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Encyclopedia > Vytautas the Great
Vytautas the Great, 17th century painting
Vytautas the Great, 17th century painting

Vytautas the Great (Lithuanian: Vytautas Didysis ; Belarusian: Vitaŭt; Polish: Witold; Ruthenian: Vitovt; German: Witold; Latin: Alexander Vitoldus; ca. 1350October 27, 1430) was one of the most famous rulers of medieval Lithuania. With the title Didysis Kunigaikštis, the equivalent of king,[citation needed] he was the supreme ruler of his dominions. The later translation is Grand Duke (for its etymology, see Grand Prince). Image File history File links Vytautas_the_great. ... Image File history File links Vytautas_the_great. ... Download high resolution version (1022x582, 427 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1022x582, 427 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Trakai Island Castle today The bridge to the main castle gatehouse The inner yard of the palace and its wooden stair galleries The Ducal Palace and its donjon Trakai Island Castle in ruins (1877) Trakai Island Castle is located in Trakai, Lithuania on an island in Lake GalvÄ—. The castle... Image File history File links Vytautas_Didysis. ... Ruthenian was a historic East Slavic language, spoken in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and after 1569 in the East Slavic territories of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Events 29 August - An English fleet personally commanded by King Edward III defeats a Spanish fleet in the battle of Les Espagnols sur Mer. ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... // Events May 23 - Joan of Arc is captured by the Burgundians while leading an army to relieve Compiègne The Ottoman Empire captures Thessalonica from the Venetians First use of optical methods in the creation of Art A map of Europe in 1430. ... The presumable banner of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the coat of arms, called Пагоня in Belarusian, Vytis in Lithuanian and PogoÅ„ in Polish Another version of the Lithuanian banner The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Didžioji KunigaikÅ¡tystÄ—, Belarusian: Вялі́кае Кня́ства Літо́ўскае (ВКЛ), Ukrainian: Велике Князівство Литовське (ВКЛ), Polish: Wielkie KsiÄ™stwo Litewskie) was an... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Look up monarch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The title Grand Prince (Latin, Magnus Princeps; German, Großfürst, Finnish Suuriruhtinas, Swedish Storfurste, Lithuanian Didysis kunigaikÅ¡tis, Russian Великий князь Velikii kniaz) ranks in honour below Emperor and Tsar but higher than a sovereign Prince (Fürst) or Royal Prince. ...


Vytautas was the ruler (14011430) of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania which chiefly encompassed the Lithuanians and Ruthenians. He was also the Prince of Hrodna (13701382) and the Prince of Lutsk (13871389). In modern Lithuania, Vytautas is revered as a national hero and was an important figure in the national rebirth in the early 20th century. Vytautas is a popular male given name in Lithuania. Vytautas Magnus University was named after him. Monuments in his honor were built in many towns in the independent Republic of Lithuania during the interwar period, 1918-1939. The Lollards, a religious sect taught by John Wycliffe, were persecuted for their beliefs. ... // Events May 23 - Joan of Arc is captured by the Burgundians while leading an army to relieve Compiègne The Ottoman Empire captures Thessalonica from the Venetians First use of optical methods in the creation of Art A map of Europe in 1430. ... The presumable banner of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the coat of arms, called Пагоня in Belarusian, Vytis in Lithuanian and Pogoń in Polish Another version of the Lithuanian banner The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė, Belarusian: Вялі́кае Кня́ства Літо́ўскае (ВКЛ), Ukrainian: Велике Князівство Литовське (ВКЛ), Polish: Wielkie Księstwo Litewskie) was an... Ruthenians is a name that has been applied to different ethnic groups at different times; for an explanation of the reasons for this, see Ruthenia. ... Hrodna City emblem Hrodna (Belarusian: ; Russian: ; Polish: ; Lithuanian: ) is a city in Belarus. ... Events Beginning of the rule of Poland by Capet-Anjou family. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Enyu of Japan, fifth and last of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Emperor Go-Komatsu ascends to the throne of Japan John Wyclifs teachings are condemned by the Synod of London. ... Lutsk (Ukrainian: Луцьк) is the capital of the Volyn Oblast, Ukraine. ... Events June 2 - John Holland, a maternal half-brother of Richard II of England, is created Earl of Huntingdon. ... Events February 24 - Margaret I defeats Albert in battle, thus becoming ruler of Denmark, Norway and Sweden June 28 - Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and Ottomans. ... Sir Galahad, a hero of Arthurian legend In many myths and folk tales, a hero is a man or woman (the latter often called a heroine), traditionally the protagonist of a story, legend or saga, commonly possessed of abilities or character far greater than that of a typical person, which... Vytautas Magnus University (VMU) (Lithuanian Vytauto Didžiojo Universitetas (VDU)) is one of the biggest universities in Kaunas, Lithuania. ... This article discusses the history of Lithuania and of the Lithuanians. ...

Contents

Struggle for power

Early life

Born in 1350 in the castle of present-day Senieji Trakai ("Old Trakai"), Vytautas was the son of Kęstutis with his second wife Birutė, cousin of Jogaila, who became King of Poland as Władysław II, and grandfather of Vasili II of Russia. Old Trakai Castle was a castle in Senieji Trakai (literally: Old Trakai) in Lithuania. ... Senieji Trakai (literally: Old Trakai, Polish: ) is a historic Lithuanian town located 3 km east of Trakai. ... Pillars of Giedymin Castle of Trakai KÄ™stutis (approximate English transcription [kæs. ... BirutÄ— hill chapel at the end of the 19th century BirutÄ— (died in 1382) was the second wife of KÄ™stutis, Grand Duke of Lithuania, and mother of Vytautas the Great. ... Jogaila, or WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw II JagieÅ‚Å‚o[1] (ca 1351–1434), was a Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland. ... Vasili II Vasiliyevich Tyomniy (Blind) (Василий II Васильевич Тёмный in Russian) (March 10, 1415 – March 27, 1462) was the Grand Prince of Moscow whose long reign (1425-1462) was plagued by the greatest civil war of medieval Russian history. ...


1377-1384

Lutsk castle
Lutsk castle

Vytautas' father, Kęstutis, and his uncle Algirdas, were brothers and did not compete for power. Algirdas was the Grand Duke of Lithuania, and Kęstutis was primarily responsible for defense against the Teutonic Knights. However, after Algirdas' death in 1377, his son Jogaila, became Grand Duke. The harmonious relationship of his father and uncle ended, and a struggle for power between them ensued. In 1380, Jogaila signed the secret Treaty of Dovydiškės with the Teutonic Knights against Kęstutis. When Kęstutis discovered this in the following year, he seized Vilnius, imprisoned Jogaila, and made himself Grand Duke. However, Jogaila managed to escape and raised an army against Kęstutis, and his son Vytautas. The two opposing sides confronted each other but never engaged in battle. Kęstutis was ready to negotiate, but he and Vytautas were arrested and transported to Kreva castle. One week later, Kęstutis was found dead. Whether he died of natural causes or was murdered is still a matter of debate amongst historians. Download high resolution version (1280x1024, 210 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1280x1024, 210 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Lutsk (Ukrainian: Луцьк) is the capital of the Volyn Oblast, Ukraine. ... Pillars of Giedymin Castle of Trakai KÄ™stutis (approximate English transcription [kæs. ... Columns of Gediminas Algirdas (approximate English transcription [ˈaːl(É™).gır. ... Hermann von Salza (c. ... Jogaila, or WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw II JagieÅ‚Å‚o[1] (ca 1351–1434), was a Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland. ... The Treaty of DovydiÅ¡kÄ—s (Lithuanian: DovydiÅ¡kių sutartis) was a secret peace treaty signed on May 31, 1380 between Jogaila, the Grand Duke of Lithuania and later King of Poland, and Winrich von Kniprode, the Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Vilnius County Municipality Vilnius city municipality Coordinates Number of elderates 20 General Information Capital of Lithuania Vilnius County Vilnius city municipality Vilnius district municipality Population 540,318 in 2005 (1st) First mentioned 1323 Granted city rights 1387 Not to be confused with Vilnius city... Kreva (Belarusian: , Lithuanian: , Polish: ) is a town in Belarus, near the border of Lithuania and Belarus. ...


In 1382, Vytautas was able to escape from Kreva. The story of his escape is well-known. Vytautas' wife Anna was allowed to visit him in the castle. During one of these visits, Vytautas dressed in the clothes of one of Anna's female servants. After the escape, he sought help from the Teutonic Knights. At the time Jogaila was negotiating with the Teutonic Order. They formulated the Treaty of Dubysa, by which Jogaila promised to accept Christianity, become an ally of the Order, and give the Order some territory of Samogitia up to the Dubysa River. However, the treaty was never ratified. In summer 1383, the war between Jogaila and the Order started up again. Vytautas was baptized in the Catholic rite, receiving the name of Wigand (Lithuanian: Vygandas). Later, however, he drifted away from Christianity and back towards paganism. Vytautas participated in several raids against Jogaila. In January 1384, Vytautas again promised to cede part of Samogitia, to the Teutonic Order, up to the Nevėžis River in return for the title of Grand Duke of Lithuania. However, in July of the same year, Vytautas decided to abandon the Teutonic Knights and reconciled with Jogaila. He then proceeded to burn three important Teutonic castles, and he redeemed all Kęstutis' lands, except for Trakai. Hermann von Salza (c. ... Samogitia (Lithuanian: , literally lowlands) is one of the five ethnographic regions of Lithuania. ... Dubysa, at 131 km, is the 15th longest river in Lithuania. ... Heathen redirects here. ... Nevėžis River is the 6th longest river in Lithuania and one of the main tributaries to the Neman River. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Vilnius County Municipality Trakai district municipality Elderate Trakai elderate Number of elderates Coordinates General information Capital of Trakai district municipality Trakai elderate Population (rank) 5,504 in 2005 (56th) First mentioned 1337 Granted city rights 1409 The reconstructed Trakai Island Castle Trakai (Polish: ) is...


1389-1392

Vytautas the Great, as depicted on an engraving of the 16th century
Vytautas the Great, as depicted on an engraving of the 16th century

Vytautas participated in the signing of Union of Krewo with Poland in 1385 and he was re-baptized in 1386 in the Catholic rite, receiving the name Alexander. This treaty provided for the marriage of Jogaila to Jadwiga of Poland, and for him to become the King of Poland. He left his brother Skirgaila as a regent of Grand Duchy of Lithuania. However, he was unpopular with the people and Vytautas saw an opportunity to become the Grand Duke again. In 1389 he started a war and attacked Vilnius but failed. Vytautas was forced to ask the Teutonic Knights for help for the second time in the beginning of 1390. Vytautas had to promise to keep the original agreement of 1384, and turn over Samogitia to the Order. His army now attacked Lithuanian lands. Vytautas the Great - engraving of XVI ct. ... Vytautas the Great - engraving of XVI ct. ... The Union of Krewo (or Union of Krevo) was a a political and dynastic agreement between Queen Jadwiga of Poland and Grand Prince Jagiello of Lithuania and the begining of the Polish-Lithuanian Union. ... Events August 14 - Battle of Aljubarrota between the Portuguese under John I of Portugal and the Castilians, under John I of Castile. ... Events Battle of Sempach: Swiss safeguard independence from Habsburg rule End of reign of Poland by Capet-Anjou family. ... This article is about the 14th-century queen and saint. ... Pillars of Giedymin Castle of Trakai Skirgiello (Skirhajla, Skirgaila, Iwan; ca 1354 – 11 January 1397 Kijow; baptized 1383/1384) was the Grand Prince of Lithuania 1386 – 1392, Prince of Trakai, 1382 – 1395, Polatsk 1387 - 1397, Kiev 1395 – 1397, regent of Lithuania 1392 - 1401. ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... Location Ethnographic region Aukštaitija County Vilnius County Municipality Vilnius city municipality Coordinates Number of elderates 20 General Information Capital of Lithuania Vilnius County Vilnius city municipality Vilnius district municipality Population 540,318 in 2005 (1st) First mentioned 1323 Granted city rights 1387 Not to be confused with Vilnius city... Events Births December 27 - Anne de Mortimer, claimant to the English throne (died 1411) Domenico da Piacenza, Italian dancemaster (died 1470) John Dunstable, English composer (died 1453) Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson, Swedish statesman and rebel leader (died 1436) Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester (died 1447) John VIII Palaeologus Byzantine Emperor (died 1448) Deaths... Samogitia (Lithuanian: , literally lowlands) is one of the five ethnographic regions of Lithuania. ...


To further advance his influence, Vytautas married his only daughter Sophia to Vasili I of Russia in 1391. The Polish nobility was unhappy that Jogaila, their new king, now Władysław II Jagiełło, spent too much time on the affairs of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. It was clear that the war could continue for years and would not bring any benefit to the country. In 1392, Wladyslaw II Jagiełło's envoy, Henry of Masovia, offered Vytautas to become his regent instead of Skirgiello. Vytautas accepted and once again burned three Teutonic castles and returned to Vilnius. Jagiełło and Vytautas signed the Astrava treaty in which Vytautas redeemed all Kęstutis' lands, including Trakai, and was given more. He could rule Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the name of Wladyslaw II Jagiełło. After Vytautas death all lands and powers were to be returned to the King of Poland. Vasiliy I Dmitriyevich (Василий I Дмитриевич in Russian) (1371 – February, 1425), Grand Prince of Moscow since 1389, oldest son of Dmitri Donskoi and Grand Princess Eudoxia - daughter of the Grand Prince Dmitry Konstantinovich of Nizhny Novgorod. ... Henry of Masovia (Polish: ) (1368/1370-1392/1393) was a noble and a bishop of the Kingdom of Poland. ...


Grand Duke of Lithuania

Vytautas the Great privilege to Vilnius Cathedral. Issued in Vilnius 1410-02-16. Latin language.
Vytautas the Great privilege to Vilnius Cathedral. Issued in Vilnius 1410-02-16. Latin language.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1197x830, 850 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1197x830, 850 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Cathedral of Vilnius Vilnius Cathedral is the main Roman Catholic Cathedral of Lithuania. ... Location Ethnographic region Aukštaitija County Vilnius County Municipality Vilnius city municipality Coordinates Number of elderates 20 General Information Capital of Lithuania Vilnius County Vilnius city municipality Vilnius district municipality Population 540,318 in 2005 (1st) First mentioned 1323 Granted city rights 1387 Not to be confused with Vilnius city... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...

Policy towards the East

Vytautas continued Algirdas' vision to control as many Muscovy lands as possible. Many lands were already under the Grand Duke's rule, but the rest were controlled by the Mongols. Tokhtamysh, Khan of the Golden Horde, sought Vytautas' help when he was removed from the throne in 1395 after his defeat by Timur. An agreement was reached that Vytautas would help Tokhtamysh to regain power, and the Horde would cede more lands to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in return. In 1398, Vytautas' army attacked a part of the Crimea and built a castle there. Now Lithuania spanned from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea. A number of Tatar captives were brought to the ethnic Lithuania. Columns of Gediminas Algirdas (approximate English transcription [ˈaːl(ə).gır. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... The Golden Horde (Turkish: Altın Ordu) was a Turkic state established in parts of present-day Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan after the break up of the Mongol Empire in the 1240s. ... Tokhtamysh (d. ... Khan (sometimes spelled as Xan, Han, Ke-Han) is a title with many meanings. ... The Golden Horde (Turkish: Altın Ordu) was a Turkic state established in parts of present-day Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan after the break up of the Mongol Empire in the 1240s. ... Statue of Timur in Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan Tīmūr bin Taraghay Barlas (Chagatai Turkic: تیمور - Tēmōr, iron) (1336 – February 1405) was a 14th-century warlord of Turco-Mongol descent[1][2][3][4], conqueror of much of Western and central Asia, and founder of the Timurid Empire (1370–1405... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Capital Simferopol Largest cities Simferopol, Eupatoria, Kerch, Theodosia, Yalta Official language Ukrainian. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... NASA satelite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Kültigin Monument where first mention of Tatar people is inscribed Tatars (Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар), sometimes spelled Tartar (more about the name), is a collective name applied to the Turkic speaking people of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ...


Inspired by this successful campaign, Vytautas and Wladyslaw II Jagiełło won support from Pope Boniface IX for organizing a crusade against the Mongols. This political move also demonstrated that Grand Duchy of Lithuania had fully accepted Christianity and was defending the faith on its own, and that the Teutonic Knights had no further basis for attacks against Lithuania. The campaign resulted in total defeat at the Battle of the Vorskla River in 1399. Over twenty princes, including two brothers of Wladyslaw II Jagiełło, were killed, and Vytautas himself barely escaped alive. This came as a shock to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Poland. A number of territories revolted against Vytautas, and Smolensk was retaken by its hereditary ruler, George of Smolensk and not re-conquered by Lithuanians until 1404. Vytautas waged a war in 1406-1408 against his son-in-law Vasili I of Moscow and Švitrigaila, a brother of Jogaila who with the support of the Teutonic Order had declared himself grand prince. A major stand-off between the two armies ended without a battle in the Treaty of Ugra, by which Velikiy Novgorod was granted to Jogaila's brother Simeon Lingwen, and the important city of Pskov to Jogaila's envoy Jerzy Nos, the latter settlement a clear violation of the treaty of Raciąż.[1][2]The war with Muscovy ended in December 1408, on terms which made further conflict with the Teutonic Order inevitable, despite Hermann II of Celje's attempt to negotiate a solution.[3] The current Pope is Benedict XVI (born Joseph Alois Ratzinger), who was elected at the age of 78 on 19 April 2005. ... Boniface IX, né Piero Tomacelli (1356 - October 1, 1404), pope (November 2, 1389 - October 1, 1404), During his time the antipope Clement VII continued to hold state as pope in Avignon under the protection of the French monarchy. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Hermann von Salza (c. ... The Battle of the Vorskla River was one of the greatest and bloodiest in the medieval history of Eastern Europe. ... Events September 30 - Accession of Henry IV of England October 13 - Coronation of Henry IV of England November 1 - Accession of John VI, Duke of Brittany Births William Canynge, English merchant (approximate date; died 1474) Zara Yaqob, Emperor of Ethiopia (died 1468) Deaths January 4 - Nicolau Aymerich, Catalan theologian and... A view of Smolensk in 1912. ... Yury Svyatoslavich or Georgy Svyatoslavovich (Russian: or Георгий Святославович) was the last sovereign ruler of Smolensk and Bryansk (1386-95, 1401-04) whose life was spent in vain attempts to fend off aggression by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. ... Events June 14 - Owain Glyndwr of Wales allies with the French against the English and the Henry of Lancaster. ... Events Construction of Forbidden City begins in Beijing. ... Events December 13 - The Order of the Dragon is officially formated under King Sigismund of Hungary. ... Vasiliy I Dmitriyevich (Василий I Дмитриевич in Russian) (1371 – February, 1425), Grand Prince of Moscow since 1389, oldest son of Dmitri Donskoi and Grand Princess Eudoxia - daughter of the Grand Prince Dmitry Konstantinovich of Nizhny Novgorod. ... Pillars of Giedymin (Gedimino stulpai) Å vitrigaila (alternative spellings: ÅšwidrygieÅ‚Å‚o, Svitrigaylo, Svidryhajla, Svidrigailo, Swidrigailo; BolesÅ‚aw; ca 1370 – 10 February 1452 Łuck) was the Grand Prince of Lithuania during 1430 - 1432, Prince of Witebsk 1392 – 1393, 1430 – 1436, Podolia 1400 – 1402, Novhorod-Siversky 1404 – 1408, 1420 – 1438, Czernichow 1419 – 1430... Ugra is a river in Smolensk and Kaluga Oblasts in Russia, left tributary of Oka river. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia. ... Lengvenis (Simeon Lingwen, born ca. ... The Trinity Cathedral (1682-99) is a symbol of Pskovs former might and independence. ... Jerzy Nos was a mediaeval Polish and Lithuanian politician. ... Hermann II, Count of Celje (Count of Cilli) (about 1365 - 13 October 1435), Ban of Croatia, Slovenia and Dalmatia, was son of Herman I, Count of Celje and his wife Katerina of Bosnia. ...


Wars against the Teutonic Order

Main article: Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War
Vytautas the Great as shown on Jan Matejko's oil painting of the Battle of Grunwald
Vytautas the Great as shown on Jan Matejko's oil painting of the Battle of Grunwald

In 1398 in preparation for the crusade against the Golden Horde, Vytautas had signed the Salynas peace treaty with the Teutonic Knights and transferred Samogitia to them. Samogitia was especially important for the order because it separated Teutonic Knights, based in Prussia, from the Livonian Order, based in Latvia. The two orders desired to unite and form a mighty force. However, the knights ruled Samogitia only for three years, because in 1401 the Samogitians, supported by Vytautas, rebelled and burned two castles. The knights received support from Švitrigaila, brother of Jagiełło, who desired to take Vytautas' title. In 1404 another treaty was signed which, in essence, repeated the Salynas treaty: Samogitia was transferred to the Teutonic Knights. Poland promised not to support Lithuania in case of another war. The knights promised to support Vytautas in the east and not to support any Gediminid who could have claims to the Grand Duke of Lithuania title. However, the treaty did not solve the problems, and all the parties prepared for a war. Grunwald, painted by Wojciech Kossak. ... Image File history File links Vytautas_dydysis. ... Image File history File links Vytautas_dydysis. ... Jan Matejko , self-portrait. ... Combatants Kingdom of Poland Grand Duchy of Lithuania Teutonic Order and Mercenaries and Various Knights from the rest of Europe Commanders WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw II JagieÅ‚Å‚o, Vytautas the Great, Jan Sokol of Lamberk Ulrich von Jungingen† Strength 39,000 27,000 Casualties Unknown 8,000 dead 14,000 captured... Samogitia (Lithuanian: , literally lowlands) is one of the five ethnographic regions of Lithuania. ... Motto: Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Political structure Duchy, Kingdom, Republic Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I  - 1688–1701 Frederick III King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I  - 1888–1918 William II Prime Minister1,2... Livonian Brothers The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Latin Fratres militiae Christi, literally the brothers of the army of Christ), also known as the Christ Knights, Sword Brethren or The Militia of Christ of Livonia, was a military order organized in 1202 by Albert of Buxhoeveden, bishop of Riga (or... Pillars of Giedymin (Gedimino stulpai) Å vitrigaila (alternative spellings: ÅšwidrygieÅ‚Å‚o, Svitrigaylo, Svidryhajla, Svidrigailo, Swidrigailo; BolesÅ‚aw; ca 1370 – 10 February 1452 Łuck) was the Grand Prince of Lithuania during 1430 - 1432, Prince of Witebsk 1392 – 1393, 1430 – 1436, Podolia 1400 – 1402, Novhorod-Siversky 1404 – 1408, 1420 – 1438, Czernichow 1419 – 1430... Columns of Gediminas, symbol of the Gediminids. ...


In 1408 Vytautas reached peace in the east and returned to Samogitia matters. In 1409 a second rebellion, backed by Vytautas, against the Teutonic Knights started. The rebels burned Skirsnemunė castle. Since both Poland and Lithuania supported the rebels, the war started. Vytautas gathered a large army from 18 lands under his control. The army joined Polish forces and advanced towards the Teutonic headquarters at the castle of Marienburg (present-day Malbork). In 1410 Vytautas himself commanded the forces of the Grand Duchy in the Battle of Grunwald (also called the Battle of Tannenberg or Žalgirio mūšis). The battle ended in a decisive Polish-Lithuanian victory. Even though the siege of Marienburg was unsuccessful, the Teutonic Knights never regained their strength and from then on posed a reduced threat to Poland-Lithuania. Coat of arms SkirsnemunÄ— is a town on the Neman River in TauragÄ— County, Lithuania. ... Malbork Castle 2003. ... Combatants Kingdom of Poland Grand Duchy of Lithuania Teutonic Order and Mercenaries and Various Knights from the rest of Europe Commanders WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw II JagieÅ‚Å‚o, Vytautas the Great, Jan Sokol of Lamberk Ulrich von Jungingen† Strength 39,000 27,000 Casualties Unknown 8,000 dead 14,000 captured...

the Royal Seal, with the only survived original depiction of Vytautas

As a result of the First Treaty of Torun in 1411, Vytautas received Samogitia for his lifetime. However, the parties could not agree on the border. Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, agreed to mediate the dispute. In 1413, it was declared that the whole right bank of the Neman River was Samogitia and therefore belonged to Lithuania. The Teutonic Knights disagreed and a new war started in 1414. The war lasted for just a couple of months and the dispute was brought to the Council of Constance. Even though the dispute was not resolved, the Samogitians had a chance to present their case to the leaders of Europe. It is seen as an important event in the diplomatic history of Lithuania. Several other mediation attempts failed and yet another war with the Teutonic Order started in 1422. After a couple of months of fighting, the Treaty of Lake Melno was signed. Samogitia was returned to Lithuania in perpetuity, while the city of Memel (present-day Klaipėda) and surrounding territories stayed with the Order. This border, as established by the treaty, remained stable for some 500 years until the Memel Territory dispute of 1923. With peace established, Vytautas could now concentrate on reforms and the relationship with Poland. Image File history File linksMetadata Vytauto_Didžiojo_antspaudas. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Vytauto_Didžiojo_antspaudas. ... Peace of ToruÅ„ 1411 or the First Peace of ToruÅ„ was a peace treaty signed on 1 February 1411 in ToruÅ„ between Poland-Lithuania and the Teutonic Order ending the so called Great War of 1409-1410 (see the Battle of Grunwald). ... Sigismund, aged approximately 50, depicted by unknown artist in the 1420s - the only contemporary portrait. ... The Neman (Belarusian: ; Lithuanian: ; Russian: ; Polish: ; German: ) is a major Eastern European river rising in Belarus and flowing through Lithuania before draining into the Baltic Sea near KlaipÄ—da. ... The Council of Constance was an ecumenical council of the Catholic Church, called by the Emperor Sigismund, a supporter of Antipope John XXIII, the pope recently elected at Pisa. ... The Treaty of Melno (German: ; Lithuanian: ; Polish: ) was a peace treaty ending the Gollub War. ... Location Ethnographic region Lithuania minor County KlaipÄ—da County Municipality KlaipÄ—da city municipality Coordinates Number of elderates 1 General Information Capital of KlaipÄ—da County KlaipÄ—da city municipality Population 187,316 in 2006 (3rd) First mentioned 1252 Granted city rights 1254 or 1258 (Lübeck); 1475 (CheÅ‚mno... KlaipÄ—da Region (Memel Region, Memelland) is the name of the part of Lithuania Minor consisting of the coastland around KlaipÄ—da (formerly known as Memel) and along the Curonian Lagoon, on the right bank of Neman River. ...


Relationship with Poland

Vytautas the Great monument in Kaunas
Vytautas the Great monument in Kaunas

In 1399 Jadwiga of Poland and her newborn died in childbirth. Jagiełło's power in Poland was jeopardized as he was a foreigner king with no other ties to the throne but his wife. Also, the defeat at Vorskla forced a re-evaluation of the relationship between Poland and Lithuania. The result was the Union of Vilnius and Radom in 1401. Vytautas was granted wide autonomy, but after his death the title and powers of Grand Duke of Lithuania were to be transferred to the king of Poland. In case Jagiełło died first without an heir, the Polish nobility agreed not to elect a new king without consulting Vytautas. The unique feature of this union was that the Lithuanian nobility presented their own document: for the first time somebody other than dukes played a role in the state matters. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1985 KB) Vytautas the Great monument, Kaunas, Lithuania. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1985 KB) Vytautas the Great monument, Kaunas, Lithuania. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Kaunas County Municipality Kaunas city municipality Coordinates Number of elderates 11 General Information Capital of Kaunas County Kaunas city municipality Kaunas district municipality Population 361,274 in 2005 (2nd) First mentioned 1361 Granted city rights 1408 Kaunas ( (help· info), approximate English transcription [ˈkəʊ.n... This article is about the 14th-century queen and saint. ... Childbirth (also called labour, birth, partus or parturition) is the culmination of a human pregnancy with the emergence of a newborn infant from its mothers uterus. ... The Union of Vilnius and Radom was a set of acts passed in 1401 in Vilnius, Lithuania, and confirmed in Radom later the same year. ...

Vytautas was one of the creators of the Union of Horodło with Poland in 1413. This union was more important culturally than politically because Lithuanian Christian nobles received the same rights as Polish szlachta. This act did not include orthodox nobles. This paved the way for more contacts and cooperation between the nobles and for the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (474x632, 110 KB) Image taken from Lithuanian Wikipedia [1]. Image resized. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (474x632, 110 KB) Image taken from Lithuanian Wikipedia [1]. Image resized. ... Church of Vytautas the Great Church in the city panorama Vytautas the Great Church of the Accession of The Holy Virgin Mary (Lithuanian: ) is a Roman Catholic church in Kaunas, Lithuania, and is one of the oldest churches in the city. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Kaunas County Municipality Kaunas city municipality Coordinates Number of elderates 11 General Information Capital of Kaunas County Kaunas city municipality Kaunas district municipality Population 361,274 in 2005 (2nd) First mentioned 1361 Granted city rights 1408 Kaunas ( (help· info), approximate English transcription [ˈkəʊ.n... The Union of HorodÅ‚o was a set of acts introduced in the town of HorodÅ‚o in 1413. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... Polish szlachcic. ... Separate articles treat Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Orthodox Judaism. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Vytautas tried to receive the title of king with the backing of Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, but the envoys who were transporting the crown were stopped by Polish magnates in 1429. Another crown was sent, but Vytautas died several weeks before it reached Lithuania. He is buried in the Cathedral of Vilnius. Sigismund, aged approximately 50, depicted by unknown artist in the 1420s - the only contemporary portrait. ... For a wealthy or powerful business baron, executive, or tycoon, see Business magnate. ... January 10 - Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, founds the European Order of the Golden Fleece February 12 - Battle of Rouvray (or of the Herrings). English Forces under Sir John Fastolf defend a supply convoy carrying rations to the army of William de la Pole, 4th Earl of Suffolk at... Cathedral of Vilnius Vilnius Cathedral is the main Roman Catholic Cathedral of Lithuania. ...


Reforms

Vytautas backed the economic development of his state and introduced many reforms. Under his rule the Grand Duchy of Lithuania gradually became more centralized, as local princes with dynastic ties to the throne were replaced by the governors loyal to Vytautas. The governors were rich landowners who formed the basis for the Lithuanian nobility. During Vytautas' rule, the influential Radziwiłł and Goštautai families began their rise. RadziwiÅ‚Å‚ (Lithuanian: ; Belarusian: ; Latin: ) is a family of high nobility which has been powerful and important for centuries, first in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... GoÅ¡tautai (Polish: ) was a Lithuanian noble family, one of the most influential families in the 14-16th centuries. ...


Family

Parents

Pillars of Giedymin Castle of Trakai Kęstutis (approximate English transcription [kæs. ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Enyu of Japan, fifth and last of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Emperor Go-Komatsu ascends to the throne of Japan John Wyclifs teachings are condemned by the Synod of London. ... Kreva (Belarusian: , Lithuanian: , Polish: ) is a town in Belarus, near the border of Lithuania and Belarus. ... Location Ethnographic region Aukštaitija County Vilnius County Municipality Trakai district municipality Elderate Trakai elderate Number of elderates Coordinates General information Capital of Trakai district municipality Trakai elderate Population (rank) 5,504 in 2005 (56th) First mentioned 1337 Granted city rights 1409 The reconstructed Trakai Island Castle Trakai (Polish: ) is... Events June 12 - Peasants Revolt: In England rebels arrive at Blackheath. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Enyu of Japan, fifth and last of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Emperor Go-Komatsu ascends to the throne of Japan John Wyclifs teachings are condemned by the Synod of London. ... Birutė hill chapel at the end of the 19th century Birutė (died in 1382) was the second wife of Kęstutis, Grand Duke of Lithuania, and mother of Vytautas the Great. ...

Wives

Anna Svyatoslavna of Smolensk (died on July 31, 1418) was the second wife of Vytautas the Great of Lithuania. ... July 31 is the 212th day (213th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 153 days remaining. ... Events May 19 - Capture of Paris by John, Duke of Burgundy September - Beginning of English Siege of Rouen Mircea the Old, ruler of Wallachia dies and is succeeded by Vlad I Uzurpatorul. ... Events October 24 - Valdemar IV of Denmark dies and is succeeded by his grandson Olaf III of Denmark. ... Events January 5/ 6 - Christopher of Bavaria, King of Denmark, Norway and Sweden dies with no designated heir leaving all three kingdoms with vacant thrones. ... November 19 is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events May 19 - Capture of Paris by John, Duke of Burgundy September - Beginning of English Siege of Rouen Mircea the Old, ruler of Wallachia dies and is succeeded by Vlad I Uzurpatorul. ... Ivan Olshanski (Lithuanian: Jonas Alšėniškis, died in or after 1402) is the first known and undisputed member of the princely Olshanski family. ...

Brothers

Woidete (+ after 1362) was the Prince of Black Ruthenia 1347 - 13??. Father Kiejstut (Kęstutis; 1297 – 15 August 1382 Krewa), Prince of Trock, Grand Prince of Lithuania 1381 – 1382 Brothers Patirg (1348 - 1365) Woiswil (+ ca 1387) Butaw (Henryk; + after 1381), baptized Królewiec 25 July 1365, Prince... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1357 1358 1359 1360 1361 - 1362 - 1363 1364 1365 1366 1367 See also: 1362 state leaders Events Under Edward III, English replaces French as Englands national language, for the... Butaw (Henryk; baptized 25 July 1365 Królewiec; + after 1381) was the Prince of Black Ruthenia 13?? - 1381. ... Events June 12 - Peasants Revolt: In England rebels arrive at Blackheath. ... Former German name of the city of Kaliningrad. ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... Events Foundation of the University of Vienna Births John de Ros, 6th Baron de Ros (died 1394) Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk (died 1399) Deaths May 17 - Louis VI the Roman, elector of Brandenburg (born 1328) July 27 - Duke Rudolf IV of Austria (born 1339) Categories: 1365 ... Towtiwil (Conrad; baptized 21 October 1383; + September 1390) was the Prince of Black Ruthenia 1386 - 1390. ... Events Births December 27 - Anne de Mortimer, claimant to the English throne (died 1411) Domenico da Piacenza, Italian dancemaster (died 1470) John Dunstable, English composer (died 1453) Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson, Swedish statesman and rebel leader (died 1436) Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester (died 1447) John VIII Palaeologus Byzantine Emperor (died 1448) Deaths... October 21 is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 71 days remaining. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Chokei of Japan Emperor Go-Kameyama ascends to the throne of Japan Births Pope Eugenius IV Deaths March 1 - Amadeus VI of Savoy, Count of Savoy (b. ... Navahradak (Нава́градак in Belarusian; Russian: Novogrudok; Polish: Nowogródek; Lithuanian: Naugardukas) is a city in western Belarus. ... Events Battle of Sempach: Swiss safeguard independence from Habsburg rule End of reign of Poland by Capet-Anjou family. ... Events Births December 27 - Anne de Mortimer, claimant to the English throne (died 1411) Domenico da Piacenza, Italian dancemaster (died 1470) John Dunstable, English composer (died 1453) Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson, Swedish statesman and rebel leader (died 1436) Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester (died 1447) John VIII Palaeologus Byzantine Emperor (died 1448) Deaths... Columns of Gediminas Trakai Island Castle Sigismund I Kestutian (Belarusian: , Lithuanian: , Polish: ; born after 1350, murdered 20 March 1440 in Trakai) was the Grand Prince of Lithuania from 1432 to 1440. ... Events 29 August - An English fleet personally commanded by King Edward III defeats a Spanish fleet in the battle of Les Espagnols sur Mer. ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in leap years). ... For alternative meanings, see number 1440. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Chokei of Japan Emperor Go-Kameyama ascends to the throne of Japan Births Pope Eugenius IV Deaths March 1 - Amadeus VI of Savoy, Count of Savoy (b. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Vilnius County Municipality Trakai district municipality Elderate Trakai elderate Number of elderates Coordinates General information Capital of Trakai district municipality Trakai elderate Population (rank) 5,504 in 2005 (56th) First mentioned 1337 Granted city rights 1409 The reconstructed Trakai Island Castle Trakai (Polish: ) is... Mozhaysk (Можа́йск) is a town in Moscow Oblast, Russia, 110 km to the west from the Russian capital, on the historic road leading to Smolensk and then to Belarus. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Chokei of Japan Emperor Go-Kameyama ascends to the throne of Japan Births Pope Eugenius IV Deaths March 1 - Amadeus VI of Savoy, Count of Savoy (b. ... Starodub (Стародуб in Russian; could be translated as old oak), a town in the Bryansk Oblast in Russia. ... Events Construction of Forbidden City begins in Beijing. ... Black Ruthenia (dark green, north-west). ... Events Births December 27 - Anne de Mortimer, claimant to the English throne (died 1411) Domenico da Piacenza, Italian dancemaster (died 1470) John Dunstable, English composer (died 1453) Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson, Swedish statesman and rebel leader (died 1436) Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester (died 1447) John VIII Palaeologus Byzantine Emperor (died 1448) Deaths... For alternative meanings, see number 1440. ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events June 1 - Battle of San Romano - Florence defeats Siena foundation of Université de Caen In the end of the Hook and Cod wars, Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut and Holland is forced by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, to abdicate all her estates in his favour; end of Hainaut... For alternative meanings, see number 1440. ...

Sisters

Location of Stropkov District in the Prešov Region. ... Events June 14 - Owain Glyndwr of Wales allies with the French against the English and the Henry of Lancaster. ... Tvers coat of arms depicts grand ducal crown placed on a throne. ... Events October 24 - Valdemar IV of Denmark dies and is succeeded by his grandson Olaf III of Denmark. ... Events June 14 - Owain Glyndwr of Wales allies with the French against the English and the Henry of Lancaster. ... The term Danuta can mean: Danuta is the shortened form of the given name Danutė Danuta is a fictional planet within the Star Wars universe. ... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1357 1358 1359 1360 1361 - 1362 - 1363 1364 1365 1366 1367 See also: 1362 state leaders Events Under Edward III, English replaces French as Englands national language, for the... May 25 is the 145th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (146th in leap years). ... Events January 5/ 6 - Christopher of Bavaria, King of Denmark, Norway and Sweden dies with no designated heir leaving all three kingdoms with vacant thrones. ... Princess aka Arianna is the feminine form of prince (from Latin princeps, meaning principal citizen). ... Warsaw (Polish: , , in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: ) is the capital of Poland, its largest city, and a gamma world city. ... September 27 is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events March – The treaty between England and France is extended until April of 1377. ... December 8 is the 342nd day (343rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 10 - Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, founds the European Order of the Golden Fleece February 12 - Battle of Rouvray (or of the Herrings). English Forces under Sir John Fastolf defend a supply convoy carrying rations to the army of William de la Pole, 4th Earl of Suffolk at... Events Births June 23 - Francis II, Duke of Brittany Kettil Karlsson Vasa, later Regent of Sweden. ... Historical division of Masovia Masovia (Polish: Mazowsze) is a geographical and historical region situated in central Poland with its capital at Warsaw. ... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... June 30 is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 184 days remaining. ... Events December 16 - Emperor Go-Kameyama of Japan abdicates in favor of rival claimant Go-Komatsu, ending the nanboku-cho period of competing imperial courts James of Jülich is boiled alive for pretending to be a bishop and ordaining his own priests Korean founder of the Joseon Dynasty General... Voivod or (more common) voivoda is a Slavic term initially denoting first in command of a military unit. ... Moldavia (Moldova in Romanian) was a Romanian principality, originally created in the Middle Ages, now divided between Romania, Moldovan Republic and Ukraine. ... Events January 19 – Hundred Years War: Rouen surrenders to Henry V of England which brings Normandy under the control of England. ... Events March 21 - Battle of Baugé. A small French force surprises and defeats a smaller English force under Thomas, Duke of Clarence, a brother of Henry V of England, in Normandy. ...

Daughter

Events Beginning of the rule of Poland by Capet-Anjou family. ... June 15 is the 166th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (167th in leap years), with 199 days remaining. ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... July 18 - Battle of the Kondurcha River - Timur defeats Tokhtamysh in the Volga. ... The title of Grand Duke (Latin, Magnus Dux; German, Großherzog, Russian, Великий князь) used in Slavic, Baltic, and Germanic countries, is ranked in honour below King but higher than a sovereign Duke (Herzog) or Prince (Fürst). ... Vasiliy I Dmitriyevich (Василий I Дмитриевич in Russian) (1371 – February, 1425), Grand Prince of Moscow since 1389, oldest son of Dmitri Donskoi and Grand Princess Eudoxia - daughter of the Grand Prince Dmitry Konstantinovich of Nizhny Novgorod. ...

Title

  • Latin: magnus dux Lithuanie terrarumque Russie etc
  • English translation: Grand duke of Lithuania, Ruthenia etc

(Breviary excerpt from a document in 1422: Nos Alexander alias Witoldus eadem < Dei > gracia, magnus dux Lithwanie terrarumque Russie etc.)


Observe: Technically, Vytautas was most of his reign a nominal vassal of his cousin Jogaila, then king of Poland, who used an additional title Supreme Prince of Lithuania. Jogaila, or Władysław II Jagiełło[1] (ca 1351–1434), was a Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland. ...


See also

Columns of Gediminas, symbol of the Gediminids. ... History of Belarusian states can be traced far to Principality of Polatsk. ... The following is a list of Lithuanian rulers - kings, grand dukes, governors and presidents of Lithuania or administrative units, that encompassed the territory of Lithuania during the periods of occupations. ...

Notes

  1. ^ (Polish) Paweł Jasienica (1988). "Władysław Jagiełło", Polska Jagiellonów. Warsaw: Państwowy Instytut Wydawniczy. ISBN 83-06-01796-X. 
  2. ^ (Polish) Tekla Wołowska (1860). Historya Polska (Polish History). Paris: L. Martinet, 433. 
  3. ^ (Polish) Antoni Prochaska (1908). Król Władysław Jagiełło. Kraków: Akademia Umiejętności, 240. 

PaweÅ‚ Jasienica was the pen-name of Leon Lech Beynar (November 10, 1909 – August 19, 1970), a Polish amateur historian, journalist, writer, soldier. ... The Polish Academy of Skills (Polish: Polska Akademia Umiej&#281;tno&#347;ci, PAU), till 1919 just The Academy of Skills (Akademia Umiej&#281;tno&#347;ci, AU) founded in 1872 in Kraków as continuation of the Kraków Scientific Society (Towarzystwo Naukowe Krakowskie, est. ...

References

  • (Lithuanian) Inga Deidulė, Vytauto Didžiojo įvaizdžio genezės mįslė, - "ieškokite moterų", Vartiklis. Accessed May 20, 2006.
  • (Lithuanian) Andrius Mingėla, Vytautas Lietuvos didysis kunigaikštis, Juventa high school. Accessed May 20, 2006.
  • Oscar Halecki, Borderlands of Western Civilization: A History of East Central Europe, 2nd edition, Chapter 8, Simon Publications, July 2001, ISBN 0-9665734-8-X
  • Vytautas and Karaims, Lithuanian Karaims Culture Community. Accessed May 20, 2006.
Preceded by
Skirgaila
Grand Duke of Lithuania
1392-1430
Succeeded by
Švitrigaila

  Pillars of Giedymin Castle of Trakai Skirgiello (Skirhajla, Skirgaila, Iwan; ca 1354 – 11 January 1397 Kijow; baptized 1383/1384) was the Grand Prince of Lithuania 1386 – 1392, Prince of Trakai, 1382 – 1395, Polatsk 1387 - 1397, Kiev 1395 – 1397, regent of Lithuania 1392 - 1401. ... The following is a list of Lithuanian rulers - kings, grand dukes, governors and presidents of Lithuania or administrative units, that encompassed the territory of Lithuania during the periods of occupations. ... Events December 16 - Emperor Go-Kameyama of Japan abdicates in favor of rival claimant Go-Komatsu, ending the nanboku-cho period of competing imperial courts James of Jülich is boiled alive for pretending to be a bishop and ordaining his own priests Korean founder of the Joseon Dynasty General... // Events May 23 - Joan of Arc is captured by the Burgundians while leading an army to relieve Compiègne The Ottoman Empire captures Thessalonica from the Venetians First use of optical methods in the creation of Art A map of Europe in 1430. ... Pillars of Giedymin (Gedimino stulpai) Å vitrigaila (alternative spellings: ÅšwidrygieÅ‚Å‚o, Svitrigaylo, Svidryhajla, Svidrigailo, Swidrigailo; BolesÅ‚aw; ca 1370 – 10 February 1452 Łuck) was the Grand Prince of Lithuania during 1430 - 1432, Prince of Witebsk 1392 – 1393, 1430 – 1436, Podolia 1400 – 1402, Novhorod-Siversky 1404 – 1408, 1420 – 1438, Czernichow 1419 – 1430...


 
 

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