilies c. ... Genera many (35 in North America)   Spider wasps, also called pompilid wasps or spider-hunting wasps, are insects belonging to a diverse family named Pompilidae, of the order Hymenoptera. ... Subfamilies Ceropalinae Ctenocerinae Pepsinae Pompilinae Wasps in the family Pompilidae are commonly called wasp spiders. ... Diversity 15-28 subfamilies c. ... Subfamilies Scelioninae Teleasinae Telenominae The Hymenopteran family Scelionidae is a very large cosmopolitan group (over 3000 described species in some 160 genera) of exclusively parasitoid wasps, mostly small (0. ... Subfamilies Scoliinae Proscoliinae Scoliidae, the Scoliid wasps, are represented by 20 genera and about the same number of species in North America. ... Subfamilies Scoliinae Proscoliinae Scoliidae, the Scoliid wasps, are represented by 20 genera and about the same number of species in North America. ... Subfamilies Ammophilinae Sceliphrinae Sphecinae Sphecidae blocking its burrow with a stone Sphecidae (Latreille, 1802) is a cosmopolitan family of wasps that include digger wasps, mud daubers and other familiar types that all fall under the category of thread-waisted wasps. ... Species of Sphex numerous Sphex is a genus of insects in the Family Sphecidae, order Hymenoptera. ... Genera Diamma Myzinum Tiphia (etc. ... Genera Diamma Myzinum Tiphia (etc. ... Torymidae is a family of wasps that consists of attractive metallic species with enlarged hind legs, and generally with a long ovipositor. ... Genera ca. ... Genera The vespids are a family of wasps, including all social wasps and some solitary wasps. ... Yellowjacket or yellow-jacket is the common name in North America for wasps of the genera Vespula and Dolichovespula. ... This article refers collectively to all true hornets. ... In this image of a female Polistes wasp tending to a nest, a long, black petiole, by which the nest is attached to the branch, is quite apparent. ... Genera many (>200) Potter wasps (or mason wasps)also known as Dirt daubers are cosmopolitan wasps that are typically treated as a subfamily of Vespidae, but have in the past sometimes been recognized as a separate family, Eumenidae. ... Genera Celonites Ceramius Quartinia Pseudomasaris >10 others Pollen wasps are unusual wasps that are typically treated as a subfamily of Vespidae, but have in the past sometimes been recognized as a separate family, Masaridae. ... The wasp black and yellow warn that she carries a sting Advertising colouration is a biological phase denoting the colours developed by certain animals to make them stand out against their background. ... For other uses, see Bee sting (disambiguation). ... Genera Nyctyornis Meropogon Merops The bee-eaters are a group of near passerine birds in the family Meropidae. ... While easily confusable at a distance or without close observation, there are many different characteristics of bees and wasps which can be used to identify them. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The common wasp (Vespula vulgaris) is a wasp found in much of the Northern Hemisphere, and introduced to Australia and New Zealand. ... Binomial name (Fabricius, 1793) The three dots on the German wasps face The German wasp, or European wasp, Vespula germanica, is a wasp found in much of the Northern Hemisphere, native to Europe, northern Africa, and temperate Asia. ... Yellowjackets are black-and-yellow wasps of the genus Vespula or Dolichovespula. ... Families Some Sphecidae and Crabronidae Mud dauber (sometimes dirt dauber or dirt dobber in the southern U.S.) is a name commonly applied to a number of wasps from either the family Sphecidae or Crabronidae that build their nests from mud. ... The term parasitic wasp refers to a large, artificial assemblage of Hymenopteran superfamilies which are primarily parasitoids of other animals, mostly other arthropods. ... Schmidt Sting Pain Index or The Justin O. Schmidt Pain Index was created by Justin O. Schmidt, an entomologist. ... Genera Pepsis Hemipepsis The tarantula hawk is the common name for species in the genera Pepsis and Hemipepsis of the family Pompilidae, in the insect Order Hymenoptera. ... Binomial name Volucella pellucens (Linnaeus, 1758) Volucella pellucens is a hover-fly. ... National Institutes of Health Building 50 at NIH Clinical Center - Building 10 The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is an agency of the United States Ministry of Health and Human Services and is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and health-related research. ... The New Zealand Dermatological Society is a medical organization best known outside New Zealand for its DermNet website, which provides photographs and descriptions of many skin conditions. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ...


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Wasp Barcode Technologies is the leading manufacturer of reliable, performance-packed barcode scanners for small to medium business.
Wasp even provides industrial barcode scanners for harsh environments as well as wireless barcode scanners for flexibility and freedom.
Wasp first product was a type of barcode software and the heritage continues today with a range of barcode software solutions.
USN Ships--USS Wasp (CV-7) (848 words)
USS Wasp, a 14,700 ton aircraft carrier, was built at Quincy, Massachusetts.
Wasp was dispatched to the Pacific in June 1942 to reinforce U.S. Naval forces there in the wake of the carrier battles of Coral Sea and Midway and in preparation for offensive operations in the Southern Pacific.
On 15 September 1942, while steaming well to the southward of Guadalcanal, USS Wasp was torpedoed by the Japanese submarine I-19.
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COMMENTARY     

Gerard Gormley
5th May 2010
USS Wasp's weight at 14,700 ons is way off.
Displacement: As built:
27,100 tons standard
36,380 tons full load

(same page, 3 items down) On 15 September 1942, while steaming well to the south of Guadalcanal, USS Wasp was torpedoed by the Japanese submarine I-19.
(Delete the "ward". Southward is a general direction, not a location.)

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