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Encyclopedia > Württemberg

Württemberg (often spelled Wurttemberg in English) refers to an area and a former state in Swabia, a region in south-western Germany. Its capital for the by far longest period was Stuttgart. For short periods of time, the seat of the government resp. the monarch was located in Ludwigsburg and Urach. The name of the dynasty and the state originates from a steep Stuttgart hill, close to Stuttgart-Untertürkheim. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Swabia (German Schwabenland) is a historic region in Germany and a language area. ... Stuttgart is a city located in southern Germany, it is the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg, and has a population of approximately 600,000 as of June 2004. ... Ludwigsburg is a city in Germany, about 12 km north of Stuttgarts city center, by the river Neckar. ...


Württemberg, once a Duchy, became a Kingdom after the implosion of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, during the reign of Frederick I of Württemberg, and finally a Republic in 1918. After the Federal Republic of Germany was composed in 1949, Württemberg in 1952 merged with Baden to become the German Bundesland of Baden-Württemberg. For related meanings see also Monarch (disambiguation) A monarchy, (from the Greek monos archein, meaning one ruler) is a form of government that has a monarch as Head of State. ... This page is about the Germanic empire. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Friedrich I of Württemberg, or Frederick I of Württemberg ( November 6, 1754 - October 30, 1816) became Duke of Württemberg in 1797 on the death of his father: he assumed the title of Elector in 1802, and the title of King in 1806. ... 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1952 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Baden was a territory in the southwest of what later became unified Germany. ... Germany is a federation of 16 states called Länder (singular Land, which may be translated as country) or unofficially Bundesländer (singular Bundesland, German federal state). ... With an area of 35,742 km² and 10. ...


It lay between 47° 34' 48" and 49° 35' 17" N., and between 8° 15' and 10° 30' E. Its greatest length from north to south comprised 140 miles (225 km); its greatest breadth comprised 100 miles (160 km); its boundaries had a circumference of 1116 miles (1800 km). Its total area comprised 20,000 km2 (7534 mile2). It shared a boundary on the East with Bavaria, and on the other three sides with Baden, with the exception of a short distance on the South, where it bordered Hohenzollern and Lake Constance. With an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... Lake Constance (German Bodensee, also known as Schwäbisches Meer (informally) and sometimes written Lake of Constance) is a lake on the Rhine between Germany, Switzerland and Austria. ...

Contents

Geography

Württemberg, a hilly rather than a mountainous region, forms part of the South German tableland. ...

Climate

The temperate climate turns colder among the mountains in the south. The mean temperature varies at different points from 6 to 10 °C. Abundant forests induce much rain, most of which falls in the summer. Given on the whole fertile and well-cultivated soil, agriculture formed the main occupation of the inhabitants.


Demography

Based on http://www. ...

Agriculture

The Kingdom of Württemberg essentially formed an agricultural state, and of its 4,821,760 acres (20,000 km2), 44.9 % comprised agricultural land and gardens, 1.1 % vineyards, 17.9 % meadows and pastures, and 30.8 % forest.


It possessed rich meadowlands, cornfields, orchards, gardens, and hills covered with vines. The chief agricultural products were oats, spelt, rye, wheat, barley, hops. To these add wine (mostly of excellent quality) of an annual value of about one million pounds sterling, peas and beans, maize, fruit, (chiefly cherries and apples), beets and tobacco, and garden and dairy produce. Many people think of Germany as a beer producing country, and the beers of Bavaria in particular are known very well internationally. ...


Württembergers reared considerable numbers of cattle, sheep and pigs; and paid great attention to the breeding of horses.


Mining

The Kingdom of Württemberg lacked minerals of great industrial importance apart from salt and iron. The salt industry came to prominence only at the beginning of the 19th century. The iron industry, on the other hand, had great antiquity, but completely lacked coal mines within the Kingdom. Other minerals produced included granite, limestone, ironstone and fireclay.


Manufactures

The old-established manufactures embraced linen, woollen and cotton fabrics, particularly at Esslingen and Göppingen, and paper-making, especially at Ravensburg, Heilbronn and other places in Lower Swabia. Alternate use: Esslingen, Switzerland Esslingen is a city in the Stuttgart Region of Baden-Württemberg, Germany, capital of the district of Esslingen. ... Göppingen is a town in southern Germany, part of the Stuttgart Region of Baden-Württemberg. ... Categories: Germany geography stubs | Towns in Baden-Württemberg ... Categories: Germany-related stubs | Cities in Germany | Towns in Baden-Württemberg ...


The manufacturing industries, assisted by the government, developed rapidly during the later years of the 19th century, notably metal-working, especially such branches of it as require exact and delicate workmanship. Particular importance attached to iron and steel goods, locomotives (for which Esslingen enjoyed a good reputation), machinery, cars, bicycles, small arms (in the Mauser factory at Oberndorf), all kinds of scientific and artistic appliances, pianos (at Stuttgart), organs and other musical instruments, photographic apparatus, clocks (in the Black Forest), electrical apparatus, and gold- and silver-goods.


Extensive chemical works, potteries, cabinet-making workshops, sugar factories, breweries and distilleries operated. Water-power and petrol largely compensated for the lack of coal. Among other interesting developments note the manufacture of liquid carbonic acid gas extracted from natural gas springs beside the Eyach, a tributary of the Neckar.


Commerce

The Kingdom of Württemberg's principal exports included cattle, cereals, wood, pianos, salt, oil, leather, cotton and linen fabrics, beer, wine and spirits. Commerce centred on the cities of Stuttgart, Ulm, Heilbronn and Friedrichshafen. Stuttgart, once called the Leipzig of South Germany, boasted an extensive book trade. Stuttgart is a city located in southern Germany, it is the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg, and has a population of approximately 600,000 as of June 2004. ... Ulm is a city in Germany, part of the Bundesland of Baden-Württemberg (about 100 km south-east of Stuttgart). ... Categories: Germany-related stubs | Cities in Germany | Towns in Baden-Württemberg ... Friedrichshafen is a town on the north side of Lake Constance (Bodensee) in southern Germany, near the borders to Switzerland and Austria. ... Map of Germany showing Leipzig Leipzig [ˈlaiptsɪç] (Polish; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk) is the largest city in the federal state (Bundesland) of Saxony in Germany. ...


Communications

In 1907 the Kingdom of Württemberg had 1219 miles (2,000 km) of railways, of which all except 159 miles (256 km) belonged to the state. Navigable waters included the Neckar, the Schussen, Lake Constance, and the Danube downstream from Ulm. The Kingdom had fairly good quality roads; the oldest of them of Roman construction. Württemberg, like Bavaria, retained the control of its own postal and telegraph service on the foundation of the new German Empire in 1871. The Neckar is a river in Germany, a major tributary of the River Rhine, which it joins at Mannheim. ... Lake Constance (German Bodensee, also known as Schwäbisches Meer (informally) and sometimes written Lake of Constance) is a lake on the Rhine between Germany, Switzerland and Austria. ... Danube in Budapest Length 2,888 ¹ km Elevation of the source 1,078 ² m Average discharge 30 km. ... With an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... The term German Empire (Deutsches Reich) commonly refers to Germany, from its consolidation as a unified nation-state on January 18, 1871, until the abdication of Kaiser (Emperor) Wilhelm II on November 9, 1918. ... 1871 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Constitution

As a constitutional monarchy, the Kingdom of Württemberg functioned as a member of the German Empire, with four votes in the then Federal Council (Bundesrat), and seventeen in the Reichstag (parliament). The constitution rested on a law of 1819, amended in 1868, in 1874, and again in 1906. The hereditary crown conveyed the simple title of "King of Württemberg". The king received a civil list of 103,227 pounds sterling. The term German Empire (Deutsches Reich) commonly refers to Germany, from its consolidation as a unified nation-state on January 18, 1871, until the abdication of Kaiser (Emperor) Wilhelm II on November 9, 1918. ... The term Reichstag [ɹaɪʃtag] (in English: Imperial Diet) is a composition of German Reich (Empire) and tag (which does not mean day here, but is a derivate of the verb tagen, which means assembling for debate). ... 1819 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


The Kingdom possessed a bi-cameral legislature. The upper chamber (Standesherren) comprised:

  • adult princes of the blood
  • heads of noble families from the rank of count (Graf) upwards
  • representatives of territories (Standesherrschafien) which possessed votes in the old German Imperial Diet or in the local diet
  • members (not more than 6) nominated by the King
  • 8 members of knightly rank
  • 6 ecclesiastical dignitaries
  • a representative of the university of Tübingen
  • a representative of the Stuttgart University of Technology
  • 2 representatives of commerce and industry
  • 2 representatives of agriculture
  • 1 representative of handicrafts.

The lower house (Abgeordnetenhaus) had 92 members: Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen (German: Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen) is a state-supported university located on the Neckar river, in the city of Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ...

  • 63 representatives from the administrative divisions (Oberamtsbezirke)
  • 6 representatives from Stuttgart, elected by proportional representation
  • 6 representatives, one from each of the six chief provincial towns
  • 17 members elected by the two electoral divisions (Landeswahlkreise), elected by proportional representation

The King appointed the President of the upper chamber; after 1874 the lower chamber elected its own chairman. Members of both houses had to have reached twenty-five years of age.


Württemberg parliaments had terms of six years; all male citizens over twenty-five years of age possessed suffrage rights, voting by ballot.


The highest executive power rested in the hands of the Ministry of State (Staatsministerium), consisting of six ministers for:

  • justice
  • foreign affairs (with the royal household, railways, posts and telegraphs)
  • the interior
  • public worship and education
  • war
  • finance

The Kingdom also had a Privy Council, consisting of the ministers and some nominated councillors (wirkliche Staatsräte), who advised the sovereign at his command. The judges of a special supreme court of justice, called the Staatsgerichtshof (which functioned as the guardian of the constitution), gained office partly through election by the chambers and partly through appointment by the King. Each of the chambers had the right to impeach the ministers.


The Kingdom comprised four governmental departments (Kreise), subdivided into sixty-four divisions (Oberamtsbezirke), each under a headman (Oberamtmann) assisted by a local council (Amtsversammlung). A Government (Regierung) heads each of the four departments.


Ecclesiatical Administration

The right of direction over the churches resided in the King, who had also, so long as he belonged to the Protestant Church, the guardianship of the spiritual rights of that Church. The Protestant Church is controlled (under the minister of religion and education) by a consistory and a synod. The consistory comprised a president, 9 councillors and 6 general superintendents or prelates from six principal towns. The synod consisted of a representative council, including both lay and clerical members.


The Roman Catholic Church in the Kingdom answered to the bishop of Rottenburg, in the archdiocese of Freiburg. Politically it obeyed a Roman Catholic council, appointed by government. Freiburg city from Schlossberg Freiburg im Breisgau is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, in the Breisgau region, on the western edge of the southern Black Forest (in German language: Schwarzwald) with about 200,000 inhabitants. ...


A state-appointed council (Oberkirchenbehörde) regulated Württemberg Judaism after 1828.


Education

The Kingdom claimed universal literacy (reading and writing) over the age of ten years. Higher learning occurred at the university of Tübingen, in the Stuttgart University of Technology, the veterinary high school at Stuttgart, the commercial college at Stuttgart, and the agricultural college of Hohenheim. Gymnasia and other schools existed in all the larger towns, while every commune had a primary school. Numerous schools and colleges existed for women. Wuerttemberg also had a school of viticulture Tübingen, Neckar front Tübingen, an old university city of Baden-Württemberg, Germany, is situated 20 miles southwest of Stuttgart, on a ridge between the River Neckar and the Ammer. ...


Army

Under the terms of the convention of 1871 the troops of Württemberg formed the XIII. army corps of the imperial German army.


Finances

The state revenue for 1909-1910 comprised an estimated 4,840,520 pounds sterling, nearly balanced by expenditure. About one-third of the revenue derived from railways, forests and mines; about 1,400,000 pounds sterling from direct taxation; and the remainder from indirect taxes, the post-office and sundry items.


In 1909 the public debt amounted to 29,285,335 pounds sterling, of which more than 27,000,000 pounds sterling resulted from the costs of railway construction.


Of the expenditure, over 900,000 pounds sterling went towards public worship and education, and over 1,200,000 pounds sterling went in interest and repayment of the national debt. To the treasury of the German Empire the Kingdom contributed 660,000 pounds sterling.


History

History of Württemberg History of Württemberg Origins The origin of the name Württemberg remains obscure: scholars having universally rejected the once popular derivation from Wirth am Berg. Some authorities derive it from a proper name: Wiruto or Wirtino; others from a Celtic place-name, Virolunum or Verdunum. ...


Bibliography

  • This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica.
  • Württembergische Jahrbücher für Statistik und Landeskunde
  • Das Königreich Württemberg, eine Beschreibung nach Kreisen, Oberämtern und Gemeinden (Stuttgart, 1904)
  • Statistisches Handbuch für das Königreich Württemberg (Stuttgart, 1885 fol.)
  • Das Königreich Württemberg, eine Beschreibung von Land, Volk und Staat (1893)
  • Jahresberichte der Handels- und Gewerbekammern in Württemberg
  • Lang, Die Entwicklung der Bevölkerung Württembergs im Laufe des 19ten Jahrhunderts (Tübingen, 1903)
  • Engel and Schulze, Geognostischer Wegweiser durch Württemberg (Stuttgart, 1908)
  • Staatsrecht des Königreichs Württemberg (Tübingen, 1908)
  • F. Bitzer, Regierung und Stände in Württemberg (Stuttgart, 1882).

 
 

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