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Encyclopedia > W. Mark Felt
W. Mark Felt
Born: August 17, 1913 (1913-08-17) (age 94)
Flag of the United States Twin Falls, Idaho, U.S.A.
Occupation: Associate Director of the FBI
FBI Special agent
Retirement Date: June 22, 1973
Field Office(s): Houston
San Antonio

William Mark Felt, Sr. (born August 17, 1913) is a former agent of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation, who retired in 1973 as the Bureau's Associate Director. After thirty years of denying his involvement with reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, Felt revealed himself on May 31, 2005, to be the Watergate scandal whistleblower called "Deep Throat". is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Motto: People Serving People Coordinates: , Country State County Twin Falls Founded 1904 Incorporated 1904 Government  - Type council-manager  - Mayor Lance W. Clow  - City Manager Tom Courtney Area  - City 12. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... // Any federal criminal or non-criminal investigator or detective in the 1811, 1801, 2501 or similar job series as so titled according to the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) handbook. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... The United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) operates 56 field offices in major cities across the U.S. Many of these offices are further subdivided into smaller resident agencies which have jurisdiction over a specific area. ... Houston redirects here. ... San Antonio redirects here. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... The Deputy Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (or Associate Director) is a senior United States Government position in the Federal Bureau of Investigation. ... Bob Woodward signs his book State of Denial after a talk in March 2007. ... Carl Bernstein (left) and Bob Woodward (right)This image is pending deletion. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Watergate redirects here. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Category:Whistleblower Poster in support of whistleblower legislation A whistleblower is an employee, former employee, or member of an organization, especially a business or government agency, who reports misconduct to people or entities that have the power and presumed willingness to take corrective action. ... W. Mark Felt, on the set of CBSs Face the Nation in 1976. ...


Felt worked in several FBI field offices prior to his promotion to the Bureau's Washington headquarters. During the early investigation of the Watergate scandal (1972–74), Felt was the Bureau's Associate Director, the second-ranking post in the FBI. While Associate Director, Felt provided Washington Post reporter Woodward with critical leads on the story that eventually saw the resignation of President Richard M. Nixon in 1974. In 1980, Felt was convicted of the felony of violating the civil rights of people thought to be associated with members of the Weather Underground by ordering FBI agents to search their homes as part of an attempt to prevent bombings. He was ordered to pay a $7,000 fine but was pardoned by President Ronald Reagan during his appeal. Felt lives in Santa Rosa, California. In 2006, he published an update of his 1979 autobiography, The FBI Pyramid. His new book, written with John O'Connor, is titled "A G-Man's Life." For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... For the record label, see Felony Records The term felony is a term used in common law systems for very serious crimes, whereas misdemeanors are considered to be less serious offenses. ... John Jacobs and Terry Robbins at the Days of Rage, Chicago, October 1969 (Photo credit: David Fenton; publicity photo for film Weather Underground) Weatherman, known colloquially as the Weathermen and later the Weather Underground Organization, was a U.S. Radical Left organization consisting of splintered-off members and leaders of... FINE was created in 1998 and is an informal association of the four main Fair Trade networks: F Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International (FLO) I International Fair Trade Association (IFAT) N Network of European Worldshops (NEWS!) and E European Fair Trade Association (EFTA) // The aim of FINE is to enable these... For the Breton religious festivals, see Pardon (ceremony). ... Reagan redirects here. ... Location in Sonoma County and the state of California Country State County Sonoma Area  - City 40. ... Cover of the first English edition of 1793 of Benjamin Franklins autobiography. ... The FBI Pyramid: From the Inside is a 1979 non-fiction book by Mark Felt, better know as deep throat who was the primary source for journalist Bob Woodward who together with Carl Bernstein investigating the Watergate first break-in and ensuing Watergate scandal for the Washington Post. ...

Contents

Early career

Felt was born in Twin Falls, Idaho[1], the son of carpenter and building contractor Mark Earl Felt and his wife, the former Rose Dygert.[2] After graduating from Twin Falls High School in 1931, he received a BA from the University of Idaho in 1935, and was a member and president of the Gamma Gamma chapter of the Beta Theta Pi fraternity. He went to Washington, D.C. to work in the office of U.S. Senator James P. Pope (D-Idaho). In 1938, Felt married Audrey Robinson of Gooding, Idaho, whom he had known when they were both students at the University of Idaho. She had come to Washington to work at the Bureau of Internal Revenue, and they were wed by the chaplain of the United States House of Representatives, the Rev. Sheara Montgomery.[3] Felt stayed on with Pope's successor in the Senate, David Worth Clark (D-Idaho).[4] Felt attended The George Washington University Law School at night, earning his law degree in 1940, and was admitted to the District of Columbia bar in 1941.[5] Motto: People Serving People Coordinates: , Country State County Twin Falls Founded 1904 Incorporated 1904 Government  - Type council-manager  - Mayor Lance W. Clow  - City Manager Tom Courtney Area  - City 12. ... Twin Falls High School is a high school in Twin Falls, Idaho. ... A B.A. issued from the University of Tennessee. ... The University of Idaho is the states prominent institution of higher learning, located in the rural city of Moscow in Latah County. ... Beta Theta Pi (ΒΘΠ) is a social collegiate fraternity that was founded at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, USA, where it is part of the Miami Triad which includes Phi Delta Theta and Sigma Chi. ... The terms fraternity and sorority (from the Latin words and , meaning brother and sister respectively) may be used to describe many social and charitable organizations, for example the Lions Club, Epsilon Sigma Alpha, Rotary International, Optimist International, or the Shriners. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... James Pinckney Pope (1884-1966) was a mayor of Boise, Idaho, and a United States Senator from Idaho. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... For other uses, see Idaho (disambiguation). ... Gooding is the county seat and largest city of Gooding County, IdahoGR6. ... Seal of the Internal Revenue Service Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Part of the Taxation series        IRS redirects here. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... David Worth Clark (2 April 1902 - 19 June 1955)) was a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate representing Idaho. ... The George Washington University Law School, commonly referred to as GW Law, was founded in 1865 and is the oldest law school in the District of Columbia. ... “J.D.” redirects here. ... ...


Upon graduation, Felt took a position at the Federal Trade Commission but did not enjoy the work. His workload was very light. He was assigned a case to investigate whether a toilet paper brand called "Red Cross" was misleading consumers into thinking it was endorsed by the American Red Cross. Felt wrote in his memoir: | logo_caption = | seal = US-FederalTradeCommission-Seal. ... A WWII-era poster encouraged American women to volunteer for the Red Cross as part of the war effort. ...

My research, which required days of travel and hundreds of interviews, produced two definite conclusions:
1. Most people did use toilet paper.
2. Most people did not appreciate being asked about it.
That was when I started looking for other employment.[6]

He applied for a job with the FBI in November 1941 and was accepted. His first day at the Bureau was January 26, 1942. is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Early FBI years

Federal Bureau of Investigation

Fidelity, Bravery, Integrity
Director: Robert S. Mueller III
Deputy Director: John S. Pistole
Department: Justice
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FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover often moved Bureau agents around so they would have wide experience. Hoover, Felt observed, "wanted every agent to get into any Field office at anytime. Since he had never been transferred and did not have a family, he had no idea of the financial and personal hardship involved."[7] F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... Image File history File links Federal Bureau of Investigation seal. ... Directors of the Federal Bureau of Investigation are appointed by the President of the United States. ... Robert Swan Mueller III (born August 7, 1944) is the current Director of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation. ... The Deputy Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (or Associate Director) is a senior United States Government position in the Federal Bureau of Investigation. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Statement Of John S. Pistole Executive Assistant Director Counterterrorism/Counterintelligence Federal Bureau Of Investigation Before The House Judiciary Committee Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism and Homeland Security Wikisource has original text related to this article: Treatment of Prisoners and Detainees John S. Pistole... The Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building in Washington, D.C. “Justice Department” redirects here. ... The FBI Academy is located in Quantico, Virginia. ... The FBI Laboratory is a division within the FBI. The lab is located in the J. Edgar Hoover Building. ... The Criminal Justice Information Services Division (CJIS) is a divions of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The Critical Incident Response Group (or CIRG) is the part of the Federal Bureau of Investigation which facilitates the FBIs rapid response to, and the management of, crisis incidents. ... The FBI Counterterrorism Division is the division of the FBI that deals with terrorist threats inside the United States. ... The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin is published monthly by the FBI, with articles of interest to state and local law enforcement personnel. ... The Hostage Rescue Team (HRT) is the United States Federal Bureau of Investigations Counter-Terrorism tactical unit. ... The Joint Terrorism Task Force is a section of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation charged with taking action against terrorism. ... The National Security Service is to be an office within the Federal Bureau of Investigation that will consolidate the bureaus counterterrorism, counterintelligence, and intelligence duties. ... Directors of the Federal Bureau of Investigation are appointed by the President of the United States. ... The United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) operates 56 field offices in major cities across the U.S. Many of these offices are further subdivided into smaller resident agencies which have jurisdiction over a specific area. ... COINTELPRO (Counter Intelligence Program) was a program of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation aimed at investigating and disrupting dissident political organizations within the United States. ... National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) is an incident-based reporting system used by law enforcement agencies in the United States for collecting and reporting data on crimes. ... The Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) contain official data on crime that is reported to law enforcement agencies across the United States, who then provide the data to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). ... The FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives list arose from a conversation held in late 1949, during a game of Hearts between J. Edgar Hoover, Director of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation, and William Kinsey Hutchinson,[1] International News Service (the predecessor of the United Press International) Editor-in... Banner used by the FBI since inception on October 10, 2001 as the main title for the web site pages of both the group of wanted terrorists, and also on the wanted poster of each terrorist fugitive. ... John Edgar Hoover (January 1, 1895 – May 2, 1972) was the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) of the United States. ... Joseph Leo Gormley was the chief of chemistry and toxicology for the FBI. Born in Clinton, Massachusetts, he was raised in Somerville, Massachusetts. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has been a staple of American popular culture since its christening in 1935. ... John Edgar Hoover (January 1, 1895 – May 2, 1972) was the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) of the United States. ...


After completing sixteen weeks of training at the FBI Academy at Quantico, Virginia and FBI Headquarters in Washington, Felt was first assigned to Texas, working in the field offices in Houston and San Antonio, spending three months in each. He then returned to the "Seat of Government", as Hoover called FBI headquarters, and was assigned to the Espionage Section of the Domestic Intelligence Division, tracking down spies and saboteurs during World War II, where he worked on the Major Case Desk. His most notable work there was on the "Peasant" case. Helmut Goldschmidt, operating under the codename "Peasant", was a German agent in custody in England. Under Felt's direction, his German masters were informed "Peasant" had made his way to the United States, and were fed disinformation on Allied plans.[8] The FBI Academy is located in Quantico, Virginia. ... Quantico, Virginia is in Prince William County, 23 miles north-northeast of Fredericksburg, Virginia, near Dumfries and Stafford along Highway 619. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Houston redirects here. ... San Antonio redirects here. ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The Espionage Section was abolished in May 1945 after V-E Day. After the war, he was again in the field, sent first to Seattle, Washington. After two years of general work, he spent two years as a firearms instructor and was promoted from agent to supervisor. Upon passage of the Atomic Energy Act and the creation of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, the Seattle office became responsible for completing background checks of workers at the Hanford plutonium plant near Richland, Washington. Felt oversaw these checks.[9] Victory in Europe Day (V-E Day) was May 8, 1945, the date when the Allies during the Second World War formally celebrated the defeat of Nazi Germany and the end of Adolf Hitlers Reich. ... Seattle redirects here. ... Almost a year after World War II ended, Congress established the United States Atomic Energy Commission to foster and control the peace time development of atomic science and technology. ... Shield of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. ... Hanford Site plutonium production reactors along the Columbia River during the Manhattan Project. ... This article is about the radioactive element. ... Richland Police Station in foreground. ...


In 1954, Felt returned briefly to Washington as an inspector's aide. Two months later, Felt was sent to New Orleans, Louisiana, as assistant special agent in charge of the field office. When he was transferred to Los Angeles, California fifteen months later, he held the same rank there.[10] In 1956, Felt was transferred to Salt Lake City, Utah, and promoted to special agent in charge. The Salt Lake office included Nevada within its purview, and while there, Felt oversaw some of the Bureau's earliest investigations into organized crime with the Mob's operations in the casinos of Reno and Las Vegas.[11] (It was Hoover's, and therefore the Bureau's official position at the time, that there was no such thing as the Mob). In February 1958, he went to Kansas City, Missouri, in his memoir dubbed "the Siberia of Field Offices",[12] where he oversaw additional investigations of organized crime.[13] NOLA redirects here. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... For ships of the United States Navy of the same name, see USS Salt Lake City. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... Organized crime or criminal organizations are groups or operations run by criminals, most commonly for the purpose of generating a monetary profit. ... Reno redirects here. ... For further information, see Las Vegas metropolitan area and Las Vegas Strip. ... Nickname: Location in Jackson, Clay, Platte, and Cass Counties in the state of Missouri. ...

J. Edgar Hoover, director of the FBI, photographed in 1961. Hoover appointed Felt the third ranking official in the Bureau in 1971.
J. Edgar Hoover, director of the FBI, photographed in 1961. Hoover appointed Felt the third ranking official in the Bureau in 1971.

He returned to Washington in September 1962. As assistant to the Bureau's assistant director in charge of the Training Division, Felt helped oversee the FBI Academy.[14] In November 1964, he became assistant director of the Bureau, as chief inspector of the Bureau and head of the Inspection Division [15]. This division oversaw compliance with Bureau regulations and conducted internal investigations. Download high resolution version (430x640, 46 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: J. Edgar Hoover Categories: U.S. history images ... Download high resolution version (430x640, 46 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: J. Edgar Hoover Categories: U.S. history images ... John Edgar Hoover (January 1, 1895 – May 2, 1972) was the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) of the United States. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... The FBI Academy is located in Quantico, Virginia. ...


On July 1, 1971, Felt was promoted by Hoover to Deputy Associate Director, assisting Associate Director Clyde A. Tolson.[16] Hoover's right-hand man for decades, Tolson was in failing health and no longer able to attend to his duties. Richard Gid Powers wrote that Hoover installed Felt to rein in William C. Sullivan's domestic spying operations, as Sullivan had been engaged in secret unofficial work for the White House. In his memoir, Felt quoted Hoover as having said, "I need someone who can control Sullivan. I think you know he has been getting out of hand."[17] In his book, The Bureau, Ronald Kessler said, "Felt managed to please Hoover by being tactful with him and tough on agents."[18] Curt Gentry called Felt "the director's latest fair-haired boy", but who had "no inherent power" in his new post, the real number three being John P. Mohr.[19] is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... Clyde Anderson Tolson (May 22, 1900 – April 14, 1975) was associate director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. ... William Cornelius Sullivan (1912 - 9 November 1977) was former head of the Federal Bureau of Investigation intelligence operations. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... John P. Mohr (died January 1997) was an administrator with the US Federal Bureau of Investigation. ...


After Hoover's death

L. Patrick Gray, acting director of the FBI from May 1972 to April 1973.
L. Patrick Gray, acting director of the FBI from May 1972 to April 1973.

Hoover died in his sleep and was found on the morning of May 2, 1972. Tolson was nominally in charge until the next day when Nixon appointed L. Patrick Gray III as acting FBI director. Tolson submitted his resignation, which Gray accepted. Felt took Tolson's post as Associate Director, the number-two job in the bureau.[20] Felt served as an honorary pallbearer at Hoover's funeral.[21] L. Patrick Gray, http://www. ... Louis Patrick Gray III (July 18, 1916 – July 6, 2005) was acting director of the FBI from 1972-73. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Louis Patrick Gray III (July 18, 1916 – July 6, 2005) was acting director of the FBI from 1972-73. ...


On the day of his death, Hoover's secretary for five decades, Helen Gandy, began destroying his files. She turned over twelve boxes of the "Official/Confidential" files to Felt on May 4, 1972. This consisted of 167 files and 17,750 pages, many of them containing derogatory information. Felt stored them in his office, and Gray told the press that afternoon that "there are no dossiers or secret files. There are just general files and I took steps to preserve their integrity." Felt earlier that day had told Gray, "Mr. Gray, the Bureau doesn't have any secret files", and later accompanied Gray to Hoover's office. They found Gandy boxing up papers. Felt said Gray "looked casually at an open file drawer and approved her work", though Gray would later deny he looked at anything. Gandy retained Hoover's "Personal File" and destroyed it.[22] When Felt was called to testify in 1975 by the U.S. House about the destruction of Hoover's papers, he said, "There's no serious problems if we lose some papers. I don't see anything wrong and I still don't." At the same hearing Gandy claimed that she had destroyed Hoover's personal files only after receiving Gray's approval. In a letter submitted to the committee in rebuttal of Gandy's testimony, Gray vehemently denied ever giving such permission. Both Gandy's testimony and Gray's letter were included in the committee's final report.[23] Helen W. Gandy (April 8, 1897–July 7, 1988) was an American civil servant. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party...


In his memoir, Felt expressed mixed feelings about Gray. While noting Gray did work hard, he was critical at how often he was away from FBI Headquarters. Gray lived in Stonington, Connecticut, and commuted to Washington. He also visited all of the Bureau's field offices except Honolulu. His frequent absences led to the nickname "Three-Day Gray". [24] These absences, combined with Gray's hospitalization and recuperation from November 20, 1972 to January 2, 1973,[25] meant that Felt was effectively in charge for much of his final year at the Bureau. Bob Woodward wrote "Gray got to be director of the F.B.I. and Felt did the work."[26] Felt wrote in his memoir: The Town of Stonington, Connecticut is located located in New London County, Connecticut in the southeastern corner of the state. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ...

The record amply demonstrates that President Nixon made Pat Gray the Acting Director of the FBI because he wanted a politician in J. Edgar Hoover's position who would convert the Bureau into an adjunct of the White House machine.[27]

Gray's defenders would later argue that Gray simply practiced a different management style than that of Hoover. Gray's visits to all the field offices (except Honolulu), was something that Hoover had never done, and some felt this did much to raise the morale of the agents working in those field offices. Furthermore, Gray's leadership style of the FBI seemed to mirror the leadership style he learned in the US Navy, in which the executive officer concentrates on the basic operation of the ship, while the captain concentrates on the position and heading of the ship. The FBI, however, was not a Navy ship, and Felt was not the only member of the FBI's leadership (particularly amongst those that had served under Hoover) that disapproved of Gray's methods.


Watergate

The Watergate complex in Washington, D.C. Felt saw all the FBI's files on its investigation of the break-in there in 1972.
The Watergate complex in Washington, D.C. Felt saw all the FBI's files on its investigation of the break-in there in 1972.

As associate director, Felt saw everything compiled on Watergate before it went to Gray. The agent in charge, Charles Nuzum, sent his findings to Investigative Division head Robert Gebhardt, who then passed the information on to Felt. From the day of the break-in, June 17, 1972, until the FBI investigation was mostly completed in June 1973, Felt was the key control point for FBI information. He had been among the first to learn of the investigation, being informed at 7:00 on the morning of June 17.[28] Ronald Kessler, who had spoken to former Bureau agents, reported that throughout the investigation they "were amazed to see material in Woodward and Bernstein's stories lifted almost verbatim from their reports of interviews a few days or weeks earlier."[29] Record Group 21: Records of District Courts of the United States, 1685 – 1991; NARA, College Park, MD. Gerald R. Ford Library & Museum The Watergate Files Exhibit Government Exhibit 1: The Watergate Complex File links The following pages link to this file: Watergate scandal Categories: United States government images ... Record Group 21: Records of District Courts of the United States, 1685 – 1991; NARA, College Park, MD. Gerald R. Ford Library & Museum The Watergate Files Exhibit Government Exhibit 1: The Watergate Complex File links The following pages link to this file: Watergate scandal Categories: United States government images ... The Watergate complex is an office-apartment-hotel complex built in 1967 in northwest Washington, D.C., best known for being the site of burglaries that led to the Watergate scandal and the resignation of President Richard Nixon. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... The Watergate building. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ronald Kessler is an American journalist and New York Times bestselling author of 17 non-fiction books. ...

Contact with Woodward

Bob Woodward first describes Deep Throat in All the President's Men as "a source in the Executive Branch who had access to information at CRP (the Committee to Re-elect the President, Nixon's 1972 campaign organization), as well as at the White House." [30] The book also calls him "an incurable gossip" who was "in a unique position to observe the Executive Branch", a man "whose fight had been worn out in too many battles."[31] Woodward had known the source before Watergate and had discussed politics and government with him. Bob Woodward signs his book State of Denial after a talk in March 2007. ... All the Presidents Men is a 1974 non-fiction book by Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward, the two journalists investigating the Watergate first break-in and ensuing Watergate scandal for the Washington Post. ... The Committee to Re-elect the President, often abbreviated to CRP or CREEP, was a Nixon White House fundraising organization. ...


Woodward in 2005 wrote that he met Felt at the White House in 1969 or 1970 when Woodward was an aide to Admiral Thomas H. Moorer, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, delivering papers to the White House Situation Room. In his book The Secret Man, Woodward described Felt as "a tall man with perfectly combed gray hair . . . distinguished looking" with "a studied air of confidence, even what might be called a command presence".[32] They stayed in touch and spoke on the telephone several times. When Woodward started working at the Washington Post, he phoned Felt on several occasions to ask for information for articles in the Post. Felt's information, taken on a promise that Woodward would never reveal their origin, was a source for a few stories, notably for an article on May 18, 1972, about Arthur H. Bremer, who shot George C. Wallace. When the Watergate story broke, Woodward called on his friend. Felt advised Woodward on June 19 that E. Howard Hunt was involved; the telephone number of his White House office had been listed in the address book of one of the burglars. Initially, Woodward's source was known at the Post as "My Friend", but was tagged "Deep Throat" by Post editor Howard Simons, after the pornographic movie. Woodward has written that idea for the nickname first came to Simons because Felt had been providing the information on a deep background basis. For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... Thomas Hinman Moorer (1912 February 9 - 2004 February 5) was a U.S. admiral. ... The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is by law the highest ranking military officer of the United States military, and the principal military advisor to the President of the United States. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Arthur Herman Bremer (born 21 August 1950) shot Democratic presidential candidate George Wallace on 15 May 1972 in Laurel, Maryland, leaving Wallace paralyzed for life. ... George Corley Wallace (August 25, 1919–September 13, 1998) was an American politician who was elected Governor of Alabama (as a Democrat) four times (1962, 1970, 1974 and 1982) and ran for U.S. President (in 1964, 1968, 1972 and 1976). ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Everette Howard Hunt, Jr. ... This page is about the Washington Post editor. ... Deep Throat is an American pornographic movie released in the summer of 1972, written and directed by Gerard Damiano and starring Linda Lovelace (the pseudonym of Linda Susan Boreman). ... In journalism, background is a term used by some journalists to describe a communication between a source and a journalist, where the journalist does not identify the source, but repeats the information the source has provided. ...


When Felt's name was revealed, it was noted that "My Friend" has the same initial letters as "Mark Felt". Woodward has said this was a coincidence, but in looking back at some of his notes, interviews with Felt during the earliest days of the story were marked with "M.F."


Code for contacting Woodward

Woodward claimed that when he wanted to meet Deep Throat, he would move a flowerpot with a red flag on the balcony of his apartment, number 617, at the Webster House at 1718 P Street, Northwest, and when Deep Throat wanted a meeting, he would circle the page number on page twenty of Woodward's copy of The New York Times and draw clock hands to signal the hour.[33] Adrian Havill questioned these claims in his 1993 biography of Woodward and Bernstein, stating Woodward's balcony faced an interior courtyard and was not visible from the street, but Woodward responded that it has been bricked in since he lived there. Havill also claimed that copies of The Times were not delivered marked by apartment, but Woodward and a former neighbor disputed this claim.[34] Woodward has stated: The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ...

How [Felt] could have made a daily observation of my balcony is still a mystery to me. At the time, the back of my building was not enclosed so anyone could have driven in the back alley to observe my balcony. In addition, my balcony and the back of the apartment complex faced onto a courtyard or back area that was shared with a number of other apartment or office buildings in the area. My balcony could have been seen from dozens of apartments or offices.
There were several embassies in the area. The Iraqi embassy was down the street, and I thought it possible that the FBI had surveillance or listening posts nearby. Could Felt have had the counterintelligence agents regularly report on the status of my flag and flowerpot? That seems unlikely, but not impossible.[35]

Days after the break-in, Nixon and White House chief of staff H. R. Haldeman talked about putting pressure on the FBI to slow down the investigation. The FBI had been called in by the District of Columbia police because the burglars had been found with wiretapping equipment, and wiretapping is a crime investigated by the FBI. Haldeman told President Nixon on June 23, 1972, "Mark Felt wants to cooperate because he's ambitious."[36] Joshua B. Bolten, the current White House Chief of Staff. ... Harry Robbins Haldeman (publicly known as H. R. Haldeman, and informally as Bob Haldeman) (October 27, 1926 – November 12, 1993) was a U.S. political aide and businessman, best known for his service as White House Chief of Staff to President Richard Nixon and for his role in events leading... ... Telephone tapping or Wire tapping/ Wiretapping (in US) describes the monitoring of telephone conversations by a third party, often by covert means. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Haldeman informed Nixon that Felt was leaking information

Despite initial suspicions that other agents, including Angelo Lano, had been speaking to the Post,[1] in a taped conversation on October 19, 1972, Haldeman told the president that he had sources, which he declined to name, confirming Felt was speaking to the press. "You can't say anything about this because it will screw up our source and there's a real concern. Mitchell is the only one who knows about this and he feels strongly that we better not do anything because . . . If we move on him, he'll go out and unload everything. He knows everything that's to be known in the FBI. He has access to absolutely everything." [37] Haldeman also reported that he had spoken to White House counsel John W. Dean about punishing Felt, but Dean said Felt had committed no crime and could not be prosecuted. Angelo J. Lano was an American field agent for the Federal Bureau of Investigation in Washington DC, notable for his work heading the investigation of, and appearing as a witness for, the Watergate scandal surrounding President Richard M Nixon. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... John Newton Mitchell (September 15, 1913 – November 9, 1988) was the first United States Attorney General ever to be convicted of illegal activities and imprisoned. ... John Dean, May 7, 1972. ...


When Gray returned from his sick leave in January 1973, he confronted Felt about being the source for Woodward and Bernstein. Gray said he had defended Felt to Attorney General Richard G. Kleindienst: "You know, Mark, Dick Kleindienst told me I ought to get rid of you. He says White House staff members are concerned that you are the FBI source of leaks to Woodward and Bernstein"[38], to which Felt replied, "Pat, I haven't leaked anything to anybody."[39] Gray told Felt, "I told Kleindienst that you've worked with me in a very competent manner and I'm convinced that you are completely loyal. I told him I was not going to move you out. Kleindienst told me, 'Pat, I love you for that.'" Seal of the United States Department of Justice The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see 28 U.S.C. Â§ 503) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Richard Gordon Kleindienst (August 5, 1923–February 3, 2000) was an American lawyer and politician. ...


Felt denies he was source

Felt called "obvious" the reasons why he was suspected by the White House as the reporters' source:

I was supposed to be jealous of Gray for having received the appointment as Acting Director instead of myself. They felt that my high position in the FBI gave me access to all the Watergate information and that I was releasing it to Woodward and Bernstein in an effort to discredit Gray so that he would be removed and I would have another chance at the job. Then there were those frequent instances when I had been much less than cooperative in responding to requests from the White House which I felt were improper. I suppose the White House staff had me tagged as an insubordinate.[40]

Felt wrote, "it is true I would like to have been appointed FBI director", but "I never leaked information to Woodward and Bernstein or anyone else!"


Nixon passes over Felt again

President Richard Nixon departing the White House on August 9, 1974, shortly before his resignation took effect. Felt's leaks to Woodward spurred the investigations that led to his resignation.
President Richard Nixon departing the White House on August 9, 1974, shortly before his resignation took effect. Felt's leaks to Woodward spurred the investigations that led to his resignation.

On February 17, 1973, Nixon nominated Gray as Hoover's permanent replacement as director.[41] Until then, Gray had been in limbo as acting director. In another taped conversation on February 28, Nixon spoke to Dean about Felt acting as an informant, and mentioned that he had never met him. Gray was forced to resign on April 27, after it was revealed Gray had destroyed a file that had been in the White House safe of E. Howard Hunt.[42] Gray told his superiors that Felt should be named as his successor. Image File history File links Richard Nixon delivering the V sign outside Army One upon his final departure from the White House Photograph by Robert L. Knudsen, August 9, 1974, National Archives (http://www. ... Image File history File links Richard Nixon delivering the V sign outside Army One upon his final departure from the White House Photograph by Robert L. Knudsen, August 9, 1974, National Archives (http://www. ... Nixon redirects here. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The day Gray resigned, Kleindienst spoke to Nixon, urging him to appoint Felt as Gray's replacement, but Nixon instead appointed William Ruckelshaus. Stanley Kutler reported that Nixon said, "I don't want him. I can't have him. I just talked to Bill Ruckelshaus and Bill is a Mr. Clean and I want a fellow in there that is not part of the old guard and that is not part of that infighting in there."[43] On another White House tape, from May 11, 1973, Nixon and White House Chief of Staff Alexander M. Haig spoke of Felt leaking material to The New York Times. Nixon said, "he's a bad guy, you see", and that William Sullivan had told him Felt's ambition was to be director of the Bureau.[44] William Doyle Ruckelshaus (born July 24, 1932) is an attorney and civil servant in the United States. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Alexander Meigs Haig, Jr. ...


Felt called his relationship with Ruckelshaus "stormy".[45] He said in his memoir Ruckelshaus was a "security guard sent to see that the FBI did nothing which would displease Mr. Nixon".[46] Felt retired from the Bureau on June 22, 1973, ending a thirty-one-year career. is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ...


Tried for illegal break-ins

In the early 1970s, Felt oversaw a turbulent period in the FBI's history. The FBI was pursuing radicals in the Weather Underground who had planted bombs at the Capitol, the Pentagon, and the State Department. Felt, along with Edward S. Miller, authorized FBI agents to break into homes secretly in 1972 and 1973, without a search warrant, on nine separate occasions. These kinds of FBI burglaries were known as "black bag jobs". The break-ins occurred at five addresses in New York and New Jersey, at the homes of relatives and acquaintances of Weather Underground members, and did not lead to the capture of any fugitives. The use of "black bag jobs" by the FBI was declared unconstitutional by the United States Supreme Court in the Plamondon case, 407 U.S. 297 (1972). John Jacobs and Terry Robbins at the Days of Rage, Chicago, October 1969 (Photo credit: David Fenton; publicity photo for film Weather Underground) Weatherman, known colloquially as the Weathermen and later the Weather Underground Organization, was a U.S. Radical Left organization consisting of splintered-off members and leaders of... The United States Capitol is the capitol building that serves as the location for the United States Congress, the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government. ... This article is about the United States military building. ... Department of State redirects here. ... Edward S. Miller was an official with the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation. ... A search warrant is a written warrant issued by judge or magistrate which authorizes the police to conduct a search of a person or location for evidence of a criminal offense and seize the evidence. ... A Black Bag Job or Black Bag Operation is a covert entry action undertaken by a police force or intelligence agency. ... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... Lawrence (Pun) Plamondon was a 1960s left-wing activist who was one of the founders of the White Panther Party. ...


After revelation by the Church Committee of the FBI's illegal activities, many agents were investigated. Felt in 1976 publicly stated he had ordered break-ins and that individual agents were merely obeying orders and should not be punished for it. Felt also stated Gray also authorized the break-ins, but Gray denied this. Felt said on the CBS television program Face the Nation he would probably be a "scapegoat" for the Bureau's work.[47] "I think this is justified and I'd do it again tomorrow", he said on the program. While admitting the break-ins were "extralegal", he justified it as protecting the "greater good". Felt said: The Church Committee is the common term referring to the United States Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, a U.S. Senate committee chaired by Senator Frank Church (D-ID) in 1975. ...

To not take action against these people and know of a bombing in advance would simply be to stick your fingers in your ears and protect your eardrums when the explosion went off and then start the investigation.

The Attorney General in the new Carter administration, Griffin B. Bell, investigated, and on April 10, 1978, a federal grand jury charged Felt, Miller and Gray with conspiracy to violate the constitutional rights of American citizens by searching their homes without warrants, though Gray's case did not go to trial and was dropped by the government for lack of evidence on December 11, 1980. Felt told Ronald Kessler: Griffin Boyette Bell (born October 31, 1918) is an American lawyer and former Presidential Cabinet member. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ...

I was shocked that I was indicted. You would be too, if you did what you thought was in the best interests of the country and someone on technical grounds indicted you.[48]

The indictment charged violations of Title 18, Section 241 of the United States Code. The indictment charged Felt and the others The United States Code (U.S.C.) is a compilation and codification of the general and permanent federal law of the United States. ...

did unlawfully, willfully, and knowingly combine, conspire, confederate, and agree together and with each other to injure and oppress citizens of the United States who were relatives and acquaintances of the Weatherman fugitives, in the free exercise and enjoyments of certain rights and privileges secured to them by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America.[49]

Felt, Gray, and Miller were arraigned in Washington on April 20. Seven hundred current and former FBI agents were outside the courthouse applauding the "Washington Three", as Felt referred to himself and his colleagues in his memoir.[50] is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Felt and Miller attempted to plea bargain with the government, willing to agree to a misdemeanor guilty plea to conducting searches without warrants—a violation of 18 U.S.C. sec. 2236—but the government rejected the offer in 1979. After eight postponements, the case against Felt and Miller went to trial in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia on September 18, 1980.[51] On October 29, former President Richard M. Nixon appeared as a rebuttal witness for the defense, and testified that presidents since Franklin D. Roosevelt had authorized the bureau to engage in break-ins while conducting foreign intelligence and counterespionage investigations.[52] It was Nixon's first courtroom appearance since his resignation in 1974. Nixon also contributed money to Felt's legal defense fund, Felt's expenses running over $600,000. Also testifying were former Attorneys General Herbert Brownell, Jr., Nicholas deB. Katzenbach, Ramsey Clark, John N. Mitchell, and Richard G. Kleindienst, all of whom said warrantless searches in national security matters were commonplace and not understood to be illegal, but Mitchell and Kleindienst denied they had authorized any of the break-ins at issue in the trial. (The Bureau used a national security justification for the searches because it alleged the Weather Underground was in the employ of Cuba.[53]) The United States District Court for the District of Columbia is the United States District Court that hears cases originating in the District of Columbia under Federal law. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... FDR redirects here. ... Herbert Brownell, Jr. ... Nicholas deBelleville Katzenbach (born January 17, 1922) was a American lawyer and United States Attorney General. ... William Ramsey Clark (born December 18, 1927) is a lawyer and activist. ... John Newton Mitchell (September 15, 1913 – November 9, 1988) was the first United States Attorney General ever to be convicted of illegal activities and imprisoned. ... Richard Gordon Kleindienst (August 5, 1923–February 3, 2000) was an American lawyer and politician. ...


The jury returned guilty verdicts on November 6, 1980. Although the charge carried a maximum sentence of 10 years in prison, Felt was fined $5,000. (Miller was fined $3,500).[54] Writing in The New York Times a week after the conviction, Roy Cohn claimed that Felt and Miller were being used as scapegoats by the Carter administration and it was an unfair prosecution. Cohn wrote it was the "final dirty trick" and that there had been no "personal motive" to their actions [55]. The Times saluted the convictions saying it showed "the case has established that zeal is no excuse for violating the Constitution".[56] is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Roy Marcus Cohn (February 20, 1927 – August 2, 1986) was an American lawyer who came to prominence during the investigations by Senator Joseph McCarthy into Communism in the government and especially during the Army-McCarthy Hearings. ... Order: 39th President Term of Office: January 20, 1977–January 20, 1981 Preceded by: Gerald Ford Succeeded by: Ronald Reagan Date of birth: October 1, 1924 Place of birth: Plains, Georgia Date of death: Place of death: First Lady: Rosalynn Carter Political party: Democratic Vice President: Walter Mondale James...


Felt and Miller appealed the verdict.


Pardoned by Reagan

President Ronald Reagan pardoned Felt and Miller.
President Ronald Reagan pardoned Felt and Miller.

In a phone call on January 30, 1981, Edwin Meese encouraged President Ronald Reagan to issue a pardon, and after further encouragement from law enforcement officials, and former bureau agents, he did so. The pardon was given on March 26, but was not announced to the public until April 15. (The delay was partly because Reagan was shot on March 30.) Reagan wrote: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (594x750, 49 KB) Official Portrait of President Reagan, 1981. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (594x750, 49 KB) Official Portrait of President Reagan, 1981. ... Reagan redirects here. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Edwin Meese III Edwin Ed Meese III (born December 2, 1931 in Oakland, California) served as the seventy-fifth Attorney General of the United States (1985-1988). ... Reagan redirects here. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Pursuant to the grant of authority in article II, section 2 of the Constitution of the United States, I have granted full and unconditional pardons to W. Mark Felt and Edward S. Miller.
During their long careers, Mark Felt and Edward Miller served the Federal Bureau of Investigation and our nation with great distinction. To punish them further — after 3 years of criminal prosecution proceedings — would not serve the ends of justice.
Their convictions in the U.S. District Court, on appeal at the time I signed the pardons, grew out of their good-faith belief that their actions were necessary to preserve the security interests of our country. The record demonstrates that they acted not with criminal intent, but in the belief that they had grants of authority reaching to the highest levels of government.
America was at war in 1972, and Messrs. Felt and Miller followed procedures they believed essential to keep the Director of the FBI, the Attorney General, and the President of the United States advised of the activities of hostile foreign powers and their collaborators in this country. They have never denied their actions, but, in fact, came forward to acknowledge them publicly in order to relieve their subordinate agents from criminal actions.
Four years ago, thousands of draft evaders and others who violated the Selective Service laws were unconditionally pardoned by my predecessor. America was generous to those who refused to serve their country in the Vietnam war. We can be no less generous to two men who acted on high principle to bring an end to the terrorism that was threatening our nation.[57]

Nixon sent Felt and Miller bottles of champagne with the note "Justice ultimately prevails".[58] The New York Times disapproved, saying that America "deserved better than a gratuitous revision of the record by the President".[59] Felt and Miller said they would seek repayment of their legal fees from the government.


The chief prosecutor on the trial, John W. Nields, Jr., said "I would warrant that whoever is responsible for the pardons did not read the record of the trial and did not know the facts of the case." Nields also complained that the White House did not consult with the prosecutors in the case, which was usual practice when a pardon was under consideration.[60]


Felt reacted by saying, "I feel very excited and just so pleased that I can hardly contain myself. I am most grateful to the President. I don't know how I'm ever going to be able to thank him. It's just like having a heavy burden lifted off your back. This case has been dragging on for five years." Miller told a press conference the day of the announcement "I certainly owe the Gipper one." Their attorney, Thomas Kennelly, said "We thank God and we thank President Reagan that these two good men have been vindicated at last." Carter Attorney General Griffin Bell said he did not object to the pardons as the initial convictions showed that behavior such as Felt and Miller's was no longer tolerated. Griffin Boyette Bell (born October 31, 1918) is an American lawyer and former United States Attorney General. ...


Despite their pardons, Felt and Miller won permission from the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit to appeal the conviction so as to remove it from their record and to prevent it being used in civil suits by the victims of the break-ins they ordered.[61] Ultimately, Felt's law license was returned by the court in 1982, which cited Reagan's pardon. In June 1982, Felt and Miller testified before the Senate Judiciary Committee's security and terrorism subcommittee that the restrictions placed on the FBI by Attorney General Edward H. Levi were threatening the country's safety.[62] The United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, known informally as the D.C. Circuit, is the federal appellate court for the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia. ... Edward H. Levi Edward Hirsch Levi (June 26, 1911 – March 7, 2000) was an American academic leader, scholar, and statesman. ...


Later years

Felt published his memoir The FBI Pyramid: From the Inside in 1979. It was co-written with Hoover biographer Ralph de Toledano, though the latter's name appears only in the copyright notice. Toledano in 2005 wrote that the volume was "largely written by me since his original manuscript read like The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table." Toledano said: Ralph de Toledano (August 14, 1916 - February 3, 2007) was a major figure in the conservative movement in the United States throughout the second half of the 20th century. ... The Autocrat of the Breakfast-Table (1858) is a collection of essays written by Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. ...

Felt swore to me that he was not Deep Throat, that he had never leaked information to the Woodward-Bernstein team or anyone else. The book was published and bombed.[63]

Library Journal wrote in their review that "at one time Felt was assumed to be Watergate's 'Deep Throat'; in this interesting but hardly sensational memoir, he makes it clear that that honor, if honor it be, lies elsewhere."[64] The memoir was a strong defense of Hoover and his tenure as Director and condemned the reaction to criticisms of the Bureau made in the 1970s by the Church Committee and civil libertarians. He also denounced the treatment of Bureau agents as criminals and said the Freedom of Information Act and Privacy Act of 1974 only served to interfere with government work and helped criminals. (The flavor of his criticisms is apparent with the very first words of the book: "The Bill of Rights is not a suicide pact", Justice Robert H. Jackson's comment in his dissent to Terminello v. City of Chicago, 337 U.S. 1 (1949).[65]) The New York Times Book Review was highly critical of the book saying Felt "seeks to perpetuate a view of Hoover and the F.B.I. that is no longer seriously peddled even on the backs of cereal boxes" and contains "a disturbing number of factual errors"[66], sentiments echoed by Curt Gentry who said Felt was "the keeper of the Hoover flame".[67] The Church Committee is the common term referring to the United States Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, a U.S. Senate committee chaired by Senator Frank Church (D-ID) in 1975. ... Nearly sixty countries around the world have implemented some form of freedom of information legislation, which sets rules on governmental secrecy. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Robert Houghwout Jackson (February 13, 1892–October 9, 1954) was United States Attorney General (1940–1941) and an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court (1941–1954). ...


In 1990, Felt moved to Santa Rosa, California, from Alexandria, Virginia, his home since the 1970s. In 1992, he bought his present home in Santa Rosa and since then lived with his daughter Joan Felt. He suffered a stroke before 1999, reported Ronald Kessler in his book The Bureau. According to Kessler's book, in the summer of 1999, Woodward showed up unexpectedly at the home of Felt’s daughter Joan and took him to lunch. Joan Felt, who was taking care of him at her home, told Kessler her father greeted Woodward like an old friend, and their mysterious meeting appeared to be more of a celebration than an interview. “Woodward just showed up at the door and said he was in the area,” Joan Felt was quoted as saying in Kessler’s book, which was published in 2002. "He came in a white limousine, which parked at a schoolyard about ten blocks away. He walked to the house. He asked if it was okay to have a martini with my father at lunch, and I said it would be fine.” After Woodward left the house to get the limousine, which was parked almost three-quarters of a mile east at Comstock Junior High School, Joan Felt caught up with him to give him further instructions about what her father could eat for lunch. They walked together to the limo, and Joan Felt rode back with Woodward to pick up her father. Kessler said in his book that the measures Woodward took to conceal his meeting with Felt lent "credence" to the notion that Felt was Deep Throat. After Woodward confirmed that Felt was Deep Throat, the New York Post said on June 3, 2005, "There are plenty of people claiming they knew Deep Throat was actually former FBI man Mark Felt....On May 3, 2002, PAGE SIX reported that Ronald Kessler, author of The Bureau: The Secret History of the FBI, says that all the evidence points to former top FBI official W. Mark Felt." Location in Sonoma County and the state of California Country State County Sonoma Area  - City 40. ... Location in Virginia Coordinates: , Country State Founded 1718 Government  - Mayor William D. Euille Area  - City  15. ... Ronald Kessler is an American journalist and New York Times bestselling author of 17 non-fiction books. ...


Family

Felt and his wife, Audrey, who died in 1984, had two children, Joan and Mark.


Deep Throat speculation

For a detailed overview of speculation prior to May 31, 2005, see Deep Throat. is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Deep Throat (disambiguation). ...


The identity of Deep Throat was debated for over three decades. Jack Limpert had published evidence as early as 1974 that Felt was the informant.[68] On June 25 of that year, a few weeks after All the President's Men was published, The Wall Street Journal ran an editorial, "If You Drink Scotch, Smoke, Read, Maybe You're Deep Throat". It began "W. Mark Felt says he isn't now, nor has he ever been Deep Throat." The Journal quoted Felt saying the character was a "composite" and "I'm just not that kind of person." [69] During a grand jury investigation in 1976, Felt was called to testify and the prosecutor, Assistant Attorney General for Civil Rights Stanley Pottinger, stumbled upon the fact Felt was "Deep Throat", but the secrecy of the proceedings preserved the secrecy of Felt's alter ego from the public. [70] is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York, USA, with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers. ... In the American common law legal system, a grand jury is a type of jury which determines if there is enough evidence for a trial. ...


In 1992, James Mann, who had been a reporter at The Washington Post in 1972 and worked with Woodward, wrote a piece for The Atlantic Monthly saying the source had to have been within the FBI. While he mentioned Felt as a possibility, he said he could not be certain it was him.[71] The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... The Atlantic redirects here; for the ocean, see Atlantic Ocean. ...


Alexander P. Butterfield, the White House aide best known for revealing the existence of Nixon's taping system, told The Hartford Courant in 1995, "I think it was a guy named Mark Felt." [72] In July 1999, Felt was identified as Deep Throat by The Hartford Courant, citing Chase Culeman-Beckman, a nineteen-year-old from Port Chester, New York. Culeman-Beckman said Jacob Bernstein, the son of Carl Bernstein and Nora Ephron, had told him the name at summer camp in 1988, and that Jacob claimed he had been told by his father. Felt denied the identification to the Courant saying "No, it's not me. I would have done better. I would have been more effective. Deep Throat didn't exactly bring the White House crashing down, did he?" Bernstein said his son didn't know. "Bob and I have been wise enough never to tell our wives, and we've certainly never told our children."[73] (Bernstein reiterated on June 2, 2005, on the Today Show that his wife had never known.) Alexander Butterfield (born 1926) was the deputy assistant to Richard Nixon from 1969 until 1973. ... The Hartford Courant is Connecticuts largest daily newspaper, and the only morning newspaper for most of the state north of New Haven and east of Waterbury. ... The Hartford Courant is Connecticuts largest daily newspaper, and the only morning newspaper for most of the state north of New Haven and east of Waterbury. ... Port Chester is a village in Westchester County, New York, United States. ... Carl Bernstein (left) and Bob Woodward (right)This image is pending deletion. ... Nora Ephron Nora Ephron (born May 19, 1941 in New York City, New York) is an American film director, producer, screenwriter and novelist. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Leonard Garment, President Nixon's former law partner who became White House counsel after John W. Dean's resignation, ruled Felt out as Deep Throat in his 2000 book In Search of Deep Throat. Garment wrote: Leonard Garment was acting special counsel to U.S. President Richard Nixon for the last two years of his presidency. ... John Dean, May 7, 1972. ...

The Felt theory was a strong one . . . Felt had a personal motive for acting. After the death of J. Edgar Hoover . . . Felt thought he was a leading candidate to succeed Hoover . . . The characteristics were a good fit. The trouble with Felt's candidacy was that Deep Throat in All the President's Men simply did not sound to me like a career FBI man.[74]

Garment said the information leaked to Woodward was inside White House information Felt would not have had access to. "Felt did not fit."[75] (Once the secret was revealed, it was noted Felt did have access to such information because the Bureau's agents were interviewing high White House officials.) John Edgar Hoover (January 1, 1895 – May 2, 1972) was the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) of the United States. ...


In 2002, the San Francisco Chronicle profiled Felt. Noting his denial in The FBI Pyramid, the paper wrote Todays San Francisco Chronicle was founded in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle by teenage brothers Charles de Young and Michael H. de Young. ...

Curiously, his son — American Airlines pilot Mark Felt — now says that shouldn't be read as a definitive denial, and that he plans to answer the question once-and-for-all in a second memoir. The excerpt of the working draft obtained by the Chronicle has Felt still denying he's Throat but providing a rationale for why Throat did the right thing.[76]

In February 2005, reports surfaced that Woodward had prepared Deep Throat's obituary, because he was near death. This led to some speculation that Deep Throat might have been William H. Rehnquist, who was a Justice Department official early in the Nixon administration, but was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court when he putatively revealed the incident. American Airlines, Inc. ... Obituary for World War I death An obituary is a notice of the death of a person, usually published in a newspaper, written or commissioned by the newspaper, and usually including a short biography. ... William H. Rehnquist has served as the Chief Justice of the United States since 1986. ...


Deep Throat revealed

Vanity Fair magazine revealed Felt was Deep Throat on May 31, 2005 when it published an article (eventually appearing in the July issue of the magazine) on its website by John D. O'Connor, an attorney acting on Felt's behalf, in which Felt said, "I'm the guy they used to call Deep Throat." After the Vanity Fair story broke, Benjamin C. Bradlee, the key editor of the Washington Post during Watergate, confirmed that Felt was Deep Throat. According to the Vanity Fair article, Felt was persuaded to come out by his family, who wanted to capitalize on the book deals and other lucrative opportunities that Felt would inevitably be offered in order, at least in part, to pay off his grandchildren's education. They also did not want Bob Woodward to receive all the attention by revealing Deep Throat's identity after Felt's death.[77] Vanity Fair is a glossy American glamour magazine monthly that offers a mixture of articles on high-brow culture, jet-set and entertainment-business personalities, politics, and current affairs. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Benjamin Crowninshield Bradlee (born August 26, 1921) is the vice president of The Washington Post. ...


Public response varied widely. Felt's family called him an "American hero", suggesting that he leaked information for moral or patriotic reasons. G. Gordon Liddy, who was convicted of burglary in the Watergate scandal, said Felt should have gone to the grand jury rather than leak.[78] Some have contrasted Felt's media treatment with that of other whistleblowers. George Gordon Battle Liddy (born November 30, 1930) was the chief operative for U.S. President Richard Nixons White House Plumbers unit. ... In the American common law legal system, a grand jury is a type of jury which determines if there is enough evidence for a trial. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Category:Whistleblower Poster in support of whistleblower legislation A whistleblower is an employee, former employee, or member of an organization, especially a business or government agency, who reports misconduct to people or entities that have the power and presumed willingness to take corrective action. ...


Nixon chief counsel Charles Colson, who served prison time for his actions in the Nixon White House, said Felt had violated "his oath to keep this nation's secrets"[79], but a Los Angeles Times editorial argued that this argument was specious, "as if there's no difference between nuclear strategy and rounding up hush money to silence your hired burglars."[80] Ralph de Toledano, who co-wrote Felt's 1979 memoir, said Mark Felt Jr. had approached him in 2004 to buy Toledano's half of the copyright. Toledano agreed to sell but was never paid and attempted to rescind the deal, threatening legal action. A few days before the Vanity Fair article was released, Toledano finally received a check. Charles (Chuck) Wendell Colson (born October 16, 1931, in Boston, Massachusetts) was the chief counsel for President Richard Nixon from 1969 to 1973 and was one of the Watergate Seven, jailed for Watergate-related charges. ... Hush money is an informal term for financial incentives or rewards offered in exchange for not divulging information. ...

I had been gloriously and illegally deceived, and Deep Throat was, in characteristic style, back in business — which given his history of betrayal, was par for the course.[81]

Speculation about Felt's motives at the time of the scandal has varied widely as well. Some suggested it was revenge for Nixon choosing Gray over Felt to replace Hoover as FBI Director. Others suggest Felt acted out of institutional loyalty to the FBI. Felt may have simply acted out of patriotism.


Publishers were interested in signing Felt to a book deal after the revelation. Weeks after the Vanity Fair article was released, PublicAffairs Books, whose CEO was a Washington Post reporter and editor during the Watergate era, announced that it signed a deal with Felt. The new book was to include material from his 1979 memoir with an update. The new volume was scheduled for publication in the spring of 2006. Felt sold the movie rights to his story to Universal Pictures for development by Tom Hanks's production company, Playtone. The book and movie deals were valued at US $1 million.[82] A publisher is a person or entity which engages in the act of publishing. ... Vanity Fair is a glossy American glamour magazine monthly that offers a mixture of articles on high-brow culture, jet-set and entertainment-business personalities, politics, and current affairs. ... Chief Executive Officer (CEO) is the job of having the ultimate executive responsibility or authority within an organization or corporation. ... As a literary genre, a memoir (from the French: mémoire from the Latin memoria, meaning memory) forms a subclass of autobiography, although it is an older form of writing. ... Universal Pictures is the main motion picture production/distribution arm of Universal Studios, a subsidiary of NBC Universal. ... Thomas Jeffrey Hanks (born July 9, 1956) is an American two-time Academy Award-winning film actor, Emmy-winning director, voice-over artist, writer, and movie producer. ...


In the summer of 2005, Woodward's longtime publisher, Simon and Schuster, issued Woodward's swiftly written account of his contacts with Felt, The Secret Man: The Story of Watergate's Deep Throat (ISBN 0-7432-8715-0). The book received poor reviews and, despite the media attention that surrounded the Vanity Fair story, sold poorly. Jean-François Millet Le Semeur (The Sower) Simon & Schuster logo, circa 1961. ...


Notes

  1. ^  W. Mark Felt, The FBI Pyramid: From the Inside (New York: Putnam, 1979) p. 11; & Ronald Kessler, The F.B.I.: Inside the World's Most Powerful Law Enforcement Agency (New York: Pocket Books, 1994), p. 163.
  2. ^  Felt, FBI Pyramid, p. 11.
  3. ^  Ibid, p. 18.
  4. ^  Felt, FBI Pyramid, p. 18; & Anthony Theoharis, Tony G. Poveda, Susan Rosenfeld, and Richard Powers eds., The FBI: A Comprehensive Reference Guide (New York: Checkmark Books, 2000), pp. 324–325.
  5. ^  Theoharis et al., FBI: Reference Guide, pp. 324–325.
  6. ^  Felt, FBI Pyramid, p. 19.
  7. ^  Ibid., p. 25.
  8. ^ . Thaddeus Holt. The Deceivers: Allied Military Deception in the Second World War. New York: Scribner, 2004. 452–456
  9. ^  Felt, p. 29ff.
  10. ^  Ibid., p. 45.
  11. ^  Ibid.
  12. ^  Ibid.
  13. ^  John O'Connor, "'I'm the Guy They Called Deep Throat'", Vanity Fair PDF
  14. ^  Felt, FBI Pyramid, p. 59.
  15. ^  Ibid., p. 67.
  16. ^  Theoharis et al., FBI: Reference Guide, p. 315, p. 470; & Curt Gentry, J. Edgar Hoover: The Man and the Secrets (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1991), p. 624.
  17. ^  Felt, FBI Pyramid, page number not given
  18. ^  Kessler, F.B.I.: Inside the Agency, p. 163.
  19. ^  Gentry, J. Edgar Hoover: The Man and the Secrets, p. 24.
  20. ^  Ibid., p. 43.
  21. ^  Ibid., p. 49.
  22. ^  Gentry, J. Edgar Hoover: The Man and the Secrets, p. 50; & United States Congress, House of Representatives, "Inquiry Into the Destruction of Former FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover's Files and FBI Recordkeeping: Hearing Before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations".
  23. ^  United States Congress, House of Representatives, "Inquiry Into the Destruction of Former FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover's Files and FBI Recordkeeping: Hearing Before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations".
  24. ^  Felt, FBI Pyramid, p. 216.
  25. ^  Ibid., p. 225.
  26. ^  Ibid., p. 186.
  27. ^  Ibid., p. 245.
  28. ^  Kessler, F.B.I.: Inside the Agency, p. 269.
  29. ^  Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, All the President's Men, 2nd ed. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994), p. 71.
  30. ^  Ibid., p. 131.
  31. ^  Bob Woodward, "How Mark Felt Became 'Deep Throat'", The Washington Post; Woodward Secret Man, p. 16
  32. ^  Bernstein and Woodward, All the President's Men, p. 71.
  33. ^  Adrian Havill, Deep Truth: The Lives of Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein (New York: Carol Publishing, 1993), pp. 78–82.
  34. ^  "Voice from the shadows", The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 35.
  35. ^  Stanley Kutler, Abuse of Power: The New Nixon Tapes (New York: Touchstone, 1998), p. 67.
  36. ^  Felt, FBI Pyramid, p. 227.
  37. ^  Ibid., p. 225.
  38. ^  Ibid.
  39. ^  Felt, FBI Pyramid, p. 226.
  40. ^  Ibid., p. 278.
  41. ^  Felt, FBI Pyramid, p. 293; Kessler, F.B.I.: Inside the Agency, p. 181; & Kutler, Abuse of Power, p. 347.
  42. ^  Kutler, Abuse of Power, p. 347.
  43. ^  Ibid., p. 454.
  44. ^  Felt, FBI Pyramid, p. 300.
  45. ^  Ibid., p. 293.
  46. ^  John Crewdson (August 30, 1976), "Ex-F.B.I. Aide Sees 'Scapegoat' Role", The New York Times, p. 21.
  47. ^  Kessler, F.B.I.: Inside the Agency, p. 194.
  48. ^  Felt, FBI Pyramid, p. 333.
  49. ^  Ibid., p. 337.
  50. ^  Robert Pear: "Conspiracy Trial for 2 Ex-F.B.I. Officials Accused in Break-ins", The New York Times, September 19, 1980; & "Long Delayed Trial Over F.B.I. Break-ins to Start in Capital Tomorrow", The New York Times, September 14, 1980, p. 30.
  51. ^  Robert Pear, "Testimony by Nixon Heard in F.B.I. Trial", The New York Times, October 30, 1980.
  52. ^  Ibid.
  53. ^  Kessler, F.B.I.: Inside the Agency, p. 194.
  54. ^  Roy Cohn, "Stabbing the F.B.I.", The New York Times, November 15, 1980, p. 20.
  55. ^  "The Right Punishment for F.B.I. Crimes." (Editorial), The New York Times, December 18, 1980.
  56. ^  Statement on Granting Pardons to W. Mark Felt and Edward S. Miller, Ronald Reagan. April 15, 1981.
  57. ^  Gentry, J. Edgar Hoover: The Man and the Secrets, p. 595; Robert Sam Anson, Exile: The Unquiet Oblivion of Richard M. Nixon, p. 233; Laurie Johnston and Robert McG. Thomas, "Congratulations and Champagne from Nixon."
  58. ^  "Pardoning the F.B.I's Past". (Editorial), The New York Times, April 16, 1980.
  59. ^  Robert Pear, "President Pardons 2 Ex-F.B.I. Officials in 1970's Break-ins.", The New York Times; & Lou Cannon and Laura A. Kiernan, "President Pardons 2 Ex-FBI Officials Guilty in Break-Ins", The Washington Post.
  60. ^  Joe Pichirallo, "Judge Allows Appeals by Ex-Officials Of FBI Despite Pardons by Reagan", The Washington Post.
  61. ^  Felt, FBI Pyramid, p. 349.
  62. ^  Ralph de Toledano, "Deep Throat's Ghost". The American Conservative. July 4, 2005.
  63. ^  Henry Steck, "Review of The FBI Pyramid", Library Journal.
  64. ^  Felt, FBI Pyramid, p. 11.
  65. ^  David Wise, "Apologia by No. 2", The New York Times Book Review.
  66. ^  Gentry, J. Edgar Hoover: The Man and the Secrets, p. 728.
  67. ^  Kessler, F.B.I.: Inside the Agency, p. 179.
  68. ^  Carol Benfell, "A Family Secret: Joan Felt Explains Why Family Members Urged Her Father, Watergate's 'Deep Throat' to Reveal His Identity", The Press Democrat (Santa Rosa, California).
  69. ^  Jack Limpert, "Deeper Into Deep Throat", Washingtonian.
  70. ^  James Mann, "Deep Throat: An Institutional Analysis", The Atlantic Monthly.
  71. ^  Woodward, Secret Man, p. 116.
  72. ^  ibid., p. 131.
  73. ^  Frank Rizzo, "Nixon one role will remain nameless", The Hartford Courant.
  74. ^  David Daley, "Deep Throat: 2 boys talking politics at summer camp may have revealed a Watergate secret", The Hartford Courant.
  75. ^  Leonard Garment, In Search of Deep Throat: The Greatest Political Mystery of Our Time, pp. 146–47.
  76. ^  Ibid., pp. 170–71.
  77. ^  Vicki Haddock, "The Bay Area's 'Deep Throat' candidate", San Francisco Chronicle.
  78. ^  John O'Connor, "'I'm the Guy They Called Deep Throat'", Vanity Fair PDF
  79. ^  Martin Schram. "Nixon's henchmen lecture us on ethics". Newsday. June 6, 2005. A32.
  80. ^  James Lakely. "Tripp, Felt treatment a contrast". The Washington Times. June 2, 2005. [83]
  81. ^  Tom Raum. "Turncoat or U.S. hero? Deep Throat casts divide". Journal - Gazette (Ft. Wayne, Indiana). June 2, 2005. 1A.
  82. ^  "Deep Thoughts" (editorial). Los Angeles Times. June 2, 2005. B10.
  83. ^  Ralph de Toledano, "Deep Throat's Ghost". The American Conservative. July 4, 2005.
  84. ^ . Bob Thompson. "Deep Throat Family Cuts Publishing, Film Pacts; Tom Hanks to Develop Movie About Secret Watergate Source." The Washington Post. June 16, 2005. C1.

Look up ibid, idem in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... American actress Demi Moore, on a typical Vanity Fair cover (August, 1991) Vanity Fair is a glossy American glamour magazine monthly that offers a mixture of articles based on sensational exaggerations, jet-set and entertainment-business personalities, politics, and lies. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... The American Conservative magazine. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washingtonians were a temperance group from early in the history of the United States. ... The Atlantic redirects here; for the ocean, see Atlantic Ocean. ... The Hartford Courant is Connecticuts largest daily newspaper, and is a morning newspaper for most of the state north of New Haven and east of Waterbury. ... Todays San Francisco Chronicle was founded in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle by teenage brothers Charles de Young and Michael H. de Young. ... American actress Demi Moore, on a typical Vanity Fair cover (August, 1991) Vanity Fair is a glossy American glamour magazine monthly that offers a mixture of articles based on sensational exaggerations, jet-set and entertainment-business personalities, politics, and lies. ... Newsday is a daily tabloid-size newspaper that primarily serves Long Island and the New York City borough of Queens, although it is sold throughout the New York City metropolitan area. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... City nickname: The Summit City Location in the state of Indiana County Allen County, Indiana Area  - Total  - Water 127 km^2 (78. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This just IN !!!:paris hiltons new dog. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Conservative magazine. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Anson, Robert Sam. Exile: The Unquiet Oblivion of Richard M. Nixon. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1984. (ISBN 0-671-44021-7)
  • Benfell, Carol. "A Family Secret: Joan Felt Explains Why Family Members Urged Her Father, Watergate's 'Deep Throat' to Reveal His Identity". The Press Democrat (Santa Rosa, California). June 5, 2005. A1.
  • Bernstein, Carl and Bob Woodward. All the President's Men. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1974. (ISBN 0-671-21781-X)
  • Cannon, Lou and Laura A. Kiernan. "President Pardons 2 Ex-FBI Officials Guilty in Break-Ins". The Washington Post. April 16, 1981. A1.
  • Cohn, Roy. "Stabbing the F.B.I." The New York Times. November 15, 1980. 20.
  • Crewdson, John. "Ex-Aide Approved F.B.I. Burglaries." The New York Times. August 18, 1976. A1.
  • Crewdson, John. "Ex-F.B.I. Aide Sees 'Scapegoat' Role". The New York Times. August 30, 1976. 21.
  • Daley, David. "Deep Throat: 2 boys talking politics at summer camp may have revealed a Watergate secret." The Hartford Courant. July 28, 1999. A1.
  • "Deep Thoughts" (editorial). Los Angeles Times. June 2, 2005. B10.
  • Duke, Lynne. "Deep Throat's Daughter, The Kindred Free Spirit" The Washington Post. June 12, 2005. A1.
  • Felt, W. Mark. The FBI Pyramid: From the Inside. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1979. (ISBN 0-399-11904-3).
  • Garment, Leonard. In Search of Deep Throat: The Greatest Political Mystery of Our Time. New York: Basic Books, 2000. ISBN 0-465-02613-3
  • Gentry, Curt. J. Edgar Hoover: The Man and the Secrets. New York: W.W. Norton, 1991. (ISBN 0-393-02404-0)
  • Haddock, Vicki. "The Bay Area's 'Deep Throat' candidate." The San Francisco Chronicle. June 16, 2002. D1.
  • Havill, Adrian. Deep Truth: The Lives of Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein. New York: Birch Lane Press, 1993. ISBN 1-55972-172-3
  • Holt, Thaddeus, "The Deceivers: Allied Military Deception in the Second World War". New York: Scribner, 2004. ISBN 0-7432-5042-7.
  • Horrock, Nicholas M. "Gray and 2 Ex-F.B.I Aides Indicted on Conspiracy in Search for Radicals." The New York Times. April 11, 1978. A1.
  • Johnston, David, "Behind Deep Throat's Clandestine Ways, a Cloak-and-Dagger Past." The New York Times. June 4, 2005
  • Johnston, Laurie and Robert McG. Thomas. "Congratulations and Champagne from Nixon." The New York Times. April 30, 1981. C18.
  • Kamen, Al and Laura A. Kiernan. "Lawyers". The Washington Post. June 28, 1982. B3.
  • Kessler, Ronald. The F.B.I.: Inside the World's Most Powerful Law Enforcement Agency. New York: Pocket Books, 1993. ISBN 0-671-78657-1
  • Kutler, Stanley I., editor. Abuse of Power: The New Nixon Tapes. New York: The Free Press, 1997. ISBN 0-684-84127-4
  • Lardner, George. "Attorney General Backs FBI Pardons but Ex-Prosecutor Disagrees". The Washington Post. April 17, 1981. A9.
  • Limpert, Jack. "Deeper Into Deep Throat". Washingtonian. August 1974. [84]
  • Mann, James. "Deep Throat: An Institutional Analysis". The Atlantic Monthly. May 1992. [85]
  • Marro, Anthony. "Gray and 2 Ex-F.B.I. Aides Deny Guilt as 700 at Court Applaud Them". The New York Times. April 21, 1978. A13.
  • O'Connor, John D. "'I'm the Guy They Called Deep Throat'". Vanity Fair. July 2005. 86–89, 129–133. [86]

The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Jean-François Millet Le Semeur (The Sower) Simon & Schuster logo, circa 1961. ... This article is about the year. ... Location in Sonoma County and the state of California Country State County Sonoma Area  - City 40. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. 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The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Hartford Courant is Connecticuts largest daily newspaper, and the only morning newspaper for most of the state north of New Haven and east of Waterbury. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... This just IN !!!:paris hiltons new dog. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. 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Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... The Washingtonians were a temperance group from early in the history of the United States. ... The Atlantic redirects here; for the ocean, see Atlantic Ocean. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... American actress Demi Moore, on a typical Vanity Fair cover (August, 1991) Vanity Fair is a glossy American glamour magazine monthly that offers a mixture of articles based on sensational exaggerations, jet-set and entertainment-business personalities, politics, and lies. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... City nickname: The Summit City Location in the state of Indiana County Allen County, Indiana Area  - Total  - Water 127 km^2 (78. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... The Hartford Courant is Connecticuts largest daily newspaper, and the only morning newspaper for most of the state north of New Haven and east of Waterbury. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Newsday is a daily tabloid-size newspaper that primarily serves Long Island and the New York City borough of Queens, although it is sold throughout the New York City metropolitan area. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Athan George Theoharis (born August 3, 1936) is a professor emeritus of History at Marquette University. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Conservative magazine. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Front of UPI Headquarters, Washington, D.C. “UPI” redirects here. ... The Miami Herald is a daily newspaper owned by The McClatchy Company. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... The Ninety-fourth United States Congress was in session from 1975 to 1977. ... The logotype of the United States Government Printing Office In the United States, the Government Printing Office (GPO) prints and provides access to documents produced by and for all three branches of the federal government, including the Supreme Court, the Congress, and all executive branch agencies like the FCC and... The National Archives building in Washington, DC The United States National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States federal government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records. ... The Federal Register contains most routine publications and public notices of United States government agencies. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... The logotype of the United States Government Printing Office In the United States, the Government Printing Office (GPO) prints and provides access to documents produced by and for all three branches of the federal government, including the Supreme Court, the Congress, and all executive branch agencies like the FCC and... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jean-François Millet Le Semeur (The Sower) Simon & Schuster logo, circa 1961. ...

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Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
W. Mark Felt
Persondata
NAME Felt, William Mark
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Deep Throat (Watergate)
SHORT DESCRIPTION FBI agent and official, Watergate scandal informant
DATE OF BIRTH 17 August 1913
PLACE OF BIRTH Twin Falls, Idaho, United States
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH

  Results from FactBites:
 
Deep Throat (Watergate) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4124 words)
Mark Felt, a former Associate Director of the US Federal Bureau of Investigation, confirmed that he was "Deep Throat".
Felt was also embittered at having been passed over for the Director General position at the FBI and believed that the FBI in general was hostile to the Nixon Administration.
Felt was something of a suspect, especially after the mysterious meeting that occurred between Woodward and Felt in the summer of 1999.
The Seattle Times: Nation & World: For 30 years, he wondered: Was he hero or betrayer? (1791 words)
Mark Felt, the No. 2 man at the FBI during the Watergate scandal, drew on his World War II espionage experience when he set up his Deep Throat meetings with reporter Bob Woodward.
Felt believed that the White House was trying to frustrate the FBI's Watergate investigation and that Nixon was determined to bring the FBI to heel after Hoover's death in May 1972, six weeks before the break-in at the Democratic National Committee's Watergate offices occurred.
Felt, in his memoir, confirmed that the bureau had been subjected to "partisan instructions and pressure" in the case.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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