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B53
B53

The B53 with a yield of 9 Mt is one of the most powerful nuclear weapons built by the United States, and one of the last very high-yield thermonuclear bombs in U.S. service. Image File history File links B53_bomb. ... Image File history File links B53_bomb. ... Image File history File links W53_nuclear_bomb. ... Physics package is a euphemism for the portion of a nuclear weapon that includes the actual explosive portion of the weapon: the detonator explosives, the fissile material, and (for fusion weapons) fusion fuel. ... // The explosive yield of a nuclear weapon is the amount of energy discharged when the weapon is detonated, expressed usually in the equivalent mass of trinitrotoluene (TNT), either in kilotons (thousands of tons of TNT) or megatons (million of tons of TNT), but sometimes also in terajoules (1 kiloton of... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ...

Contents


Development

Development of the weapon began in 1955 by Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, based on the earlier Mk 21 and Mk 46 weapons. In March 1958 the Strategic Air Command issued a request for a new Class C (less than five tons, megaton-range) bomb to replace the earlier Mk 41. A revised version of the Mk 46 became the TX-53 in 1959. The development TX-53 warhead was apparently never tested, although a conceptually similar weapon was detonated 28 June 1958. 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... SAC shield The Strategic Air Command or SAC (1946-1992) was the branch of the United States Air Force in charge of Americas bomber-based and ballistic missile-based strategic nuclear arsenal, as well as the infrastructure necessary to support their operations (such as tanker aircraft to fuel the... The B41 was an extremely powerful thermonuclear weapon used by the United States Strategic Air Command in the early 1960s. ... 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 28 is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 186 days remaining. ... 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Mk 53 entered production in 1962 and was built through June 1965. A total of about 340 bombs were built. It entered service aboard B-47 Stratojet, B-52 Stratofortress, and B-58 Hustler bomber aircraft in the mid-1960s. From 1968 it was redesignated B53. 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... Boeing B-47E Stratojet The Boeing B-47 Stratojet jet bomber was a medium range and size bomber capable of flying at high subsonic speeds and primarily designed for penetrating the Soviet Union. ... The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress is a long-range eight-engined strategic bomber flown by the United States Air Force (USAF) since 1954, replacing the Convair B-36 and the Boeing B-47. ... The Convair B-58 Hustler was a high-speed jet bomber capable of supersonic flight. ... A bomber is a military aircraft designed to attack ground targets, primarily by dropping bombs. ... The outrageously crowded Woodstock festival epitomized the popular antiwar movement of the 60s. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ...


Specifications

The B53 was 3.81 m (12 ft 6 in) long with a diameter of 50 in (127 cm). It weighed 4,015 kg (8,850 lb), much of which was the parachute system (perhaps 400 kg / 882 lb) and the frangible aluminum nose cone to enable the bomb to survive laydown delivery. It had a total of five parachutes: one 1.52 m (5 ft) pilot chute, one 4.88 m (16 ft) extractor chutes, and three 14.64 m (48 ft) main chutes. Chute deployment depends on delivery mode, with the main chutes used only for laydown delivery (for free-fall delivery, the entire system was jettisoned). A nose cone that contained one of the Voyager spacecraft is seen here as it is mounted on top of a Titan III/Centaur launch vehicle. ... Laydown delivery is a mode of deploying a free-fall nuclear weapon in which the bombs fall is slowed by parachute so that it actually lands on the ground before detonating. ... The Apollo 15 capsule landed safely despite a parachute failure. ...


The warhead of the B53 uses oralloy (highly enriched uranium), not plutonium, for fission, with a mix of lithium-6 deuteride fuel for fusion. The explosive "lens" is a mixture of RDX and TNT, which is not insensitive. Two variants were made: the B53-Y1, a dirty weapon using a U-238-encased secondary, and the B53-Y2 "clean" version with a non-fissile (lead or tungsten) secondary casing. Explosive yield was nine megatons. Enriched uranium is uranium whose uranium-235 content has been increased through the process of isotope separation. ... General Name, Symbol, Number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Atomic mass 238. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass (244) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lithium, Li, 3 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 2, s Appearance silvery white/gray Atomic mass 6. ... Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance in the oceans of one atom in 6400 of hydrogen (see VSMOW; the abundance changes slightly from one kind of natural water to another). ... Wikibooks Chemical synthesis has more about this subject: Cyclonite synthesis Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine, also known as RDX, cyclonite, hexogen, and T4, is an explosive nitroamine widely used by the military. ... Trinitrotoluene (TNT, or Trotyl) is a pale yellow crystalline aromatic hydrocarbon compound that melts at 354 K (178 Â°F, 81 °C). ... The term dirty bomb is most often used to refer to a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD), a radiological weapon which combines radioactive material with conventional explosives. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish white Atomic mass 207. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tungsten, W, 74 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 6, d Appearance grayish white, lustrous Atomic mass 183. ... A megaton or megatonne is a unit of mass equal to 1,000,000 metric tons, i. ...


Role

It was intended as a bunker buster weapon, using a surface blast after laydown deployment to transmit a shock wave through the earth to collapse its target. It has since been supplanted in that role by the earth-penetrating B61 Mod 11. A bomb that penetrates the surface delivers much more of its explosive energy into the ground and therefore needs a much smaller yield to produce the same effects. A bunker buster bomb is designed to penetrate hardened targets or targets buried deep underground. ... Introduction The shock wave is one of several different ways in which a gas in a supersonic flow can be compressed. ... B61 bomb in various stages of assembly. ...


The B53 was intended to be retired in the 1980s, reducing the stockpile to a total of 25 weapons by 1987. On 5 August 1987 SAC decided to halt the retirement and return 25 more weapons to service, for a total of 50. Those weapons are no longer in active service, but are retained as part of the "Hedge" portion of the Enduring Stockpile. MacGyver - 1980s hero The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 5 is the 217th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (218th in leap years), with 148 days remaining. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Enduring Stockpile is the name of the United Statess arsenal of nuclear weapons following the end of the Cold War. ...


W53

The W53 warhead of the Titan II ICBM used the same physics package as the B53, albeit without the various air drop-specific components like the parachute system, reducing its mass to 3,690 kg (8,730 lb). With a yield of 9 Megatons, it was the highest yield warhead ever deployed on a US missile. About 60 W53 warheads were constructed between December 1962 and December 1963. Titan II launch vehicle launching Gemini 11 (Sept. ... A Minuteman III missile soars after a test launch. ... Physics package is a euphemism for the portion of a nuclear weapon that includes the actual explosive portion of the weapon: the detonator explosives, the fissile material, and (for fusion weapons) fusion fuel. ... A megaton or megatonne is a unit of mass equal to 1,000,000 metric tons, i. ...


On September 19, 1980 a fuel leak caused a Titan II to explode within its silo in Arkansas, throwing the W53 warhead some distance away. It did not explode or leak any radiation. September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... A missile silo is a underground vertical cylindrical container for the storage and launching of ICBMs. ... Official language(s) English Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Area  Ranked 29th  - Total 53,179 sq mi (137,732 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 261 miles (420 km)  - % water 2. ...


With the retirement of the Titan fleet, disassembly of the W53 warheads was completed by about 1988.


Effects

Assuming a detonation at optimum height, a 9 megaton blast would result in a fireball some 1 to 1.6 kilometres in diameter (0.6 to 1 mile) lasting 12 seconds. The radiated heat would be sufficient to cause lethal burns to any unprotected person within 28.7 kilometres (17.8 miles). Blast effects would be sufficient to collapse most residental and industrial structures within a 14.9 kilometre (9.2 mile) radius; within 5.7 kilometres (3.5 miles) virtually all above-ground structures would be destroyed and blast effects would inflict near 100% fatalities. Within 4.7 kilometres (2.9 miles) a 500 rem dose of ionising radiation would be received by the average person, sufficient to cause a 50% to 90% casualty rate independent of thermal or blast effects at this distance.
In medicine, a burn is a type of injury to the skin caused by heat, electricity, chemicals, or radiation (an example of the latter is sunburn). ... Ionizing radiation is radiation in which an individual particle (for example, a photon, electron, or helium nucleus) carries enough energy to ionize an atom or molecule (that is, to completely remove an electron from its orbit). ...

Lists of Aircraft | Aircraft manufacturers | Aircraft engines | Aircraft engine manufacturers This list of aircraft is sorted alphabetically, beginning with the name of the manufacturer (or, in certain cases, designer). ... This is a list of aircraft manufacturers (in alphabetic order). ... List of aircraft engines: // Piston engines Allison V-1710 Alvis Alcides Alvis Leonides Alvis Maenoides Alvis Pelides Armstrong Siddeley Leopard Armstrong Siddeley Jaguar Armstrong Siddeley Panther Armstrong Siddeley Mongoose Armstrong-Siddeley Puma Armstrong-Siddeley Cheetah Armstrong-Siddeley Nimbus Beardmore Bentley BR1 Rotary BMW 132 BMW 139 BMW 801 Bramo 323... This is a list of aircraft engine manufacturers both past and present. ...


Airports | Airlines | Air forces | Aircraft weapons | Missiles | Timeline of aviation This is a list of airlines in operation (by continents and country). ... This is a list of Air Forces, sorted alphabetically by country. ... This is an incomplete list of aircraft weapons, past and present. ... Below is a list of (links to pages on) missiles, sorted alphabetically by name. ... This is a timeline of aviation history. ...


 
 

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